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Comparison of the AK-47 and M16

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16

M16 (top) and AK-47 (bottom) assault rifles Firearm Manufacturer Design year Weight Length Cartridge Rate of fire AK-47 Izhmash 1947 3.8kg (8.4lb) 87cm (34in) 7.62 x 39 mm 600 round/min M16 Colt's Manufacturing Company, Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, H & R Firearms 1957 3.6kg (7.9lb) 99cm (39in) 5.56 x 45 mm 780 round/min, cyclic

Effective range 350m (380yd)[1] 550m (600yd)[2]

The two most common assault rifles in the world are the Arma-Lite AR-15 (designated the M16 by the United States military) and its variants, and the Avtomat Kalashnikova rifle Model 1947 (AK-47).[3] [4] [5] Forces armed with these weapons have faced each other in conflicts from the last half of the 20th century through to today. These two have been compared since the late 1960s as rival models,[6] and so have spawned controversy and comparison.[7] [8] [9] [10]

Influence of World War II
The M16 and the AK-47 design, capabilities, and role on the battlefield were reflections of the different experience and doctrine of the Soviet Union and the United States. World War II combat experience indicated that in the future the combatant with higher firepower and mobility would be in a better position to successfully attain his goals, which was a shift from the previous doctrine of static wars favoring the defender. Bolt-action rifles and revolvers became obsolete in the face of semi-automatic and fully automatic weapons, and machine guns became lighter and more mobile. In particular, the American M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle, the Russian SVT-40 semi-automatic rifle and the German Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle would revolutionize future infantry weapon designs. Both the USA and the USSR realized the need to adapt their current weaponry to the newly adopted doctrines and tactics, and they took different approaches to the same problem, which resulted in the eventual adoption by both sides of the assault rifle concept. The AK-47 was the result of Soviet combat experience during World War II. Studies of battlefield reports showed most combat occurred within 300meters, and the winner was usually the side with the most firepower (normally the Germans with the MG42 and the sturmgewehr 44). The bolt-action and semi-automatic rifles used on the Eastern Front were not optimal choices for this kind of combat, and the late-war submachine guns employed to compensate for these shortcomings lacked range and accuracy, leading to compromise designs such as the SKS. The M16, on the other hand, was influenced by the U.S. Army's preference for an accurate semi-automatic weapon. Although the U.S. Armys studies into World War II combat accounts came up with very similar results to that of the

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 Soviets, the Army maintained its traditional views and preferred highly accurate weapons.[12] This culminated in the M14. Combat experience in Vietnam showed this was anachronistic. A replacement was needed, a medium between the traditional philosophy of highly accurate semi-automatic rifles and the AK-47.

The AK-47 was designed shortly after World War II by Tank Commander Mikhail Kalashnikov after he overheard two Russian soldiers complaining to one another about shortcomings in the PPSh-41 submachine gun and the Mosin-Nagant rifle. As can be seen by the origin of its model number (47 representing the year it was adopted as an official weapon) and was in service in the Soviet army from the early 1950s. The design was influenced by contemporary and previous weapons such as the FG 42, Sturmgewehr 44, and early Russian attempts to build a lighter, automatic rifle based on the Japanese 6.5mm Arisaka round, such as the AVS-36 Simonov and early 1916 Avtomat by Fedorov. The AK-47 was adopted as the standard issue Red Army infantry weapon due to its firepower, ease of use, low production costs, and reliability, which fit the Soviet concept of operational art as well as being suited for the new mobile warfare doctrines. The AK-47 was widely supplied or sold to nations allied with the USSR and the blueprints were shared with several friendly nations (the People's Republic of China standing out among these). After the end of World War II, the United States started looking for a replacement for the M1 Garand and Thompson submachine gun in the different branches of its armed forces. Early experiments with selective fire versions of both the M1 Carbine and the Garand proved disappointing. The .30-06 Springfield round was too powerful for controllable full automatic fire and could not be carried in sufficient quantities to support the rate of fire, and fighting in Korea suggested the .30 carbine round was underpowered. American weapons designers reached the same conclusion as the Germans and Russians: an intermediate round was necessary. However, senior American commanders insisted the emphasis be placed on powerful and accurate rounds and thus the T-65 cartridge (.308 Winchester) was formally adopted as 7.62x51 NATO (there is some debate as to whether Winchester Repeating Arms, which developed the cartridge, originally intended it for civilian or military use). It was around this caliber the T44E (derived from the T37, in turn a development of the Garand), later adopted as the M14 in 1957, was developed. The first confrontation between the AK-47 and the M14 came in the early part of the Vietnam War. Reports from the field that the rifle had too much recoil for automatic fire convinced the Army to adopt a new rifle with smaller caliber, lower-powered ammunition. The 5.56x45mm cartridge, had comparable muzzle energy to the Soviet 7.62x39mm used in the AK-47, and was the product of lethality studies performed on goats in the late 1950s and early 1960s showing smaller projectiles at higher velocities were more efficient at creating casualties. Eugene Stoner, the designer of the AR-15/M16, got very little positive feedback from the Army about his design. It was only after the U.S. Air Force adopted the AR-15 that the Army became interested in the design. This eventually led to the adoption of the AR-15 as the M16 in 1967.

Conceptual differences

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16

The AK-47 was designed to use the production methods that were state of the art in the Soviet Union in the late 1940s. This implied it more or less used the same methods of construction as the PPSh-41 and PPS-43. The design of an automatic rifle was in the works in Russia before World War II even began. The Avtomat Kalashnikova's barrel A Type 2 AK-47, the first machined receiver and bolt were milled out of a steel billet. Its receiver, which was at first variation milled, was later formed from sheet metal stampings, simplifying manufacture and reducing the weight of the rifle.[13] In order to be able to use a steel grade that was easy to machine, the barrel and bore were hard chromed. The stock was simply made out of wood, which was a non-strategic material, and perfectly fit the Soviet manufacturing philosophy, where large plants using untrained labor could manufacture basic weapons cheaply and in very large quantities. Another feature typical of Soviet assault rifles is the capability of the AK-47 to fire under very adverse conditions. This can be attributed to the bad experience the Soviet Union had during the early stages of WW2, where it lacked proper ammunition production facilities. Thus, until 1943, the Soviet Union was reduced to using some very poor powders in its ammunition, leaving heavy residue in the guns using it. The Soviets also had learned early on that during a major conflict there is little time to train soldiers to keep their weapons clean. Vietnam War veteran David H. Hackworth recalled,

One of the bulldozers uncovered the decomposing body of an enemy soldier, complete with AK-47. I happened to be standing right there, looking down into the hole and pulled the AK out of the bog. "Watch this, guys," I said, "and I'll show you how a real infantry weapon works." I pulled the bolt back and fired 30 rounds the AK could have been cleaned that day rather than buried in glug for a year or so. That was the kind of weapon our soldiers needed, not the confidence-sapping M16.

Over time, AK-47 descendants have been simplified through the use of spot welding and by further reducing the number of machined parts. The Izhevsk factory manufacturing descendants like the AK-101 can produce around 24,000 units a day. Because of its design it is not possible to manufacture the AK-47 series efficiently in small plants, due to large amount of metal stamping equipment needed for mass production. However, the AK-47 has been copied and manufactured in small shops all around the world, at the expense of more man hours per unit.

During the later 1950s, when Colt bought the blueprints of the AR-15 (M16) from ArmaLite, there had been many improvements in the field of machining equipment, the biggest being the introduction of numerical control machines.

The objective was to design a new assault rifle that was easy to carry and manufacture in early automated plants using numerical control machining. It was to use a smaller caliber bullet to allow the soldier to carry more ammunition, which increased his firepower while also enabling him to obtain a higher hit probability. The M16 would achieve all these objectives by using all the latest technologies of its day. The M16's 5.56mm M193 bullet would sometimes fragment on impact, and thus create wounds that were out of proportion to its caliber.[14] The 7.62x39mm round of the AK-47 generally does not fragment, but "is still quite deadly having an unusual tendency to remain intact even after taking unusual deviations upon contact with bone."[15] Unlike all the other gas operated modern assault rifles, the M16 does not have a separate piston. Rather, it directs the gas into a small chamber inside the bolt carrier, and thus pushes the bolt carrier back directly. Note that the gas

An early M16 rifle: note "tulip" flash hider, triangular handguard, and the lack of forward assist, as well as the older-style rear sight assembly

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 actually impinges inside of the bolt carrier itself (in the chamber formed inside of the carrier behind the bolt itself), applying rearward pressure on the centerline of the barrel, reducing rotational torque. This system works well provided clean burning powders are used in the ammunition. The primary advantage of this system is enhanced accuracy when firing full automatic (and some even argue in semi-automatic due to fewer moving parts and less 'mass' moving around in general). It also reduces felt recoil to a very low level. The main disadvantage is it introduces fouling directly into the receiver, which mandates frequent cleaning and oiling of the outside of the bolt and of all surfaces on the bolt carrier. One early major improvement was to also hard chrome the barrel and chamber, which reduced spent case ejection problems plaguing the very first M16s. Hard chrome seals the pores in the metal of the barrel and chamber, making it much more difficult for residues and particles to adhere to the surface. Hard chrome on these surfaces also greatly reduces cleaning time. Currently, both the AK47/AKM/AK74 and M16/M4 variants have chrome lined bores and chambers. Over time, however, many other small changes have improved the reliability of the M16. Reliability issues with first production version were worked out later in the Vietnam War by re-introducing stick powder into the ammunition, as opposed to ball powder which would swell the cartridge casing and cause jamming. The forward assist was also added to the M16 Army Variant (the U.S. Army had made the forward assist a condition of acceptance, U.S. Air Force contract weapons did not have forward assist), which allowed for the correction of the situation where the bolt would fail to fully push a cartridge out of the magazine and into the chamber. Post-Vietnam, all branches of the United States Military began tweaking the rifle to perform at its peak accuracy, and with a much greater reliability in adverse conditions. Thus was born the M16A2: it now carried a heavier steel milled barrel and a tighter rifle twist (1:7) to allow the use of a heavier (and longer) projectile, as the new ammunition would now include the modern SS109 62grain projectile from Belgium. Full-automatic capability was replaced with a 3-round burst feature, although some specialized forces were equipped with fully automatic M16A2s (also known as A Marine with an M16A4 (equipped with ITL MARS reflex sight the M16A3). The latest model is the M16A4, with and KAC RAS foregrip) in Fallujah, Iraq, December 2004 MIL-STD-1913 rails (also known as Picatinny rails), which allow soldiers to easily attach scopes, red dot sights, and carrying handles. They also include a rail system on the fore-grip, produced by Knights Armament Company. The weapons are now capable of being customized to each soldier's preference, making it a Modular Weapons System. There is confusion about the M16A3 having the Picatinny rail like the M16A4, but really the M16A3 only has the fixed sight of the M16A2. With the evolution of modern CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machinery, the M16 can now be manufactured in micro plants. In the U.S., a number of manufacturers make modern M16 variants and many are indeed micro plant manufacturers. This is possible because of the high degree of automation that can be applied to the machining of the M16 receiver and upper, which are made out of aluminum. The M16 appeared much later than the AK-47 and thus provided a platform that offered much more development potential than the AK series. Unlike the AK-47, the M16 continues to benefit from every advance in the CNC field, which allows more and more small manufacturers to make M16s and AR-15s (AR-15 is now used as the designation for civilian versions, limited to semi-automatic fire only). While the M16 is made using aluminum and plastics, it can also be made entirely out of machined steel and wood, at the expense of adding some weight. Where the AK-47 has so far relied on huge Soviet-style, state-run factories (albeit with considerable illicit small-scale production existing), the M16 is considered ideal for market economy production, spread among many manufacturers around the country; this also ensures it would be nearly impossible to disrupt U.S. M16 production in the case of a major

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 conflict. However, should CNC technology be applied to AK-47 derivatives on a large enough scale, this advantage might be negated.

Comparison of characteristics
Weight and size
Civilian and military versions in use today are of the lighter AKM and AK-74 variety.[16] The M16A1 model of the Vietnam era weighs 3.6kg (7.9lb) with a 30round magazine. M16A1 length is 100cm (39in). The later models of the M16 weighed more than the original with the addition of heavier (and more accurate) barrels and more rugged components. The M16A2, for example, weighs 3.99kg (8.8lb) loaded.

Fire selector lever

On a M16 the fire selector lever is in 3 stages. The first stage is safe, the next stage is semi-automatic or single shot and the final option is fully automatic or 3 shots in some models such as the M16A2. On an AK-47 the fire selector lever is in 3 stages. The first stage is safe the next is fully automatic and the final stage is semi-automatic or single shot. The consensus seems to be that the reason for this is due to the different experiences and requirements of The United States and Soviet Union during World War II. The US army relied heavily on the semi-automatic M1 Garand and the Red Army relied on the PPSH-41 automatic sub-machine gun.

The AK-47 was designed to use the 7.62x39mm Soviet cartridge, whereas the M16 was designed for the 5.56x45mm NATO. A brief comparison between cartridges reveals the higher-velocity American cartridge has a noticeable edge in long range accuracy (group sizes of approximately 2inches (50mm) or less at 100yards (91m) vs. group sizes of 24 at 100yards), and newer versions of the Russian cartridge, with a hollow point tip, have more effective terminal performance in its newly found ability to penetrate and fragment wildly in Difference in damage to flesh targets done by 5.56mm vs. 7.62mm cartridges, not human tissue (see photo at right).[12] The to the same scale. The first generation 7.62x39mm M43 bullet is seen here. The heavier Russian projectile is also better in newer M67 achieves better terminal performance. circumstances where the bullet has to pass through any intervening material. This allows the shooter to fire through light wall materials (cinder blocks, wooden structures, or drywall) or a common vehicle's metal body and into an opponent attempting to use these things as cover. This can prove important in urban combat (where doors, walls, and vehicles can deflect the lighter 5.56mm round or shatter it altogether) or in heavy foliage, but can cause other problems, where the 7.62mm projectile might go through a wall that the 5.56mm bullet cannot penetrate, thus possibly causing unintended casualties. However, recent developments in Russian and American Ammunition manufacture are changing the game a little bit. The Ulyanovsky 8M3 Hollow Point made by Wolf Ammunition and sold under the Wolf Military Classic

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 ammunition line has shown a consistent ability to fragment effectively in ballistic gelatin (see photo at right). This 8M3 hollow point is found loaded in the Wolf Military Classic 124 grain HP load, and not the Wolf 'black box' HP load. The 8M3 represents an enormous improvement in wounding ability over the M43 and M67 ammunition types. It exceeds the wounding ability of all but the heaviest AR ammunition types. Alternatively, the 5.56x45mm OTM heavy match rounds have also shown enhanced wounding ability over standard 5.56 rounds. These heavy-for-caliber loads (70 grains and heavier), like the Mk 262 MOD 1 77 grain OTM loaded by Black Hills and currently used by the US military, show explosive fragmentation but sacrifice virtually all of their penetrative ability (due to their intrinsically thin jackets and relatively fragile 'varmint bullet' heritage). The original ammunition for the M16 was M193 ball, a 55-grain (3.5gram) projectile with a muzzle velocity of 1000m/s (3280ft/s) from a 20 barrel. It is often stated this round would "tumble" upon striking a target. However, any spitzer-type projectile (like those of most bolt-action hunting rifle cartridges) will do this. At ranges of up to 150m, the lead-cored round travels fast enough (above 2900ft/s) such that the force of striking a non-armored human body will often cause the round to fragment along the cannelure (the crimp where the bullet is clamped to the casing) into at least three pieces (front, back, and jacket). This produces a larger wound than the 7.62x39mm M43 round. However, the M43 round has not been manufactured since 1967 (when the M67 was introduced). Most, if not all, of the 7.62x39mm ammunition found today is of the upgraded M67 variety. There is relative parity between the wounding capacity of the M67 and the current M855 5.56x45mm round. The current M855 is also fired from a shorter barrel than the original M16. The M4's 14.5" barrel length reduces muzzle velocity and effective wounding range of the current-issue 5.56x45mm ammunition even further. This reduced wounding ability of the short barrels is one reason that, despite the Army's transition to short-barrel M4's, the Marine Corps has decided to continue to use an upgraded M16 variant with the 20 barrel. As the 5.56x45mm M855 is largely dependent upon high velocity in order to wound effectively, the 7.62x39mm M67's wounding ability declines at a very steady and predictable rate with increased distance. On the other hand, the 7.62x39mm round has shown to be more effective at penetrating cover, as evidenced in the Vietnam War where the AK-47-wielding Vietcong could shoot through the trees enemies were hiding behind, but the M16-wielding Americans could not do the same. During the 1970s and 1980s, the quest for greater body-armor and helmet penetration ability from light machine guns (due to Soviet advances in personal body armor) led to the adoption of a heavier, slower, bullet; the M855. The heavier 62-grain (4gram) SS109 projectile used in the later M855 cartridges sacrificed muzzle velocity and added a "penetrator tip" to increase its ability to defeat Soviet body armor when fired from LMG's (specifically, to penetrate a soldier's helmet consistently at 200yards (180m) when fired from an M249 SAW). There have been repeated and consistent reports of the M855's inability to wound effectively (i.e. fragment) even at close ranges when fired from the short barreled M4 carbine. A study in 2006 found that 20% of soldiers using the rifle wanted more lethality or stopping power.[12]

The AK-47 has always enjoyed a reputation of rugged reliability.[17] It is gas operated, using the gas from the barrel to push a piston attached to the bolt carrier, thus operating the action. The gas tube is fairly large and is visible above the barrel with ports or vents to allow the excess "dirty" gas to escape without affecting the action. The AK-47 is often built with generous clearances, allowing it to function easily in a dirty environment with little or no maintenance. This makes it reliable but less accurate.[18] It is very simple to disassemble and clean, and easily maintainable. One major factor in terms of reliability lies in the design of the AK-47's magazine "feed-lips" (the surfaces at the top of the magazine that control the angle at which the cartridge enters the chamber). The top of the AK's magazine is machined from a single steel billet, making it practically impossible to damage the "feed-lips" causing jams or Failures-To-Feed (hereafter "FTF"). The M16 magazine (and other NATO magazines) are pressed/stamped sheet

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 steel of a much thinner gauge than the AK's. The feed lips are proportionally weaker and this results in a relatively fragile feed system when compared to the AK-47. Many U.S. civilian aftermarket magazines have been developed to effectively mitigate this shortcoming in the AR (i.e. such as Magpul's P-MAG and H&K's all-stainless-steel magazine). This attention to detail reflects the AK-47's combat-based design; in combat, equipment suffers from hard use and gets damaged. The M16 uses a direct impingement (DI) gas system and it is similar to normal gas operation in principle, but unique in operation. Gas from the barrel is used to cycle the action, but in a different way than the AK series (via a port in the barrel and a long "gas-tube" to transport the gases back to the receiver), but the gas-piston is not present. The gas is sent from the barrel, through the gas tube, directly to the inside of the receiver so it can push on the bolt carrier itself. This means that the gas alone impinges upon the bolt carrier. This design is much lighter and more compact than a gas-piston design. However, this design requires that combustion byproducts from the discharged cartridge to be blown into the receiver as well (as they are always part of the "gas" behind the projectile). This allows for the "condensation" and accumulation of vaporized metals and other combustion byproducts on all interior surfaces of the receiver and of exterior and interior surfaces of the bolt and bolt-carrier. This quickly accumulating carbon and vaporized metal build-up within the receiver and bolt-carrier negatively affects reliability and necessitates more intensive maintenance on the part of the individual soldier. This DI operation also greatly increases the heat that is deposited in the receiver while firing. The greatly increased temperatures found during the firing of the M16 cause essential lubricant to be "burned-off". This requires frequent and generous re-applications of appropriate lubricant types via the vent holes that are found when viewing the bolt-carrier through the ejection port when the port cover is open (there are two small holes through which lubricant should be applied). Using the wrong lubricant (i.e., an oil that is too thick or of the wrong chemical composition) can also be the source or a contributing factor of stoppages or jams. Additionally, the large temperature swings (periods of very high heat followed quickly by periods of near-ambient temperature) in the receiver contribute greatly to the increased wear of springs, metal gas rings, and other parts inside of the receiver, decreasing the service life of various internal workings. Lack of proper lubrication is a common source of weapon stoppages. The original M16 fared poorly in the humid, dirty environment of the Vietnamese jungle, due to a change in propellant that was made against the original designer's specifications and that was not field tested before widespread issue to the soldiers in the field. Part of the problem was the M16 was originally falsely-billed as self-cleaning (no weapon is or ever has been), and cleaning kits were not issued. The infamous reliability problems were due to production errors and a conscious decision on the part of the military to use the more powerful "ball powder" ammunition in the cartridges. While ball powder resulted in a higher muzzle velocity, it created much more residue. The weapon itself was designed to fire cartridges with stick powder. When cartridges using stick powder were introduced, and when proper cleaning kits and instructions were provided to the soldiers, the reliability problems decreased greatly. The initial problems became the target of a Congressional investigation.[19] The results of the investigation found that: 1. The M16 was billed as self-cleaning when it was in fact far from that. 2. The rifle was issued to troops without cleaning kits or instruction on how to clean the rifle. 3. The rifle was tested and approved with the use of a DuPont IMR powder that was switched to a ball powder that increased both wear and fouling. 4. The lack of a chrome liner for the barrel and chamber created a corrosion problem and contributed to brass case swelling and extraction problems. 5. Lack of a forward assist rendered the rifle inoperable in combat when it jammed.

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16

There is an argument that the shorter distance between the sights on an AK-47 affects its accuracy, this is however very limited as the distance between sights is very close to the AR-15, having the foresight at the end of the barrel whilst the AR-15 has its foresight further back from the barrel muzzle. The greater perceived recoil of the 7.62x39mm cartridge may also be detrimental to the untrained soldier (or novice civilian shooter), requiring more skill and training to adjust to.[20]

How to aim correctly with the M16

Both AK-47 and M16 rounds would qualify as low-power hunting rounds in the U.S. and neither has as much recoil force as even a moderate U.S. hunting rifle (e.g. a rifle chambered in .270 Winchester). Accordingly, the difference in recoil forces is relative and recoil should not be an issue of comfort or accuracy for an average adult male with either the AK-47 or the M16. Even with the lighter recoil and higher velocity of the 5.56x45mm round, the original M16 and M16A1 did not offer the accuracy achieved with the later M16A2 using the SS109 bullet in semi-automatic mode. The M16 came from the factory capable of 34MOA accuracy, allowing reliable hits on targets at up to 300meters. The aperture sights of the later M16A2 are superior to those used on most earlier M16 assault rifles.[21] The rifle is fitted with an aperture rear sight and a small hole to center the front sight post. The M16A2's rear sight features two aperture settings: a larger aperture to enable faster sighting in poor lighting conditions and a smaller aperture to permit more precise aiming for long-distance targets. However due to a narrow field of view and diffraction blurring, the aperture sight is not ideal for target acquisition, especially if the target is camouflaged or rapidly moving. Additionally, it is easy to misalign the front post against the rear aperture's center, as there is no mark that indicates the center of the rear aperture, and any alignment error between the front and rear sights repeats itself for every 1/2 meter the bullet travels. If an M16 sight is misaligned by 1/10inch (2.5mm), it causes a target at 300 meters to be missed by 5 feet (1.52 meters).[22] The aperture sight also requires the shooter to close one of his eyes, decreasing battlefield awareness. The aperture sight does not allow enough light to pass through to be used effectively at night, therefore on some M16s there is an intermediate setting which turns the aperture sight into a crude open sight. Modern versions of the M16 have given up the aperture sight altogether replacing it with various scopes and red dot sighting devices. The AK-47's sights are of a more traditional open style. The rear sight is a simple V-notch in which the front post is to be centered. Some argue this requires more concentration to use, (not true, this v notch allows for faster target acquisition over the AR-15 in multiple target situations at short to medium ranges, and reduces the tendency for peep sight users to close their non-dominant eye in order to center their sight picture in the circular peep)as both the front and rear sight must be kept in alignment, and must be placed further away from the eye to decrease blurring, however AK-47 sights allow the shooter to quickly acquire moving targets at medium range and to shoot with both eyes open. Another advantage to the AK-47s sights is that they are easier and faster to adjust to different ranges, this requires simply sliding the rear notch forward and backward. Modern and special older versions of the AK have a side rail for mounting a variety of scopes and red dot sighting devices.

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16

[1] Isby, David C. (1988). Weapons and tactics of the Soviet Army. Janes. pp.516. [2] U.S. Army Board Study Guide. 2006. p.34. [3] Dunnigan, James F (2003). How to Make War: A Comprehensive Guide to Modern Warfare in the Twenty-first Century. Harper Paperbacks. p.54. ISBN978-0060090128. [4] Boutwell, Jeffery; Michael T. Klare (June 20, 2000). "A Scourge of Small Arms". Scientific American. [5] Lynch, Jack W; Rick Lynch (2010). The Majestic Twelve: The True Story of the Most Feared Combat Escort Unit in Baghdad. Thomas Dunne Books. p.53. ISBN978-0312561215. "The AK is the favorite weapon of America's enemies around the world." [6] Lawrence, A.T. (2009). Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant. McFarland. pp.5354. ISBN978-0786445172. "We even had experts come out to the field from Saigon in a vain attempt to convince us that our M16 was indeed the superior weapon." [7] Meyer, Don (2003). The Protected Will Never Know. iUniverse, Inc.. p.111. ISBN978-0595304066. "In comparison the M16 appeared to be a much superior weapon, although many thought the AK47 was the better weapon." [8] "AK-47, M-16 Have Pros, Cons" (http:/ / nl. newsbank. com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=MH& s_site=miami& p_multi=MH& p_theme=realcities& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=119CAD00EB39DB60& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM). Miami Herald. June 4, 2007. . Retrieved 2010-09-24. "For decades, soldiers and gun aficionados have debated the relative merits of the Soviet-designed AK-47 and the American M-16. Because it fires a larger 7.62mm round, the Kalashnikov is perceived as having greater stopping power. The M-16 and the shorter-barreled M-4 fire smaller, 5.56mm rounds. The Kalashnikov can fire its entire 30-round magazine with a single pull of the trigger. The M-16 tops out at three-shot bursts. The American gun has less recoil and greater range, however,..." [9] "The King of Battle". Newsweek 95. 1980. [10] Dane, Abe (September 1992). "Secret Commandos". Popular Mechanics: 2528. "Special Forces soldiers compare the AK-47 unfavorably to the M16". [11] Atkins, Stephen E. (2009). Writing the War: My Ten Months in the Jungles, Streets and Paddies of South Vietnam. McFarland. p.69. ISBN978-0786442720. "Many of us would have gladly exchanged our M-16s for captured AK-47s" [12] Rose, Alexander (2009). American Rifle: A Biography. Delta. pp.403405. ISBN978-0553384383. [13] Walter, John (2006). Rifles of the World. Krause Publications; 3 edition. p.202. ISBN978-0896892415. [14] Dunnigan, James F.; Albert Nofi (1992). Dirty Little Secrets: Military Information You're Not Supposed To Know. Harper Paperbacks. pp.2223. ISBN978-0688112707. [15] "Terminal Ballistics "Wound Ballistics"" (http:/ / www. bobtuley. com/ terminal. htm). Bob Tuley. . Retrieved 2007-08-16. [16] Miller, David (2003). Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Zenith Press. p.195. ISBN978-0760315606. [17] Kahaner, Larry (2007). AK-47: The Weapon that Changed the Face of War. Wiley. pp.5253. ISBN978-0470168806. [18] Crawford, Steve (2003). Twenty-First Century Small Arms. Zenith Press. pp.6364. ISBN978-0760315033. [19] Kahaner, Larry (2007). AK-47: The Weapon that Changed the Face of War. Wiley. p.236. ISBN978-0470168806. "This was dubbed the Ichord hearings after Missouri representative Richard Ichord , who championed Congress's inquiry into failures of the M-16 during the Vietnam War." [20] Kahaner, Larry (2007). AK-47: The Weapon that Changed the Face of War. Wiley. pp.228229. ISBN978-0470168806. [21] 3rd Marine Division: Two Score and Ten. Turner Publishing Company. 1997. p.262. ISBN978-1563110894. [22] "Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ library/ policy/ army/ fm/ 3-22-9/ c04. htm). .

Further information
"Tales of the gun: The AK-47", History Channel documentary "Tales of the gun: The M-16", History Channel documentary "Great Battles: AK-47 vs M16", Military Channel documentary Lewis, Jack (2007). The Gun Digest Book of Assault Weapons. Gun Digest Books; 7 edition. pp.256. ISBN978-0896894983.

External links
Wound Ballistics and Profile Illustrations (

Article Sources and Contributors


Article Sources and Contributors

Comparison of the AK-47 and M16 Source: Contributors: 20percent, Aaron Schulz, Access Denied, Addfasffadsfadsdf, Aitias, Aldis90, AlexRochon, Alexander Iwaschkin, AliveFreeHappy, Amcfreely, Amorymeltzer, Ancos, Anetode, Arctic Warfare, Asams10, Ashley Pomeroy, AtTheAbyss, Atomicarrow, Avianmosquito, Axeman89, B4Ctom1, Benstown, BerserkerBen, Bo7man, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bogdan, BonesBrigade, BornInLeningrad, Brianhe, BufordTJustice, C1010, CL, CamperStrike, Cchhrriiss, ClemsonTiger, Climax Void, CommonsDelinker, Crazysuit, CumbiaDude, CynicalMe, DESiegel, DWShaw, Dachannien, Daniel J. Leivick, Daniel Vollmer, Deathbunny, Dhagarty, DocWatson42, Dvavasour, Dwane E Anderson, Dylanred, Eastlaw, Eclipsed, Editore99, Enkei, Eric Shalov, Erik E., Euchiasmus, Evil Monkey, Fadfdsfsafdsf, Feanaro, Fireaxe888, Flewis, Fluffy McNutter, Frecklefoot, Fuzheado, GOB, Gen. S. Patton, Gene Nygaard, Geniac, Geoff B, Gimgimino, Glass spiders, Green Hill, GregorB, Gurch, Hellbus, Helmsb, Henrickson, Heqs, Homersmyid, Hourglass12345, Hunter1084, IW.HG, Igor at work, JAYMEDINC, Jack's Revenge, Jacobko, Jahooganoff, Jaranda, Jarl of Torvaldsland, JeffW, John Nevard, John forbes tait, Jolb, Jrtayloriv, Justbill2009, Konstable, L1A1 FAL, LWF, Leedeth, Legaiaflame, Leo19, Lightmouse, Liko81, Linuxbeak, Lyojah, MBK004, MER-C, Marcus Qwertyus, MasniDahlia, Meswiss, Mexcellent, Mlaffs, Modernninja, Moriori, MsDivagin, Myscrnnm, Naaman Brown, Nemo5576, Noah3824, Nono64, Nukes4Tots, Orca1 9904, Parsecboy, Pearle, Perfectblue97, Petri Krohn, PhilKnight, Playmobilonhishorse, Polymathman, Professor London, Prolog, Randy Seltzer, RavenStorm, Rbarreira, Red Thrush, RevolverOcelotX, RexNL, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Richardcavell, Rjwilmsi, RockMaestro, Ron Ritzman, Ronhjones, Rusa78, SWAT Pointman, Saintseiya, Sakkura, Schnazola, SchuminWeb, Sean D Martin, Shenator, Shnout, Shot info, Shotgunlee, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, SirTwilight, SireMarshall, Skarebo, Slightsmile, Slof, Slogby, Smalljim, SpacemanAfrica, Spangineer, Srich32977, Sturm31, Sukiari, Surv1v4l1st, Sus scrofa, Swatjester, Synthe, TeejIV, The Hokkaido Crow, The Prodigal, The Thing That Should Not Be, The1marauder, Thernlund, Thumperward, Tiptoety, Tom W.M., Tom harrison, Trekphiler, Trdel, UrsusArctosL71, Vaarok, Ve3, Wayne Slam, West.andrew.g, Will314159, Wingedsubmariner, Woohookitty, Xaonon, Yaf, Ysangkok, ZH Evers, Zaqq, Zero16uk, 488 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image:M16 and AK-47 comparison.png Source: License: unknown Contributors: Anetode, ArikamaI, DanTD, Henrickson, TFCforever, 2 anonymous edits Image:AK-47 type II Part DM-ST-89-01131.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Hayden120, Malo, Nemo5576, Phillip Bromley, Rama, 14 anonymous edits Image:M16duckbill.gif Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Ve3 at en.wikipedia Image:INDIA5.jpg Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Ve3 at en.wikipedia Image:556vs762.JPG Source: License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: ArikamaI, Igor at work Image:M16 rifle correct sight picture fig 4-18.png Source: License: Public Domain Contributors: Avron, IP 84.5, Nemo5576, Sanandros, Shotgunlee

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