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Final Year Project
A Research Report about the Impact of Various Factors on the Implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan
Supervisor Name Riaz Ahmed
Submitted By Muhammad Rafay Mansoor
Reg ID BB-1-05-2775
Date January 19, 2009
Submitted To PAKISTAN AIR FORCE KARACHI INSTITUTE OF ECONOMICS AND TECHNOLOGY
Project Title: IMPLEMENTATION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN By: MUHAMMAD RAFAY MANSOOR – 2775
Project Supervisor: Academic Year:
Mr. RIAZ AHMED 2008
The Board of Advanced Studies at PAF KIET has approved this Project, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration.
_______________________ Mr. RIAZ AHMED Supervisor
_____________________ Director Academics
MUHAMMAD RAFAY MANSOOR 2775 .LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Mr. This report is hereby on the “IMPLEMENTATION OF ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN”. Yours Sincerely. I am grateful for your guidance and supervision without which this project could have not been completed. The report includes problem statement and a brief literature survey and it is part of my BBA (H) program. RIAZ AHMED Project Supervisor PAF-KIET Dear Sir.
In the view of subsequent meetings and discussions. RIAZ AHMED Supervisor . Kindly initiate the study on the finalized Terms of Reference. the initial proposal was finalized.LETTER OF AUTHORIZATION MUHAMMAD RAFAY MANSOOR Please refer to your initial proposal for undertaking the study on “Implementation Of Islamic Banking System In Pakistan”.
14 4.5 2.3 Observations………………………………………………..9 Budget…………………………………………………………….4 2.5.2 Review of Related Literature……………………………………3 2.6 Instruments………………………………………………………..6 2.11 4.6.6 2.4 Data Collection…………………………………………………..5 2.4 Experts in Islamic Banking……………………………………....16 4..1 Security on Deposits and Investments……………………….2 Bankers and Corporate Customers………………………6 2...2 Interview…………………………………………………….3 2..10 4.8 3 Limitations……………………………………………………………….17 4.5.. Returns and Standards………………………………….TABLE OF CONTENTS Page # Acknowledgements……………………………………………………….8 Time Schedule…………………………………………………….3 Statement of the Hypothesis……………………………………4 2.3 International Dealings………………………………………….5 Sampling………………………………………………………….5 Taxation Policies……………………………………………….13 4..2 Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments………………...1 Questionnaire………………………………………………..6..iii 1 2 Introduction………………………………………………………………1 Research Plan……………………………………………………………3 2..7 2.1 Non Islamic Banks…………………………………………..i List of Tables………………………………………………………………ii List of Figures…………………………………………………………….6 Accounting and Auditing Standards………………………….6.8 2.10 4.9 4 Dealings.7 2.7 Concluding Remarks…………………………………………… 19 5 Portfolio and Accessibility……………………………………………20 .6 2..1 Statement of the Problem……………………………………….7 Data Analysis…………………………………………………….
2 Customer Services……………………………………………..53 Bibliography…………………………………………………………….3 Research and Development………………………………….34 6.49 Appendix B: Questionnaire for Bankers………………………………..6 Islamic Banking in Rural Areas……………………………….50 Appendix C: Frequency Distribution Table for Corporate Customers……………………………………………….21 5....4 Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market………………………………………………….5 Products Offered by Other Banks…………………………….28 5.1 Banks and Branches……………………………………………20 5...4 Social...36 6..51 Appendix D: Frequency Distribution Table for Bankers…………….54 ..31 5...5.7 Concluding Remarks…………………………………………… 32 6 Other Issues……………………………………………………………..52 Appendix E: Means Calculated for Corporates and Bankers……….48 Appendix Appendix A: Questionnaire for Corporate Customers……………….1 Awareness………………………………………………………34 6...5 Concluding Remarks…………………………………………… 45 7 8 Conclusion………………………………………………………………47 Recommendations…………………………………………………….23 5.3 Religious Convictions………………………………………….26 5.42 6.2 Government Support…………………………………………. Ethical and Cultural Values………………………….39 6.
First of all. gave their remarks. added valuable ideas. i . credit goes to all the people who filled out questionnaires. and helped me polish this report. He has helped me at every step. In the end. my project supervisor. for providing us with the opportunity and all the guidance to conduct this research. and beckoned us the right way in every difficulty we faced.Acknowledgement This research has benefited from the contribution of various individuals. I thank Mr. this research study could not be completed successfully without their participation. Riaz Ahmed.
6 Table 6.5 Table 4.3 Table 4.1 Table 5.3 Table 5.1 Table 2.3 Table 6.List of Tables Page # Table 2.5 Table 5.2 Table 4.4 Table 5.6 Table 5.2 Table 5.1 Table 4.4 Table 4.2 Table 4.1 Table 6.4 Table A-1 Table A-2 Table A-3 Sampling Techniques for Primary Sources Interval Scale Computation of Mean for Security on Deposits And Investments Computation of Mean for Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Computation of Mean for International Dealings Computation of Mean for Experts in Islamic Banking Computation of Mean for Taxation Policies Computation of Mean for Accounting and Auditing Standards Computation of Mean for Banks and Branches Customer Services Computation of Mean for Research and Development Computation of Mean for Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market Computation of Mean for Products Offered by Other Banks Computation of Mean for Islamic Banking In Rural Areas Computation of Mean for Awareness Computation of Mean for Government Support Computation of Mean for Religious Factors Computation of Mean for Social and Cultural Factors Frequency Distribution Table for Corporate Customers Frequency Distribution Table for Bankers Means Calculated for Corporates and Bankers 5 7 10 12 13 15 16 18 21 22 25 27 30 31 35 38 41 44 51 52 53 ii .2 Table 6.
5 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.6 Figure 5.2 Figure 4.2 Figure 6.1 Figure 5.1 Figure 6.1 Figure 4.3 Figure 5.3 Figure 6.4 Gantt chart for Research Study Responses to Security on Deposits and Investments Responses to Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Responses to International Dealings Responses to Experts in Islamic Banking Responses to Taxation Policies Responses to Accounting and Auditing Standards Responses to Banks and Branches Responses to Customer Services Responses to Research and Development Responses to Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market Responses to Products Offered by Other Banks Responses to Islamic Banking in Rural Areas Responses to Awareness Responses to Government Support Responses to Religious Factors Responses to Social and Cultural Factors 8 11 12 13 15 17 18 21 22 25 28 30 32 36 39 41 45 iii .List of Figures Page # Figure 2.5 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.6 Figure 6.1 Figure 4.
0 trillion. From relatively humble beginnings in 1963 when the first Islamic bank was established in Egypt. As a proportion of the overall banking industry. prohibited in the Islamic Shariah. as evidenced by the commendable growth rate in excess of 60. has been tremendous and geographically broad-based. Keeping in view that experience.0 percent per annum in both the assets and deposit base. Importantly.0 percent over 25 years and 1.3 percent in assets. both within and outside the Islamic world. particularly in recent times. these shares reflect an impressive performance in a short span of 6 years: Bahrain. SBP has recently launched its Strategic Plan for the Islamic banking industry. have made some important policy decisions. Iran also has adopted Islamic banking system at national level. but also to participate actively in achieving the goals and objectives of an Islamic economy. Islamic banking. The growth rate. Malaysia and Indonesia have respective shares of 8. In comparison with other countries. today Islamic finance boasts of assets of around US$ 1. To capitalise on the pace and momentum of this growth. the combined share of Islamic banks and stand-alone Islamic branches of conventional banks is 4. asset management. The whole financial system of Sudan has been transformed to the Shariah compatible basis in strict sense. As the most dominant form of Islamic finance. debt issuance via Sukuk. A significant development in this field since late 1980s has been that conventional commercial banks. etc. private sector has been allowed to establish Islamic 1 . which envisions increasing its share to 12. and 4. Interest free banking is a narrow concept denoting a number of banking instruments or operations. the more general term is expected not only to avoid interest-based transactions. this parallel system is moving forward on the strength of its own merit.2 percent in deposits. Takaful business.0 percent achieved over 30 years. the authorities during the last one-year or so.1 Introduction Islamic banking has been defined as banking in consonance with the ethos and value system of Islam and governed by the principles and rules laid down by Islamic Shariah. started offering Islamic banking services side by side with their normal operations. As a part of pronged strategy. Efforts made during 1980 for Islamization of Pakistan’s economy at comprehensive and nation wide level failed and the current ‘non interest based’ (NIB) system was declared un-Islamic by the superior courts in the country. and has successfully made inroads into a wide range of products such as infrastructure and housing finance. Islamic banking has also made swift progress in Pakistan since its re-launch in 2002 as a parallel mode of financial intermediation along with conventional financial institutions. and not because of any religious or legal obligation or compulsion. Islamic banking is rapidly transforming into a viable alternate form of financing.0 percent of the overall banking industry by 2012. which avoid interest.7 percent over the last decade or so. 13. of course with some difference of opinion on some issues.
2 . in fulfillment of the determined criteria. guidelines and criteria for opening of stand-alone branches for Islamic banking by existing commercial banks have also been issued. Thus. subsidiaries or stand-alone branches for Islamic banking may apply to the State Bank of Pakistan. The State Bank issued detailed criteria in December 2001 for establishment of full-fledged Islamic commercial banks in the private sector. The above progress should certainly be regarded as an excellent reflection on the success and viability of the concept of Islamic banking as the achievement so far in laying a solid foundation is no small matter. more than half of which is presently classified as the Least Developed Countries. those interested in establishing scheduled Islamic commercial banks. Detailed criteria for setting up of Islamic banking subsidiaries and the strategy. in particular.banks and the conventional commercial banks have been allowed to set up subsidiaries and stand-alone branches for conducting pure Islamic banking business. but also used as a vehicle for fostering socio-economic development of the country. However. Amendment has also been made in Section 23 of BCO (1962) for establishing subsidiaries by commercial banks to conduct exclusive Shariah compliant banking business. Al Meezan Investment Bank received the first Islamic commercial banking license from SBP in January 2002 and the Meezan Bank Limited (MBL) commenced full-fledged commercial banking operation from March 20. They are facing a number of challenges to ultimately play a decisive role in development of Islamic countries. The main objective in presenting this paper is to deliberate upon the ways and means by which Islamic banking could not only be promoted in Pakistan. 2002. the Islamic banks’ performance in achieving various socioeconomic objectives is rather modest relatively to the hopes attached to them in Islamic economic thought.
H. 2. I have reviewed the following literature. given by the Holy Prophet (P.U. • On June 19 2002. What we have only succeeded in is making cosmetic changes here and there. an article was published in the Daily Dawn titled “Ulema a hurdle in Islamization process” about the recommendations of government to supreme court quoting ulema as an obstacle in the implementation of Islamic banking system in Pakistan. Although Pakistan is an Islamic country according to its constitution. Perhaps the people as well as rulers of Pakistan have not cared to study in depth the Islamic economic concept. general public is unaware of Islamic banking and therefore the central bank should instruct the banking industry how to conduct general 3 . in very few sectors of economy. According to the author. as it does not follow the principal objectives of economic order in Islam. it is not an Islamic state.1 Research Plan Statement of the Problem Pakistan initiated a process of the Islamization of its financial system in 1979.2.B. The counsel stated that the so-called present-day Islamic banking was in fact unIslamic due to high level of exploitation in these obsolete banking instruments that were being portrayed as Islamic. Though the financial system of the country had undergone significant changes since then. • On February 28 2001. 2.2 Review of Related Literature In order to develop the hypothesis for the aforementioned problem. an article was published in Daily Dawn titled “Islamic banking and some issues” by “Abdul Rauf Sivany” describing major problem areas of Islamic banking. So what are the factors impeding the growth of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan? The purpose of this study is to discuss the various factors impacting negatively (or positively) in the implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan.) and the pious caliphs. It is an irony that very little has been borrowed from the Islamic concept of economics in the Islamic state of Pakistan. the process of Islamization is yet to take its full course. and that too.
According to the author the progress of Islamic banking has been very slow. and that post-9/11 Islamic banking "has lost much of its glow globally". The author adds that the downward slide will continue unless serious steps are taken to promote transparency and public trust.3 Statement of the Hypothesis In the light of the literature reviewed above. The News.” 2.awareness programs on Islamic banking to enable the ordinary Pakistani to understand its essence. an article was published in Axcess News titled “While Lacking Innovation. 2. "innovation not imitation". and the scale and status of Islamic finance. • On August 13 2001. the following hypothesis is developed: “Lack of awareness. Islamic Banking Thrives” discussing the growth prospects of Islamic Banking. that the majority of Muslims still prefer to deal with conventional banks. Dawn. and Business recorder are the most credible newspapers of Pakistan so there current and past editions will be fully explored. an article was published in Daily Dawn titled “Protection of depositors interest main challenge: Islamic banking” by “Jawaid Bokhari” describing lack of security and low returns as main challenges of Islamic banking.4 Data Collection Lot of secondary data is available about Islamic Banking and the review of secondary data will aid us in determining the true factors impacting on Islamic Banking. and differences in opinion regarding Islamic Banking are creating obstacles in the implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan. Jang. Past editions of various newspapers and magazines will be reviewed to get valuable information. The author states that the real worth of the depositors' money is eroded by inflation requiring protection and the traditional bankers are supposed to ensure returns to the depositors over and above the rate of inflation to attract deposits while the returns offered by Islamic banks are much lower than traditional banks. low return on deposits and investments. 4 . • On August 30 2004.
5 . Books published on Islamic Banking are another valuable source and for this purpose.2 Bankers and Corporate Customers Judgment sampling technique will be used for bankers and corporate customers. There is a lot of material about Islamic Banking available on Internet and shall be referred definitely. no doubt. After applying the procedure of stratified sampling. Table 2. which have already been developed on Islamic Banking. interviews will be conducted from the top officials of selected banks on some suitable time. Since population-size of these sources is based on estimation. have immense significance and they will form an integral part of secondary data. 2. The material published by State Bank of Pakistan.5. Since these two groups are totally different. the biggest source of information on any topic. and Internet is. 2.1: Sampling Techniques for Primary Sources Sampling Population Source Technique Stratified Random Non Islamic Banks 30 Sampling Bankers Corporate Customers 50000 100000 Judgment Sampling Judgment Sampling Desired Sample Size 3 250 500 2.1 Non Islamic Banks Non Islamic Banks operating in Pakistan include foreign as well as local banks. In order to test the research hypothesis. and annual reports of various banks form another important source of secondary data. Corporate customers form an important part of banking industry and their views will be used in the testing of hypothesis. corporate customers and bankers are identified as main primary source of data. Bankers have more knowledge about Islamic Banking than any one else and their expertise will enable us to find the shortcomings of Islamic Banking.Research reports.5.5 Sampling Following table illustrates the sources that were identified for sampling. so I decided to use stratified random sampling technique.
b. Interview 3. 2. a.6. so.1 Questionnaire Questionnaires are very flexible as there are many ways to ask the same questions from different respondents. So.6. c. I planned to prepare questionnaire for a. Following people will be contacted on some future time. Religious Scholars Officials in Banks Economists Government Officials 2. I decided that following instruments will be used: 1. For this purpose. I shall interview the people having the most knowledge about Islamic Banking.so the most suitable technique of collection information from respondents is judgment sampling.6. Observation 2.3 Observation 6 .2 Interview Personal Interviews are the most reliable source of getting information from respondents. Corporate Customers Bankers Since the focus of the study is to find the factors having the most significant impact on Islamic Banking System in Pakistan. 2. Questionnaire 2. A copy of questionnaires is attached at the end of the report in the appendix section. I decided that the same set of multiple choice questions will be asked from both set of respondents. d.6 Instruments For collection of primary data. b.
2: Interval Scale Degree of Property Code Very High -2 High -1 Average 0 Low 1 Very Low 2 The statistical tools to be used with interval scale are a. Mean = = ∑fiXi The aforementioned tools will be used in summarizing and examining the nature of the results.Another instrument that will be used in my study is the observation. Table 2. People will be observed thoroughly while conducting interviews and getting questionnaires filled. Mean b. results will be analyzed thoroughly. interviews and observations. Since the purpose of the study is to identify the most critical issues impacting on Islamic banking so in order to test the hypothesis. The results will be then: (i) tabulated for the purpose of analysis. 2. Percentage Mean for various purposes will be calculated using the formula mentioned below.7 Data Analysis After the data collection phase that will be done through questionnaires. and (ii) figures and graphs drawn from the tabulated data 7 . interval scale will be used. Interval scale is assignment of numbers to rank items such that numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal distances in the property of factor being measured. Following table shows the interval scale to be used in this study.
1: Gantt chart for Research Study 2.9 Budget Rs 1000 500 200 200 300 500 1000 500 500 300 Rs 5000 500 copies of Questionnaires for Corporate Customers 250 copies of Questionnaires for Bankers Computer Time Stationary Transportation Secondary Data Printout Books and Magazines Report Printout Mobile Expense Report Binding Total Expenses 8 .2.8 Time Schedule Figure 2.
it was thought that the people from various parts of the country will be contacted but because of various constraints sample is only restricted to Karachi. • • • • 9 . Initially. Following are the limitations of this research study.3 Limitations This research report is purely an academic work and the research plan is totally fulfilled. The sample size is set limited for this research. Such questionnaires were discarded from the research. Although extreme care has been taken in collection and tabulation of results but there is a possibility that some of the results might not have recorded correctly and hence chance of minor mistakes in the analysis phase. Some even refused to fill the questionnaire saying the term “banking” is unislamic so the questionnaire in itself is a contradiction. Some took 2-3 days in filling questionnaires so there answers are debatable while few just ticked on the answers randomly. The Corporate Customers and Bankers were not easily accessible. and hence. • More secondary data could be examined but there might be a possibility that the report might be missing on some critical information in compiling the data altogether. Some of the Corporate Customers who have filled the questionnaires didn’t have much knowledge about Islamic Banking therefore answers were not provided to all the questions. top scholars were not contacted. I only managed to contact a few of them. Initially it was thought the top most and senior religious scholars will be approached for interview but because of their unavailability.
The definition of Riba. The real worth of the depositors' money is eroded by inflation requiring protection. Returns and Standards In this chapter. I have emphasized the areas of accounting for Islamic financing.16 = 0.g.10 Following figure shows the summarized results. provided by the Supreme Court. uncertainty of its long-term prosperity. includes any increase over and above the principal amount.1: Computation of Mean for Security on Deposits and Investments Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 8 13 13 11 5 50 f2 2 6 12 7 3 30 f1 X -16 -13 0 11 10 -8 f2X -4 -6 0 7 6 -3 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0. and the difficulties that are faced in the promotion of Islamic economic system due to these factors. I have tried to lionize these parameters. and many other direct and indirect parameters.. small size of Islamic banking industry. 10 . Numerous reasons are propounded in this regard. The results are shown in the table given below. returns to investors. Regarding the impact of security on deposits and investments on Islamic banking. unstable returns. their dealings at different levels. e. Experts point out that the rise in prices is now an every day phenomenon.1 Security on Deposits and Investments Many depositors and investors have reservations about security of their money. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers.4 Dealings. The traditional bankers are supposed to ensure returns to the depositors over and above the rate of inflation. many important things are still undefined. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor differently. Price stability is a thing of the past. The most important reason for lack of security is found to be Riba. Since Islamic banking is in embryonic state in Pakistan. The incentive is offered to attract deposits. 4. They are not sure whether it is safe in Islamic products or not. depreciating value and declining purchasing power of the rupee. Table 4. It does not take into account inflation.
4. return on Islamic products will remain point of concern. However. They are dealing in different types of investments and securities in Islamic as well as nonIslamic modes. with the alliance of SBP and other leading financial institutions. Corporations have shown little interest about low returns. They are contended in compliance with Islamic norms and it is more important than any other factor. Therefore. but they are available in the market. Bankers have low importance for issue of return. Many steps have been taken in this regard.2 Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Government. security is not a big problem in the eyes of bankers. 11 . However. Main reason can be that when intension is to transact in Halal and Islamic way. insecure than current Islamic products.Figure 4. as it is not stable. Many of the non-Islamic instruments are more vulnerable and. wants to promote investment in country. amount of return becomes a secondary consideration (or looses significance altogether in many cases). One of the important ones is to implement Islamic banking system. people who want riba-free products will go to Islamic banks. bankers are working hard to improve the security of all types of instruments. hence. So. and many people are reluctant towards Islamic products just because of it. However. Former State Bank Governor Dr Ishrat Hussain said the interest-based prevailing system and Riba-free banking mode would run parallel. while the people who want fixed income on investments and deposits will opt for non-Islamic banks.1: Responses to Security on Deposits and Investments Corporates Bankers Results are very different for corporations and bankers. return on deposits and investments are bothersome.
it might bother them in initial adoption because of differences in terminologies. including Islamic mode. Bankers.27 e 2 6 3 12 6 Total 49 30 -10 -8 Following figure shows the summarized results. In general. but they seem comfortable with dealing any type of return under any mode of banking/financing.2: Responses to Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Corporates Bankers The results are. low return bothered very few companies. 12 . consistent for both. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. or bothered all companies in a very negligible amount. corporate as well as banking sectors. Table 4.Regarding the impact of rate of return on deposits and investments on Islamic banking.2: Computation of Mean for Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 6 6 -12 -12 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 16 6 -16 -6 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 15 11 0 0 = -0. The results are shown in the table given below. as it is a routine thing for them. on the other hand. seem very comfortable with the issue of return. Corporations did not heed low returns because it becomes a secondary issue if the intension is Halal and Islamic way of financing.20 d 1 6 4 6 4 = -0. So. Banks are dealing with returns on investments and deposits in all modes of financing. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor in a similar manner. virtually. Figure 4.
from a handful in the 1970’s to about 500 today and global banks such as Citibank and HSBC opening units to cater to roughly 1. customers. with the rise in the number of firms offering banking products and services compliant with Islamic law and Sharia. especially in the era of globalization and impending WTO regime. From corporations’ viewpoint. they have to deal with local as well as foreign stakeholders e. companies. who make deposits and investments in different portfolios. Table 4.46 d 1 12 4 12 4 = -0. The results are shown in the table given below. so.3 International Dealings Islamic bankers have been scrambling for years to cement rapidly growing $200 billion sector into mainstream global finance. they need smooth international procedures to communicate at all platforms effectively. Islamic banking has a long way to go to compete with conventional financial institutions. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. Regarding the impact of international dealings on Islamic banking.g. Same reasons may be quoted for bankers as that of corporations. creditors.50 e 2 6 4 12 8 Total 50 30 -23 -15 Following figure shows the summarized results.4. individuals. Banks deal with different types of clients that include local and foreign clients e. investors. etc.3: Responses to International Dealings Corporates Bankers Results are almost identical for corporations and bankers and both are considerably concerned with international dealings.4 Experts in Islamic Banking 13 . auditors. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor quite highly. 4. Their hard work has paid off.g.2 billion Muslims worldwide. etc. shareholders.3: Computation of Mean for International Dealings Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 20 9 -40 -18 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 7 9 -7 -9 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 5 4 0 0 = -0. Figure 4.
the Shariah adviser must possess a postgraduate degree in Islamic jurisprudence/ Usooluddin or LLM (Shariah) from any recognized university with exposure to banking and finance. workshops. but not a mix of both features. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. According to the revised Fit and Proper Criteria issued by the Islamic Banking Department of the State Bank. Bankers say if they fail to find Shariah advisors from amongst the graduates of Deeni Madaris they will turn to the departments of Islamic learning of reputed universities including the Islamabad University that has international institute of Islamic economics attached with it. Or. or excellent Islamic scholars. It shall result in better understanding of Islamic economic system. Dilemma is that Muslim world has either excellent economists. some positive proceeds are underway in this regard. Not too many experts exist who are good on both the aspects. The results are shown in the table given below. Sources in the SBP say if the Shariah advisors fulfill the criteria laid down for them under the set of rules for Islamic banking it is irrelevant whether they come from Deeni Madaris or conventional universities. 14 . the Shariah adviser must possess a degree from any recognized Waffaqul Madaris (Dares-e-Nizami) with a minimum of second class Bachelor Degree with Economics. no doubt. Proper academic structure should be implemented to offer undergraduate. one of the core problem areas. should be regularly arranged for the professionals in the field. Regarding the impact of experts on Islamic banking. seminars. Alternatively. banks need to have Shariah advisors well versed in both Islamic financial system as well as conventional banking to supervise Islamic banking to be undertaken by them-even if it is done through one dedicated branch. Under the rules. However. and post-graduate level courses in Islamic economic studies.This is. graduate. Senior bankers say many other banks also want to start Islamic banking branches and they are making some in-house preparations as well-but there are not many Shariah advisors available. Furthermore. training courses etc. he must possess a degree from Waffaqul Madaris with Takhassus fil Fiqh (specialization in Islamic law) and sufficient understanding of banking and finance. It is root-cause of many difficulties that Islamic banking system faces today.
Because of meticulous attitude of banks. Figure 4. then the whole project shall be marred. banks being somewhat more conscious.4: Computation of Mean for Experts in Islamic Banking Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 15 9 -30 -18 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 14 13 -14 -13 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 12 6 0 0 = -0. After all. both.4: Responses to Experts in Islamic Banking Corporates Bankers Corporations and banks. The fear is about authenticity of already scarce number of experts. they cannot risk their banks at the mercy of handful of people.97 e 2 4 0 8 0 Total 49 30 -32 -29 Following figure shows the summarized results. are highly conscious about the lack of experts in Islamic banking. or if advisor did not proved effective for them.65 d 1 4 2 4 2 = -0. Banks fear that if they fail to acquire advisors of required skills and expertise.Table 4. corporations are also hesitant in investing the banks that dared to start Islamic products. 4.5 Taxation Policies 15 . as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor very critically. Companies do not want to entangle their money in such places that are already uncertain about their future prospects. They will have to roll back it and bear the consequences. Banks are bound to appoint Shariah advisors before plunging in Islamic products.
Table 4.08 = 0. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor differently. The review of legal and tax regulatory aspects should come hand in hand with continuous research and development in the product development.5: Computation of Mean for Taxation Policies Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 7 10 18 8 6 49 f2 1 4 10 12 3 30 f1 X -14 -10 0 8 12 -4 f2X -2 -4 0 12 5 11 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0.Taxation policies are one of the most important issue under the paradigm of standardization of accounting rules for Islamic banking system that will facilitate the dealings at all platforms. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. There are legal and taxation issues involved in launching this type of financing in the local market. The results are shown in the table given below. Regarding the impact of taxation policies on Islamic banking.37 Following figure shows the summarized results. 16 . It is believed that government will face problems in developing secondary market for Islamic debt instruments and financial products.
accounting bases. However. revenue and expense matching. govt. So. the results of Islamic banking schemes may not be adequately defined. the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan (ICAP) has prepared an Islamic Financial Accounting Standard for leasing business. They have to materialize them in effective manner. disclosures of accounting information. So it bothers very little to companies how they pay it.37) suggests that banks have had to adjust with taxation in Islamic mode because they are responsible to levy it for government. mean of (-0. It is applicable with certain qualifications. what bothers more is that they have to pay it.Figure 4. Regarding the impact of absence of accounting and auditing Standards on Islamic banking. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers.5: Responses to Taxation Policies Corporates Bankers Big differences in opinions exist between corporate and banking sector. 4. After all. Uncertainty in accounting principles involves revenue realization. banks face some problems in Islamic way of taxation. mean of (+0. they are paying taxes on other transactions also. From corporations’ perspective. valuation. This standard would be called IFAS-2 Ijarah.. The results are shown in the table given below. and other bodies. etc. this standard does not apply to agreements that are contracts for services and that do not transfer the right to use assets from one contracting party to other. They have to negotiate all the techniques with SBP. From banks’ viewpoint. particularly. profit and loss shares attributed to depositors.6 Accounting and Auditing Standards Senior bankers have urged for changing accounting mechanism of existing banking system should State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) wanted to launch true Islamic financial system in the country. Sources in the leasing industry said that under the directives of State Bank of Pakistan (SBP).08) indicates that most of them have little or no problem in paying tax in Islamic process. Thus. 17 .
SBP.6: Responses to Accounting and Auditing Standards Corporates Bankers Very different opinions are obtained about the accounting and auditing standards for Islamic banking system. Corporations have given low priority to these standards. and other similar authorities. are somewhat conscious. on the other hand. They have been.23 e 2 8 1 16 2 Total 50 30 5 -7 Following figure shows the summarized results. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this differently with bankers showing more concern for it. So.6: Computation of Mean for Accounting and Auditing Standards Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 6 2 -12 -4 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 10 10 -10 -10 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 15 12 0 0 = 0. Reason might be that they have virtually no. Corporations are supposed to follow the standards only. they are comfortable in dealing with it because these standards for Islamic banking are nothing more than just ‘new standards’ or ‘different standards’. SECP. Bankers. they showed no interest for development of accounting and auditing standards for Islamic banking on the same grounds. and are. dwelling with so many rules and standards of accounting. Figure 4. or very little.Table 4. role in the formulation of these standards and policies.10 d 1 11 5 11 5 = -0. The key players are ICAP. But. They might feel awkward in the beginning but will get used to Islamic accounting system very quickly. 4.7 Concluding Remarks 18 . overall.
companies. In this way. it is observed that overall impression about the Islamic banking system is quite convoluted. Islamic banks would better face the modern challenges at international level. dearth of experts in Islamic finance is very big problem.In conclusion. Very few scholars of international acclaim exist who are equally good in Islamic laws and economics. accounting. inconsistencies in dealing with them keep the foreign investors from Islamic banking. These notions need to be eradicated sagaciously. Furthermore. Islamic banking procedures are quite different from those of conventional counterparts. hence. People. and overall banking system should be ensured. taxation. banks themselves are uncertain as how to deal with certain situations. and in most cases. We need many more such researchers. So the standardization of auditing. Some even think their money shall be lost in Islamic method of banks. 5 Portfolio and Accessibility 19 . Investors and depositors fear that they will get low return or no return at all.
20 . Firstly. Several commendable measures have already been taken. the State Bank has allowed commercial banks to set up Islamic banking subsidiaries or provide full Islamic banking facilities through dedicated branches. the role of government is evaluated in the perspective of encouraging Islamic financing by launching its own securities and instruments. Furthermore.In this chapter. commercial banks hold some reservations about some decisions of SBP. and tried to see whether they fulfill the demands of people or not. an Islamic banking subsidiary has to be a public limited company and must be listed on the stock exchange with a paid-up capital of Rs 1 billion. at all. Licenses will be issued only for Islamic banking. Regarding the impact of lack of banks and branches on Islamic banking. The results are shown in the table given below. and several other banks are in the process of starting it. I have tried to evaluate the products and services that are offered by the Islamic banks. it is growing gradually in Pakistan. 5. It is also examined what other features need to be added in the available repertoire to enhance the transactions on higher level. SBP has decided not to issue any more licenses for conventional/non-Islamic banking. Under the rules. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers.1 Banks and Branches Islamic banking is in nascent stage yet. Only Meezan Bank is the only full-fledged Islamic bank operating currently. Secondly. Many other steps are also underway. Accessibility of the Islamic banks/their branches is also canvassed thoroughly. then how and when? Another reason is that the banks themselves do not believe that interestfree banking is possible. Commercial banks are reluctant in starting Islamic banking on a wide scale mainly because they are not sure if the government really wants to convert the financial system into Islamic one." says a top banker whose bank has submitted to the SBP a plan for starting Islamic banking through a dedicated branch. However. "It is far easier to start with a dedicated branch rather than with a subsidiary. Many local and foreign banks say they are making in-house preparations to start Islamic banking through dedicated branches but none of them is ready to set up an Islamic banking subsidiary. and if so. the present interestbased banking is violating any of the Islamic laws. However. Many even doubt if. Government and State Bank of Pakistan are working enthusiastically to promote Islamic banks.
This gets more important when the business is in inception. Banking. Pakistani financial institutions and banks are well equipped with professionals who are qualified. lacks expertise and experience. or customers/clients lack sufficient knowledge about the industry. especially Islamic banking is no exception to it. professional skills and exposure in Islamic banking. and forward-looking. and somewhat stringent conditions from SBP for maintaining certain levels of funds and financial ratios.Table 5. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor quite highly. banks are facing lots of difficulties in launching full-fledged Islamic system. as well as starting dedicated branches. Similarly. etc. and one of the most influential parts of any business. and their available branches. 21 .68 d 1 3 6 3 6 = -0. Corporations do not want to deposit or invest in an industry that is very small.1: Computation of Mean for Banks and Branches Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 10 6 -20 -12 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 21 13 -21 -13 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 14 4 0 0 = -0. 5. experienced. and lots of speculations and rumors are in the air about it. customer services. and standards. Figure 5. A company might be better than its competitors in terms of quality. the growth of Islamic banking and products is more of a marketing problem than any other aspect. and marketing strategies for its products and services.1: Responses to Banks and Branches Corporates Bankers Corporations and bankers are almost equally concerned with the lack of Islamic banks. In my view. but might be taken over by competitors just because of poor promotion. They lack Islamic experts.2 Customer Services Marketing is always the integral.57 e 2 2 1 4 2 Total 50 30 -34 -17 Following figure shows the summarized results.
If proper steps are taken in this regard.e. They should tell their clients/customers about all the intricacies and implications of this new industry because they do not have enough exposure towards Islamic banking.2: Computation of Mean for Customer Services Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 14 4 -28 -8 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 12 5 -12 -5 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 18 12 0 0 = -0. etc).But the core issue is promotion of Islamic banking as industry and to create awareness in customers (individuals. a customer services are main responsibility of banks rather than corporations. corporations. as shown in figure both the groups have rated the impact of this factor differently. most of the corporations have rated the lack of customer services as area of high concern for them. i. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers.. As the results show. Customer services is one of the most important aspect of marketing strategy that interacts with clients at lowest level. the situation will change positively.2: Responses to Customer Services Corporates Bankers Big differences exist in the opinions of both the sectors about the importance of customer services provided. I think that this result is the crux of problems of awareness about Islamic banks. 22 . Interestingly. Banks should ensure that their customer services are well informed about the latest progressions in this industry on international level and specially the position and policies of their own bank.07 e 2 3 2 6 4 Total 50 30 -31 -2 Following figure shows the summarized results. but corporations are more concerned about it than are the banks. communicates with them directly. Corporations want to invest and deposit in Islamic instruments but they lack adequate information and experience. Table 5. banks. The results are shown in the table given below.62 d 1 3 7 3 7 = -0. Figure 5. This can be effective tool in achieving the aforementioned objectives. Regarding the impact of customer services on Islamic banking. so they are reluctant in doing so.
among others. particularly spoke of the difficulties of putting Shariah into practice in case of the government's financial operations.The results of the research along these lines are promising in that they adequately rationalize the behavior of Islamic banks in the market place and provide theoretically justifications for the observable facts. Today it is difficult to avoid the international attention paid to the Islamic banking phenomena by the media. periodicals and scholarly journals devoted to Islamic fiscal and monetary policy.Unfortunately. and do not update the knowledge of the staff to entertain the clients properly. Masoud 1989). coming up with new solutions. banks have not taken the customer services in high priority. Lot of R&D work is being done and lot more needs to be done. which he pointed out. Ishrat Hussain. Kuran 1995. the government through a variety of debts and public lending is now financing the deficit of the government budget. For example. "But how would you do this in an Islamic system to mop up finances when there are no assets?" The emergence of Islamic banking has coincided with the rapid growth of research into so-called Islamic economics including an extensive literature. he said.3 Research and Development Like in any other industry. The researchers find that the flow and symmetry of information between lenders and investors is crucial to the likely success of PLS financing (Aggarwal and Yousef 1996. Very few banks have taken this issue seriously. by scholars and by the banking community. Former Governor of SBP. research and development (R&D) will play a key role for Islamic banking in answering conflicting situations. seminars. They should arrange workshops. Importance of R&D is realized at all levels in Pakistan. 5. would need a lot of innovations and research to find solutions of many problems that confront officials. in the British Financial Times and Middle East Economic Digest. 23 . for the staff. However. and training programs etc. and making the things easy. The general facts about financing in Islamic banking which have emerged in the past few years have provided researchers with the impetus to focus their study of Islamic banking and finance on the apparent divergence between Islamic banking in practice and in theory. and have taken necessary measures to keep their staff members abreast of the new policies and procedures of Islamic banking. this is not enough. and banks still need to go a long way in this regard. and finance and banking. Most of the banks are continuing with the existing policies of customer services. Surveys of the Islamic banking market have recently appeared.
but little since then.3: Computation of Mean for Research and Development Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 10 19 11 8 2 50 f2 6 8 6 7 3 30 f1 X -20 -19 0 8 4 -27 f2X -12 -8 0 8 8 -4 24 . In addition. This would include cross-sectional studies of Islamic banks focusing on their utilization of specific instruments. the biggest obstacle to this empirical agenda stems from the paucity of data provided by Islamic banks on their operations. With few exceptions. but has rarely been looked into. yet the resources devoted to it hardly match the challenges facing the industry. Islamic finance became a subject of academic research in the 1980s. This need not imply that the tenets of neoclassical economic methodology should be indiscriminately imposed on every modeling effort of an Islamic economic issue. their performance relative to conventional banks. How these instruments worked in medieval Muslim societies may have a great deal to tell us about their potential today. Research into the problems of Islamic banking and finance would be greatly served by studies that are grounded in sound economic analysis and systematic modeling. and have been applied to the study of credit market problems in other developing countries. emphasis should be placed on empirical testing using panels of transactions within banks to investigate the contractual characteristics of the menu of Islamic financial instruments. Finally. and their contribution to sectoral-financing. and every year it is discussed at highprofile conferences. Islamic banks have the most to gain from enabling researchers to better understand the capacity and limitations of the instruments they employ in financing. Table 5. rationale and workings of the Islamic financial system is a second avenue of research that holds great promise. undergoing much refinement at the time. Regarding the impact of research and development on Islamic banking. Ironically. It must be remembered that the basic Islamic legal framework and instruments in use today were developed by jurists back in the Middle Ages. Unfortunately. All innovations require research and development that in turn draws on basic research in universities and laboratories. Islamic banks have been averse to releasing information on a regular and detailed basis.It should be emphasized that the theoretical results employed to analyze the practice of Islamic banking were developed long ago. there is little doubt that our understanding of the potential of Islamic instruments would be greatly enhanced by concerted empirical examination of their performance in the market place. Interdisciplinary historical research into the origin. The results are shown in the table given below. This fact alone accounts for lack of any serious empirics. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers.
13 Following figure shows the summarized results. Bankers should realize that research could play the role of glue among bankers. as shown in figure corporates have rated this factor more critically than bankers. they can only rely upon the results and propositions of research conducted by financial institutions. As we already know. However. but they hesitate because of many unanswered questions. Islamic financing. many corporations are willing to invest in Islamic products.4 Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market 25 . and other clients towards Islamic way of financing. Only research will rectify these questions. and try to be more effective. they realize the importance of R&D. because their publications and announcements about proceeds in Islamic banking can persuade individuals.f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0.3: Responses to Research and Development Corporates Bankers From viewpoint of corporations. Nonetheless. financial institutions are busy in research. They believe that progress in R&D will bring solutions to many obscure problems. Lots of work is underway. They will carefully scrutinize the outcomes of research in order to develop better understanding of Islamic instruments before investing in them. But corporations cannot get involved directly in R&D activities of Islamic banking. the realization of importance of R&D is less in bankers as compared to corporations and other clients. Figure 5. 5. companies. But the more important thing is that they conduct research in effective way. work more diligently. and clients.54 = -0. They will have to put more funds in R&D. and trying to come up with reasonable answers to all the questions that are propounded towards Islamic banking system.
MII refers to a mechanism whereby a deficit Islamic banking institution can obtain investment from a surplus Islamic banking institution based on mudarabah or profit sharing. The answer lies in developing sort of Islamic T-bills. The results are shown in the table given below. Regarding the impact of non-availability of Shariah compliant government securities and money market on Islamic banking. Some participants of the course told Dawn that one of the major instruments used in the Islamic inter-bank market in Malaysia is mudarabah inter-bank investment (MII) that can also be introduced in Pakistan. But they admit that it may take the government months to work out their nitty-gritty. SBP officials as well as commercial bankers attended the course. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. The SBP sources say what delays the approval of the design for the proposed Islamic T-bills is that the government has to identify the assets to back up this instrument Bankers who are well versed with Islamic banking say government assets in organizations like Pakistan Steel can be securitized under such Islamic modes like Salam or Istisna. The Malaysian experts were of the view that an urgent need exists for introducing such instruments in Pakistan after the SBP has allowed the commercial banks to start Islamic banking and one full-fledged Islamic bank has already been in operation. The State Bank is at an advanced stage of setting up an Islamic banking department and SBP officials say that once the department starts working issues like development of Shariah-based liquidity management instruments would receive immediate attention. a team of Islamic banking experts from Bank Negara (central bank of Malaysia) and other financial institutions conducted a fiveday orientation course on Islamic banking in Karachi. Under an agreement between the State Bank of Pakistan and the Bank Negara Malaysia. Liquidity management conforming to the rules of Shariah is a big challenge. 26 . Few years back.Securities and financing instruments issued by the government or government bodies are considered the safest of all others. Some of them told Dawn that the issue of setting up an Islamic inter-bank money market was discussed at length. In the absence of an Islamic instrument for liquidity-management scares not only the already existing institutions but also those commercial banks that plan to start Islamic banking through dedicated branches. The Meezan Bank has already developed the module of Ijarah Sukuk or Islamic T-bills and it is currently under review at the State Bank. the two central banks offer technical assistance to each other.
4: Responses to Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market 27 .63 Following figure shows the summarized results. as shown in figure both groups have responded in almost a similar manner. Figure 5.4: Computation of Mean for Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 10 15 15 3 5 48 f2 7 10 9 3 1 30 f1 X -20 -15 0 3 10 -22 f2X -14 -10 0 3 2 -19 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0.46 = -0.Table 5.
5. Islamic banks will have to counter the products. Banks. Similarly. Furthermore. Islamic versions for Insurance. The Former SBP chief believed that Takaful or cooperative insurance is the right step forward towards the breakdown and removal of mental blocks and bottlenecks in the way of insurance in the Muslim culture. Some instruments are to be launched shortly. Efforts should be focused to combine Islamic financing instruments with latest technological advancements. or to sniff how the Islamic banking looks like. or equal at least. and facilitate in global transactions. like. Many Islamic financing instruments are already out in the market but private institutions own them. mutual funds.g. He said that any bank or financial institution that has some innovative product 28 . Currently. e. but serious efforts are underway. Islamic banks do not have very diverse portfolio to offer.5 Products Offered by Other Banks To compete in the market. ATMs. some instruments shall be launched shortly. says that ribafree. might invest in such securities for other reasons. Ishrat Hussain. other companies that are not interested in Islamic mode of financing. credit cards. he said the banks had been allowed to bring forward the Islamic products and Shariah compliant banking system to ensure the availability of Islamic banking products for the people. Leasing. or. However. and interest-based systems will run in parallel. investors will deposit in these products and services.. However. Islamic banking system will have to provide counterparts of all the financing instruments that are offered by non-Islamic banks. government-owned financing instrument are not available. are relatively more involved in this issue because investment tools and financing instruments are a routine activity for them. and other plastic money products. After all. and investment banks need to be promoted on institutional level of reciprocating. on-line transactions via Internet as well as mobile. All the companies that are interested in Islamic financing mode are eager to invest in such securities. or just for experience.Corporates Bankers Results are somewhat similar here. Unfortunately. on the other hand. to diversify their investment portfolio. debit cards. Dr. brokerage houses. quality than those of competitors. Former Governor SBP. these products have to have better. for a consistent and safe return.
Regarding the impact of non-availability of products offered by other banks on Islamic Banking." he said. The banks have to seriously examine the prevailing situation. There is a large information deficit in the Islamic financial industry that hampers its further growth and development. especially agencies that would rate products and institutions on the basis of their Shariah compliance. In the end. The banks have to now analyze the market to ascertain whether it is a saturated or a young market. is the best example of this deficit. Table 5. Either to compete in a cutthroat market. Markets are groomed on product innovation and financial engineering. or compete through diversified products relying on product innovation and market expansion. The financial sector is faced with tough decisions. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. "We are ready to give permission to such banks. then they have to concentrate on growth and product development. If they find it to be young. They have to realize that what the Pakistani market genuinely lacks in product innovation. The absence of rating agencies. the Islamic banking consumer will rely on them to ensure that he goes home with at least the same benefits and satisfaction that a conventional banking system provides and at times even better.to offer to the investors or general-public could seek State Bank's permission to open a window for Islamic banking or even a bank. in which no one can survive. The results are shown in the table given below.5: Computation of Mean for Products Offered by Other Banks Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 7 18 16 6 3 50 f2 6 11 9 4 0 30 f1 X -14 -18 0 6 6 -20 f2X -12 -11 0 4 0 -19 f1 = Frequency for Corporates 29 .
also the same as for previous one.6 Islamic Banking in Rural Areas This is another understated point. More efforts are needed amidst all this. to get better understanding of Islamic financing.f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0. Corporations are conscious about the nature and quality of Islamic financing tools. as shown in figure both have responded in a similar fashion. Numbers of branches of bank are almost negligible in such areas. More than 70% population of Pakistan lives in rural areas. villages. so. They want more options to invest in. Even the companies that do not want to be in Islamic banking system might want to invest in Islamic securities to diversify their investments. 5. and other underdeveloped areas. let alone the branches of Islamic banks. Figure 5.40 = -0. Unless attractive Islamic instruments are available. and money market). they bear more responsibility than corporations. government. Banks are networked with SBP. they are not able to invest in Islamic system. largely. Banks have the responsibility of creating the Islamic versions of financing instruments and to implement them successfully. and other financial institutions and some products are in pipeline for launching. 30 . Reasons are.63 Following figure shows the summarized results. or any other reasons.5: Responses to Products Offered By Other Banks Corporates Bankers Results are the same as for the previous aspect (lack of government owned securities.
Right now. Figure 5. involving lot of documentation. They only provide deposits since they are more inclined towards Shariah compatible banking. where core business and trade occurs. Liabilities cover deposits and their mobilization. since there are faith and conviction driven. They are not easily generated.Islamic banks have very limited branches in the urban areas and cities. whereas. as most people are afraid of the information sharing involved in Islamic Banking.10 Following figure shows the summarized results. as shown in figure both groups have shown less concern for this factor. The results are shown in the table given below. Regarding the impact of concentration of Islamic banking in urban areas rather than rural areas. one is liability and the other is asset. Bankers argue that banking has two sides.6: Computation of Mean for Islamic Banking in Rural Areas Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 3 19 12 6 10 50 f2 3 7 12 6 2 30 f1 X -6 -19 0 6 12 -7 f2X -6 -7 0 6 4 -3 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0. that Islamic Banking is more cumbersome. rural areas are never able to generate enough business. deposits are not the biggest challenge. These areas are. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. and believe. Table 5. Assets on the other hand are commercial ventures. in fact.14 = -0. So. The assets are generally generated and concentrated in the urban areas.6: Responses to Islamic Banking in Rural Areas 31 . tremendous business opportunity if handled sagaciously. but also open branches in rural areas. Islamic banks should not only increase the number of branches in cities. and these are not so easily accessible by all people from all parts of the cities.
Results of survey are also same roughly. not bothered by the lack of branches in rural areas. because it does not hamper their businesses. staff of the banks is not trained about intricacies of Islamic financing. and single handedly can be rated as only compulsion.Corporates Bankers Bankers and corporations realize this fact.7 Concluding Remarks In conclusion. Research and development should be further emphasized and new solutions should come up to meet modern challenges. the chapter in a glance suggests that the Islamic banks should open more branches so that they become accessible by more customers. including SBP. Since most of the businesses are present in cities banks have opened most of their branches in cities. banks and companies have given very little. Reason is that Karachi is the economic hub of Pakistan. The reasons for not bothering the concentration of Islamic banks and/or branches in cities. They are. Most important reason is that banks facilitate in economic activities. so they are unaware of new proceeds in Islamic banking. So. and Islamic T-bills soon will come. Islamic banks should enhance the available products domain by adding 32 . or virtually no importance to this aspect. and people get better services. Customer services needs to be improved drastically. Furthermore. and urban areas rather than in rural areas are numerous. almost all of the banks and other financial institutions are headquartered in Karachi. In fact. Therefore. but the efforts are in the way. Although government is advocating Islamic financing system. On the other hand. 5. investments. and earnings. they need be trained. most of the corporations and other businesses are also headquartered in urban areas and cities. Clients are not getting enough information. but they are not very much concerned about it. the Central Bank of Pakistan. like banks. Similarly. and is the center of all financial infrastructures. and simple. trade. and the conditions do not seem to change in future. This reason is obvious.
g. so no need of banks in rural areas. while almost 80% population lives in rural areas. Another major factor is that most of the banks and branches are in urban areas. things should change. ATMs. credit and debit cards. so they cannot access them. But banks say that all the economic and business dealings occur in cities. online and mobile banking. 6 Other Issues What really are the reasons for the lack of progress at the practical level about the application of Islamic Banking? Different people may have 33 . etc.high-tech facilities. smart cards. However. e..
Proponents of the Islamic banking generally attribute it to the lack of will and commitment of the successive governments and of the government machinery at various levels. Awareness is more. credibility of Islamic banks is the most important aspects and the key to success and development of the emerging discipline. The foremost pre-requisite in this regard is mass awareness about the concept of Islamic banking among the general public and the education of bankers and the business community. it does indicate towards a general lack of awareness about the Islamic banking alternatives that are already in practice. Companies with excessive reliance on debt financing will also be excluded. public is unaware. 6. While this view carries weight one cannot ignore other dimensions of the issue. The depositors and investors who have been avoiding the banking channel so far due to involvement of Riba would approach Islamic Banks only when they are assured that their funds would be invested in Shariah compliant activities.different perceptions on the issue. or has distorted information of Islamic banking. Most important being the impression at various levels that Islamic banking has not been in practice anywhere in the world in its real spirit and therefore in the absence of the tested alternative Islamic model there is little likelihood of a successful beginning. In Pakistan. Therefore. Through a comprehensive campaign. problem of marketing campaign than any thing else. and financing is provided purely on the basis of Islamic modes. The clients would need to be assured of Shariah compliance that funds are kept separate from their conventional deposits. Similarly. Efforts are needed at changing the general perception about return on financial savings/assets and creating genuine demand for Islamic banking. Therefore. the first step to be taken is to create awareness in people as well as in bankers. instead any new experiment may backfire. Though this impression may not hold ground. a sort of.1 Awareness Awareness of something is always the first drop of rain. people must be made to understand that Islamic banking does not mean free loaning to the business and industry and that the savers can justifiably take return on the basis of results of the business activity undertaken with the help of their funds. 34 . Lack of awareness as the foremost factor hampering the growth of Islamic banking in Pakistan. and hence gearing ratios will need to be monitored. industrialist and the business community need to be persuaded to raise more and more equity-based funds instead of loans. Islamic banks would also need to ensure that their funds are not invested in Haram and indecent activities.
g. Figure 6. as shown in figure both the groups have rated this factor quite highly.This also highlights the need for education and training of all the stakeholders. Banks should conduct general awareness programs on Islamic banking to enable the ordinary Pakistani to understand its essence. All-out efforts need to be made by the Government. For this purpose. Table 6. Further.1: Responses to Awareness 35 . seminars. through their respective web sites. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. Only a well thought out plan with committed and sustained efforts could lead to success and ultimately to transformation of the economy. short training courses. The universities and other educational institutions are urged to produce people knowing Shariah as well as principles of finance. workshops. etc. Islamic banking and finance is a part of Islamic economic system the very basis of which revolves around justice and morality.20 Following figure shows the summarized results.1: Computation of Mean for Awareness Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 31 12 6 0 1 50 f2 12 12 6 0 0 30 f1 X -62 -12 0 0 2 -72 f2X -24 -12 0 0 0 -36 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -1.44 = -1. foolproof documentation of transactions. amendment in tax and other relevant laws are essential requirements. The results are shown in the table given below. the religious and political leadership and intelligentsia in general for enhancing morality of the populace. Training of banks’ personnel and creating awareness among the people about the true nature of Islamic banking is an aspect demanding concerted efforts on the level of war footing. e. Regarding the impact of awareness on Islamic banking.
Additionally. Former World Bank officer Shahid Javed Burki.. and authenticity than any other body. Monterey. Internet. and feel the need to improve the level of knowledge about Islamic mode of financing. successive governments have manipulated Islamic symbols not only to shore up state legitimacy. For corporate and common people.Corporates Bankers Lack of awareness is rated as very significant reason by bankers as well as by corporate. In Pakistan. radio etc. books. papers. says that in Pakistan pragmatism has usually prevailed over piety and efforts to Islamize the banking system have been largely cosmetic. educational institutions. and other financial institutions. In short. Pakistan is likely to move towards a system of parallel banking and financial institutions that provide greater choice to the Muslim consumer. awareness is the main problem. and being. who also served as Pakistan's finance minister for a brief time in the 1990s.g. has been the expansion of state power and the resistance these efforts have provoked. magazines etc. taken in this direction. SBP. Government realizes these facts and is serious to take the bull by the horns. and electronic media e. newspapers. at every level. he says. but also to cast their redistributive policies in a favorable political light. seminars. Although the steps are. Both realize the importance of it.g. It owns the largest resources. enough literature should be available in printed form e. The 'central issue' in Pakistani politics over the years. should be available for bankers and for interested corporate. 6. argues Vali Nasr of the Naval Postgraduate School. he argues. TV. 36 . But more impetus and more effectiveness is required. and regular workshops. and should be improved by using all the resources. symposiums. rather than replace conventional institutions. Islamic scholars. training courses etc.2 Government Support Government can play the most important role for upbringing Islamic banking system in Pakistan. learned people etc could play pivotal role within their domain. Government can play a significant role here in collaboration with banks.
37 . Kennedy. Charles Kennedy. voluntarily adopted and practiced simply for its efficiency. nonetheless opted for 'prudential. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan Shoukat Aziz said the modern financial system had not been constructed overnight rather it had evolved over centuries. this does not mean that "we cannot challenge the system. However.e. The Former SBP chief said the government and the central bank had sent experts to different countries to study the Islamic banking system and found that there was not a single country where the Islamic banking system was in practice 'completely'. However. in fact given the system of beliefs that we subscribe to. adding it has been thoroughly tested. they agree that it should be a gradual process i. reliability and safety. however. incremental' changes that did not seriously challenge the operations or the corporate interests of domestic banks or Pakistanbased affiliates of multinational banks. adding. and therefore. Even Zia-ul-Haq.Another author. applied and measured for its ability to meet the needs of fast expanding and increasingly complex economies of the world. But Islamic scholar says conventional banking should be eradicated rather than going on simultaneously. on the issue of switching of the system. that all federal and provincial laws that provide for riba must be brought into conformity with Islamic law. and can help in implementation of Islamic banking system. he said. he asserted that there was no pressure from any side. Dr Ishrat said that the government's strategy was to move gradually towards transformation of Islamic financial system without disrupting the system. reviews the efforts of Islamic legal experts to secure a judicial ruling that riba is repugnant to Islam. argues Mr. we should never hesitate to challenge the conflicting practices. It is widely recognized. Some Islamic scholar agree upon that government has the most influential role. and who in 1979 publicly pledged to eliminate riba from Pakistan within three years." He said. evolution. who professed to want to govern Pakistan according to Islamic precepts. His analysis underscores the essentially political rather than legal character of this question. undoubtedly. including the IMF and World Bank. it was the responsibility of the government to create the necessary space and enabling environment so that such incremental steps could be adopted out of free choices made by private individuals and institutions. rather than revolution. accepted.
Regarding the impact of government support on Islamic banking.2: Computation of Mean for Government Support Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 14 20 10 4 2 50 f2 8 12 5 5 0 30 f1 X -28 -20 0 4 4 -40 f2X -16 -12 0 5 2 -23 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0. Table 6. The results are shown in the table given below. questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers.2: Responses to Government Support 38 . Figure 6. as shown in figure both the groups have rated the impact in a similar manner.77 Following figure shows the summarized results.80 = -0.
While interpreting the above results, I find that bankers and corporate are equally concerned about the severity of role of government that it could impart over successful materialization of Islamic banking system in Pakistan. Both the sectors view the government as patron, who beckons the way for other sectors and institutions. Government is looked forward as to spearhead this entire campaign. Government also realizes its placement in the bigger picture, and is taking the decisions in a broader perspective that would impact the overall performance of Islamic banking system.
The counsel of federal government informed the Supreme Court that Pakistan's religious scholars were, in fact, main hurdle in the Islamization process in the country. According to the counsel, the religious scholars are hampering Islamization of Pakistan. The counsel stated that the so-called present-day Islamic banking was in fact un-Islamic due to high level of exploitation in these obsolete banking instruments that were being portrayed as Islamic. The present day Islamic banking was based on inefficient and obsolete instruments, being circumscribed to exploit the religious sentiments of innocent Muslims, the counsel stated. The counsel said that all the jurists of Fiqah Jaferia were unanimous in their view that the non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state were not prohibited from dealing in Riba. He said that the Holy Qur’an was clear that it was applicable only to the Muslims as the Surah that prohibits dealing in Riba, addresses "Momineen". The counsel stated that Holy Qur’an permitted adjustment to the changing needs of the time, and referred to Allama Iqbal's essay titled "Reconstruction of Islamic Thought". He said that when Holy Qur’an enjoined on the Muslims to keep their horses ready, it did not mean that 39
Muslims should not use any other means to protect themselves from the enemy except horses. The present-day horses, he stated, were tanks and F-16 aeroplanes. Financial institutions undertaking leasing business are making greater use of financing lease than of operating leases. Experts in Shariah consider financing leases incompatible with Islamic teaching. Many 'development finance institutions' (DFIs) are mobilizing savings through schemes that give returns, which are hardly distinguishable from interest. Grey areas are developing even in the operation of institutions like National Investment Trust, which were previously thought of having eliminated interest. It seems that there is no agency to oversee the working of the various schemes being employed by DFIs to mobilize savings from the viewpoint of Shariah. The State Bank of Pakistan has laid down the minimum and maximum rates of profit a bank can share in the case of Musharaka or purchase of PTCs or Mudaraba certificates. Experts in Shariah consider such a stipulation incompatible with Islamic teachings. Due attention has not been paid to eliminate un-Islamic features characterizing the operations of several constituents of money and capital market in Pakistan other than banks and DFIs. Nothing has been done so far, for example, to reform the insurance business and the stock exchange operations in the light of Islamic teaching. The Muslim scholars and economists have miserably failed so far to provide a practical, simple, safe and workable substitute for interest. The interest-no doubt it has been prohibited by Islam (and also by Christianity and Judaism) and there are many moral and socio-economic justifications for this prohibition-provides a very simple and practical mechanism to establish and govern the relationship between the lender and the borrower. It is brought to the notice of the common reader that the Qur’an and the Sunnah have abolished interest but have not recommended any substitute. Modaraba and Musharika have not been referred to anywhere in the Qur’an or the Hadith. These are actually forms of business organizations whose rules and regulations were laid down by classical Muslim jurists of middle ages. Even those classical jurists did not introduce these concepts of Modaraba and Musharika as substitutes of interest. The scholars of recent period are excessively fanaticized by Modaraba and Musharika and have set them up as Islamic substitutes of interest. But these scholars have not yet been able to modify these concepts to the changed socioeconomic circumstances of modern age and the needs of modern complex economies. Regarding the impact of religious factors on Islamic banking, questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. The results are shown in the table given below. Table 6.3: Computation of Mean for Religious Factors
Options X f1 f2 f1 X f2X a -2 17 5 -34 -10 f1 = Frequency for Corporates b -1 11 10 -11 -10 f2 = Frequency for Bankers c 0 9 7 0 0 = -0.57 d 1 7 7 7 7 = -0.37 e 2 5 1 10 2 Total 49 30 -28 -11 Following figure shows the summarized results, as shown in figure corporates have rated this factor more critical than bankers but overall results are quite similar. Figure 6.3: Responses to Religious Factors
Results of survey reveal that bankers and corporate share almost similar views about the religious aspects to bother Islamic banking negatively. Islamic scholars are looked upon as experts in Islamic affairs and their opinions are taken as dictums. Bankers, corporate, and common people are not so expert in these things, so they heavily depend upon scholars. So, they feel that Islamic-scholars should play vital role in shaping up solutions to the modern challenges, especially in economic and financial. Since after the provision of SBP that all banks that intend to do Islamic banking will have to have at least one Shariah advisor, the bankers and corporate realize the importance of religious aspects more than before. They are nonplussed when different schools of thoughts propound thwarting justifications. So, the need of the hour is that Islamic scholars maintain unison amongst themselves as much as possible.
Social, Ethical and Cultural Values
The Islamic economic system in Pakistan is still underdeveloped and will remain that way for a long time to come.' Long time Pakistani civil servant and World Bank official Parvez Hasan looks at issues of poverty and social 41
stated the impression that the Riba judgment was a step towards Islamization was erroneous. Pakistan has done a very poor job for poverty alleviation. The counsel contended that what the Holy Quran and Sunnah prohibited was the element of exploitation (Zulm). Sadly. she says. and those who think they would be able to escape the wrath of law by taking shelter under Islamic system are sadly mistaken. senior member of the Supreme Court Shariah Appellate Bench. Sheikh agreed that the level of honesty in our society was low and the apprehension that the investor would get nothing was not misplaced. Justice Munir A. the investors would get nothing if the other partner made a statement that no profit had been earned. Islamic financial system. is it that it is now the lenders and not the borrowers who require protection? Is it right that the borrowers should receive interest-free loans that they may or may not repay? Should the rich grow richer and the poor poorer? This is far from being in conformity with the spirit of Islam. says that Pakistani society was not ready for the Islamic systems as the level of honesty in the country was low. Some mechanism will have to be evolved whereby companies will not be able to maintain false accounts and claim that they have suffered losses when in fact they are operating profitably. Sheikh. he declared. Hasan maintains. what is the guarantee that the businesses financed by banks will show the correct level of profits? 42 . Gender discrimination retards development and exacts a large toll on both present and future generations. In other context. Justice Munir A. or inaccurate. much more than the conventional banking. Experience proves that our financial institutions that have entered into profit sharing agreements with business houses have generally suffered most adversely. arguing that ethics cannot be separated from economics. Federal government counsel. He made the observation when the federal government counsel argued that under the Islamic mode of banking. Mr. The Council on Foreign Relations' Isobel Coleman examines the impact of Islamization on women. Dr Ishrat said that many of those who have defaulted on payment of their banks' loans have become champion of the Islamic financial system. books of accounts to ensure that the banks are denied their fair share of profits.justice in Pakistan. and the so-called Islamic modes contained this element in abundance. is based on ethical values where loan defaulters have no place. It is argued that in modern times when the level of individual morals is deplorable. we have a plethora of companies that maintain false. Thus. This is not merely an ideological question of inequality. she argues. Dr Riazul Hasan Gillani. He warned that such elements have no place in the Islamic financial system.
Moreover. no moral values and code of business ethics exist these days. Shirkah. have failed to offer themselves as role models before the citizens. Firstly. And to eliminate interest. Consequently. austerity and simplicity. People are living beyond their means. Given the moral standards and business ethics prevailing in the society. truthfulness. fair dealing. certain institutional arrangements will need to be made to protect the banks and to facilitate their task. justice and equity. given by the holy Prophet (PBUH) and the pious caliphs. the socio-economic changes brought in Islamic lands by political domination of the West and industrial revolutions have weakened religious and moral values of the people. reluctant to participate on profit-loss sharing basis. The only success achieved by us so far is the change of name of interest to profit. As a matter of fact. the National Islamic Council (NIC) has also not lived up to its expectations in suggesting changes in accordance with Islamic standpoint. brother cheats brother. Everybody is after maximizing his material comforts that can only be achieved through money. and use of Islamic terminology like Modarabah. But the same is unfortunately conspicuous by its absence in the Islamic society of today. son deceives father. Merely lip service is paid to Islamic values such as honesty. mark-up. fraternity and brotherhood. Perhaps the people as well as rulers of Pakistan have not cared to study in depth the Islamic economic concept. a condition precedent for Islamization of economy. therefore. friend commits fraud with a friend. Banks are paying interest to their depositors and charging interest from their borrowers under various names. profit-loss sharing. So earning of wealth through fair or foul means has become religion of today. fellow-feeling. etc. We have only succeeded in making cosmetic changes here and there and that too in very few sectors of economy. profit-loss basis is 43 . every person and institution is. The leaders. etc. Instead of enacting new legislation based on Islamic spirit in various field of activities for remodeling the society. no person or institution is prepared to take risk and provide finance on profit-loss basis. commission. however. it is an irony of circumstances that in the Islamic state of Pakistan very little has been borrowed from the Islamic concept of economics. fee. moderation in consumption and standard of living. Nobody trusts any other person at least in money matters and business dealings. rightly said that efforts made in the Islamic lands so far tantamount to protecting the institution of interest rather than abolishing it. who in fact have mostly their own problem of legitimacy. dividend. In business partnerships. The causes for this historic failure of the Muslim world in eliminating ‘Riba’ from economy are many. It is. The majority of Muslims in a state/country does not make it an Islamic state in the real sense. Therefore. service charges. justifiably. trustworthiness. Strict observance of these values is.
Figure 6.14 Following figure shows the summarized results. The results are shown in the table given below. as shown in figure both groups have shown little concern for this factor.the only way for providing capital to business and other economic development projects.4: Computation of Mean for Social and Cultural Factors Options a b c d e Total X -2 -1 0 1 2 f1 5 9 21 14 1 50 f2 2 8 12 6 1 30 f1 X -10 -9 0 14 2 -3 f2X -4 -8 0 6 2 -4 f1 = Frequency for Corporates f2 = Frequency for Bankers = -0. Table 6.06 = -0.4: Responses to Social and Cultural Factors 44 . questions were asked from 50 corporates and 30 bankers. Regarding the impact of social and cultural factors on Islamic banking.
5 Concluding Remarks While concluding this chapter. the religious sects. moral. This factor has surged as more related to promotional campaign. social. in general. as sited by our interviewees. and banking and financial institutions should not stigmatized to be lacking it because it is the problem for the entire economy and all the society is affected by them. it is the most quoted reason for hampered growth of Islamic financing modes. and every organization and individuals expect it to spearhead the affairs like an astute patron. They view it in broader perspective. 6. Next come. electronic. The second most reason crystallized is the role of government. all of its people. For bankers. The most important factor. among all the three chapters we discussed. not just for banking and financing one. All the businesses and transactions should abide by the high values and norms. etc. its businesses. like in any other industry. it is about media. They have to bridge the Islamic views with economic affairs. They have taken these factors just as normal. They say that these factors are very important but should be adopted for the entire society. to help in keeping the harmony in overall economic activities. it is reshaped as training and workshops.Corporates Bankers Results reveal that bankers and corporate have almost same perception about ethical. let us review the impact of all the factors we discussed in it. including Internet. and other similar aspects of society. and try to crystallize a broader and better picture. a neutral impression prevails for banking industry by including it in broader perspective of the whole society. and for corporate and general publics. So. As the results of survey tell. Government is supposed to be the most authentic agent. is the lack of awareness. Our government realizes its importance and commendable efforts are underway. and educate the people about these things. its government. 45 . and print.
These factors are social. societal. but they are not peculiar to banking industry only. But their impact can never be understated.Several other aspects also affect the implementation of Islamic financing system. they impact in a broader perspective by affecting the society and the economic system as a whole. although it is done. and behavioral to name a few. instead. ethical. 7 Conclusion 46 . psychological.
this is more or less related to awareness. Differences about Islamic banking exist but they are less critical when considering the success of Islamic banking in other Islamic countries. Also.3) impact significantly on the implementation of Islamic banking system in Pakistan. I found that not all the factors mentioned in hypothesis (Section 2. the hypothesis developed for this research study stays partially accepted. Lack of awareness is found to be the most important agent. Educating masses and classes about the true spirit of Islamic banking will improve the situation. To conclude. Low Returns on Deposits and Investments.After canvassing the responses. People do not see returns a hurdle if there investments are dealt in Islamic way. Shortage of experts and government support were found out to be the most critical factors after awareness. is found to be less significant when compared to other factors. 8 Recommendations 47 .
social. and to persuade people towards Islam and its economic system. which I find very important in the long run. Taxation. by issuing its own versions of Islamic instruments. and facilitate the implementation of Islamic banking. ethical. and Islamic scholars. Islamic scholars are requested to develop mutual consensus amongst them. and Internet. and in eradication of distorted views that prevail in the society. This will help in better understanding of Islamic financing. magazines. government should play a more effective role. It is suggested that banks arrange workshops. are lack of standards for Accounting. This is a very serious issue. papers. Responsibility is mainly vested with banks. Secondly. seminars. It shall engender harmony. By and large. Appendix A Name: 48 . Islamic views. awareness is the biggest problem obstructing the Islamic banking system in Pakistan. Audit. and transactions with foreign financial institutions. Islamic scholars and government should focus the public by educating them via literature. and economists. books. and training courses for their staff about Islamic banking. They should bridge the people. Some other factors. People also need to be educated in terms of moral. These factors are significant in broader perspective and will create a peaceful and genteel society by and large. government. and societal values.After the evaluation of the results of this research. Adequate efforts need to be paid in order to bolster the very foundations of this industry. The leading economists endorse this claim. TV. and by developing Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) among all the major players of the game. by leveraging the potential Islamic banks. It should patronize this by taking initiatives in all necessary directions. I find that several factors are very crucial to the successful implementation of Islamic banking system in Pakistan.
Factors Lack of Awareness Lack of Banks and Branches Lack of Security on Deposits and Investments Lack of Research and Development Social and Cultural Factors Religious Factors Low Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Shortage of Experts in Islamic Banking Customer Services Taxation Policies Non-Availability of Products Offered by Other Banks Non-Availability of Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market Concentration of Islamic Banking in Urban Areas Rather than Rural Areas Difficulties in International Dealings Absence of Accounting & Auditing Standards Government Support Very High High Aver -age Low Very Low Comments: Appendix B 49 . 5. is conducting research on the Implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan. the students of BBA. 14.Designation: Organization: Questionnaire for Corporate Customers I. 16. In this connection. 9. 8. 6.No 1. 10. 12. I have developed the following questionnaire. 7. Thank you. Last Semester. 4. 11. 2. 3. You are kindly requested to help us by filling out this questionnaire. 15. Pakistan Air Force . To what extent do you think that following factors affect on the implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan? Q. 13.Karachi Institute Of Economics & Technology.
is conducting research on the Implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan. 3. Pakistan Air Force . 10. 14. 6. 7.No 1. 11. 8. Factors Lack of Awareness Lack of Banks and Branches Lack of Security on Deposits and Investments Lack of Research and Development Social and Cultural Factors Religious Factors Low Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Shortage of Experts in Islamic Banking Customer Services Taxation Policies Non-Availability of Products Offered by Other Banks Non-Availability of Shariah Compliant Government Securities and Money Market Concentration of Islamic Banking in Urban Areas Rather than Rural Areas Difficulties in International Dealings Absence of Accounting and Auditing Standards Government Support Very High High Aver -age Low Very Low Comments: Appendix C 50 . Last Semester. In this connection.Karachi Institute Of Economics & Technology. 5. 9. 12. You are kindly requested to help us by filling out this questionnaire. 4. 13. 16. 15.Name: Designation: Organization: Questionnaire for Bankers I. Thank you. 2. the students of BBA. I have developed the following questionnaire. To what extent do you think that following factors affect on the implementation of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan? Q.
6. 3. 10.No 1. 2. 12. 13. 16.Table A-1: Frequency Distribution Table for Corporate Customers Q. 11. 4. 9. 5. 14. 15. 7. Very High 31 10 8 10 5 17 6 15 14 7 7 10 3 20 6 14 High 12 21 13 19 9 11 16 14 12 10 18 15 19 7 10 20 Average 6 14 13 11 21 9 15 12 18 18 16 15 12 5 15 10 Low 0 3 11 8 14 7 6 4 3 8 6 3 6 12 11 4 Very Low 1 2 5 2 1 5 6 4 3 6 3 5 10 6 8 2 Total 50 50 50 50 50 49 49 49 50 49 50 48 50 50 50 50 Appendix D 51 . 8.
13. 12. 2. 6. 16. 10. 4. 7. 8. 11. 14. 9. 5. 15. 3.No 1.Table A-2: Frequency Distribution Table for Bankers Q. Very High 12 6 2 6 2 5 6 9 4 1 6 7 3 9 2 8 High 12 13 6 8 8 10 6 13 5 4 11 10 7 9 10 12 Average 6 4 12 6 12 7 11 6 12 10 9 9 12 4 12 5 Low 0 6 7 7 6 7 4 2 7 12 4 3 6 4 5 5 Very Low 0 1 3 3 1 1 3 0 2 3 0 1 2 4 1 0 Total 30 30 30 30 30 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Appendix E 52 .
Table A-3: Means Calculated for Corporates and Bankers Q.08 -0. 16. 14.37 -0.63 -0.23 -0.57 -0.13 -0.No Factors Lack of Awareness Lack of Banks and Branches Lack of Security on Deposits and Investments Lack of Research and Development Social and Cultural Factors Religious Factors Low Rate of Return on Deposits and Investments Shortage of Experts in Islamic Banking Customer Services Taxation Policies Non-Availability of Products Offered by Other Banks Non-Availability of Shariah Compliant Government Securities & Money Market Concentration of Islamic Banking in Urban Areas Rather than Rural Areas Difficulties in International Dealings Absence of Accounting & Auditing Standards Government Support Corporates Bankers 1. 11.20 -0.16 -0. 7.77 Bibliography 53 .50 -0. 15. 12.10 -0.14 -0.68 -0.06 -0. 3. 13.97 -0.27 -0.80 -1.44 -0. -1.46 0. 4.62 -0.10 -0.65 -0.37 -0. 9.14 -0.20 -0.40 -0.46 -0.54 -0.07 0. 6. 10.10 -0.63 -0. 2. 8. 5.57 0.
pk 54 .htm http://www.geocities.com.com http://www.dawn.com http://interactive.pakistaneconomist.asp?nid=36 http://www.edu/article. quotations.sbp.html http://www.net/islamic-ethics/article-12/article12-7.international.edu/article.pk/publications/islamic/book1/prelude.com/deenibooks/b16/b16_18.erf.asp?parentid=15056 http://www. http://www.asp?parentid=15056 http://www.pk http://www.org.ucla.international.com/page/issue22/f&m2.pdf http://www.eg http://www.com.org.com/newsdetails.garp.pakistaneconomist.dailytimes.com http://islamic-finance.shtml http://www.htm http://jang.com/business_083004b.Following are some of the links that helped in the materialization of this research report.axcessnews.wsj. All the references. and arguments propounded in this report can be validated from these links.ucla.com http://www.meezanbank.
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