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of rearrangement invariant space

$

S.V. Astashkin,

a

L. Maligranda,

b,

* and E.M. Semenov

c

a

Department of Mathematics, Samara State University, Akad. Pavlova 1, 443011 Samara, Russia

b

Department of Mathematics, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden

c

Department of Mathematics, Voronezh State University, Universitetskaya pl.1, 394693 Voronezh, Russia

Received 20 May 2002; revised 23 August 2002; accepted 7 October 2002

Communicated by G. Pisier

Abstract

We show that the multiplicator space MX of an rearrangement invariant (r.i.) space X on

0; 1 and the nice part N

0

X of X; that is, the set of all aAX for which the subspaces generated

by sequences of dilations and translations of a are uniformly complemented, coincide when the

space X is separable. In the general case, the nice part is larger than the multiplicator space.

Several examples of descriptions of MX and N

0

X for concrete X are presented.

r 2002 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

MSC: 46E30; 46B42; 46B70

Keywords: Rearrangement invariant spaces; Multiplicator spaces; Lorentz spaces; Orlicz spaces;

Marcinkiewicz spaces; Subspaces; Complemented subspaces; Projections

0. Introduction

For rearrangement invariant (r.i.) function space X on I 0; 1; we will consider

the multiplicator space MX and the nice part N

0

X of the space X: The space

ARTICLE IN PRESS

$

Research supported by a grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for cooperation between

Sweden and the former Soviet Union (Project 35147). The second author was also supported in part by the

Swedish Natural Science Research Council (NFR)-Grant M5105-20005228/2000 and the third author by

the Russian Fund of Fundamental Research (RFFI)-Grant 02-01-00146 and the Universities of Russia

Fund (UR)-Grant 04.01.051.

*Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: astashkn@ssu.samara.ru (S.V. Astashkin), lech@sm.luth.se (L. Maligranda),

root@func.vsu.ru (E.M. Semenov).

URL: http://www.sm.luth.se/~lech/.

0022-1236/03/$ - see front matter r 2002 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/S0022-1236(02)00094-0

MX is connected with the tensor product of two functions xsyt; s; tA0; 1; and

N

0

X is the space given by uniformly bounded sequence in X of projections into

Q

a;n

generated by the dilations and translations of the non-zero, decreasing function

aAX on dyadic intervals

k1

2

n

;

k

2

n

in I; k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; n 0; 1; 2; y . These

functions are given by

a

n;k

t

a2

n

t k 1 if tA

k1

2

n

;

k

2

n

;

0 elsewhere:

_

The spaces MX and N

0

X coincide when X is a separable space but in the non-

separable case the nice part can be larger than the multiplicator space. Such a

description is helpful in the proofs of properties of N

0

X and it motivates us to

investigate more the multiplicator space MX: We will describe MX for concrete

r.i. spaces X as Lorentz, Orlicz and Marcinkiewicz spaces. Suitable results on N

0

X;

especially when X is a Marcinkiewicz space M

j

; are given.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 1 we collect some necessary

denitions and notations.

Section 2 contains results on the multiplicator space MX of a r.i. space X on

0; 1: At rst we collect its properties. After that the multiplicator space MX is

described for concrete spaces like Lorentz L

p;j

spaces, Orlicz L

F

spaces and

Marcinkiewicz M

j

spaces. The main result here is Theorem 1 which gives necessary

and sufcient condition for the tensor product operator to be bounded between

Marcinkiewicz spaces M

j

:

In Section 3, we consider a subspace N

0

X of X generated by dilations and

translations in r.i. space on 0; 1 of a decreasing function from X: The main result of

the paper is Theorem 2 showing that the multiplicator space MX is a subset of the

nice part N

0

X of X and that they are equal when a space X is separable. In the

general case, the nice part is larger than the multiplicator space (cf. Example 2). Here

we apply results on multiplicators from Section 2 to the description of N

0

X:

Special attention is taken about N

0

X when X is a Marcinkiewicz space M

j

(see

Corollary 5 and Theorem 3). Stability properties of the class N

0

with respect to the

complex and real interpolation methods are presented. There is also given, in

Theorem 7, a characterization of L

p

-spaces among the r.i. spaces on 0; 1; which is

saying that r.i. space X on 0; 1 coincides with L

p

0; 1 for some 1pppNif and only

if X and its associated space X

0

belong to the class N

0

:

Finally, in Section 4 we show that, in general, you cannot compare the results on

the interval 0; 1 with the results on 0; N and vice versa.

1. Denitions and notations

We rst recall some basic denitions. A Banach function space X on I 0; 1 is

said to be a rearrangement invariant (r.i.) space provided x

n

tpy

n

t for every

tA0; 1 and yAX imply xAX and jjxjj

X

pjjyjj

X

; where x

n

denotes the decreasing

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 248

rearrangement of jxj: Always we have imbeddings L

N

0; 1CXCL

1

0; 1: By X

0

we

will denote the closure of L

N

0; 1 in X:

An r.i. space X with a norm jj jj

X

has the Fatou property if for any increasing

positive sequence x

n

in X with sup

n

jjx

n

jj

X

oN we have that sup

n

x

n

AX and

jjsup

n

x

n

jj

X

sup

n

jjx

n

jj

X

:

We will assume that the r.i. space X is either separable or it has the Fatou

property. Then, as follows from the Caldero nMityagin theorem [BS,KPS],

the space X is an interpolation space with respect to L

1

and L

N

; i.e., if a linear

operator T is bounded in L

1

and L

N

; then T is bounded in X and

jjTjj

X-X

pC maxjjTjj

L

1

-L

1

; jjTjj

L

N

-L

N

for some CX1:

If w

A

denotes the characteristic function of a measurable set A in I; then clearly

jjw

A

jj

X

depends only on mA: The function j

X

t jjw

A

jj

X

; where mA t; tAI; is

called the fundamental function of X:

For s40; the dilation operator s

s

given by s

s

xt xt=sw

I

t=s; tAI is well

dened in every r.i. space X and jjs

s

jj

X-X

pmax1; s: The classical Boyd indices of

X are dened by (cf. [BS,KPS,LT])

a

X

lim

s-0

lnjjs

s

jj

X-X

ln s

; b

X

lim

s-N

lnjjs

s

jj

X-X

ln s

:

In general, 0pa

X

pb

X

p1: It is easy to see that % j

X

tpjjs

t

jj

X-X

for any t40; where

% j

X

t sup

0oso1;0osto1

j

X

st

j

X

s

:

The associated space X

0

to X is the space of all (classes of) measurable functions

xt such that

_

1

0

jxtytjdtoNfor every yAX endowed with the norm

jjxjj

X

0 sup

_

1

0

jxtytj dt : jjyjj

X

p1

_ _

:

For every r.i. space X the embedding XCX

00

is isometric. If an r.i. space X is

separable, then X

0

X

n

:

Let us recall some classical examples of r.i. spaces. Denote by C the set of

increasing concave functions jt on 0; 1 with j0

j0 0: Each function

jAC generates the Lorentz space L

j

endowed with the norm

jjxjj

L

j

_

1

0

x

n

t djt

and the Marcinkiewicz space M

j

endowed with the norm

jjxjj

M

j

sup

0otp1

1

jt

_

t

0

x

n

s ds:

If F is a positive convex function on 0; N with F0 0; then the Orlicz space

L

F

L

F

0; 1 (cf. [KR,M89]) consists of all measurable functions xt on 0; 1 for

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 249

which the functional jjxjj

L

F

is nite, where

jjxjj

L

F

inf l40 : I

F

x

l

_ _

p1

_ _

with I

F

x :

_

1

0

Fjxtj dt:

An Orlicz space L

F

is separable if and only if the function F satises the D

2

-condition

(i.e. F2upCFu for every uXu

0

and some constants u

0

40 and C40).

The Lorentz space L

p;q

; 1opoN; 1pqpN; is the space generated by the

functionals (quasi-norms)

jjxjj

p;q

_

1

0

t

1=p

x

n

t

q

dt

t

_ _

1=q

if qoN

and

jjxjj

p;N

sup

0oto1

t

1=p

x

n

t:

For 1ppoNand jAC the Lorentz space L

p;j

is the space generated by the norm

jjxjj

p;j

_

1

0

x

n

t

p

djt

_ _

1=p

:

We will use the CalderonLozanovski construction (see [C,M89]). Let X

0

; X

1

be a

pair of r.i. spaces on 0; 1 and rAU (rAU means that rs; t srt=s for s40 with

an increasing, concave function r on 0; N such that r0 0 and r0; t 0: By

rX

0

; X

1

we mean the space of all measurable functions xt on 0; 1 for which

jxtjplrjx

0

tj; jx

1

tj a:e: on 0; 1

for some x

i

AX

i

with jjx

i

jj

X

i

p1; i 0; 1; and with the inmum of these l as the norm

jjxjj

r

: In the case of the power function r

y

s; t s

1y

t

y

with 0pyp1; r

y

X

0

; X

1

1y

0

X

y

1

(see [C,LT,M89]). The particular case

X

1=p

L

N

11=p

X

p

for 1opoN is known as the p-convexication of X dened

as X

p

fx is measurable on I : jxj

p

AXg with the norm jjxjj

X

p jjjxj

p

jj

1=p

X

(see

[LT,M89]).

For other general properties of lattices of measurable functions and r.i. spaces we

refer to books [BS,KPS,LT].

2. Multiplicator space of an r.i. space

Let X XI be an r.i. space on I 0; 1: Then the corresponding r.i. space

XI I on I I is the space of measurable functions xs; t on I I such that

x

,

tAXI with the norm jjxjj

XII

jjx

,

jj

XI

; where x

,

denotes the decreasing

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 250

rearrangement of jxj with respect to the Lebesgue measure m

2

on I I: For two

measurable functions x xs; y yt on I 0; 1 we dene the bilinear operator

of the tensor product #by

x#ys; t xsyt; s; tAI:

Denition 1. The multiplicator space MX of an r.i. space X on I 0; 1 is the set

of all measurable functions x xs such that x#yAXI I for arbitrary yAX

with the norm

jjxjj

MX

supfjjx#yjj

XII

: jjyjj

X

p1g: 1

The multiplicator space MX is an r.i. space on 0; 1 because for the product

measure we have

m

2

fs; tAI I : jxsytj4lg

_

1

0

mfsAI : jxsytj4lg dt:

Let us collect some properties of MX: First note that for any measurable set

A in I the functions w

A

#x and s

mA

x are equimeasurable, i.e., their distributions are

equal

d

w

A

#x

l m

2

fs; tAI I : w

A

sjxtj4lg

mftAI : js

mA

xtj4lg d

s

mA

x

l

for all l40: In particular, jjxjj

MX

Xjjx#w

0;1

=j

X

1jj

X

jjxjj

X

=j

X

1 gives the

imbedding

MXCX and jjxjj

X

pj

X

1jjxjj

MX

for xAMX: 2

Moreover, MX X if and only if the operator #: X X-XI I is bounded.

In particular, ML

p;q

L

p;q

for 1opoN and 1pqpp since from the ONeil

theorem (see [O, Theorem 7.4]) the tensor product #: L

p;q

L

p;q

-L

p;q

I I is

bounded.

From the equality w

0;u

#w

0;v

,

t w

0;uv

t we obtain that if XCMX; then

fundamental function j

X

is submultiplicative on 0; 1; i.e., there exists a constant

c40 such that j

X

stpcj

X

sj

X

t for all s; tA0; 1:

Some other properties of the multiplicator space MX (cf. [A97] for the

proofs):

(a)

j

MX

t jjs

t

jj

X-X

; jjs

t

jj

MX-MX

jjs

t

jj

X-X

for 0otp1 and

jjs

1=t

jj

1

X-X

pjjs

t

jj

MX-MX

pjjs

t

jj

X-X

for t41: In particular, a

MX

a

X

and b

MX

pb

X

:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 251

(b) We have imbeddings L

c

CMXCL

p

; where ct jjs

t

jj

X-X

; 0otp1;

p 1=a

X

and the constants of imbeddings are independent of X: In

particular,

b

1

MX L

N

if and only if a

X

0:

b

2

If the operator #: X X-XI I is bounded, then XCL

1=a

X

:

(c) If X is an interpolation space between L

p

and L

p;N

for some 1opoN; then

MX L

p

: In particular, ML

p;q

L

p

for 1opoNand ppqpN:

Note that the operation MX is not monotone, i.e., if X; Y are r.i. spaces on 0; 1

such that XCY then, in general, it is not true that MXCMY: Namely, consider

the r.i. space X on 0; 1 constructed by Shimogaki [S]. This space has Boyd lower

index a

X

0 with j

X

t t

1=2

and L

2

CX: On the other hand, ML

2

L

2

but

MX L

N

by b

1

:

Proposition 1. We have MMX MX with equal norms.

Proof. It is enough to show the imbedding MXCMMX: Let xAMX with

the norm jjxjj

MX

pC: Then

jjx#ujj

XII

pCjjujj

XI

8uAX:

In particular, for u y#z

,

with xed yAMX and any zAX with jjzjj

XI

p1 we

have

jjx#y#z

,

jj

XII

pCjjy#z

,

jj

XI

Cjjy#zjj

XII

:

Since

m

2

fs; tAI I : jxsy#z

,

tj4lg

_

1

0

mftAI : jxsy#z

,

tj4lg ds

_

1

0

m

2

ft; aAI I : jxsytzaj4lg ds

m

3

fs; t; aAI I I : jxsytzaj4lg

_

1

0

m

2

fs; tAI I : jxsytzaj4lg da

_

1

0

mftAI : jx#y

,

tzaj4lg da

m

2

ft; aAI I : x#y

,

tzaj4lg

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 252

for any l40 it follows that

jjx#y#z

,

jj

XII

jjx#y

,

#zjj

XII

:

Taking the supremum over all zAX with jjzjj

XI

p1 we obtain

jjx#y

,

jj

MX

supfjjx#y

,

#zjj

XII

: jjzjj

XI

p1g

supfjjx#y#z

,

jj

XII

: jjzjj

XI

p1g

pC supfjjy#zjj

XII

: jjzjj

XI

p1g Cjjyjj

MX

:

This means that xAMMX and its norm is pC: &

Note that if X MY for some r.i. space Y; then X MX: Indeed, MX

MMY MY X:

For concrete r.i. spaces, like Lorentz, Orlicz and Marcinkiewicz, we have the

following results about multiplicator space. From the above discussion we have that

if 1opoNand 1pqpN; then

ML

p;q

L

p;minp;q

: 3

Proposition 2 (cf. Astashkin [A97] for p 1). Let jAC and 1ppoN: Then

(i) L

p; % j

CML

p;j

CL

p;j

:

(ii) ML

p;j

L

p;j

if and only if j is submultiplicative on 0; 1:

(iii)

If % jt lim

s-0

jst

js

; then ML

p;j

L

p; % j

:

The proof follows from [A97] (cf. also [Mi76,Mi78]), property (b) and the fact that

MX

p

MX

p

; where X

p

is the p-convexication of X .

Proposition 3. For the Orlicz space L

F

L

F

0; 1 we have the following:

(i) If FeD

2

; then ML

F

L

N

:

(ii)

If FAD

2

; then L

%

F

CML

F

CL

F

; where

%

Fu sup

vX1

F

uv

F

v

; uX1:

(iii) If FAD

2

; then ML

F

L

F

if and only if F is a submultiplicative function for

large u; i.e., FuvpCFuFv for some positive C; u

0

and all u; vXu

0

:

Proof. (i) It follows from property b

1

and the fact that Boyd index a

L

F

0:

(ii) The imbedding L

%

F

CML

F

follows from Ando theorem [A, Theorem 6] on

boundedness of tensor product between Orlicz spaces. In fact, if xsAL

%

F

and

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 253

ytAL

F

; then I

%

F

x=l I

F

y=loNfor some lX1; and so

Fl

2

jxsjjytjp1

%

Fjxsj=lF1 Fjytj=l;

from which

I

F

l

2

x#yp1 I

%

F

x=lF1 I

F

y=loN;

that is, x#yAL

F

I I: Therefore, L

%

F

CML

F

: The second imbedding follows

from (2).

(iii) It follows directly from (ii) and it was also proved in [A,A82,Mi81,O]. &

The situation is different in the case of Marcinkiewicz spaces.

Theorem 1. Let jAC: The following statements are equivalent:

(i) MM

j

M

j

:

(ii) The tensor product #: M

j

M

j

-M

j

I I is bounded.

(iii) j

0

#j

0

AM

j

:

(iv) There exists a constant C40 such that the inequality

n

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pCj

1

n

n

i1

u

i

_ _

4

is valid for any u

i

A0; 1; i 1; 2; y; n and every nAN:

Proof. The equivalence i3ii is true for any r.i. space, in particular also for the

Marcinkiewicz space M

j

:

Implication ii ) iii follows from the fact that j

0

AM

j

:

iii ) iv: Given an integer n and a sequence u

1

; u

2

; y; u

n

A0; 1; consider the

set

A

_

n

i1

i 1

n

;

i

n

_ _

0; u

i

C0; 1 0; 1:

Then

_

A

j

0

#j

0

dm

2

pCjm

2

A;

where m

2

is the Lebesque measure on 0; 1 0; 1: Since

_

A

j

0

tj

0

s dt ds

n

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 254

and

m

2

A

n

i1

1

n

u

i

it follows that estimate (4) holds.

iv ) ii: Assume that (4) is valid. It is sufcient to prove that the inequality

jjx#yjj

M

j

pC

holds for x; yAM

j

; jjxjj

M

j

jjyjj

M

j

1 and x x

n

; y y

n

: Given x x

n

AM

j

with

jjxjj

M

j

1 and e40 there exists a strictly decreasing function z z

n

AM

j

such that

jjzjj

M

j

p1 e and zXx: Therefore, we can assume in addition that x and y are

strictly decreasing and continuous on 0; 1: We must prove the inequality

_

A

t

xtys dt dspCm

2

A

t

A

t

ft; sA0; 1 0; 1 : xtysXtg; t40:

Given t40; there exists a continuous decreasing function gt g

t

t such that

A

t

ft; s : gsXtg:

Put

P

n

_

n

i1

0; g

i

n

_ _ _ _

i 1

n

;

i

n

_ _

and

Q

n

_

n

i1

0; g

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

i 1

n

;

i

n

_ _

:

Then

P

n

CA

t

CQ

n

:

The continuity of the function g implies that

lim

n-N

mQ

n

\P

n

lim

n-N

n

i1

1

n

g

i 1

n

_ _

g

i

n

_ _ _ _

p lim

n-N

max

1pipn

g

i 1

n

_ _

g

i

n

_ _ _ _

0:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 255

The function xtys belongs to L

1

m

2

: Hence

lim

n-N

_

Q

n

\P

n

xtys dt ds 0

and

_

A

t

xtys dt ds lim

n-N

_

P

n

xtys dt ds

lim

n-N

n

i1

_

g

i

n

0

xt dt

_

i

n

i1

n

ys ds

p lim

n-N

n

i1

j g

i

n

_ _ _ _ _

i

n

0

ys ds

_

i1

n

0

ys ds

_ _

lim

n-N

n

i1

j g

i

n

_ _ _ _

j g

i 1

n

_ _ _ _ _ __

i

n

0

ys ds:

Since

j g

i

n

_ _ _ _

j g

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

40

and

_

i

n

0

ys dspj

i

n

_ _

it follows that

_

A

t

xtys dt dsp lim

n-N

n

k1

j g

i

n

_ _ _ _

j g

i 1

n

_ _ _ _ _ _

j

i

n

_ _

lim

n-N

n

i1

j g

i

n

_ _ _ _

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

:

Denoting g

i

n

_ _

u

i

and applying (4) we get

_

A

t

xtys dt dsp lim

n-N

n

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pC lim

n-N

j

1

n

n

i1

u

i

_ _

C lim

n-N

jm

2

P

n

Cm

2

A

t

;

and the proof is complete. &

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 256

Observe that we have even proved that the tensor multiplicator norm in the space

M

j

is equal

sup

0ou

i

p1;i1;2;y;n;nAN

n

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

j

i1

n

j

1

n

n

i1

u

i

:

The concavity of j implies that the supremum is attained on the set of decreasing

sequences 1Xu

1

Xu

2

X?Xu

n

40:

Remark 1. Theorem 1 can be formulated in a more general form. Let j

1

; j

2

; j

3

AC:

Then the tensor product #: M

j

1

M

j

2

-M

j

3

I I is bounded if and only if there

exists a constant C40 such that the inequality

n

i1

j

1

u

i

j

2

i

n

_ _

j

2

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pCj

3

1

n

n

i1

u

i

_ _

5

is true for every integer n and every u

i

A0; 1; i 1; 2; y; n:

Condition (5) can be also written in the integral form

_

1

0

j

1

utj

0

2

t dtpCj

3

_

1

0

ut dt

_ _

for all functions ut on 0; 1 such that 0putp1: The last integral condition is

satised when for example

_

1

0

j

1

s

t

_ _

j

0

2

t dtpCj

3

s

for all s in 0; 1: A similar assumption appeared in papers [Mi76,Mi78].

We will nd a condition on jAC under which estimate (4) will be true.

Lemma 1. Let jAC and jtpKjt

2

for some positive number K and for every

tA0; 1: Then

n

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pK 1j1j

1

n

n

i1

u

i

_ _

for every integer n and every u

i

A0; 1; i 1; 2; y; n:

Proof. The concavity of j implies that we can suppose the monotonicity

1Xu

1

Xu

2

X?Xu

n

X0: Denote

s

1

n

n

i1

u

i

:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 257

There exists a natural number m; 1pmpn; such that u

m

p

s

p

and u

i

4

s

p

for ipm:

Since

ns

n

i1

u

i

X

m

i1

u

i

Xm

s

p

it yields that mpn

s

p

and

m

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pj1

m

i1

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

j1j

m

n

_ _

pj1j

n

s

p

n

_ _

j1j

s

p

pKj1js:

If i4m; then ju

i

pjs and so

n

im1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pjs

n

im1

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pj1js:

Hence

n

i1

ju

i

j

i

n

_ _

j

i 1

n

_ _ _ _

pK 1j1js K 1j1j

1

n

n

i1

u

i

_ _

: &

Immediately from Theorem 1 and Lemma 1 we have the following assertion.

Corollary 1. Let jAC and jtpKjt

2

for some positive number K and for every

tA0; 1: Then

MM

j

M

j

:

Let us note that the power function jt t

a

with 0oao1 does not satisfy

inequality (4) but there are functions jAC which satisfy the estimate jtpKjt

2

for some positive number K and for every tA0; 1: This estimate gives, of course, the

supermultiplicativity of j on 0; 1:

Example 1. For each l40 there exists a alA0; 1 such that the function

j

l

t

0 if t 0;

ln

l 1

t

if 0otpal;

linear if tAal; 1;

_

_

belongs to C: Clearly, j

l

tp2

l

j

l

t

2

for every tA0; al: Consequently, j

l

satises the conditions of Lemma 1.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 258

Remark 2. There exists a function jAC such that the tensor product acts from

M

j

M

j

into M

j

and j does not satisfy the condition jtpKjt

2

for some

positive number K and for every tA0; 1: It is enough to take jt t

a

ln

b a

t

for

0oao1; b41 and a4e

2b=1a

:

We nish this part with the imbeddings of Caldero nLozanovski construction on

multiplicator spaces.

Proposition 4. Let X

0

; X

1

be r.i. spaces on 0; 1: Then

(i)

MX

0

1y

MX

1

y

CMX

1y

0

X

y

1

:

(ii) If rAU is a supermultiplicative function on 0; N; i.e., there exists a constant

c40 such that rstXcrsrt for all s; tA0; N; then

rMX

0

; MX

1

CMrX

0

; X

1

:

Proof. (i) Observe rst that YCMX if and only if the operator #: Y

X-XI I is bounded.

Since #: MX

i

X

i

-X

i

I I; i 0; 1; is bounded with the norm p1 and the

Caldero n construction is an interpolation method for positive bilinear operators

(cf. [C]) it follows that

#: MX

0

1y

MX

1

y

X

1y

0

X

y

1

-X

0

I I

1y

X

1

I I

y

X

1y

0

X

y

1

I I

is bounded with the norm p1: Therefore, MX

0

1y

MX

1

y

CMX

1y

0

X

y

1

.

(ii) When r is a supermultiplicative function the Caldero nLozanovski construc-

tion is an interpolation method for positive bilinear operators (see [As97,M]

Theorem 2]) and the proof of the imbedding is similar as in (i). &

Note that the inclusions in Proposition 4 can be strict. For the spaces X

0

L

p;q

;

X

1

L

p;N

with 1pqopoN we have

MX

0

1y

MX

1

y

ML

p;q

1y

ML

p;N

y

L

1y

p;q

L

y

p

L

p;r

;

where 1=r 1 y=q y=p and

MX

1y

0

X

y

1

ML

1y

p;q

L

y

p;N

ML

p;s

L

p;minp;s

;

where 1=s 1 y=q: The strict imbedding L

p;r

D! L

p;minp;s

gives then the

corresponding example.

3. Subspaces generated by dilations and translations in r.i. spaces

Given an r.i. space X on I 0; 1 let us denote by

V

0

X faAX : aa0; a a

n

g:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 259

For a xed function aAV

0

X and dyadic intervals D

n;k

k1

2

n

;

k

2

n

; k 1; 2; y; 2

n

;

n 0; 1; 2; y; let us consider the dilations and translations of a function a

a

n;k

t

a2

n

t k 1 if tAD

n;k

;

0 elsewhere:

_

Then supp a

n;k

CD

n;k

and

mftAD

n;k

: ja

n;k

tj4lg 2

n

mftAI : jatj4lg for all l40:

For aAV

0

X and n 0; 1; 2; y we denote by Q

a;n

the linear span fa

n;k

g

2

n

k1

generated by functions a

n;k

in X:

Denition 2. For an r.i. function space X on 0; 1 the nice part N

0

X of X is dened

by

N

0

X aAV

0

X : there exists a sequence of projections fP

n

g

N

n0

on X such that

_

ImP

n

Q

a;n

and sup

n0;1;y

jjP

n

jj

X-X

oN

_

:

We say that X is a nice space (or shortly XAN

0

) if a

n

belongs to N

0

X for every a

from X:

We are using here similar notions as in the paper [HS99]. They were consid-

ering r.i. space X X0; N on 0; N; the corresponding set VX

faAX : aa0; supp aC0; 1; a a

n

g and the set NX of all aAVX such that Q

a

is a complemented subspace of X X0; N; where Q

a

is the linear closed span

generated by the sequence a

k

N

k1

with

a

k

t at k 1 for tAk 1; k and a

k

t 0 elsewhere:

If NX X; then they write that XAN (or say that X is a nice space).

We are putting sub-zero notions, that is, V

0

X and N

0

X; so that we have

difference between of our case of r.i. spaces on 0; 1 and their case 0; N:

Theorem 2. Let X be an r.i. space on 0; 1 and let X

0

denote the closure of L

N

0; 1 in

X: Then we have embeddings

(i) MXCN

0

X;

(ii)

N

0

X

0

CMX:

Before the proof of this theorem we will need some auxiliary results.

Let aAV

0

X and f AV

0

X

0

be such that

_

1

0

f tat dt 1: 6

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 260

Dene the sequence of natural projections (averaging operators)

P

n

xt P

n;a;f

xt

2

n

k1

2

n

_

D

n;k

f

n;k

sxsdsa

n;k

t; n 0; 1; 2; y : 7

Lemma 2. The sequence of norms fjjP

n;a;f

jj

X-X

g

N

n0

is a non-decreasing sequence.

Proof. For x xt with supp xCD

n;k

we dene

R

n;k

xt x 2t

k 1

2

n

_ _

; S

n;k

xt x 2t

k

2

n

_ _

:

Then

supp R

n;k

xCD

n1;2k1

; supp S

n;k

xCD

n1;2k

and

mftAD

n1;2k1

: jR

n;k

xtj4lg mftAD

n1;2k

: jS

n;k

xtj4lg

1

2

mftAI : jxtj4lg

for all l40: Therefore,

_

D

n1;2k1

R

n;k

xt dt

_

D

n1;2k

S

n;k

xt dt

1

2

_

D

n;k

xt dt:

Moreover,

R

n;k

f

n;k

xw

D

n;k

t f

n1;2k1

R

n;k

xw

D

n;k

t;

S

n;k

f

n;k

xw

D

n;k

t f

n1;2k

S

n;k

xw

D

n;k

t

and

mftAD

n1;j

: a

n1;j

t4lg

1

2

mftAD

n;i

: a

n;i

4lg

for all l40 and any i 1; 2; y; 2

n

; j 1; 2; y; 2

n1

:

Denote P

n

P

n;a;f

: The last equality and the equality of integrals give that the

function P

n

xt is equimeasurable with the function

P

n1

yt

2

n

k1

2

n1

_

D

n1;2k1

f

n1;2k1

sR

n;k

xw

D

n;k

s ds

_ _

a

n1;2k1

t

2

n

k1

2

n1

_

D

n1;2k

f

n1;2k

sS

n;k

xw

D

n;k

s ds

_ _

a

n1;2k

t;

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 261

where

yt

2

n

k1

R

n;k

xw

D

n;k

t S

n;k

xw

D

n;k

t:

From the above we can see that y is equimeasurable with x and so

jjP

n

xjj

X

jjP

n1

yjj

X

pjjP

n1

jj jjyjj

X

jjP

n1

jj jjxjj

X

;

that is, jjP

n

jjpjjP

n1

jj: &

Lemma 3. Let X be a separable r.i. space. If aAN

0

X; then there exists a function

f AN

0

X

0

such that (6) is fullled and for the sequence of projections fP

n;a;f

g dened

by (7) we have

sup

n0;1;2;y

jjP

n;a;f

jj

X-X

oN:

Proof. Since X is a separable space and aAN

0

X it follows that there are functions

g

n;k

AX

0

k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; n 0; 1; 2; y such that

_

1

0

g

n;k

sa

n;k

s ds 1 and

_

1

0

g

n;k

sa

n;j

s ds 0; jak;

and for the projections

T

n

xt

2

n

k1

_

1

0

g

n;k

sxs ds

_ _

a

n;k

t

we have sup

n0;1;y

jjT

n

jj

X-X

oN: Let fr

i

g

n

i1

be the rst n Rademacher functions on

the segment 0; 1: Since X is an r.i. space it follows that for every uA0; 1 the norms

of the operators

T

n;u

xt

2

n

k1

r

k

u

2

n

i1

r

i

u

_

D

n;i

g

n;k

sxs ds

_ _

a

n;k

t

are the same as the norms of T

n

: Let us consider the operators

S

n

xt

_

1

0

T

n;u

xt du

2

n

k1

_

D

n;k

g

n;k

sxs ds

_ _

a

n;k

t:

Then

jjS

n

jjp sup

uA0;1

jjT

n;u

jj jjT

n

jjpC:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 262

Therefore, we can assume that

supp g

n;k

CD

n;k

and g

n;k

is decreasing on D

n;k

:

Moreover, we shift supports of the functions g

n;k

k 1; 2; y; 2

n

to the segment

0; 2

n

and consider the averages

G

n

t 2

n

2

n

k1

t

k12

n g

n;k

t;

where t

s

gt gt s:

Then the shifts h

n;k

t 2

n

t

k12

n G

n

t generate operators

U

n

xt

2

n

k1

2

n

_

D

n;k

h

n;k

sxs ds

_ _

a

n;k

t

and we can show that jjU

n

jj

X-X

pC:

Since h

n;k

t F

n

n;k

t; where F

n

t 2

n

G

n

2

n

t for 0ptp1; it follows that

_

1

0

F

n

tat dt

_

2

n

0

G

n

ta

n;1

t dt

2

n

2

n

k1

_

2

n

0

t

k12

n g

n;k

ta

n;1

t dt

2

n

2

n

k1

_

D

n;k

g

n;k

ta

n;k

t dt 1:

Let us show that there exists a subsequence fF

n

k

tg of F

n

t which converges at

every tA0; 1:

Lemma 2 gives that the norm of the one-dimensional operator

L

n

xt

_

1

0

F

n

sxs ds

_ _

at

does not exceed jjU

n

jj

X-X

; and consequently also not C: Therefore,

jjF

n

jj

X

0 p

C

jjajj

X

: 8

By the denition of F

n

we have F

n

n

t F

n

t and

1

_

1

0

F

n

sas dsXF

n

t

_

t

0

as ds

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 263

or

F

n

tp

_

t

0

as ds

_ _

1

for all tA0; 1:

Applying Helly selection theorem (see [N]) we can choose subsequences

fF

n

g*fF

n;1

g*fF

n;2

g*y*fF

n;m

g*y

that converge on the intervals

1

2

; 1

_ _

;

1

3

; 1

_ _

; y;

1

m 1

; 1

_ _

; y;

respectively. Then the diagonal sequence f

n

t F

n;n

t converges at every tA0; 1 to

a function f t f

n

t: Using estimate (8) we obtain

_

s

0

f

n

tat dtpjjf

n

jj

X

0 jjaw

0;s

jj

X

p

C

jjajj

X

jjaw

0;s

jj

X

:

Since X is a separable r.i. space it follows that jjaw

0;s

jj

X

-0 as s-0

: Therefore, the

equalities f

n

n

f

n

and a

n

a imply that ff

n

ag is an equi-integrable sequence of

functions on 0; 1: Hence (see [E, Theorem 1.21], or [HM, Theorem 6, Chapter V])

_

1

0

f tat dt lim

n-N

_

1

0

f

n

tat dt 1:

Let mAN be xed. By the estimate jjU

n

jj

X-X

pC; the denition of f

n

; and Lemma 2

we have

2

m

k1

2

m

_

D

m;k

f

n

m;k

txt dt

_ _

a

m;k

X

pCjjxjj

X

9

for all nXm and all xAX:

Suppose that xt is a non-negative and non-increasing function on every interval

D

m;k

; k 1; 2; y; 2

m

: As above, from (8) it follows that ff

n

m;k

xw

D

m;k

g

N

m1

is an equi-

integrable sequence on D

m;k

: Hence

lim

n-N

_

D

m;k

f

n

m;k

txt dt

_

D

m;k

f

m;k

txt dt

and for all such functions xt estimate (9) implies

2

m

k1

2

m

_

D

m;k

f

m;k

txt dt

_ _

a

m;k

X

pCjjxjj

X

:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 264

Since X is an r.i. space we can prove that the above estimate holds for all xAX: The

proof is complete. &

Proof of Theorem 2. (i) At rst by the result in [A97, Theorem 1.14], we have that

aAMX if and only if there exists a constant C40 such that

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

pC

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

10

for all c

n;k

AR and k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; n 0; 1; 2; y.

Suppose that aAV

0

X-MX; that is, estimate (10) holds. If et 1; then the

operators

P

n;e

xt

2

n

k1

2

n

_

D

n;k

xs ds

_ _

w

D

n;k

t n 1; 2; y 11

are bounded projections in every r.i. space X and jjP

n;e

jj

X-X

p1 (see [KPS, Theorem

4.3]).

Dene operators R

n;a

: Q

e;n

Im P

n;e

-Q

a;n

as follows:

R

n;a

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

_ _

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

:

By the assumption aAMX or equivalently by estimate (10) we have

jjR

n;a

jj

Q

e;n

-X

pC: Therefore, for the operators

P

n;a

1

jjajj

L

1

R

n;a

P

n;e

:

We have

jjP

n;a

jj

X-X

pCjjajj

1

L

1

; n 1; 2; y :

It is easy to check that P

n;a

are projections and Im P

n;a

Q

a;n

: Therefore, aAN

0

X:

(ii) If X L

N

; then MX N

0

X

0

L

N

:

If XaL

N

; then X

0

is a separable r.i. space. In this case, by Lemma 3, for any

aAN

0

X

0

there exists a function f AV

0

X

0

0

such that (6) is fullled and for the

projections P

n;a;f

dened as in (7) we have

C sup

n0;1;2;y

jjP

n;a;f

jj

X

0

-X

0 oN: &

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 265

If x is a function of the form xs

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

s; then

P

n;a;f

x jjf jj

L

1

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

:

Therefore,

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

0

pCjjf jj

1

L

1

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

0

;

and we obtain (10) for X

0

:

If X

0

X; that is, X is a separable r.i. space, then the theorem is proved. If X is a

non-separable r.i. space, then X

0

is an isometric subspace of X X

00

: By using the

Fatou property, we can extend the above inequality to the whole space X and obtain

(10), which gives that aAMX: The proof of Theorem 2 is complete. &

Immediately from Theorem 2 and the properties of the multiplicator space we

obtain the following corollaries.

Corollary 2. If X is a separable r.i. space, then MX N

0

X:

Corollary 3. If 1opoN; 1pqpN; then N

0

L

p;q

L

p;q

for 1pqpp and

N

0

L

p;q

N

0

L

0

p;N

L

p

for poqoN:

Corollary 4. Let X

0

and X

1

be separable r.i. spaces. If X

0

; X

1

AN

0

; then

X

1y

0

X

y

1

AN

0

:

Corollaries 3 and 4 show that the class of nice spaces N

0

is stable with respect to

the complex method of interpolation but it is not stable with respect to the real

interpolation method.

Corollary 5. If jAC and jtpKjt

2

for some positive number K and for every

tA0; 1; then N

0

M

j

M

j

:

By jAC

0

we mean jAC such that lim

t-0

t

jt

0:

Theorem 3. Let jAC

0

:

(i) If

lim sup

t-0

j2t

jt

2 12

then

L

N

CN

0

M

j

CL

N

,M

j

\M

0

j

: 13

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 266

(ii) If

lim

t-0

j2t

jt

2

then

N

0

M

j

L

N

,M

j

\M

0

j

:

Proof. (i) By Theorem 2 the left part of (13) is valid for any r.i. space. Assumption

(12) implies

lim sup

t-0

jt

jts

1

s

; 0oso1

and so

jjs

s

jj

M

j

-M

j

Xs lim sup

t-0

jt

jst

1

for every 0osp1: This means that a

M

j

0:

Let xAN

0

M

j

-M

0

j

: By using Corollary 2 and property b

1

we get

xAN

0

M

0

j

MM

0

j

L

N

:

This proves the right part of (13).

(ii) We must only prove the inclusion

M

j

\M

0

j

CN

0

M

j

:

Let aAM

j

\M

0

j

; jjajj

M

j

1 and ct

_

t

0

a

n

s ds: It is well known that

dista; M

0

j

lim sup

t-0

1

jt

_

t

0

a

n

s ds:

Therefore,

g lim sup

t-0

ct

jt

40

and there exists a sequence ft

m

g tending to 0 such that

lim

m-N

ct

m

jt

m

g:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 267

Since

lim

m-N

jt

m

2

n

j

t

m

2

n

1

for every natural n; it follows that

jja

n;k

jj

M

j

X lim sup

m-N

ct

m

2

n

j

t

m

2

n

lim sup

m-N

ct

m

jt

m

lim

m-N

jt

m

2

n

j

t

m

2

n

g

for every 1pkp2

n

; n 1; 2; y.

Consider the subspaces H

n;k

=closed span fa

n;i

g

iak

: These subspaces are closed

subspaces of M

j

and a

n;k

eH

n;k

: Thus, by the HahnBanach theorem, there are

b

n;k

AM

j

n

such that b

n;k

j

H

n;k

0; b

n;k

a

n;k

1 and jjb

n;k

jj

1

jja

n;k

jj

p

1

g

: Then the

operators

P

n

x

2

n

k1

b

n;k

xa

n;k

are projections from M

j

onto Q

a;n

: Moreover, P

n

are uniformly bounded since

jjP

n

xjj

M

j

p

1

g

2

n

k1

jjxjj

M

j

a

n;k

M

j

1

g

jjxjj

M

j

:

Therefore, aAN

0

M

j

: The proof is complete. &

Example 2. There exists a non-separable r.i. space X such that MXaN

0

X:

Take X M

j

with jt t ln

e

t

on 0; 1: Since a

M

j

0 it follows that MM

j

L

N

: The function at ln

e

t

for tA0; 1 as unbounded is not in MX but it is in

M

j

\M

0

j

and by Theorem 3(ii) it shows that aAN

0

X: Therefore, N

0

XaMX:

Corollary 6. If jAC

0

and lim sup

t-0

j2t

jt

2; then j

0

AN

0

M

j

and consequently

N

0

M

j

is neither a linear space nor a lattice.

Problem 1. For 1opoNdescribe N

0

L

p;N

:

Note that ML

p;N

L

p

and N

0

L

0

p;N

ML

0

p;N

L

p

:

Theorem 4. Let X be an r.i. space X on 0; 1: The following conditions are equivalent:

(i) #: X X-XI I is bounded.

(ii) MX X:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 268

(iii) XAN

0

; i.e., N

0

X X:

(iv) There exists a constant C40 such that

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

pCjjajj

X

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

14

for all aAX and all c

n;k

AR; k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; n 0; 1; 2; y.

Proof. Implication i ) ii follows by denition ii ) iii from Theorem 2 and

iv ) i by the result in [A97, Theorem 1.14]. Therefore, it only remains to prove

that (iii) implies (iv).

First, assume additionally that X is separable. If XAN

0

; then, similarly as in the

proof of Theorem 2, for any aAX there exist C

1

40 and f AV

0

X

0

such that

_

1

0

f tat dt 1 and

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

pC

1

jjf jj

1

L

1

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

:

Let us introduce a new norm on X dened by

jjajj

1

sup

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

: c

n;k

AR; k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; n 0; 1; 2; y

_

_

_

_

:

Then jjajj

X

pjjajj

1

and jjajj

1

oNfor all aAX: By the closed graph theorem we obtain

that jjajj

1

pCjjajj

X

and (14) is proved.

Now, let X be a non-separable r.i. space. In the case X L

N

both conditions (iii)

and (iv) are fullled. Therefore, consider the case XaL

N

: Then X

0

is a separable r.i.

space. The canonical isometric imbedding X

0

CX X

00

gives that X

0

AN

0

: Let

aAV

0

X: The separability of X

0

implies

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

m

n;k

X

0

pCjja

m

jj

X

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

0

Cjja

m

jj

X

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

;

where a

m

t minat; m; m 1; 2; y.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 269

Since X X

00

has the Fatou property and a

m

n;k

a

n;k

m

it follows that

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

lim

m-N

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

_ _

m

X

pCjjajj

X

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

and Theorem 4 is proved. &

Theorem 5. Let X be an r.i. space X on 0; 1: Then XAN

0

if and only if X

00

AN

0

:

Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem 4. The essential part is the proof of

the estimate (14). We leave the details to the reader.

Theorem 6. Let X be a separable r.i. space X on 0; 1: Then the following conditions

are equivalent:

(i) aAN

0

X:

(ii) The operators R

n;a

: Q

e;n

-Q

a;n

given by

R

n;a

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

_ _

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

are uniformly bounded.

(iii) The operators R

n;a

and their inverses are uniformly bounded.

Proof. i ) iii: Let aAN

0

X: Then jjR

n;a

jjpC for all n 0; 1; 2; y; by Theorem

2. Next, since aa0 there exists n

0

AN and e en

0

40 such that atXut

ew

0;2

n

0

n;k

AR;

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

X

2

n

k1

c

n;k

u

n;k

X

e

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

k12

n

;k12

n

0

2

n

X

e s

2

n

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

_ _

X

Xejjs

2

n

0 jj

1

X-X

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

;

which shows that the inverses R

n;a

1

are uniformly bounded.

ii ) i: If the operators R

n;a

are uniformly bounded, then we have estimate (14)

or equivalently aAMX and Theorem 2(i) gives that aAN

0

X: &

Now, we present a characterization of L

p

spaces among all r.i. spaces on

0; 1:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 270

Theorem 7. Let X be an r.i. space X on 0; 1: The following conditions are equivalent:

(i) XAN

0

and X

0

AN

0

:

(ii) There exists a constant C40 such that

C

1

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

p

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

pC

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

15

for all aAV

0

X with jjajj

X

1 and all c

n;k

AR with k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; n

0; 1; 2; y.

(iii) For any pair of functions a; f such that aAV

0

X; f AV

0

X

0

satisfying (6) the

operators P

n;a;f

dened in (7) are uniformly bounded in X:

(iv) The operator of the tensor product #is bounded from X X into XI I and

from X

0

X

0

into X

0

I I:

(v) There exists a pA1; N such that X L

p

:

Proof. i ) iv: This follows from Theorem 4.

iv ) ii: Let aAV

0

X; jjajj

X

1: Assumption (iv) implies, by Theorem 4, that

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

pC

1

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

for some constant C

1

40:

Therefore it only remains to prove left estimate in (15). For arbitrary bAV

0

X

0

such that

_

1

0

atbt dt 1 and

2

n

k1

d

n;k

b

n;k

X

0

p1d

n;k

AR

we obtain

_

D

n;k

a

n;k

tb

n;k

t dt 2

n

and

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

X

_

1

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

t

_ _

2

n

k1

d

n;k

b

n;k

t

_ _

dt 2

n

2

n

k1

c

n;k

d

n;k

:

Since #is bounded from X

0

X

0

into X

0

I I it follows, again by Theorem 4 used

to X

0

; that

2

n

k1

d

n;k

b

n;k

X

0

pC

2

2

n

k1

d

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

0

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 271

for some constant C

2

40; from which we conclude that

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

XC

1

2

sup

d

_

1

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

t

_ _

2

n

k1

d

n;k

b

n;k

t

_ _

dt

2

n

C

1

2

sup

d

2

n

k1

c

n;k

d

n;k

;

where the supremum is taken over all d d

n;k

2

n

k1

such that

2

n

k1

d

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

0

p1:

The operator P

n;e

dened as in (11) by

P

n;e

xt

2

n

k1

2

n

_

D

n;k

xs ds

_ _

w

D

n;k

t n 1; 2; y

satises jjP

n;e

jj

X

0

-X

0 p1: Therefore,

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

sup

jjyjj

X

0 p1

_

1

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

t

_ _

yt dt

sup

jjyjj

X

0 p1

_

1

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

t

_ _

P

n;e

yt dt

p sup

jjP

n;e

yjj

X

0 p1

_

1

0

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

t

_ _

P

n;e

yt dt

p2

n

sup

d

2

n

k1

c

n;k

d

n;k

:

Hence

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

pC

2

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

:

ii ) v: By Krivines theorem [K,LT, p. 141] for every r.i. space X there exists

pA1; N with the following property:

for any n 0; 1; 2; yand e40 there exist disjoint and equimeasurable functions

v

k

AX; k 1; 2; y; 2

n

; such that

1 ejjcjj

p

p

2

n

k1

c

n;k

v

k

X

p1 ejjcjj

p

16

for any c c

n;k

2

n

k1

; where jjcjj

p

2

n

k1

jc

n;k

j

p

_ _

1=p

: Hence, in particular, it follows

(with the notion

n

N

0 that

1 e2

n=p

p

2

n

k1

v

k

X

p1 e2

n=p

:

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 272

Let

at r

1

2

n

k1

v

k

_ _

n

t; where r

2

n

k1

v

k

X

:

Then jjajj

X

1 and a

n;k

are equimeasurable functions with r

1

v

k

for every

k 1; 2; y; 2

n

: Therefore,

1 e

1 e

2

n=p

jjcjj

p

p

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

p

1 e

1 e

2

n=p

jjcjj

p

;

that is,

1 e

1 e

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

p

p

2

n

k1

c

n;k

a

n;k

X

p

1 e

1 e

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

p

:

Hence, by assumption (15), we have

C

1

e

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

p

p

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

X

pC

e

2

n

k1

c

n;k

w

D

n;k

p

; 17

where C

e

C1 e=1 e:

Let 1ppoN: If X is a separable r.i. space, then (17) implies that X L

p

: In the

case when X X

00

it is sufcient to consider r.i. spaces XaL

N

: Then X

0

satises

15 and so X

0

L

p

: Hence, X

0

X

0

0

L

p

0 and X X

00

L

p

0

0

L

p

:

Let p N: Suppose that there is a function xAX\L

N

: Then from (17) we obtain

jjxjj

X

X

2

n

k1

x

n

k2

n

w

D

n;k

X

XC

1

e

2

n

k1

x

n

k2

n

w

D

n;k

N

C

1

e

x

n

2

n

:

Since xeL

N

it follows that lim

n-N

x

n

2

n

N: This contradiction shows that

XCL

N

: The reverse imbedding is always true.

v ) iii: This follows from the estimate of the norm of natural projections in L

p

space

jjP

n;a;f

jj

L

p

-L

p

pjjajj

p

jjf jj

p

0 :

iii ) i: By denition of the operators P

n;a;f

we have that XAN

0

: We want to

show that also X

0

AN

0

: For all xAX and yAX

0

_

1

0

P

n;a;f

xtyt dt

2

n

k1

2

n

_

D

n;k

f

n;k

sxs ds

_

D

n;k

a

n;k

tyt dt

_

1

0

P

n;f ;a

ysxs ds:

Therefore, the conjugate operator P

n;a;f

n

to P

n;a;f

is P

n;f ;a

on the space X

0

: Since X

0

is isometrically imbedded in X

n

the last equality implies that the operators P

n;f ;a

are

uniformly bounded, and so X

0

AN

0

: The proof is complete. &

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 273

4. Additional remarks and results

First we describe the difference between the cases on 0; 1 and 0; N: Let X0; N

denote an r.i. space on 0; N and X fxAX0; N : xt 0 for t41g the

corresponding r.i. space on 0; 1: We use here also the notion X0; NANfrom the

paper [HS99, p. 56] (cf. also our explanation after Denition 2). Let us present

examples showing that no one of the following statements:

(i) X0; NAN;

(ii) XAN

0

implies the other one, in general.

Example 3. The Orlicz space L

F

p

0; N; where F

p

u e

u

p

1; 1opoN; belongs

to the class N: On the other hand, the lower Boyd index a

L

Fp

of L

F

p

on 0; 1 equals 0

and so ML

F

p

L

N

: Therefore, by Theorem 4, L

F

p

eN

0

.

Example 4. Consider the function

jt

t

a

if 0ptp1;

t

a

ln

b

t e 1 if 1ptoN;

_

where 0obpao1: Then j is a quasi-concave function on 0; N; i.e., jt is

increasing on 0; N and jt=t is decreasing on 0; N: Let * j be the smallest

concave majorant of j: Then

sup

0otp1;nAN

* jnt

* jn * jt

N:

In fact, for every n 1; 2; y; we can choose tA0; 1 such that nto1: Then

* jnt

* jn * jt

X

1

4

jnt

jnjt

ln

b

n e 1-N as n-N:

This implies that the Lorentz space L

* j

0; NeN(see [HS99, Theorem 4.1]). At the

same time for L

* j

L

t

a L

p;1

with p 1=a on 0; 1 we have, by (3), that ML

* j

ML

p;1

L

p;1

L

* j

; and, by Theorem 4, L

* j

AN

0

:

The reason of non-equivalences (i) and (ii) is coming from the fact that the dilation

operator s

t

in r.i. spaces on 0; N does not satisfy an equation of the form

jjs

t

xjj

X0;N

f tjjxjj

X0;N

; for xAX0; N and for all t40:

If this equation is satised, then the function f t is a power function f t t

a

for

some aA0; 1 and then the above statements (i) and (ii) are equivalent. This

observation allows us to improve, for example, Theorem 4.2 from [HS99]: if

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 274

1opoNand 1pqpN; then

NL

p;q

0; N L

p;q

31pqpp:

We can characterize NL

p;q

0; N for 1oppqoN:

Theorem 8. If 1oppqoN; then NL

p;q

0; N L

p

:

Proof. Let aANL

p;q

0; N: The spaces L

p;q

0; N are separable for qoN:

Therefore, similarly as in the proof of Theorem 2, we can show that

n

k1

c

k

a

k

L

p;q

0;N

pC

n

k1

c

k

w

k1;k

L

p;q

0;N

18

for all c

k

AR; k 1; 2; y; n; n 1; 2; y. Since

jjs

t

xjj

L

p;q

0;N

t

1=p

jjxjj

L

p;q

0;N

for xAL

p;q

0; N and all t40; 19

it follows that

n

k1

c

k

a

n

k

L

p;q

pC

n

k1

c

k

w

k1

n

;

k

n

_ _

L

p;q

;

and, by Theorem 1.14 in [A97] together with property (c), we obtain aAL

p

:

Conversely, if aAL

p

then, by using property (c), Theorem 1.14 in [A97] and

equality (19), we get (18) for all n of the form 2

m

; m 1; 2; y. The space L

p;q

has the

Fatou property, thus passing to the limit, we obtain

N

k1

c

k

a

k

L

p;q

0;N

p

N

k1

c

k

w

k1;k

L

p;q

0;N

:

Next, arguing as in the proof of Theorem 2 (see also [HS99, Theorem 2.3]) we obtain

aANL

p;q

0; N:

References

[A] T. Ando, On products of Orlicz spaces, Math. Ann. 140 (1960) 174186.

[A82] S.V. Astashkin, On a bilinear multiplicative operator, Issled. Teor. Funkts. Mnogikh Veshchestv.

Perem. Yaroslavl (1982) 315 (in Russian).

[A97] S.V. Astashkin, Tensor product in symmetric function spaces, Collect. Math. 48 (1997) 375391.

[As97] S.V. Astashkin, Interpolation of positive polylinear operators in Caldero nLozanovski spaces,

Sibirsk. Mat. Zh. 38 (1997) 12111218 (English translation in Siberian Math. J. 38 (1997)

10471053).

[BS] C. Bennett, R. Sharpley, Interpolation of Operators, Academic Press, Boston, 1988.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 275

[C] A.P. Caldero n, Intermediate spaces and interpolation, Studia Math. 24 (1964) 113190.

[E] R.J. Elliott, Stochastic Calculus and Applications, Springer, New York, 1982.

[HM] S. Hartman, J. Mikusin ski, The Theory of Lebesgue Measure and Integration, Pergamon Press,

New York, Oxford, London, Paris, 1961.

[HS99] F.L. Hernandez, E.M. Semenov, Subspaces generated by translations in rearrangement invariant

spaces, J. Funct. Anal. 169 (1999) 5280.

[KR] M.A. Krasnoselskii, Ya.B. Rutickii, Convex Functions and Orlicz Spaces, Noordhoff Ltd.,

Groningen, 1961.

[KPS] S.G. Krein, Yu.I. Petunin, E.M. Semenov, Interpolation of Linear Operators, Nauka, Moscow,

1978 (in Russian) (English translation in Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, 1982).

[K] J.L. Krivine, Sous-espaces de dimension nie des espaces de Banach re ticule s, Ann. of Math. 104

(1976) 129.

[LT] J. Lindenstrauss, L. Tzafriri, Classical Banach Spaces, II. Function Spaces, Springer, Berlin, New

York, 1979.

[M89] L. Maligranda, Orlicz Spaces and Interpolation, Seminars in Mathematics, Vol. 5, University of

Campinas, Campinas SP, Brazil, 1989.

[M] L. Maligranda, Positive bilinear operators in Caldero nLozanovski spaces, Lulea University of

Technology, Department of Mathematics, Research Report, No. 11, 2001, pp. 117.

[Mi76] M. Milman, Tensor products of function spaces, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 82 (1976) 626628.

[Mi78] M. Milman, Embeddings of LorentzMarcinkiewicz spaces with mixed norms, Anal. Math. 4

(1978) 215223.

[Mi81] M. Milman, A note on Lp; q spaces and Orlicz spaces with mixed norms, Proc. Amer. Math.

Soc. 83 (1981) 743746.

[N] I.P. Natanson, Theory of Functions of a Real Variable, Vol. II, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.,

New York, 1961.

[O] R. ONeil, Integral transforms and tensor products on Orlicz spaces and Lp; q spaces,

J. Analyse Math. 21 (1968) 1276.

[S] T. Shimogaki, A note on norms of compression operators on function spaces, Proc. Japan Acad.

46 (1970) 239242.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

S.V. Astashkin et al. / Journal of Functional Analysis 202 (2003) 247276 276

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