ECHET SUBALGEBRA OF O
2
Larry B. Schweitzer
We construct a nuclear, spectral invariant, dense Frechet
subalgebra C
functions on a manifold,
where instead of a manifold we have an underlying noncommutative space.
In this paper, we seek not just a dense subalgebra of smooth functions of
the C*algebra O
2
, but an algebra with a Frechet topology, for which the
seminorms are submultiplicative. The Frechet topology is very helpful when
it comes to working with a dense subalgebra. It allows the use of functional
calculus, and more importantly allows the dense subalgebra to be written as
a countable projective limit of Banach algebras. By taking projective limits,
interesting results about Frechet algebras can be deduced from corresponding
results on Banach algebras (for example, see [Da], [PhSc]).
In 1, we dene a set of smooth functions on the Cantor set C
(K)
for each increasing sequence = c
p
p=1
of positive real numbers c
p
. This
is done by identifying K with the topological group of 2adic integers [Ko].
Using this group structure on K, we dene C
K) on the
dual group
K. (The dual group
K = Z[
1
2
]/Z is the discrete group of dyadic
rationals lying between 0 and 1.) If satises the summability condition
p=1
2
p
/c
q
p
< for some q > 0, then C
(K).
In 2, we restrict to the case c
p
= 2
p
or = 2
p
p=1
(which satises
the above summability condition for q > 1), and show that the action of the
freeproduct of cyclic groups Z
2
Z
3
on C(K) in [Sp] leaves C
(K) invariant
and is exponentially tempered with respect to the word length function on
Z
2
Z
3
(Theorem 2.3). Thus the set of exponentially rapidly vanishing
functions (see Denition 2.2) o
e
(Z
2
Z
3
, C
algebra O
2
. (Hence it follows that
O
2
cannot be a set of C
2
.)
1. Smooth Functions on the Cantor Set.
We view the Cantor set K as innite sequences of 0s and 1s (e.g. .00101 . . . ),
topologized as the product space
N
0, 1. One may view this compact
topological space as a disconnection of the unit circle T = R/Z, where
elements of T are written in their binary expansions. Note, for example,
that .0111 . . . is not equal to .1000 . . . in K.
The group operation on K is given by carrying down instead of up.
For example, .0100 + .0100 = .0010 . . . , and .01100 + .10100 =
.11010 . . . . (Note that if .k
0
k
1
k
2
. . . is a binary sequence in K, then k
0
+
2k
1
+2
2
k
2
+. . . denes an innite power series, with 2 as the indeterminant
variable. Then addition is equivalent to carrying down, since 2
n
+ 2
n
=
C
k) e
2ig,
k
,
where
g,
k) = g(k
0
+ 2k
1
+ 2
2
k
2
+ . . . ) = (l/2
p
)(k
0
+ 2k
1
+ 2
2
k
2
+ . . . ) (mod Z).
This makes sense since g2
n
is an integer if n p. (To see that G is really
the dual group, let K
n
be the subgroup .0 . . . 0 of K, where there are n
zeros. Then lev(g) n if and only if g denes a trivial character on K
n
,
i.e. g factors to a character of K/K
n
= Z
2
n. Since there are 2
n
gs with
352 LARRY SCHWEITZER
lev(g) n, this gives all of
Z
2
n. Exercise: show that every character of K
factors through some K
n
.)
A gauge or length function on a locally compact group H is a Borel
measurable function : H [0, ) which satises (id
H
) = 0, (g
1
) = (g),
and (gh) (g)+(h) for g, h H. If = c
p
p=1
is an increasing sequence
of positive numbers, then we may dene a gauge (also denoted by ) on G
by
(g) =
_
c
lev(g)
if lev(g) 1,
0 if lev(g) = 0.
(Note lev(g) = 0 i g = 0.)
Lemma 1.2. The group G has polynomial growth, and = c
p
p=1
satises
the summability condition
p=1
2
p
c
q
p
< ,
for some q > 0, if and only if
gG{0}
1
(g)
q
< .
Proof. Note that if U G is nite, then
n=0
U
n
is contained in a nite
subpyramid, so [U
n
[ M < for all n, and G has polynomial growth.
For the second part,
g=0
1
(g)
q
=
p=1
_
_
lev(g)=p
1
(g)
q
_
_
=
1
2
p=1
2
p
c
q
p
,
where we used [g G [ lev(g) = p[ = 2
p1
.
Dene o
(G) = : G C

d
< , d = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
where
(1.3) 
d
= 
d

1
=
gG
(g)
d
[(g)[.
Then o
n=0
of topologizing seminorms for A which are sub
multiplicative:
ab
n
a
n
b
n
, a, b A.
C
a
1

k1
. . . a
n

kn
,
for all ntuples a
1
, . . . a
n
A and all n, where the sum is over those k
i
s such
that
n
i=1
k
i
p
m
, and  
0
denotes the norm on B. Then SSI SI
by [Sc 2], Proposition 1.7, Theorem 1.17. If a Frechet algebra A is strongly
spectral invariant in some Banach algebra, then A is automatically mconvex
[Sc 2], Proposition 1.7.
Recall that by basic locally compact Abelian group theory [Ru], we have
an isomorphism of C
algebras C(K)
= C
k)e
2ig,
k
d
k.
Thus we may dene C
(K), the C
p=1
be an increasing sequence of positive
numbers. For C(K) and p N, dene the pth approximate derivative
p
() C(K) by
p
()(
k) =
(
k + 1/2
p
) (
k)
1/c
p
.
Here 1/2
p
= .0 . . . 01 K is the binary expansion for 1/2
p
, so the 1 is in the
pth spot. (If we were using 2adic notation, 1/2
p
= .0 . . . 01 would be written
2
p
. In keeping with the analogy of K with the circle group T, we will stick
to the binary notation.) Note that 1/2
0
= 1 = 0 in K, so (
k+1/2
0
) = (
k)
and it is appropriate to dene
0
() = 0 for all . It is easy to check from
the denition that
p
() =
p
() +
p
() +
p
()
p
()/c
p
,
so
p
is not quite a derivation.
354 LARRY SCHWEITZER
It is well known that the subalgebra of linear combinations of cylinder
functions
/ = span
.s...
[s a nite sequence of 0
s and 1
s
is dense in C(K). (Use the StoneWeierstrass theorem.) It is also easy to
check that under the Fourier transform, / corresponds to the nite support
functions c
f
(G) o
(G).
Theorem 1.6. Assume that = c
p
p=1
satises the summability condition
of Lemma 1.2. Then the Frechet algebra C
p=1
2
p

d
p
()
.
Moreover, o
(G)
= C

algebras.
Remark 1.8. 1) It is interesting that lim
p
p
() = 0 for /, so the
derivative in the usual sense is always zero. (Note that for xed g G,
p
(e
2ig,
k
) is the zero function in C(K) if and only if lev(g) < p.) Hence it
would have been impractical, for example, to take sup norms of derivatives
in (1.7), since the seminorms would all be zero on /, and we could not have
got a topology equivalent to the one from o
(G).
2) In the terminology of [JiSc], (G, ) is a rapid decay group. In fact
o
2
(G) = o
1
(G) L
1
(G) by the summability condition of Lemma 1.2, and
[Sc 1], Theorem 6.8. It follows that o
(G) = C
r
(G) [JiSc], Denition 1.5, Lemma 3.11, Proof of Theorem
2.6(b).
Question 1.9. What is the relationship between C
functions C
k + 1/2
p
) (
k))/(1/c
p
), we are using a nonstandard
addition, so one might expect them to be dierent.
Proof of Theorem 1.6. By Lemma 1.2 and [Sc 1], Theorem 6.24, o
(G) is
a nuclear Frechet space, and is SSI in C
(G). Since C
(K)
= o
(G) as Frechet
C
k)e
2ig,
k
d
k
= c
d
p
_
K
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
k
=
c
d1
p
2
_
K
(
k)
_
e
2ig,
k1/2
p
e
2ig,
k
1/c
p
_
d
k
=
c
d1
p
2
_
K
(
k + 1/2
p
) (
k)
1/c
p
e
2ig,
k
d
k
=
c
d1
p
2
p
(g) = =
d
p
(g)
(2)
d
.
The same equality clearly holds if lev(g) = p = 0, since both sides are
zero. So multiplication by (g)
d
in o
p=0
_
_
lev(g)=p
[(g)
d
(g)[
_
_
=
p=0
_
_
lev(g)=p
(
d
p
)(g)
(2)
d
_
_
p=0
2
p
2
d+1
_
K
[(
d
p
)(
k)[d
k
1
2
d+1
_
p=0
2
p

d
p

_
=
1
2
d+1

d
.
Thus the topology on /, given by (1.7), is at least as strong as the topology
induced from o
k) =
gG
e
2ig,
k
(g) =
lev(g)<p
e
2ig,
k
(g) +
lev(g)p
e
2ig,
k
(g).
Since
p
(e
2ig,
k
) = 0 if (and only if) lev(g) < p, we have
[(
d
p
)(
k)[ =
d
p
_
_
lev(g)p
e
2ig,
k
(g)
_
_
lev(g)p
d
p
_
e
2ig,
k
_
(g)
,
356 LARRY SCHWEITZER
since the series converges absolutely. Since
d
p
(e
2ig,
k
) =
p
(g)
d
e
2ig,
k
,
where
p
(g) = (e
2ig,1/2
p
1)c
p
, it follows that
[(
d
p
)(
k)[
lev(g)p
(2c
p
)
d
[ (g)[.
Thus

d
=
p=1
2
p

d
p
()
p=1
2
p
_
_
lev(g)p
(2c
p
)
d
[ (g)[
_
_
= 2
d
g=0
d
(g)[ (g)[ 2
d

d

1
,
where
d
(g) =
lev(g)
p=1
2
p
c
d
p
. But
d
(g)
_
_
lev(g)
p=1
2
p
c
q
p
_
_
c
d+q
lev(g)
since the c
p
s are increasing
p=1
2
p
c
q
p
_
(g)
d+q
= C(g)
d+q
, by denition of
where C < by our summability assumption on . Thus 
d
2
d
C
d+q

1
, completing the proof of Theorem 1.6.
Remark 1.10. Theorem 1.6 is analogous to the wellknown isomorphism
C
(T)
= o(Z). Note that the formula (2(g))
d
(g) =
d
p
(g) for
C
(d)
(n),
n Z, for C
k1
ab
k2
a . . . [
k K,
where
k
i
= 1 if k
i
= 0, and
k
i
= +1 if k
i
= 1. Then Z
2
Z
3
acts on K on the
left, and we may form the reduced C
crossed product C
r
(Z
2
Z
3
, C(K)).
Theorem 2.1 [Sp], [Ch]. C
r
(Z
2
Z
3
, C(K))
= M
2
(O
2
)
= O
2
, where O
2
denotes the n = 2 Cuntz C
algebra.
Denition 2.2. If a locally compact group H with weight or gauge acts
on a Frechet algebra A, we say that the action is tempered if for every
m N, there exists C > 0, p, d N such that

h
(a)
m
C(1 + (h))
d
a
p
, a A, h H.
By [Sc 1], Theorem 2.2.6, o
crossed product C
r
(H, B), if A is a dense subalgebra of a C

algebra B. Throughout this paper, the smooth crossed product o
(H, A)
will denote L
1
rapidly vanishing functions from H to A [Sc 1], 2.1. We
will abbreviate o
e
by o
e
. The following theorem is the main result of this
paper.
Theorem 2.3. Let = c
p
p=1
, where c
p
= 2
p
. Then the action of Z
2
Z
3
on C(K) dened above leaves C
tempered.
Corollary 2.4. o
e
(Z
2
Z
3
, C
r
(Z
2
Z
3
, C(K))
= O
2
, and is also nuclear as a Frechet space.
Proof of Corollary 2.4 from Theorem 2.3. Apply remarks preceding The
orem 2.3 to see that it is a Frechet algebra. By [Sc 1], Corollary 4.9 it is
also a Frechet algebra. Since = 2
p
satises the summability condition
of Lemma 1.2, C
(G) is e
tempered:
()(g) =
_
K
(
)(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
k,
where C
(G).
358 LARRY SCHWEITZER
Lemma 2.5 (Truncation of lower levels). For any specied level p N,
and for all d N and o
(G),

d

1
2
(d+1)p

+
lev(g)p
[
d
(g)[,
where C
lev(g)<p
[(g)
d
(g)[
=
p1
r=1
lev(g)=r
2
rd
[(g)[
p1
r=1
lev(g)=r
2
rd

=
p1
r=1
2
r1
2
rd

= (2
p(d+1)1
1)
2
p(d+1)

.
For Z
2
Z
3
, I will let denote the set of words in K which begin with
. Written in terms of 0s and 1s, we have for example a = .1. I will let
a denote the complement of this set. Here are a few more examples: ba =
b = .01. Note that since b indicates a reduced word beginning with b,
there must be an a after the b. Similarly abab
1
a = abab
1
= .110.
The action of a on K is measure preserving, and in particular (a) =
() for all . However, the action of b does not leave the Haar measure on
K invariant: If begins in b or b
1
, or = 0, we have (b
j
a) = 1/2(a),
(b
j
b
j
a) = (b
j
a), (b
j
b
j
a) = 2(b
j
a). So we have the
following integral formulas (where is any function in L
(K)):
_
a
(b
j
k)(
k)d
k = 2
_
b
j
a
(
k)(b
j
k)d
k (2.6)
_
b
j
a
(b
j
k)(
k)d
k =
1
2
_
a
(
k)(b
j
k)d
k (2.7)
_
b
j
a
(b
j
k)(
k)d
k =
_
b
j
a
(
k)(b
j
k)d
k. (2.8)
If S is any measurable set, then nally:
(2.9)
_
S
(a
k)(
k)d
k =
_
aS
(
k)(a
k)d
k.
Lemma 2.10. If = b
j1
ab
j2
a . . . b
jn
a Z
2
Z
3
and (
k) = e
2ig,
k
, then
() =
_
K
(
1
k)(
k)d
k = 2
n
_
1
a
(
k)(
k)d
k
C
k)(
k)d
k (2.11)
+
n
i=1
2
(ni)
2
(i1)
_
ab
jna...b
j
i+1
ab
j
i
(
k)(
k)d
k.
Proof. Use induction on n, and the formulas (2.6)(2.9).
From now on, we let = b
j1
ab
j2
a . . . b
jn
a. Note that n = ()/2. We will
estimate 
d
()
1
by breaking
k) = g(1+
2k
n+1
+ 2
2
k
n+2
+. . . ) = g/2
n
(2
n
+ 2
n+1
k
n+1
+ 2
n+2
k
n+2
+. . . ) = g/2
n
,
k)+
terms depending only on , but not
k. Thus we have
2
n
gG
(g)
d
1
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
= 2
n
gG
(g)
d
1
a
(
k)e
2ig/2
n
,
k
d
(2.12)
2
n
lev(g)>n
(2
n
g)
d
1
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
= 2
dn+n
lev(g)>n
(g)
d
1
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
2
(d+1)n
gG
(g)
d
1
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
,
where the second step used the fact that g g/2
n
is a bijection between G
and g G [ lev(g) > n, g <
1
2
n
0, the third step used (2
n
g) = 2
n
(g),
and the last step is to make the estimate (2.16) below work more smoothly.
Next we estimate the second term in the expression (2.11). Note that if
k = .0k
1
k
2
. . . , then
k = .0b
j1
. . . b
jn
k
1
k
2
. . . . Hence g,
k) = g(2
n+1
k
1
+
2
n+2
k
2
+ . . . ) = 2
n
g,
lev(g)n
(g)
d
_
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
=
1
2
n
p=n
lev(g)=p
(g)
d
_
a
(
k)e
2i2
n
g,
k
d
(2.13)
360 LARRY SCHWEITZER
=
1
2
n
p=n
lev(g)=pn
2
n
(g/2
n
)
d
_
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
2
n(d+1)
gG
(g)
d
_
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
,
where the 2
n
in the third expression takes into account the repeats in the
1st and 2nd expression, and the last step used (g/2
n
) = 2
n
(g). (By using
the truncation of lower levels Lemma 2.5 above, we will be able to get by
with only summing over lev(g) n in the left hand side of (2.13).)
Next we estimate terms in the last expression of (2.11). Fix some i be
tween 1 and n. Any
k ab
jn
a . . . b
ji+1
ab
ji
is of the form
k = ab
jn
a . . .
b
ji+1
ab
ji
k
ni+2
k
ni+3
. . . . Since = b
j1
a . . . b
jn
a, we have
k = b
j1
a . . .
b
ji1
ab
ji
k
ni+2
k
ni+3
. . . . Thus g,
k) = g(2
i+1
k
ni+2
+2
i+2
k
ni+3
+. . . ) =
g2
2i1n
(2
ni+2
k
ni+2
+ . . . )+ terms depending only on , but not
k. We
split into two types of terms  those like (2.12) and those like (2.13). We
have:
Case 1. 2i 1 n 0. Imitating (2.12), we get
2
(ni)
2
(i1)
gG
(g)
d
_
ab
jn...b
j
2ab
j
1a
e
g,
k
d
(2.14)
= 2
n+12i
gG
(g)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig/2
n+12i
,
k
d
2
n+12i
lev(g)>n+12i
(2
n+12i
g)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
= 2
(1d)(n+12i)
lev(g)>n+12i
(g)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
2
(d+1)n
gG
(g)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
.
Case 2. 2i 1 n > 0. Note that since i n, 2i 1 n < n. Imitating
(2.13), we get
2
(ni)
2
(i1)
lev(g)n
(g)
d
_
ab
jn...b
j
2ab
j
1
e
g,
(2.15)
1
2
2i1n
lev(g)2in1
(g)
d
_
ab
jn...b
j
2ab
j
1
e
g2
2i1n
,
gG
2
(2i1n)
(g/2
2i1n
)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
= 2
(2i1n)d
gG
(g)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
2
(d+1)n
gG
(g)
d
_
ab
jna...b
j
2ab
j
1
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
.
Now we are ready to collect terms and do the nal estimate. By Lemma
2.5, Lemma 2.10 and (2.12)(2.15), we have

d
()
1
(2.16)
2
(d+1)n

+
lev(g)n
[
d
()(g)[
2
(d+1)n
_

gG
(g)
d
_
1
a
e
g,
_
a
e
g,
+
n
i=1
_
ab
jn...b
j
1a
e
g,
__
2
(d+1)n
_

p=0
1
2
d
lev(g)=p
_
1
a
(
d
p
)e
_
a
(
d
p
)e
+
n
i=1
_
ab
jna...b
j
1
(
d
p
)e
__
2
(d+1)n
_

p=1
2
p
2
d+1

d
p

_
2
(d+1)n
(
+
d
)
= 2
(d+1)()/2
C
d
_

1
+
d+q

1
_
C
d
e
rd()
_

1
+
d+q
_
,
where the third step used the integration by parts formula (2(g))
d
(g) =
d
p
(g) of Theorem 1.6, and the fourth step used the fact that there are 2
p1
elements of G at level p, and (K) = 1. This proves Theorem 2.3 for all
beginning in b or b
1
, and ending in a. Now show that a by itself acts
temperedly (i.e. 
a
()
d
C
d

d+q
), and then get the result for general
by composing a on either side of .
3. mconvexity of the smooth crossed product.
By Corollary 2.4, we know that o
e
(Z
2
Z
3
, C
(H, A) is
an mconvex Frechet algebra [Sc 1], Theorem 3.1.7.
Theorem 3.1. Let A be a dense Frechet subalgebra of a Banach algebra
B. Assume that a locally compact group H acts isometrically on B and 
temperedly on A, where is a weight or gauge on H. Then if A is strongly
spectral invariant in B, it follows that H acts mtemperedly on A.
Proof. If is a gauge, we may replace with the equivalent weight 1 +
so that 1 [Sc 1], 1. Let  
n
n=0
be some increasing family of
seminorms for A, where  
0
is the Banach algebra norm on B. Recall that
by [Sc 1], Theorem 3.1.18, it suces to show that for every m N, there
exists q, d N and D > 0 such that

h1
(a
1
) . . .
hn
(a
n
)
m
(3.2)
D
n
_
(h
1
)(h
1
1
h
2
) . . . (h
1
n1
h
n
)
_
d
a
1

q
. . . a
n

q
,
for all ntuples h
1
, . . . h
n
N, a
1
, . . . a
n
A, and all n. By the strong
spectral invariance,
(3.3)

h1
(a
1
) . . .
hn
(a
n
)
m
C
n
D
m
k1+...knp

h1
(a
1
)
k1
. . . 
hn
(a
n
)
kn
.
In the sum, if k
i
= 0, then 
hi
(a
i
)
ki
= a
i

ki
since the action is assumed
isometric on B. If k
i
,= 0, then 
hi
(a
i
)
ki
C
(h
i
)
d
a
i

p
since the action
is tempered on A. Since the k
i
s are p, there is some upper bound for
the C
, d
, and p
k1+...knp
_
(h
i1
) . . . (h
ip
)
_
q
,
where i
1
, . . . i
p
include all indices for which k
i
,= 0.
Note that
(h
i
) (h
1
i1
h
i
)(h
1
i2
h
i1
) . . . (h
1
1
h
2
)(h
1
)
C
_
(h
1
)(h
1
1
h
2
) . . . (h
1
n1
h
n
)
_
since 1 and is submultiplicative. Also
k1+...knp
(1) p
n
so by (3.4),
we have

h1
(a
1
) . . .
hn
(a
n
)
m
(Cp)
n
D
m
q
p
_
(h
1
)(h
1
1
h
2
) . . . (h
1
n1
h
n
)
_
q
a
1

q
. . . a
n

q
.
This clearly gives (3.2).
Corollary 3.5. Let A, B, H, and be as in Theorem 3.1. Then the set
of rapidly vanishing L
1
functions from H to A forms an mconvex dense
Frechet subalgebra o
(H, A) of L
1
(H, B). In particular, o
e
(Z
2
Z
3
, C
(K))
is an mconvex Frechet algebra.
Proof. The rst statement follows from the mtemperedness of the action,
and [Sc 1], Theorem 3.1.7. For the second statement, the action of Z
2
Z
3
is e
(K) be the
characteristic function
a
of the set of innite words in K beginning in b or
b
1
. Let = b
j1
a . . . b
jn
a Z
2
Z
3
. Then by Lemma 2.10,

d
( )
1
=
gG
[
d
( )(g)[ =
1
2
n
gG
(g)
d
_
a
(
k)e
2ig,
k
d
=
1
2
n
gG
(g)
d
_
a
e
2ig,
k
d
=
1
2
n
gG
(g)
d
_
a
e
2i2
n
g,
k
d
1
2
n
lev(g)=n+1
(g)
d
_
a
e
2i2
n
g,
k
d
= 2
(n+1)d
_
a
e
2i(k0+2k1+... )
d
= 2
(n+1)d
( a) = 2
()d/2
C
d
,
364 LARRY SCHWEITZER
where the
1
2
n
went away because there are 2
n
elements of G at level n + 1,
and we used the fact that (g)
d
= (2
n+1
)
d
for g at level n + 1, and that
() = 2n. We have proved:
Lemma 4.1. Let = b
j1
a . . . b
jn
a. Then 
(
a
)
d
is bounded below by
something directly proportional to (2
d/2
)
()
, and thus grows exponentially
fast with respect to the word length (). Hence the action of Z
2
Z
3
on
C
(K)) has
an element whose spectrum contains the unbounded interval (3, ). Hence
O
2
is not spectral invariant in the C
algebra O
2
.
Proof. Let g = ab Z
2
Z
3
. Then Z
=< g > Z
2
Z
3
and C
(Z)
=
C
(g)) C
r
(Z
2
Z
3
) O
2
. Also [
Z
(g
n
) = [2n[. Thus C
(Z) O
2
=
C
(Z) o
e
(Z
2
Z
3
) = o
e
(Z). Assume that o
e
(Z) is not invertible
in o
e
(Z), but that is invertible in the bigger algebra C
r
(Z). Then if
were invertible in O
2
, it would be invertible in O
2
and so in the smaller
C
algebra C
r
(Z)[Dix]. Thus is not invertible in O
2
. It follows that for
any o
e
(Z), is invertible in o
e
(Z) if and only if is invertible in O
2
.
So the spectrum is the same in either of these smooth algebras.
Lemma 5.2. The function e
n
2
in the Frechet algebra o
e
(Z) has the un
bounded interval (3, ) contained in its spectrum.
Proof. Represent Z on C via n e
rn
, r R. Then
r
() =
nZ
(n)e
rn
gives a family of simple o
e
(Z)modules. The value of
r
(e
n
2
) =
nZ
e
n
2
e
rn
ranges continuously between
0
(e
n
2
) =
+
n=
e
n
2
_
+
e
x
2
dx + 1 =
+ 1 3
and + as r ranges between 0 and +.
Since the spectrum of e
n
2
is the same in O
2
and o
e
(Z) by our preceding
remarks, we have proved Theorem 5.1.
References
[Ch] MD. Choi, A simple C*algebra generated by two niteorder unitaries, Can. J.
Math., XXXI(4) (1979), 867880.
C