This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

extracta mathematicae Vol. 19, N´m. 3, 335 – 337 (2004) u

**On Continuous Surjections from Cantor Set
**

´ ´ Felix Cabello Sanchez

Departamento de Matem´ticas, Universidad de Extremadura, a Avda. Elvas, 06071-Badajoz, Spain e-mail: fcabello@unex.es (Presented by J.M.F. Castillo)

AMS Subject Class. (2000): 54C55

Received January 21, 2004

It is a famous result of Alexandroﬀ and Urysohn [1] that every compact metric space is a continuous image of Cantor set ∆. In this short note we complement this result by showing that a certain “uniqueness” property holds. Given topological spaces X and Y , let C(X, Y ) denote the collection of all continuous mappings from X to Y . If Y is metrized by d, one can endow C(X, Y ) with the uniform metric dist(f, g) = sup d(f (x), g(x)).

x∈X

It is clear that if ϕ is a homeomorphism of X, the map f → ϕ ◦ f is an isometry of C(X, Y ). Our result is the following. Theorem. Let K be a compact metric space and let f and g be two continuous mappings from ∆ onto K. For every ε > 0 there exists a homeomorphism ϕ of ∆ such that dist(g, f ◦ ϕ) < ε. Before going into the proof, let us ﬁx some notations. We regard the points of ∆ = {0, 1}N as functions x : N → {0, 1} and we write ∆(n) for the set of all two-valued functions y : {1, 2, . . . , n} → {0, 1}. Given y ∈ ∆(n) , put ∆y = {x ∈ ∆ : x(k) = y(k), 1 ≤ k ≤ n}. Obviously ∆y is homeomorphic to ∆. The n-th standard decomposition of ∆ is the partition of ∆ into the 2n clopen sets ∆=

y∈∆(n)

∆y .

Supported in part by DGICYT project BMF 2001—083.

335

336

´ f. cabello sanchez

Lemma. Let S be a ﬁnite set and let f and g be be two surjections ∆ → S which are constant on the sets of some standard decomposition of ∆. Then there is a homemorphism ϕ of ∆ such that g = f ◦ ϕ. Proof. Since ∆ ≈ ∆ ⊕ ∆ we see that for every s ∈ S there is a homeomorphism ϕs : g −1 (s) → f −1 (s). In fact, h−1 (s) ≈ ∆ ⊕ .k.h. ⊕ ∆ ≈ ∆ (h = f, g).

**The required homeomorphism is then given by ϕ=
**

s∈S

ϕs

:∆=

s∈S

g −1 (s) →

s∈S

f −1 (s) = ∆.

Proof of the Theorem. Fix ε > 0 and take n such that if ∆ = ⊕y ∆y is the n-th standard decomposition, then the sets h(∆y ) (h = f, g)

have all diameter at most ε. Also, for y ∈ ∆(n) , let y + = min ∆y and deﬁne h1 : ∆ → K taking h1 (x) = h(y + ) for x ∈ ∆y . Clearly, dist(h, h1 ) ≤ ε for h = f, g and so the sets h1 (∆) are ε-nets on K having at most 2n points. Let K1 be the range of f1 and deﬁne g2 : ∆ → K1 taking g2 (∆y ) as the point k ∈ K1 minimizing the distance to g1 (∆y ) = g(y + ). Clearly, dist(g2 , g1 ) ≤ ε. Of course, g2 need not be onto K1 , but its range, say S is a 2ε-net in K and so there exists a projection of K1 onto its subset S such that dist(π, IdS ) ≤ 2ε. Taking f2 = π ◦ f1 , we see that dist(f2 , f1 ) ≤ 2ε. Finally, we can apply the Lemma to the pair f2 , g2 to get a homeomorphism ϕ of ∆ such that g2 = f2 ◦ ϕ. Therefore dist(g, f ◦ ϕ) ≤ dist(g, g2 ) + dist(g2 , f ◦ ϕ) ≤ dist(g, g2 ) + dist(g2 , f2 ◦ ϕ) + dist(f2 ◦ ϕ, f ◦ ϕ) ≤ 5ε, which completes the proof. Remarks. Every non-empty clopen subset of ∆ is homeomorphic to ∆ (this follows from Hausdorﬀ characterization of ∆ as the only totally disconnected perfect compact metric space [3]). So, the Lemma holds without any restriction on f and g.

on continuous surjections from cantor set

337

The only property of ∆ needed to get the conclusion of the Theorem is that given ε > 0 there exists a decomposition ∆ = C1 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Cn into clopen sets of diameter less that ε with each Ci homeomorphic to ∆. (See [2] for unexplained terms.) The above Theorem makes transparent that the set of continuous surjections ∆ → K that admit (or do not admit) a regular averaging operator is uniformly dense in the set of all continuous surjections ∆ → K whenever it is not empty; see [2, Theorem 3]. References [1] Alexandroff, P., Urysohn, P., M´moire sur les espaces topologiques come

pacts, Verh. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Afd. Naturk. Sect. I, 14 (1929), 1 – 96.

[2] Argyros, S.A., Arvanitakis, A.D., A characterization of regular averaging operators and its consequences, Studia Math. 151 (3) (2002), 207 – 226.

[3] Hausdorff, F., “Grundz¨ge der Mengenlehre”, Leipzig, 1914. u

- Rob van Stee- An approximation algorithm for square packing
- Vladimir Yu. Sazonov- On Feasible Numbers
- Jonathan Lear- Aritstotelian Infinity
- P. V. Andreev and E. I. Gordon- A Theory of Hyperfinite Sets
- Jouko Vaananen- A Short Course on Finite Model Theory
- Scott Aaronson- Who Can Name the Bigger Number?
- Mirco A. Mannucci and Rose M. Cherubin- Model Theory of Ultrafinitism I
- Antonio Leon Sanchez- The Aleph-Zero or Zero Dichotomy
- V. Borschev and B. Partee- Lecture 5
- Ales Nekvinda and Ondrej Zindulka- A Cantor Set in the Plane That Is Not sigma-Monotone
- In-Soo Baek- On a Self-Similar Measure on a Self-Similar Cantor Set
- In-Soo Baek- Relation Between Fractal Measures and Cantor Measures
- In Soo Baek and Sang Hung Lee- Hausdorff Dimension of Some Specified Perturbed Cantor Set
- Infinity^0 evaluates to 1
- In-Soo Baek- Hausdorff Dimension of Deranged Cantor Set Without Some Boundedness Condition
- In-Soo Baek- Multifractal Spectra by Quasi-Self-Similar Measures on a Perturbed Cantor Set
- Suzanne Sears et al- Cantor Set Fractals from Solitons
- Michael Keane- Does the Cantor set contain irrational algebraic numbers?
- A.S. Kuzichev- A Version of Formalization of Cantor's Set Theory
- In-Soo Baek- Simple Approach to Multifractal Spectrum of a Self-Similar Cantor Set
- Bob Rink- A Cantor set of tori with monodromy near a focus–focus singularity
- Yunping Jiang- Asymptotic Differentiable Structure on Cantor Set
- Fractals
- Larry B. Schweitzer- C^infinity Functions on the Cantor Set, And a Smooth m-Convex Frechet Subalgebra of O2

- Iran 2010-2011.pdf
- solhwk5
- When a quantum space is not a group
- Exam Midterm 2
- Topological Spaces
- probset1solutions
- 284185717-Munkres-Solucionario.pdf
- WILDE Functional Analysis II
- crmo-16_4sol
- 10. Mathematics - Ijmcar - Generalized Reverse Derivations on Prime Ring
- Progression Paper2@2011
- Striaght line
- Totally Ordered j9-Class Decompositions
- My paper for an exam
- Chuong Trinh Chi Tiet
- Document(28)ks
- Potwe 13 Gm Np 22 s
- O. Such- Vertex-transitive maps on a torus
- Coordinate
- j1s82013
- Glossary of Algebraic Geometry
- Abstraction From Matter 1
- 9
- 03 01 Straight Line
- Vectors
- Corrections Zorich
- Oxford Algebraic Number Theory Lecture Notes
- Test 1
- plane.pdf
- algtop
- Felix Cabello Sanchez- On Continuous Surjections from Cantor Set

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd