This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

EDITION B

US ARMY INTELLIGENCE CENTER

BASIC OPERATIONS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

BASIC OPERATIONS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA SUBCOURSE NUMBER IT0342 EDITION B U.S. ARMY INTELLIGENCE CENTER FORT HUACHUCA, AZ 85613-6000 2 Credit Hours Edition Date: August 1996 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse is an introduction to Boolean Algebra, which has various usage in digital circuit design and computer application. It can be applied to simplify complex logic circuit, and it can be used in structuring database searches. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse This lesson replaces SA0712. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION: You will identify the premise upon which Booles' logic is based, identify the arithmetic symbols used to represent the OR and the AND function, select the definition of the term EXPRESSION used in Boolean Algebra, identify the constants used in Boolean Algebra, identify the values for any variables used in Boolean Algebra, select the definition of a truth table, solve for the number of possible input combinations for a given logic diagram, identify the logic of AND, OR, and NOT FUNCTIONS, select the correct truth tables for AND, OR, NAND, NOR, Inhibitor, and “exclusive or” operations, select the correct expression for a NOR circuit and identify the number of inputs that may be applied to a NOT circuit. Given the information contained in this subcourse. To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum of 70% on the subcourse examination. Basic Electronics. NAVPERS 10087-B. 1968 Edition. Chapter 16. Mathematics, Volume 3. NAVPERS 10073. 1964 Edition. Chapter 3. Traderman 1 and c. NAVPERS 10378-B. 1967 edition. Chapter 11.

CONDITION: STANDARD:

REFERENCE:

i

IT0342

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section Subcourse Overview Lesson Examination Student Inquiry Sheets

Page i 1-1 E-1

IT0342

ii

solve for the number of possible input combination for a given logic diagram. identify the logic of AND. Inhibitor. To demonstrate competency of this task. it can be applied to simplify complex logic circuit. and “exclusive OR” operations. NAND. OR. identify the arithmetic symbols used to represent the OR and the AND function. select the correct expression for a NOR circuit and identify the number of inputs that may be applied to a NOT circuit. Given the information contained in this subcourse. select the definition of a truth table. OR. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTION: Identify the premise upon which Booles' logic is based. you must achieve a minimum of 70% on the subcourse examination. CONDITION: STANDARD: 1-1 IT0342 . and it can be used in structuring database searches. NOR. select the correct truth tables for AND. NOR circuit and identify the number of inputs that may be applied to a NOT circuit. and NOT functions.LESSON BASIC OPERATIONS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: Upon completion of this lesson.

In ordinary arithmetic. . Computer designers. digits represent conditions. True statements have a value of 1. while false statements have a value of 0. and the resulting algebraic system is called Boolean algebra in his honor. OPEN-CLOSED. the expression AxB is read A and B. found that Boolean algebra lent itself well to the “two valued” digital-computer elements and allowed the simplification of binary expressions quickly and efficiently. in search of a system which would enable them to combine and manipulate binary numbers. and the arithmetic symbol “+” means OR.1. digits represent arithmetic quantities. Boolean algebra is not new. the symbol “x” means “multiply. The objective of using Boolean algebra in the study of digital computes is to determine the “truth value” of a combination of two or more statements. In arithmetic. the expression A+B is read A or B. the arithmetic symbol “x” means AND. since their use in logical operations is quite different from the arithmetic usage.” In Boolean algebra. whereas. a person must ignore the common usage of the arithmetic multiplication (x) and addition (+) connectives. IT0342 1-2 . such as ON-OFF.” and the symbol “+” means “add. To understand Boolean notations. Boole's logic is based upon the premise that a statement is either or true false 2. etc. in Boolean algebra. For example. Boole's logic is based upon the premise that a statement is either true or false. The symbolic operations utilized in digital computers are based on the investigations of the 19th century mathematician George Boole.

+ 3. x b. b. The expression may contain parentheses. An EXPRESSION is a group of constants and/or connected by or more . theory that the digits 0 and 1 are complete truths. as in ordinary algebra. but must never contain an equality sign (=). AND: b. premise that a statement is either true or false.) In Boolean algebra. (Note the absence of equality signs.2. d. which has the same meaning. Boole's logic is based upon the a. c. In Boolean algebra. A+1 (read A or 1) and BC (read B and C) are expressions. For example. 4. For example. the expression AxB can also be expressed as AB. 1-3 IT0342 . premise that all statements are true and false. OR: a. an EXPRESSION is a group of constants and/or variables connected by one or more operations. theory that no two statements are true and false. Multiplication is also indicated by the absence of a connective. (Continued) What are the arithmetic symbols used to represent the AND and the OR function in Boolean algebra? a. c. it is not always necessary to use the multiplication connective (x).

For example. 0 1 7. 2. etc. 1/4. AND (1) c. untruth. In ordinary algebra. there are only two possible constants. 0 and 1.). 6. NAND c. (2) d. a constant. which utilizes the binary numbering system. A (1) + (2) x B a. equality. etc. d. IT0342 1-4 . A group of constants and/or variables connected by one or more operations is a Boolean a. including all integers (1. In Boolean algebra. entirety. b. expression.) and all fractions (1/2. 3. c.variables one operations 5. a fixed meaning. the decimal number 6 always means the same thing: a quantity of six. Match the arithmetic symbols in column A with their Boolean algebra functions in column B. In Boolean algebra. NOT b. there are many possible constants. the two possible constants are and . OR d.

8. At one specific time. a variable can take on either of only two possible states. 00 and 10. c. b. 0 or 1. Since there are only two possible constants in Boolean algebra. d. 0 and 1. In Boolean algebra. 10. 0 1 9. true and false. a variable can have the value of one constant a later time. A truth table is a chart of a logic function which lists all possible combinations of input values and indicates the true output value for each input combination. SWITCHING NETWORK TRUTH TABLE 1-5 IT0342 . The two possible constants used in Boolean algebra are a. the two possible values for any variable are and . d. A variable is a quantity which can change by taking on the value of any constant in the numbering system. it can take on the value of some other constant. binary and base 2.b.

c. a truth table for a two-input logic diagram has 22 = 4 possible combinations of inputs. For example. by a 1.10. therefore. d. The simplest way to determine the number of possible input combinations is to use the number of inputs as an exponent of the number 2. a closed switch. etc. A truth table is a chart of a logic function which lists all possible combinations of value for each input combination. An open switch is represented by a 0. d. yes and no. (Continued) In the preceding diagram. 12. their truth values are either 0 or 1. In Boolean algebra. the truth table represents the switching network and lists all possible combinations of switches A and B. the two possible values for any variable are a. IT0342 1-6 . The Boolean expression for this condition is AB (read A and B). The truth table shows that both switches must be closed (1) before the lamp will light. It is possible to construct a truth table for a logic diagram containing any number of inputs. a three-input logic diagram has 23= 8 possible combinations of inputs. true and false. values and indicates the input true output 11. 0 and 1. 10 and 01. b.

1. and 11. the input combinations and the vertical columns are set (from top to bottom) like the binary numbers 00. 2. There are four possible combinations of these inputs (22 = 4). 01. there are two inputs: input A and input B. and 3. (Continued) In the truth table above. and the vertical columns are set up from 000 through 111. The input columns are vertical and are set up like the binary numbers which equal 0. in the truth table above. Notice. 10. as shown below.12. A truth table for three inputs has eight possible input combinations (23 = 8). How many possible combinations of inputs are there for any four-input logic diagram? 1-7 IT0342 .

A three-input logic diagram has combinations of inputs. possible a. all conditions are true. A two-input logic diagram has combinations of inputs. eight c. IT0342 1-8 . the results will be true. A four-input logic diagram has combinations of inputs. possible combination. four b. and only if. A truth table is a of a function which lists a possible combinations of input values and indicates the true value for each chart logic output input b.16 13. 16 15. The AND function of Boolean algebra is stated: If. c. Complete the following statements. AND logic is represented by the series switching network shown below. possible 14. a.

The OR function of Boolean algebra is stated: If any condition or all conditions are true. the result is true. 1-9 IT0342 . all switches have a truth value of 1. The logic of an AND function is stated: If. if. thus. . .15. there is an output. and all conditions are only true true 16. the result will be if. The Boolean expression for this condition is ABC (read A and B and C). the truth table indicates that only one combination of switch settings turns on the light. because switch A and switch B and switch C must all be closed to produce an output. (Continued) On page 1-7. This is known as the AND function. The OR logic is represented by the parallel switching network shown below. and only if.

If. c. d. the result will be true. the result will be false. Ā is read as “NOT A. (Continued) The truth table on page 1-8 indicates that either switch A or switch B or both can be closed and the lamp will light. the result will be true. the lamp will not light. If.the result is any all true true 17. and only if.16. The logic of an OR function is stated: If conditions are . b. This is known as the OR function. and only if. because switch A switch B or both must be closed to produce an output. The NOT function in Boolean algebra is described as “any circuit which inverts a logic function. all conditions are false. and only if. all conditions are false. and only if. If neither switch is closed.” The symbol for the NOT function is a vinculum over the variable. If. 18. The Boolean expression for this condition is A+B (read A or B). For example. The logic of an AND function states: a. all conditions are true. condition or . the result will be false. If.” IT0342 1-10 . all conditions are true. d.

This is done by the use of logic diagrams. the result is false. The requirement of a NOT circuit is that the output must be the complement of the input. In order to analyze the circuit operation. the result is false. c. b. Logic diagrams for the AND operation are shown below. 1-11 IT0342 . When switch A is open (0). In any digital-computer equipment.18. the relay completes the circuit to the load. If any condition or all conditions are false. Thus. the result is true. it is often necessary to refer to these circuits without looking at their switching arrangements. the truth table and the circuit for the NOT function are shown. (Continued) In the figure on page 1-9. over the vinculum variable 19. the result is true. there are many switching networks. a. If any condition or all conditions are true. when switch A is closed (1). the relay opens the circuit to the load. 20. If any condition or all conditions are false. If any condition or all conditions are true. d. The NOT function is indicated by a . The logic of an OR function states: a.

d. Construct a truth table for the two-input AND operation below. (Continued) The AND-logic symbol may have two or more inputs. and only if. Remember. The NOT function is indicated by 21. all conditions are true. The logic diagram and the truth table for a three-input AND operation are shown below. the absence of 0’s and 1’s.20. a vinculum over the variable. a. IT0342 1-12 . Note that the output is true (1) only when all inputs are true (1). the input side of the symbol is extended. c. an AND circuit (AND gate) produces a true output if. the mathematical multiplication symbol (x). the mathematical addition symbol (+). to accommodate more than three inputs. b. however. as shown by the diagram on the right.

the input side of the symbol is extended. however. The OR operation produces a true (1) output when any input is true (1) or when all inputs are true. 1-13 IT0342 . Construct a truth table for the two-input OR operation below. The logic diagram and the truth table for a three-input OR operation am shown below. to accommodate more than three inputs.b. An OR-logic symbol may have two or more inputs. 22. Logic symbols for the OR operation are shown below. as shown by the diagram on the right. the output is false (0). If all inputs are false (0).

the output is a 0 level when the input is a 1 level.23. The output is a 1 level when the input is a 0 level. This logic symbol is called an inverter. The maximum number of inputs to a NOT circuit is one. What is the maximum number of inputs which may be applied to a NOT circuit? IT0342 1-14 . A NOT-operation circuit. the output would be labeled Ā. the output would be labeled A. Two NOT (inverter)-logic symbols are shown below. If the input were labeled A. because the output is always the complement of the input. Complete the truth table for the three-input AND operation below. also called an INVERTER circuit. 24. produces the complement of whatever is applied to its input. if the input were labeled Ā.

1-15 IT0342 .one 25. one. b. a. Complete the truth table below which represents a three-input OR operation. 26. d. three. four. The NAND operation is a combination of the NOT and the AND operation (Not AND). The logic diagram and the truth table for a three-input NAND operation are shown below. 27. c. The maximum number of inputs which may be applied to a NOT circuit is a. two.

Note that the whole quantity of ABC is complemented. The diagram is composed of an AND gate whose output is NOTted (inverted) by the NOT circuit. as shown in the truth table. not just the separate variables. The output of the AND gate is the input to the NOT circuit. The NOT circuit will invert this input and produce the complement at the output. Complete the truth table below for the three-input NAND operation. (Continued) Refer to the NAND-logic diagram on the previous page. IT0342 1-16 . A NAND gate will ways NOT (invert) an ANDed expression.27.

The logic diagram and the truth table for a three-input NOR operation are shown below. the NOT circuit inverts this input and produces the complement at the output. as shown in the truth table.28. Note that the whole A NOR gate will always NOT (invert) an ORed 1-17 IT0342 . The NOR operation is a combination of the NOT and the OR operation (Not-OR). expression. The NOR-logic diagram above is composed of an OR gate whose output is NOTted (inverted) by the NOT circuit. The output of the OR gate is the input to the NOT circuit.

29.28. The output from a NAND gate and the output from a NOR gate will always be a NOTted expression indicated by a vinculum extending over the entire output expression. (Continued) quantity A+B+C is complemented. Complete the truth table below for the NAND operation. 30. Complete the truth table below for the three-input NOR operation. not just the separate variables. IT0342 1-18 .

31. Inputs C and D of the NOR gate above are expressed as C+D at the output. Inputs A and B are expressed at the output as AB.30. (Continued) Refer to the NAND and NOR gates above. Write the output expression for the following NOR gate. 1-19 IT0342 . X+Y+Z Complete the truth table below for the NOR operation. not just the separate variables. Note that the whole quantity is complemented at the output of both gates.

Complete the truth below for the two-input INHIBITOR operation. The same logic would be obtained if input A were the inhibited input. An INHIBITOR circuit performs the same logic as the basic AND gate with the exception that one input is inverted at the inhibitor circuit. Input B is the inhibited input. only reversed. An INHIBITOR circuit is a combination of an AND gate and a NOT circuit in which the NOT circuit is inserted between one input terminal and the AND gate.32. Refer to the logic diagram and truth table above. IT0342 1-20 . A 1 output is obtained only when a 1 is applied to input A and 0 is applied to input B.

d. As shown below. An EXCLUSIVE-OR circuit has two input terminals. The logic of an EXCLUSIVE-OR circuit is stated: An output is when of the is true. but not both. c.. B+A+G. the output of an EXCLUSIVE-OR circuit is true (1) when one. 1-21 IT0342 . The output for the NOR gate above is a. but not . 34. one input false (0) and the other input true (1)). B+A+G. when the inputs differ from each other (i. . However. an output is produced. b.33. of the inputs is true. BAG. d. B A G.e. No output is produced when both of the inputs are false (0) or when both of the inputs are true (1).

go to the applicable area and review the material until you are sure of complete understanding. Compete the truth table below for the three-input INHIBITOR operation.true one both inputs 35. b. An output is true when one. 36. An output is true when one. d. You have completed the program and you should be ready for the Practice Exercise. The logic of an EXCLUSIVE-OR gate is stated: a. You should understand the objectives as stated on page i & iv. b. and all the material presented in the lesson. An output is true when one input or both inputs are false. If you don't understand an area. of the inputs is true. IT0342 1-22 . but not both. but not both. An output is true when one input or both inputs are true.. of the inputs is true or false. c.

What arithmetic symbols are used to represent the AND and the OR function? a. A chart of a logic function which lists all possible combinations of input values and indicates only one output. A chart of a logic function which lists only input combinations for a true output. A group of constants and/or variables connected by an equality sign. b.LESSON PRACTICE EXERCISE 1. 4. AND: b. b. Select the definition of truth table. OR: 3. A chart of a logic function which lists all combinations of input values for only one output. c. c. A group of constants and/or variables connected by one or more operations. A chart of a logic function which lists all possible combinations of input values and indicates the true output value for each input combination. What are the constants used in Boolean algebra? 5. What are the values for any variable used in Boolean algebra? 6. d. Select the definition of the term EXPRESSION used in Boolean algebra. a. A group of operations and/or variables connected by a constant. a. What is the number of possible input combinations for a four-input logic diagram? 1-23 IT0342 . d. What is the premise upon which Boole's logic is based? 2. A group of connectives and/or operations connected by a constant. 7.

8. 12. Write the output expression for the NOR gate below. How is the NOT function indicated? 11. Construct a truth table for the NAND operation below. 13. State the logic of an OR function. Construct a truth table for the AND operation below. 9. State the logic of an AND function. IT0342 1-24 . 10.

Construct a truth table for the NOR operation below. 18. State the logic of an EXCLUSIVE-OR circuit.14. 16. What is the maximum number of inputs that may be applied to a NOT circuit? 15. 1-25 IT0342 . Construct a truth table for the INHIBITOR operation below. Construct a truth table for the OR operation below. 17.

A statement is either true or false. 8. 4. If. B+S+A 13. If any condition or all conditions are true. + 3. 7. 12. By a vinculum over the variable. 0 and 1 5. 2. 11. all conditions are true. x b. 0 and 1 6. 10. b. and only if. 16. the result is true. 9. the result will be true.LESSON PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Correct Answer and Feedback 1. IT0342 1-26 . a. a.

14. 18. 17. 15. An output is true when one. but not both. 16. 1-27 IT0342 . one. of the inputs is true.

THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK IT0342 1-28 .

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd