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com THE APPROACH INTEGRATED HUMAN NEEDS
Oxygen enables pervasive, human-centered computing through a combination of specific user and system technologies. Oxygen’s user technologies directly address human needs. Speech and vision technologies enable us to communicate with Oxygen as if we’re interacting with another person, saving much time and effort. Automation, individualized knowledge access, and collaboration technologies help us perform a wide variety of tasks that we want to do in the ways we like to do them. Oxygen’s system technologies dramatically extend our range by delivering user technologies to us at home, at work, or on the go. Computational devices, called Enviro21s (E21s), embedded in our homes, offices, and cars sense and affect our immediate environment. Hand-held devices, called Handy21s (H21s), empower us to communicate and compute no matter where we are. Dynamic networks (N21s) help our machines locate each other as well as the people, services, and resources we want to reach. Oxygen’s user technologies include: The Oxygen technologies work together and pay attention to several important themes:
Distribution and mobility — for people, resources, and services. Semantic content — what we mean, not just what we say. Adaptation and change — essential features of an increasingly dynamic world. Information personalities — the privacy, security, and form of our individual interactions with Oxygen.
Oxygen is an integrated software system that will reside in the public domain. Its development is sponsored by DARPA and the Oxygen Alliance industrial partners, who share its goal of pervasive, humancentered computing. Realizing that goal will require a great deal of creativity and innovation, which will come from researchers, students, and others who use Oxygen technologies for their daily work during the course of the project. The lessons they derive from this experience will enable Oxygen to better serve human needs. USER TECHNOLOGIES
as well as interfaces to camera and microphone arrays. even when we are thousands of miles away. Although not customized to any particular user. homes. These universally accessible devices supply power for computation. and perception in much the same way that wall outlets and batteries deliver power to electrical appliances. buildings. even in our absence. and vehicles. For example. using speech and gesture. that perform various functions on our behalf. communication.101seminartopics. or redirect email to colleagues. . in the spaces they define. Like power outlets and batteries. these devices differ mainly in how much energy they can supply. E21s enable us to create situated entities. close a garage door. E21s provide large amounts of embedded computation. often linked to local sensors and actuators. E21 STATIONARY DEVICES Embedded in offices. thereby enabling us to communicate naturally.com SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES DEVICES AND NETWORKS People access Oxygen through stationary devices (E21s) embedded in the environment or via portable hand-held devices (H21s). we can create entities and situate them to monitor and change the temperature of a room. they can adapt automatically or be modified explicitly to address specific user preferences.
The computational power they provide. actuators. such as speech and vision. E21s differ from H21s mainly in Their connections to the physical world.com E21s provide sufficient computational power throughout the environment To communicate with people using natural perceptual resources. To support Oxygen's user technologies wherever people may be. and The policies adopted by the software that runs on the devices. . These connections enable applications built with Oxygen's perceptual and user technologies to monitor and control the environment. as well as H21s. CONNECTIONS TO THE PHYSICAL WORLD E21s connect directly to a greater number and wider variety of sensors. and appliances than do H21s. are universal communication and computation appliances.101seminartopics. E21s. E21s leverage the same hardware components as the H21s so that the same software can run on both devices. and To monitor and control their environment.
use less power. Multiple antennas mounted on the roof of a building. called H21s. local-area N21 networks.101seminartopics. as well as incoming terrestrial lines.com An E21 might control an array of microphones. it might control an array of antennas to permit improved communication with nearby H21s that. as a result of a better signal-to-noise ratio. It can display information on an H21 display in a person's hand or on a nearby wall-mounted display. . an E21 can connect unobtrusively to H21s in the hands or pockets of people in an intelligent space. Similarly. appropriate to the tasks they wish to perform. connect through E21s to high-bandwidth. it may even suggest that the person step a few feet down the hall. which Oxygen's perceptual resources use to improve communication with speakers by filtering out background noise. Through the N21 network. These devices accept speech and visual input. H21 HAND-HELD DEVICES Users can select hand-held devices.
Among other things. geographical positioning systems. . called H21s. beepers.101seminartopics. provide flexibility in a lightweight design. cameras. They are anonymous devices that do not carry a large amount of permanent local state. Handheld devices. or personal digital assistants. embedded E21 devices. thereby reducing the number of special-purpose gadgets we must carry. To conserve power. when a user picks up an anonymous H21. The H21s contain board-level antennas that enable them to couple with a wireless N21 network. Instead. they may offload communication and computation onto nearby E21s. H21s can serve as cellular phones. or nearby H21s to form collaborative regions.com can reconfigure themselves to perform a variety of useful functions. televisions. For example. and support a range of communication protocols. radios. they configure themselves through software to be used in a wide range of environments for a wide variety of purposes. the H21 will customize itself to the user's preferred configuration.
an H21 can connect unobtrusively to nearby. and The policies adopted by the software that runs on the devices. campus wide. H21s come equipped with only a few perceptual and communication transducers. H21s are not equipped with keyboards and large displays. which provide additional connections to the physical world. more powerful E21s. Through the N21 network. although they may be connected to such devices. In particular. or point-to-point. and power efficient. building-wide. lightweight. NETWORK AND SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE . They leverage the same hardware components as the E21s so that the same software can run on both devices. plus a low-power network to extend the I/O devices to which it can connect. for example. are universal communication and computation appliances. The computational power they provide. like E21s. H21s differ from E21s mainly in Their connections to the physical world.com H21s. CONNECTIONS TO THE PHYSICAL WORLD Because handheld devices must be small.101seminartopics. The H21 contains multiple antennas for multiple communications protocols that depend on the transmission range.
and to respond to change. and campus-wide communication. building-wide. N21s support multiple communication protocols for low-power local. to monitor their progress. and collapse as needed. Universally available network connectivity and computational power enable decentralized Oxygen components to perform these tasks by communicating and cooperating much as humans do in organizations. not just by where they are located.com People use Oxygen to accomplish tasks that are part of their daily lives. to link them together in useful ways. They allow us to identify devices and services by how we intend to use them. adapt. so that we are comfortable integrating Oxygen into our personal lives. securely and privately. They enable us to access the information and services we need. . N21 NETWORKS N21s support dynamically changing configurations of selfidentifying mobile and stationary devices. enabling us to form collaborative regions that arise. Components can be delegated to find resources.101seminartopics.
Computers and devices may belong to several regions at the same time. and heterogeneous traffic (e. without manual configuration and administration.g. Through algorithms. and middleware. Membership is dynamic: mobile devices may enter and leave different regions as they move . decentralized networks. latency variations. and data). latency. called N21s. wireless errors. video.101seminartopics. connect dynamically changing configurations of self-identifying mobile and stationary devices. Adapt to changing network conditions. authenticated. they Configure collaborative regions automatically. energy consumption. audio. terrestrial. creating topologies and adapting them to mobility and change. N21s integrate different wireless.. Provide secure. and application requirements. protocols. by balancing bandwidth. and private access to networked resources. and satellite networks into one seamless internet. including congestion. COLLABORATIVE REGIONS Collaborative regions are self-organizing collections of computers and/or devices that share some degree of trust.com Flexible. Provide automatic resource and location discovery.
not just location-based names. such as a full soda machine or to the surveillance cameras that have recently detected suspicious activity.101seminartopics. at delivery time) supports mobility and multicast. Location discovery enables mobile devices to access and present location-specific information. Early binding supports high bandwidth streams and anycast. Intentional names support resource discovery by providing access to entities that cannot be named statically. techniques for soft state and caching provide scalability and fault tolerance. N21 networks integrate name resolution and routing. For example.com around.. N21 networks support location discovery through proximity to named physical objects (for example. RESOURCE AND LOCATION DISCOVERY N21 networks enable applications to use intentional names. Late binding between names and addresses (i. low-power RF beacons embedded in the walls of buildings). to describe the information and functionality they are looking for. Wide-area routing uses a scalable resolver architecture. Intra-space routing protocols perform resolution and forwarding based on queries that express the characteristics of the desired data or resources in a collaborative region. an H21 .e. Collaborative regions employ different protocols for intra-space and inter-space communication because of the need to maintain trust.
trust rules for a meeting do not allow participants to write arbitrary information anywhere in the region. they can introduce their devices into the meeting's collaborative region. Typically. and characteristics of all resources and users at all times. pointed to a door. it could provide access to stored audio and video fragments of the talk. for example. A collaborative region that defines a meeting. Resource and location discovery systems address privacy issues by giving resources and users control over how much to reveal.com might help visitors navigate to their destination with spoken right-left instructions. with confidence that only the expected range of actions will happen. Rather than tracking the identity. even if the details of the interactions are left to automatic configuration. once users know what the trust rules are.101seminartopics. these systems accept and propagate only the information that resources and users choose to advertise. it could provide information about what is happening behind the door. However. . location. Self-certifying names enable clients of discovery systems to trust the advertised information. held up next to a paper or an electronic poster of an old talk. has a set of trust and authorization rules that specify what happens during a meeting (how working materials and presentation illustrations are shared. who can print on the local printer). SECURITY A collaborative region is a set of devices that have been instructed by their owners to trust each other to a specified degree.
which enable applications to influence the way their packets are routed.g. the congestion manager efficiently handles congestion due to audio. as well as to multiple short connections. and other real-time streaming applications. SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE Oxygen’s software architecture supports change above the device and network levels.. building-wide. which is tuned for bulk data transfers. This enables end-to-end resource management based on a unified congestion manager. which allow end-host transport agents to learn about congestion or about packet losses caused by wireless channel errors. They provide interfaces to monitoring mechanisms. video. for example. N21 networks provide interfaces to control mechanisms. which provides different flows with "shared state learning" and allows applications to adapt to congestion in ways that accommodate the heterogeneous nature of streams.com ADAPTATION N21 networks allow devices to use multiple communication protocols.g. They also enable applications to adapt to changes in channel conditions (e.. or reliability). for bandwidth.101seminartopics. Unlike the standard TCP protocol. The software architecture matches current user goals with currently available software services. campus wide. configuring those services to . and point-to-point. congestion and packet loss) and in their own requirements (e. Vertical handoffs among these protocols allow H21 devices to provide seamless and power efficient connectivity across a wide range of domains. latency.
When necessary. Graceful switching between different domains (e..g. gestures. or operating conditions. it adapts the resulting configurations to changes in goals. for example. and perceptual resources to advance the human-centered goal of enabling people to accomplish more with less effort. USER TECHNOLOGIES Several important technologies harness Oxygen’s pervasive computational.101seminartopics.com achieve the desired goals. define the main modes of interaction with Oxygen. SKETCHING AND VISUAL CUES Spoken language and visual cues. from a conversation about the . SPOKEN LANGUAGE. available services. lip movements. These perceptual technologies are part of the core of Oxygen. and gaze. By integrating these two technologies. They can be customized quickly in Oxygen applications to make selected human-machine interactions easy and natural. rather than keyboards and mice. by using vision to augment speech understanding through the recognition of facial expressions. it relieves users of the burden of directing and monitoring the operation of the system as it accomplishes their goals. Thereby. communication. not just afterthoughts or interfaces to separate applications. Oxygen can better discern our intentions.
.101seminartopics.com weather in Rome to one about airline reservations) supports seamless integration of applications.
and software systems. Universal access to information is facilitated through annotations that allow content-based comparisons and manipulations of data represented in different formats and using different terminologies. . those of friends and associates. The individualized knowledge access subsystem supports the natural ways people use to access information. collaborative. The subsystem integrates the following components to gather and store data. There are no restrictions on object types or names. DATA REPRESENTATION The subsystem stores information encountered by its users using an extensible data model that links arbitrary objects via arbitrarily named arcs. Users may access their own knowledge bases. and to answer queries and interpret data.101seminartopics. and communal knowledge. so as to better meet their needs. In particular. "triangulating" among these three sources of information to find the information people need. It observes and adapts to its users.com KNOWLEDGE ACCESS Individualized knowledge access technologies offer greatly improved access to information — customized to the needs of people. Users and the system alike can aggregate useful information regardless of its form (text. it supports personalized. to monitor user access patterns. and other information publicly available on the Web. applications.
video). by observing people's use of it.101seminartopics. It does so through raw acquisition of data objects. The system allows users to script and add more services. represent relational (database-type) information as well as associative (hypertextlike) linkage. which. objects and arcs in A's data model can represent B's knowledge of interest to A—and vice versa. The arcs. by encouraging direct human input. the system allows users to provide higher quality annotations on . recognize pairs of similar documents. AUTOMATIC ACCESS METHODS The arrival of new data triggers automated services. extract text from postscript documents. HUMAN ACCESS METHODS Since automated services can go only so far in carrying out these tasks. by analyzing the acquired information. obtain further data or trigger other services. which are also objects. identify authors and titles in a document. images. in turn. Automatic services fetch web pages.com speech. For example. and create document summaries that can be displayed as a result of a query. and by tuning access to the user. DATA ACQUISITION The subsystem gathers as much information as possible about the information of interest to a user. as they are needed.
It also provides scripting technologies that automate new processes in response to direct commands. and the information they save. the observations are used to tune the data representation according to usage patterns. via text. the results they dwell upon. speech. BASIC AUTOMATION OBJECTS Basic automation objects are "black boxes" of low-level actions that can be managed by higher-level automation processes. or by observing. the files they edit. the documents they read. both physical and virtual. The system exploits observations of query behavior by converting query results into objects that can be annotated further. and other human interaction modalities. so that their actions can be automated.101seminartopics.com the information they are using. AUTOMATION The automation subsystem provides technologies for encapsulating objects. AUTOMATED OBSERVERS Subsystems watch the queries that users make. A basic physical object senses or actuates a physical entity—it may sense the temperature or whether an office door . and fine-tuning established processes. In all cases. New observers can be added to exploit additional opportunities. The objects can be either physical or virtual. imitating. the mail they send and receive.
and it may crank up the heat or send an image to a display. reduces the bandwidth they require. . The architecture allows distributed objects (or agents) to refer to one another by function and capability. actuators. operate on them in a designated manner. Any software object can be a basic virtual object. and appliances more powerful. and send the results to a particular device. and non-volatile storage. The scripting language enables users to specify easily and rapidly the tasks they wish to automate. and appliances. generates. main memory. be reconnected dynamically. vision. such speech. and for controlling their behavior based on user scripts. provides device status information. because they serve as convenient "interfaces" for exchanging information among people and organizations. A common intelligent interface connects basic physical objects to the network. The interface consists of a chip containing a microprocessor. and seamlessly resume previously established connections with one another. It makes different sensors. without respect to their location. CONTROL OVER COMBINED OBJECTS The automation architecture provides mechanisms for composing modular components. They can move around. and downloads commands and new low-level software. A basic virtual object collects. or transforms information—it may extract designated items from incoming electronic forms.101seminartopics.com is open. a network adapter. Objects communicate using a universal streaming data "bus" standard. Electronic forms are particularly common basic virtual objects.
and to implement those regimes. by using the vision subsystem to determine who is present at a discussion and to observe physical gestures. and by observing human interactions with software applications.com The automation subsystem uses a top-level watch-reason-automate "loop" to monitor and filter information of interest to the automation process. MAINTAINING COLLABORATION CONTEXT The collaboration subsystem uses the individualized knowledge access subsystem to represent and acquire information about human interactions. The collaboration subsystem adds to the "semantic web" of the knowledge access subsystem by recording the context of human-to-human interactions. either in the original script or in the watch-reason-automate loop. The . by using the spoken language subsystem to track what people say to each other. to select appropriate automation regimes for given tasks. COLLABORATION The collaboration subsystem uses the knowledge access subsystem and the automation subsystem to support collaboration. The scripting language enables users to customize automation regimes in response to context changes and other factors too complicated to handle automatically. for example. It informs the automation and knowledge access subsystems when we are engaged in a collaborative task so that the responses of these subsystems can be tailored appropriately to all those participating in the task.101seminartopics.
and skills of all team members. Automated observers track features of interest to the collaboration and add to the knowledge database. Semantic links in the database maintain the history of the discussion and identify issues.com collaboration subsystem remembers how a group arranges its workspace. It knows the interests. It maintains the context of each collaborative group in an individualized knowledge database. and it creates virtual work places for distributed groups. Human input helps guide the indexing process. so that it can be recalled to continue the discussion at a future time or in another place. For example. arguments for and against each alternative. by identifying critical decisions and linking them to the rationale behind them. noticing when information required for those tasks has been developed. it tracks action items within the group and dependencies with other groups. to act as a coordinator and mediate interactions among members of a collaborative team. The collaboration system plays the role of an active participant. organizational roles. alternative courses of action. together with Bayesian techniques for analysis and knowledge-based techniques for process management. AUTOMATING COLLABORATIVE TASKS The collaboration subsystem uses the automation subsystem. retrieving relevant information and bringing it to the attention of the most appropriate individuals. and it understands the application domain within which the team functions. noticing tasks that need to be undertaken. .101seminartopics. and making conclusions when appropriate. and resolutions to pursue particular alternatives.
in a consistent fashion. security. and on persistent object stores with transactional semantics to provide operational support for change. distributed components. on specification to support components that use these abstractions. abstractions support the use of adaptable components and objects by providing .com SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES Project Oxygen's software architecture provides mechanisms for Building applications using composable. at different degrees of granularity. rather than device-centric. Abstractions characterize components that carry out computations and objects used in computations. adapting. and altering component behavior. Oxygen's software architecture relies heavily on abstraction to support change through adaptation and customization. ABSTRACTION Computations are modular.101seminartopics. as is storage. Person-centric. and Disconnected operation and nomadic code. Replacing components. Customizing. In Oxygen.
trigger what is processed when. so as to enable compilers to manage low-level pipelining concurrency and multithreaded programs to adjust their behavior correctly at runtime in response to changes in the number of streams or the interactions among them.com Application access to components traditionally hidden beneath intervening layers of software. Intent-based interfaces. and upgrade. adjustment. vision. which separate computation from control. Constraint and event abstractions. . replacement. so as to provide safe fallbacks and to enable "eternal computation". module repositories. so as to facilitate component and object use. Cutpoints. and sensor data as first-class objects. SPECIFICATIONS Specifications make abstractions explicit. so as to observe and influence their behavior.101seminartopics. to provide code over the network for installation on handheld and other devices. and provide flexibility for modifying behavior at runtime without compromising system integrity. In Oxygen. specifications support adaptation and change by providing information about system configurations. to determine what modules and capabilities are available locally. Stream-oriented interfaces that treat speech. not just syntax or address-based interfaces. exposing features to other system components.
to support other components and applications in scripting their use. module capabilities. and module behavior.101seminartopics.com module dependencies. to support complete and consistent installations or upgrades. to support their safe use through a combination of static and runtime checks. .
user. system. and device technologies). It also operates efficiently. which supports all Oxygen technologies (i. which defer the costs of modifying the store as long as possible or until there is time to spare. OBJECT STORE WITH TRANSACTIONAL . and specifications reside in a common objectoriented store. which enables concurrent access. data objects. rollback and recovery. The store has transactional semantics.101seminartopics. using techniques such as optimistic concurrency. and consistent updates to modules and data. pre-fetching. and lazy updates and garbage collection.com PERSISTENT SEMANTICS Code. Object-orientation helps maintain the integrity of the store by restricting updates to those performed by methods in the store. perceptual.e..
101seminartopics.com HOW DOES OXYGEN WORK .
101seminartopics.com The figure showing h21-n21-e21 communications. .
Four components. as well as mechanisms for users to navigate effortlessly from one domain to another. Thus. users can also delegate tasks for the system to perform offline. a user can inquire about flights and hotel information when planning a trip. and knowledge access technologies to provide real-time conversational capabilities. . The spoken language subsystem stitches together a set of useful domains. with well-defined interfaces. Although the system can interact with users in real-time. network. then switch seamlessly to obtaining weather and tourist information. thereby providing a virtual. not just a set of applications or external interfaces.101seminartopics. interact with each other and with Oxygen's device. The spoken language subsystem is an integral part of Oxygen's infrastructure. broad-domain quilt that satisfies the needs of many users most of the time.com PERCEPTUAL TECHNOLOGIES SPEECH The spoken language subsystem provides a number of limiteddomain interfaces. for example.
can be tailored quickly to specific applications and integrated with other parts of the Oxygen system in a modular fashion. It also improves language understanding by listening throughout a conversation—not just to explicit commands—and remembering what has been said. . and it systematically represents their meaning. Lite speech systems. visual clues. LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING The language understanding-component breaks down recognized sequences of words grammatically. It generates limited-domain vocabularies and grammars from application-supplied examples.g. The component delivers a ranked list of candidate sentences. embedded microphone arrays). by matching acoustic signals against a library of phonemes—irreducible units of sound that make up a word. with user-defined vocabularies and actions.101seminartopics. This component uses acoustic processing (e. and application-supplied vocabularies to improve its performance. either to the language-understanding component or directly to an application.. thereby easing integration into applications. The component is easy to customize.com SPEECH RECOGNITION The speech recognition component converts the user's speech into a sentence of distinct words. and it uses these vocabularies and grammars to transform spoken input into a stream of commands for delivery to the application.
thereby improving the overall quality of user interaction. Like the spoken language subsystem. for example. The visual perception subsystem recognizes and classifies objects and actions in still and video images. Its components have welldefined interfaces. obtained either from the language generation component or directly from the application. SPEECH SYNTHESIS A commercial speech synthesizer converts sentences. into speech. the visual subsystem is an integral part of Oxygen's infrastructure. VISION The visual processing system contains visual perception and visual rendering subsystems. which enable them to interact with each other and . It can be used to provide macroscopic views of application-supplied data. It augments the spoken language subsystem.101seminartopics. The visual rendering subsystem enables scenes and actions to be reconstructed in three dimensions from a small number of sample images without an intermediate 3D model. by tracking direction of gaze of participants to determine what or whom they are looking at during a conversation.com LANGUAGE GENERATION The language generation component builds sentences that present application-generated data in the user's preferred language.
. It calibrates itself automatically. a vision-based biometrics approach (e. where face recognition is not a reliable solution. and knowledge access technologies. For high-security transactions. ACTIVITY MONITORING AND CLASSIFICATION An unobtrusive.101seminartopics.g. using tracking data obtained from an array of cameras. embedded vision component observes and tracks moving objects in its field of view. and their actions. This learning technology generates domain models from as little information as one or two sample images. The component recognizes objects even if they are new to the system or move freely in an arbitrary setting against an arbitrary background. network. their physical characteristics. for example. As people do.g. people or different kinds of vehicles) in unconstrained scenes using a supervised learning technology. of faces and handwritings. fingerprint recognition) integrates sensors in handheld devices transparently with the Oxygen privacy and security environment to obtain cryptographic keys directly from biometrics measurements. thereby learning to improve object-specific performance over time. Like lite speech systems. lite vision systems provide user-defined visual recognition. either supplied by applications or acquired without calibration during operation. to learn relationships .. it adapts to objects. OBJECT RECOGNITION A trainable object recognition component automatically learns to detect limited-domain objects (e.com with Oxygen's device.
com among nearby sensors. create rough site models.101seminartopics. . and recognize unusual events. categorize activities in a variety of ways.
nomadic—it must allow users and computations to move around freely. addressing instead system constraints imposed by user demands and available power or communication bandwidth. yet efficient—it must free itself from constraints imposed by bounded hardware resources. components may come and go in response to demand. . "the nearest printer. the Oxygen system must master many technical challenges. eternal—it must never shut down or reboot. powerful. embedded—it must live in our world. It must be pervasive—it must be everywhere. errors. adaptable—it must provide flexibility and spontaneity.com CHALLENGES To support highly dynamic and varied human activities. for example. according to their needs. in response to changes in user requirements and operating conditions. with every portal reaching into the same information base. sensing and affecting it." as opposed to by address. but Oxygen as a whole must be available all the time. intentional—it must enable people to name services and software objects by intent. and upgrades.101seminartopics.
101seminartopics. By enabling people to use spoken and visual cues to automate routine tasks. Oxygen stands to significantly amplify human capabilities throughout the world. . access knowledge.com CONCLUSION Widespread use of Oxygen and its advanced technologies will yield a profound leap in human productivity — one even more revolutionary than the move from mainframes to desktops. anytime. and collaborate with others anywhere.
3. 5. 4.PHILIPS.COM .com REFERENCES 1.MIT.HP.ACER.EDU WWW.COM WWW.COM WWW.NOKIA.RESEARCH.MIT. IEEE Spectrum March 2002 WWW.101seminartopics.GLOBAL.LCS. 2. 7.DELTACA. 6.COM WWW.EDU WWW. 8.COM WWW.AI.
It must never shut down or reboot —components may come and go in response to demand. whenever we need it and wherever we might be. handling our goals and needs and helping us to do more while doing less. control a wealth of physical devices in the environment.101seminartopics. It must adapt to change. will bring computation to us. configurable generic devices.com ABSTRACT In the future. they will adopt our information personalities. As we interact with these "anonymous" devices. . Instead. It will enter the human world. They will respect our desires for privacy and security. both in user requirements and in operating conditions. like batteries and power sockets. without forcing our eyes to examine thousands of search-engine hits). New systems will boost our productivity. computation will be human-centered. and upgrades. It will be freely available everywhere. but Oxygen as a whole must be available all the time. It must be accessible anywhere. and enable us to work together with other people through space and time. We will not need to carry our own devices around with us. either handheld or embedded in the environment. or oxygen in the air we breathe. find the information we need (when we need it. errors. They will help us automate repetitive human tasks.
4.com CONTENTS 1. THE APPROACH SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES 1 3 3. HOW DOES OXYGEN WORK? PERCEPTUAL TECHNOLOGIES 23 25 7. 9. USER TECHNOLOGIES SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES 13 20 5. 6. 2. 8. CHALLENGES CONCLUSION REFERENCES 29 30 31 .101seminartopics.
. P.101seminartopics. I also thank all the other faculty members of AEI department and my friends for their help and support.Sukumaran Head of Department for giving us his invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance I express my thanks to Mr. Biji Paul for their kind cooperation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I extend my sincere gratitude towards Prof. Muhammed Kutty our group tutor and also to our staff advisor Ms.