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Advanced Chemistry Goals for Test 3 Content: Chapter 13 sections 1 - 5. Chapter 6 sections 5, 7, 8, 9. Chapter 7 sections 2 5.

. Chapter 8 section 4 (electronegativity only) Aims

Know about the solution process, saturated solutions and solubility. Understand the factors affecting solubility. Know about Collligative Properties. Know how electrons are distributed in atoms and simple ions. Explain the atomic properties of elements and the periodic trends they exhibit.

Learning objectives Be able to explain why solutes dissolve in solvents in terms of the interactions. Like dissolves like. Interpret enthalpy diagrams for the dissolving process. Be able to define the terms saturated solution and solubility and understand that a saturated solution is in a dynamic equilibrium between dissolved and undissolved solute. Describe the effect of pressure on gas solubility in water and perform calculations using Henrys Law. Describe the effect of temperature on the solubility of gases and solids in water. Define the term colligative property. Solve vapor pressure calculations using Raoults Law. Know the Elevation of Boiling Point expression and be able to explain it in terms of vapor pressure. Know the Depression of Freezing Point expression. Explain osmosis and osmotic pressure and know the Osmotic Pressure expression. Define the terms vant Hoff factor, i, and apparent degree(%) of dissociation, , and to derive the relationship between them for various electrolytes. Be able to perform calculations using the colligative properties expressions for non-electrolyte and electrolyte solutes. These calculations can include unit conversions. Write electron configurations and draw atomic orbital diagrams for elements and ions. (The three ways) Know the four quantum numbers, their symbols and allowed values and be able to relate this to the number of electrons per orbital, number of orbitals per sub-level, number of sub-levels per shell. Know how the Periodic Table is constructed in terms of electron configuration. Be able to define : Effective Nuclear Charge, Atomic Radius, Ionic Radius, Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity. Be able to state and explain the periodic and group trends in Atomic and Ionic Radius. Know that successive ionization energies increase in value and that there is a big increase when inner shell electrons start to be removed. Be able to state and explain the periodic and group trends in First Ionization Energy including the exceptions (s and p block elements only). Be able to state the periodic and group trends in Electron Affinity and Electronegativity.