R College of Education

Education Innovation And Management

Lecture in Mathematics

2010 - 2011

(A) Educational Innovations
UNIT I - Innovation Meaning -Principles –Barriers to promotion of innovation-Suggestions for the promotion of innovation-Generation of innovations –Origin, Specification, Trial-Adaptation and consolidation- Characteristics of creative peopleConditions for the emergence of innovation A) Individual conditions-Tolerance to ambiguity, autonomy,-Initiating change – search-creativity B) Institutional conditions-Open climate -Freedom –Democratic leadership style-Institutional—heads as change agents C) Societal conditions – Perception of an acute need-Political and public support-Charismatic leadership.

INNOVATION–noun 1. The act of introducing something new. 2. Something newly introduced. (4 definitions) 1. The act of innovating; the introduction of new things or methods. 2. A novel change in practice or method; something new introduced into established arrangements of any kind; an unwonted or experimental variation. 3. In Scots law, the exchange, with the creditor's consent, of one obligation for another, so as to make the second obligation come in the place of the

first, and be the only subsisting obligation against the debtor, both the original obligants remaining the same. Also called novation. 4. In botany, a newly formed shoot or extension of the stem: used especially with reference to the mosses, in which the new shoot becomes independent by the dying off behind of the parent axis. Meaning and Definition on 'Innovation' Innovation is a change in the thought process for doing something, or the useful application of new inventions or discoveries. It may refer to incremental emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations The goal of innovation is positive change, to make someone or something better. Innovation leading to increased productivity is the fundamental source of increasing wealth in an economy.In a recent blog post proposing a definition of innovation, I noted that innovation means different things to different people. It ultimately is what you think it is. What‘s a useful definition for you won‘t work for others, and vice versa. I asked for people‘s definitions on several LinkedIn groups, and the community came forward with many interesting and valuable perspectives. For me, the value of this was two-fold: 1. Challenge my own perceptions of innovation and expand my horizons 2. Understand the different ways people talk about innovation

Purposeful. systematic innovation begins with the analysis of the opportunities. "Innovation and Entrepreneurship"): 1. Peter Drucker‘s Five Principles of Innovation As we wrote previously...The five themes for the definitions are illustrative of the major patterns of thought in innovation. the work of Peter Drucker is one of the foundational cornerstones upon which all of Executives in Action is based. Here are some more gems from Drucker's treasure trove. It begins with thinking through…the sources of innovative opportunities. . his "Five Principles of Innovation" (as he wrote in his book.

and therefore unlikely to be capable of establishing itself. Changes in public perception 5. A successful innovation aims at leadership [within a given market or industry]… If an innovation does not aim at leadership from the beginning. Why didn‘t I think of it?" 4. Here they are. 3. It should do only one thing. their values. 7. otherwise. New technology and scientific findings 6. Industry market and structures 3. They work out analytically what the innovation has to be to satisfy an opportunity. 5. has to be simple and it has to be focused. An innovation. Indeed. Peter Drucker‘s Seven Sources of Innovation Peter Drucker wrote that there are seven sources of innovation. Process needs . the greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say: "This is obvious. All effective innovations are breathtakingly simple. and they look at people. it confuses. it is unlikely to be innovative enough. to be effective. their needs are. the users. to see what their expectations. Innovation is both conceptual and perceptual… Successful innovators…look at figures. And then they go out and look at the customers. Demographic changes 4. in reverse order of importance.2. Effective innovations start small… They try to do one specific thing.

The Unexpected . Then he outlines five steps to follow to take advantage of an innovative opportunity.A discrepancy between reality and what everyone assumes it to be.When a weak link is evident in a particular process. or between what is and what ought to be. can create an innovative opportunity. The unexpected Peter Drucker is a leading authority on entrepreneurship and innovation. Below Drucker outlines seven sources or places to look for innovative opportunities. The last three arise in the societal environment. Drucker‘s Seven Sources for Innovative Opportunities Drucker outlines seven sources for innovative opportunities that should be monitored by those interested in starting an entrepreneurial venture. The first four are sources of innovation that lie within the industry. an unexpected failure or an unexpected outside event can be a symptom of a unique opportunity. an opportunity is available to the person or company willing to supply the ―missing link‖. 3. 2. but people work around it instead of doing something about it.2. Incongruities 1. The Incongruity .An unexpected success. Innovation based on process need . 1. .

1. monitoring these seven sources may provide you with an innovation opportunity.The opportunity for an innovative product. 5. Changes in industry or market structure . Begin with an analysis of the opportunity. Analyze the opportunity to see if people will be interested in using the innovation. . So. 7. service or business approach occurs when the underlying foundation of the industry or market shifts. attitudes and beliefs change.Innovative opportunities can develop when a society‘s general assumptions.4. age structure. mood and meaning . To be effective. the innovation must be simple and clearly focused on a specific need. New Knowledge . Demographics . 6.Advances in scientific and nonscientific knowledge can create new products and new markets. 2. composition.Changes in the population‘s size. employment. Drucker‘s Five Principles of Innovation Below are five principles that can help you take advantage of a new innovation you may have discovered. Changes in perception. if you are looking for a new business opportunity. 3. level of education and income can create innovative opportunities.

As the market grows. The stages through which a technological innovation passes are: knowledge (exposure to its existence. Important characteristics of an innovation include: Relative advantage (the degree to which it is perceived to be better than what it supersedes). decision (commitment to its adoption). Observability (the visibility of its results). Trial ability (the degree to which it can be experimented with on a limited basis). and confirmation (reinforcement based on positive outcomes from it). If an innovation does not aim at leadership in the beginning. persuasion (the forming of a favourable attitude to it). . Complexity (difficulty of understanding and use). Leadership here can mean dominating a small market niche. implementation (putting it to use). By appealing to a small. Compatibility (consistency with existing values. limited market.4. 5. and understanding of its functions). past experiences and needs). Effective innovations start small. the company has time to fine-tune its processes and stay ahead of the emerging competition. Aim at market leadership. a product or service requires little money and few people to produce and sell it. it is unlikely to be innovative enough to successfully establish itself.

Innovations without exhibiting any results. 4. 10. 2. 9. .Giving importance only to success. Giving importance to only valuation.Barriers to promotion of innovation: Individual Barrier Group Barrier Leadership Barrier Institutional Barrier 1. Non acceptability of the users. 5. Benefits of innovations are less. Unacceptable management. 13. 7. 8. 12. Innovations involving problems.Non tolerance of children‘s activities. Those aided by the Government 2. Innovation without any changes. 6. Compelling the students in one direction.Insisting on full victory. 11. Autocratic situation.Ridiculing the students. Private Institutions Barriers for innovative method in schools 1. 3.Enimical attitude. 14.

&h respect to the sciences. wealth. The net effect is that many educational institutions are not willing to. nor even have the capacity to support improvements in their formal (classroom) teaching obligations. In any event. well-nourished and motivated students. it is clear why students exhibit negative felines about their educational experience. . to suuuort innovation in the ezcational procesL'~n particular. why many dedicated teachers feel frustrated. or able.they seem to behave as if the subject matter and the process of education are static commodities given to science teachers durine their formative years or designed for teaching facilities that never have to be updated or altered. at all levels. location. language or ethnic origin. Such conditions obtain because Boards of Trustees underfund educational institutions. administrators divert teaching funds into other activities. Successful education programmers require: (1) healthy.Barriers to Innovation American educational institutions. do not annear to he willine. or both. and why our system of education is in deep trouble. regardless of gender. Suggestions for the promotion of innovation Quality Education Governments and all other EFA partners must work together to ensure basic education of quality for all.

attitudes and values. TRIAL-ADAPTATION AND CONSOLIDATION. (6) A clear definition and accurate assessment of learning outcomes. Adaptation of innovation 5. skills. 1. healthy and safe. There are five stages in innovation. (5) An environment that not only encourages learning but is welcoming.(2) Well-trained teachers and active learning techniques. GENERATION OF INNOVATIONS : ORIGIN. including knowledge. Origin of innovation 2. SPECIFICATION. Specification of innovation 3. Trial of innovation 4. Consolidation of innovation . (3) Adequate facilities and learning materials. (4) a relevant curriculum that can be taught and learned in a local language and builds upon the knowledge and experience of the teachers and learners. gender-sensitive.

Identify the need for change. Stimulate the process of innovation or change. 4.Origin of innovation: All innovations do not introduce changes. the specialty of the innovation. its character. Determine one or more practices that may satisfy the needs. 5. 2. Today‘s education gives importance to education of life and lifelong education. Innovations in learning process. Educational innovation. Trial and Adaptation of innovation: The aim of education. Innovation appears in different stages and later it is imposed. uses etc must be clearly specified. Activate the finding to adopt or reject. Evaluation of determined practice on trail basis. They are termed as ideas. . Specification of innovation: If an innovations to teach the user. Innovation in the status of teachers. changes according to the changing needs of the society. 1. Innovations in learning subjects. Innovations in teaching methods. Those users who understood the innovation will be to talk and think about it. 3.

2. 1. Roy Rothwell. Rothwell‘s five generations (5G) of innovation provides an historic overview of industrial innovation management in the Western world between the 1950‘s and 1990. Backward people. Those who accept the majority in the beginning stage. Innovations in learning approach.  Stage of knowing.  Acceptance. GENERATIONS OF INNOVATION The British sociologist. 4. an academic primarily at the University of Sussex. They areCreators of innovations.Innovations in the student‘s activities.  Stage of involvement. was widely regarded as one of the pioneers in Industrial innovation with his significant contributions to the understanding of innovation management. Those who accept the majority at a later stage. Each of the five innovation management ‗generations‘ arose from different and distinct business environments.  Valuation and testing. Acceptance of innovations. Rothwell observed that more . 3. Innovations in valuation methods. Consolidation of innovation: There are five types of acceptors. People who accept the innovation in the beginning stage it.

a response to a significant change in the market such as economic growth. industrial expansion.―the more R&D in.‖ This was nicknamed the ‗strategy of hope‘ -. Rothwell created his 5G framework by combining Niosi‘s 4G innovation model with his own analyses of successful innovation management practises. Rothwell identified five generations of innovation management over a period of forty years that begins in the 1950‘s. His desk research focused on technological innovation at multinationals and high-tech start-ups. the more new products out.effective innovation processes lead to a decrease in market time and a reduction in product development cost. give them the best affordable facilities. in fact. Companies focused predominantly on scientific breakthroughs -.―Hire good people. The five generations are: 1. economic recovery. fast economic growth led to a ‗black hole demand‘ that allowed a strong ‗technology push‘ and industrial expansion in the Western world and in Japan. TECHNOLOGY PUSH From 1950 to the mid-1960‘s. overhaul the current innovation process and develop new market niches. The model is to be used when defining a corporate innovation management strategy. He found that each new generation was. unemployment and resource constraints. then leave them alone.‖ Research & Development was considered as corporate overhead and relegated to an ‗ivory tower‘ . stagflation. inflation. more intense competition. A change in generation requires a company to update their strategic focus. The five generations of innovation management is a descriptive model of how (manufacturing) companies structure their innovation processes over time.

3. ‗rationalization efforts‘ arose under the pressure of inflation and stagflation. 2. Companies moved away from individual R&D projects. the central theme became a ‗time-based struggle‘.position. Marketing and R&D became more tightly coupled through structured innovation processes. Cost-benefit analyses were made for individual research projects including systematic allocation and management of resources. 4. MARKET PULL The mid 1960‘s to early 1970 were characterized by a ‗market shares battle‘ that induced companies to shift their development focus to a ‗need pull‘. The focus was on integrated processes and products to develop ‗total concepts‘. The central focus became responding to the market‘s needs. The strategic focus was on corporate consolidation and resulted in ‗product portfolios‘. Typical of this fourth generation was the ‗parallel and integrated nature‘ of development processes. Operational cost reduction was a central driver behind this ‗coupling model‘. Stronger connections were initiated between R&D and operating units by including product engineers in scientist run research teams in order to decrease time to market. Innovation occurred at the fast growing multinationals isolated from universities. INTEGRATED BUSINESS PROCESSES When the Western economy recovered from the early 1980‘s to the mid-90‘s. COUPLING OF R&D AND MARKETING From the mid 1970‘s to the mid-1980‘s. .

Externally, strong supplier linkages were established as well as close coupling with leading customers. 5. SYSTEM INTEGRATION & NETWORKING Finally, from the 1990‘s onwards, resource constraints became central. As a result, the focus was on ‗systems integration and networking‘ in order to guarantee ‗flexibility‘ and ‗speed of development‘. Business processes were automated through enterprise resource planning and manufacturing information systems. Externally, the focus was on ‗business ecosystems‘. Advanced strategic partnerships were setup as well as collaborative marketing and research arrangements such as ‗open innovation‘. Added value for products was to be found in quality and other non-price factors. Characteristics of creative people: The 6 Characteristics of Highly Creative People: Thomas Moore said, "We are all poets and artists as we live our daily lives, whether or not we recognize our role and whether or not we believe it." Human beings have an innate need to create. Even you! There is a continuum of creativity, ranging from being slightly creative to highly creative. The good news is that you can learn to be more creative by observing creative people and modeling yourself after them. Artists, writers, and creative types seem to have similar characteristics. Some of the personality traits listed below may seem eccentric, odd, even "out there"---but that is where creativity lies--- in the outreaches of our consciousness, in the depths of our souls. If you had the opportunity to speak to Picasso, Walt Disney, or Jane Austen, you would probably find out that they are ordinary people, much like you and I. The

difference is that they have allowed more of their soul to come out and play and have freed themselves of convention and restriction. Creativity is essentially the art of discovery and an act of faith. When you create something--- a work of art, book, software program, dance routine, or role for a play, you discover parts of yourself that you never knew existed. Creative people have a strong need to express more of who you really are and often have to fight for that right. The character Isabelle in the movie, Fire and Ice, has a great outlook on what it means to be creative, she says, "To create, sometimes you must rebel." 1. Unconventional Creative people do not feel the need to conform to society's standards. They often swim against the current and flow with their own way of thinking and living. They have original ideas that literally turn the world upside down and right-side out. Take for example, the 16th century Italian astronomer, Galileo, who proved that the earth revolved around the sun (instead of the other way around), which was revolutionary in his time. 2. Individualistic Creative people want to find out what the truth is, and they have a strong need to decide for themselves what works and what does not. Often they are ahead of their time, and much of their work is appreciated/acknowledged after they are dead and gone. Many writers are famous for marching to the tune of their own drum, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, who wrote the book, Self-Reliance, and Robert Frost who penned, "two roads diverged in a wood, and I took the one less-traveled."

3. Inventive Creative people live in the world of ideas, and don't always have the best interpersonal skills. Because they are so highly intelligent, and live in the realm of possibility, they are constantly coming up with bright ideas. They also take notice of what is missing in the world and/or what could be improved. Take for instance, Thomas Edison, who invented hundreds of things in his time, his most famous invention being the light bulb. He saw that there was darkness and then created light. 4. Driven Creative people cannot "not do something"—they are almost compulsive until they can bring their internal vision into fruition. They have that "fire in their belly"---a passion to contribute to the beauty and betterment of the world. Because of their high drive, they can produce a lot in a relative short amount of time. Talk about drive---the material girl herself, Madonna, has not let public praise or criticism stop her from being a super star. She is a modern day Diva, multi-talented as a singer, dancer, and actress who has released hundreds of songs, albums, videos, movies, books--- all the while reinventing herself as someone new.

5.Visionary Creative people have a guiding vision in their head, heart, and soul that they are often called to bring to life. Who else but Michelangelo could look at a

But so did all of these examples of creators. They often act as a channel. and that voice will be silenced. you are not a painter. "If you hear a voice within you saying. do you find yourself relating to some of these traits? If so. Even the famous painter Vincent Van Gogh struggled with that. he would have missed a major theory about the world we live in! As you read this. "I saw an angel in the marble and carved until I set him free." Robert Henri says. he said. paint." Once you have . They allow the work to guide them to where it needs to go. where ideas and inspiration come from a higher plane. not from their ego. searching.large piece of marble and "chip away at everything that wasn't David?" According to him. he becomes an inventive. self-expressing creature. daring. They pay attention to the signs. then by all means. but he created a remedy for that. Talk about ideas coming from out of the blue. it is time to start creating. 6. because we often limit our creativity by listening too closely to our negative inner voice. and make use of that information in their work." One of his best-known works is the immense ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. you can easily see that it is a vision to behold. whatever his kind of work may be. Intuitive Creative people are very in touch with their inner selves. remember how the scientist. Getting started can often be the hardest part. synchronicities. symbols around them. The work clearly originates in their soul. "When the artist is alive in any person. which took him three years to complete. If you ever have seen any of his work. where he often had to work upside down for hours at a time. Isaac Newton "discovered" gravity? He was sitting under a tree and an apple fell on his head! Had he not made a connection with his intuitive nature.

Which is to say you just have to lighten up. Remember that if you are creating from your soul. Blogging is the ideal arena for injecting your personality . you now have to put yourself out there for all to see. But it works for him. Over time. 3. This is where your faith comes in to support you. fast. he listened to his gut instead of the Internet gurus. but it‘s not life and death. it will not matter whether other people accept your work or not. Have the COURAGE to try new things and risk failure. your brain relaxes and is able to produce more and better ideas. Highly creative people: 1. Are EXPRESSIVE and willing to share what they feel and think. the risk is usually worth the reward. and quotas. 4. and deadlines. to be themselves. He kept it simple. Like to PLAY. making The Drudge Report one of the most recognizable and popular sites in the world. When Matt Drudge designed his Web site. One of those ideas may be just what you‘re looking for. Every big breakthrough starts as a harebrained idea. Use INTUITION as well as logic to make decisions and produce ideas. small. just that you should balance your routine portfolio of solutions with an investment in the new and untried. 2. and some would say ugly and primitive. When you enjoy yourself. You are simply doing what you are called to do as a human being. create. since humor and fun are the ultimate creative act. We all have goals. This doesn‘t mean you should constantly go off the deep end.created.

5. 7. Have a need to FIND SOLUTIONS to challenging problems. If you want to wield true creative power. So-called ―writer‘s block‖ or creative burnout almost always results from a lack of fresh information and having nothing meaningful to say. it can also be more persuasive. or business rules aren‘t really rules. That‘s the opportunity to learn something new and produce remarkably creative content. Even the most creative writers won‘t have a solution for everything. Writing.into your work. but if you‘re in it just for the money. honest. There was a time when no one thought you could make money on the Internet. Research and critical thinking are key tools for the creative person. Will CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONS and ask hard questions to discover what is real. you will always take what others advise with a grain of salt. they‘ve stopped thinking. you don‘t know it at all. Will PUSH THE ENVELOPE in order to expand the boundaries of what is possible. Not only is it more interesting. 9. multi-national business . (That includes all of us gurus who love to don our pointy wizard hats and pontificate on the secrets of success. You must like the challenge of writing. you can make money along the way.) If you don‘t know something from personal knowledge or experience. Are MOTIVATED BY A TASK rather than by external rewards. People are emotional creatures and respond better to people who appear real. and open. If they claim to. Sure. explaining. blogging. Can FIND ORDER in confusion and discover hidden meaning in information. teaching. you‘re not going to be a fountain of new ideas. 8. Information is to the brain what food is to the stomach. Now it‘s a huge. Highly creative people are those whose eyes light up at a question they can‘t answer. and persuading. 6. only rules of thumb.

You may choose one particularly creative person you admire and. 4. ―What would so-and-so do in this situation?‖ As you begin to ―act‖ like a creative person. These are certainly uncommon traits for most people. AUTONOMY.Are willing to TEST new ideas and compete with others based on results. ask yourself.INITIATING CHANGE –SEARCH-CREATIVITY .platform. you‘ll find yourself actually becoming more and more creative. Watch how the creative people you know solve problems and deal with projects. 2. it‘s better to merely divide it into the tried and the untried. more and more successful. Conditions for the emergence of innovation: A) INDIVIDUAL CONDITIONS-TOLERANCE TO AMBIGUITY. And likely. Instead of dividing the world into the possible and impossible. Deferment. Speculation. Autonomy of the object. But they‘re not difficult. What have you not tried yet? 10. Detachment and involvement. 3. Teaching methods to develop creativity: 1. Isn‘t that what they mean by the ―market of ideas‖? Isn‘t that what business competition is about? If you‘re afraid of being wrong or losing. when faced with a problem. your creativity will suffer.

The dimensions include: 1) Goal/Expectation/Responsibility Ambiguity . which may be experienced by the role incumbents. and are based on the role incumbent‘s perspective.How to get things done.What is expected? What should I be doing? 2) Process Ambiguity . Based on their findings and the foundation provided by these works there are four (4) widely accepted dimensions to role ambiguity. 4) Behavior Ambiguity . The ways of achieving organizational objectives. Verbeke.How am I expected to act in various situations? What behaviors will lead to the needed or desired outcomes? . 3) Priority Ambiguity . Ambiguity The multidimensional approaches to the study of role ambiguity began with Bedeian and Armenakis (1981) and have continued with Sawyer (1992) and Singh.B) INSTITUTIONAL CONDITIONS-OPEN CLIMATE -FREEDOM – DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE -INSTITUTIONAL HEADS A S CHANGE AGENTS C) SOCIETAL CONDITIONS – PERCEPTION OF AN ACUTE NEED-POLITICAL AND PUBLIC SUPPORT- CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP.When things should be done and in what order. and Rhoads (1996).

incompleteness. Norton (1975). 3) Probability 4) Unstructured 5) Lack of information 6) Uncertainty 7) Inconsistencies and contradictions. defines ambiguity as not having sufficient information about a context. Autonomy and innovation  Institutional autonomy and Innovations  Uses of Institutional autonomy  Drawbacks of Institutional autonomy  Freedom in the selection of subject  Functioning of Autonomous institutions  Freedom in the syllabus framing  Freedom in teaching method  Freedom in evaluation . and 8) Unclear. and where cues are not easy to distinguish. respectively. According to Budner (1962). complex situations. ambiguous situations can be of three different types: new situations. for example. where there are not sufficient or nonexistent cues. McLain (1993). summarizes causes of ambiguity as 1) Multiple meanings 2) Vagueness. These are. ambiguity was described as caused by the nature of cues available in the context or stimulus given. and contradictory situations. where there are too many cues. or fragmentation. In such definitions.Early definitions of ambiguity regarded uncertainty in real life. further.

These threads are maintained by people sharing information with each other. information is a commodity. At the center of every organization are people held together by slender threads of cooperation. and hierarchies. can be exchanged. In reading about communication environments. they neglect to compliment co-workers on a job well-done. people fail to inform others of a meeting. Unfortunately. resulting in a closed communication climate. people sometimes refuse to exchange this crucial information. Most communication mishaps in organizations can be traced to these barriers. In these networks. They often erect barriers to shut out others in situations they consider hostile. and is crucial to the success of launching a project. through both formal and informal channels. selling a product. cause lost business. channels. they even lash out at others for little or no reason. is the lifeblood of any organization. a project deadline or a client need. systems. endangered goodwill. Research shows that an open communication climate is . Because of barriers. Often these barriers. They impede information exchange and thereby disrupt the orderly flow of activity. and general unhappiness. processes. It has value. The result is a delicate network of human relationships linked through communication. or marketing a service. Benefits of autonomy INSTITUTIONAL CONDITIONS : Open climate: Communication. damaged reputations. we sometimes lose sight of the essence of the communication act: it is profoundly human.

After reading this article. & Comer. participative environment. such as surveys and interviews. and indirect measures. the nature and benefits of open communication climate. 1993). . 2. which occasion increased morale and productivity. 1998). and 3. These assessments consider multiple factors and individuals within the school system using direct measures. you should have a clear understanding of 1. aspects of defensive barriers that affect communication. Assessing School Climate Many researchers have developed measures of school climate. and trusting environment. The School Climate Survey contains seven dimensions of school climate and specifically assesses students‘ perceptions in the following areas: • Achievement motivation • sharing of resources • Fairness • Student interpersonal relationships • Order and discipline • Student-teacher relationships (Haynes. the definition of supportive environment. such as disciplinary and attendance records (Freiberg.desirable because it enhances human relationships. Examining these measures and the attributes specifically assessed provides further detail into the nature of school climate. Emmons.

1996. and students.• Parent involvement The Charles F. In a democratic approach and the leader should take decision accordingly. can only be cultivated by individuals in an atmosphere of freedom. conduct fresh experiments and bring about healthy changes. 1997). administrators. Johnson & Johnson. . This survey is comprised of four sections and is given to teachers. This will make room to the formation and the promotion of innovations. offer constructive suggestions . Freedom refers to free to ask questions. The General Climate Factors is comprised of the following eight subscales: • Respect • Trust • High morale • Opportunity for input • Continuous academic & social growth • Cohesiveness • School renewal • Caring (Johnson et al. (CFK) School Climate Profile is also widely used to measure school climate.. 1993. Freedom and innovation The power of critical thinking an important requisite of democracy. Kettering Ltd. Democratic Leadership style and Innovation Innovations may be accepted and adopted in schools only if there is true democratic leadership.

This will enhance the condition of education system and it will be modernised. Political. culture. SOCIETAL CONDITIONS AND INNOVATION Perception of Accute Need The success and failure of any innovation in educational field is determined by the organisational climate of the school. The laws framed regarding education should consider the innovations emerged in that field..The attitude and the approach of the leaders are two important determining factors of adoption of innovations. Cordial relationship. general acceptance. Progressive leadership which guide properly. level of modernization. Democratic trend. The trend of society is depended on the knowledge level of the society.. The . proper insightful experience about innovation. how so ever the individual or social conditions may be. help to make the individual effort become a success. The innovative methods and approaches are welcome by those schools which care for the educational welfare of the students. Compassionate leadership traits etc. This will result in the knowledge society. Public support and Innovation Politics has its strong influence over innovative trends. The organisational climate of the school is based on the social environment where the school is situated. development of information and communication technologies etc. economy. progressive thoughts etc.

The Charismatic Leader gathers followers through dint of personality and charm. derived from Ancient Greek. Its have four types there are i. Conger & Kanungo (1998) . the headmaster and the government are not the independent determinates to promote innovations. Charismatic Leadership and Innovation The term charisma. The searchlight of attention ii. Leading the team iv. rather than any form of external power or authority. but these are all should together work for any progression to be taken place. the society. was introduced in scholarly usage by German Sociologist Max Weber.individual. Pulling all of the strings iii.

Innovations and Experiments in Schools De-schooling –Community School –Alternative School –Non-Graded School – – Navodaya School – Sainik School – S S A (Sarva Shiksha Abyan)-Virtual School –Mobile School – Open School and Distance Learning–-Floating University – International School. The seeds for the concept of deschooling were sowed in to the crucial conference of twenty-five experts from fourteen countries. The new approaches emerged are more imaginative and humanistic and they provide free choice for the learners. Ivan lllich It is the originator of this term and idea of ‗deschooling‘ Ian Lister. propounded various new alternative approaches. held at the noted centre for inter-cultural Documentation (CIDOC) in Mexico in august 1974. Paulo freire. De-Schooling Many opposers of the current institutionalized education. Joshn Hot and Everest Reimer are the eminent scholars associated with the concept of de-schooling. along with the chief proponent Ivan lllich.(A) Educational Innovations UNIT II . One such important phenomenon id the ‗De-Schooling society‘. The main changes against the system of education are as follows: .

In many countries. Whereas the collaborative pursuit of knowledge and truth would require that the roles of the teacher and the students should often be reversible . where the unequal structure of the society continued to exist.1. the compulsory education provided only had widen the gulf between the rich and the poor. Self-initiative is not credited and the schools of today only signify a tyrannical structure and content. The highly formalized approaches do not nurture any ‗informality‘. We fail to appreciate the fact that schooling alone is not education. An another noted person of deschooling. 3. No curriculum is relevant to the needs of the individual and requirements of the society. 4. Learning is mistaken to be the result of only curricular instruction but learning is infact more than that. it is not so. no healthy collaborative pursuit is there among the teachers and the students. with large segments of the resources being used on behalf of the privileged society. Unfortunately. education is an equated fact with instruction and certification. is miserably not so. 7. 6. Are they the best means of doing it? What might be the other or better ways?‖ . and at the larger question of schools and schooling itself. There was no equality in education. 2. however. John Holt echoed the sentiment. 5. Education. Equalization of the educational opportunities became an un answered question. which should signify a truly life-long process of learning. ―we must look beyond the question of reforming schools. in reality.

iv. Community schools in America were started in the context of what has come to be known as ―Free School Movement‖. Non-graded School Non-graded school refers to the provision of a pleasurable. Pupils may work in cooperation with adults in the community on problems of mutual concern The school may be organized into a community exemplify the best trends in the outside community The work of the school may be extended into the outside community such that it becomes the initiator and planner of projects for the development of the community. some have strong political. and rewarding learning atmosphere where there are maximum opportunities .Community School In order to imbibe community activities to the students. A wide range of philosophies and teaching methods are offered by alternative schools. while others are more ad-hoc assemblies of teachers and students dissatisfied with some aspect of mainstream or traditional education. the relationship may be expressed in varying degrees i. ii. Alternative School Alternative School (sometimes called a nontraditional school). iii. In a way the free schools singly a form of ‗alternative‘ approach in school education. scholarly or philosophical orientations. challenging. The community‘s activities and occupations may constitute the chief subject matter for study in the school. is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular united states) to describe an institution which provides part of alternative education.

The experiment is designed for a section of the bright children.for productive interaction between the learners. In each school. there may be training or combat. Within a nongraded setting the curriculum is both integrated and flexible. . swimming etc. Sainik School Sainik schools are otherwise called as military schools. with the formal study contents. Novodhaya schools signify a promising innovation being attempted in our country. Ion tamilnadu. developing warfare skills. 1986. Free education. free boarding and free lodging will be provided in these schools which will be affiliated to the central board of secondary schools. The schools will have full freedom to adopt innovative methods and approaches. run on the lines of those in European countries. They are schools of a special kind. leading to the senior Cambridge certificate. Navodhaya school/Vidyalaya School As per the recommendations made by the national policy on Education. We may classify them in a way under public schools. The entire programme within the nongraded setting. and the gifted. cliff-trecking.. horse riding. Sainik School is situated at amaravathi nagar of Coimbatore district. is more under the control of the teacher(s) than id the case in grade-structured situations. Public schools were started in our country during the British rule. The schools provided programmes beginning from the nursery put the secondary. efforts will be made to cover girls to the extent of one third strength. Bright children could consist of high achievers. particularly in areas hitherto lift uncovered. The objectives of these schools are enhancing the individual talent of the children. for the wards of the princely families or the aristocrats. developing the sense of national security etc. especially if there is a team of teachers involved.

Enrolement of all school-age children in schools. Those who have completed their studies in these schools and NDA serve in the defence forces of the country. SSA ACTIVITIES 1. 3. 6. SSA Goals 1. 2. 10+2 method is followed in these schools. All children of age 6-14 to complete five year primary education by 2007. 4. Stoppage of drop-outs. 5. 2. to pursue UEE as a mission. SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (SSA) INTRODUCTION: The scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) was evolved from the recommendations of the State Education Ministers conference held in October 1998. Universal relation by 2010. 5. The students are given training to appear for the entrance test to join in National Defence Academy. Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010. 4. Appointing at least two teachers in each school Establishing school or education guarantee scheme centres . Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life. 3. So Sainik school is popularly known to be as military school.Those who pass in the final in these schools are qualified to study in defence college. All children of age 6-14 to complete eight years of schooling by 2010. Providing quality education. All children of age 6-14 in schools/education guarantee centres/bridge course by 2003.

500 to each teacher and Rs.Allotting Rs.5000 per year to each school for maintenance charges. Through village education committee building new schools or repairing old damaged buildings. 11. 16. 8. Allotting Rs.Giving 20 days in-servic trainint to each teacher.Giving Rs. 15. .2000 to each school for the preparation of teaching learning materials (TLM).000 to SSA upgraded middle schools for purchase of teaching learning materials.000 to SSA primary schools for purchase of teaching learning materials.10. 13. 10. Providing integrated education to the physically handicapped children.Setting up block resource centres at the block level. 9. 14.50. Setting up a separate office room for the headmaster 7. Allotting Rs.6. 12.Giving 2 days training to community leaders regarding school activities.Setting up cluster resource centres.

The Uses Of Mobile Schools: 1.VIRTUAL SCHOOL The system of learning all the lessons only through computer websites by on line methods is called virtual schooling. As the students remain in their houses and learn. There are called schools without wall. they miss the opportunity to mingle with others and get social contacts. As there are no teachers. There is no need for students to travel to distant schools. these students earn while learning. PROCEDURES OF THESE SCHOOLS: These schools are functioning according to Distance learning process. A class room within four walls and a school in a fenced compound are not modern. Practical knowledge is the syllabus for these schools. Merit of cyber schools: 1. Students must learn voluntarily. MOBILE SCHOOLS The popular educationist Mc Donald recommended this idea of mobiles schools. 2. Books are used as learning aids. they will have to learn on their own. As this education along with jobs. As the students learn through computers and website. There is no necessity for text books in those schools. this is student centered education. Demerits of cyber schools: 1. 2. . 2. Taking education to every person is the important service rendered by these schools. Instead these schools function in the societies directly.

Engineers‘ and Doctors. students develop social responsibility. 2. The Uses of Open School System: 1. People working in various fields are getting education continuously. 5. 4. 4. Abolish illiteracy. 2. The Aims of Open School: 1. Those who wish to get vocational and education. OPEN SCHOOL SYSTEM: In 1974. As it provides western education. Continuing Education: This is education up to the end of life. Provide opportunity of learning to all. This committee explored the possibility of opening an open university. Working men and women are provided with an opportunity to get proper education. Importance‘s of Continuing Education: . Drop out students who have studied up to 7 th std or 8 th std and passed. This is not only part of people‘s life. students utilize the knowledge of social experts like Carpenters. 3. 3.3. Economically backward students. a committee was formed by the director of NCERT. Those who failed in 10 th and 12 th std examination. Fulfill the requirements for higher education. Help the vocational education. As parents are also involved in their education. but also prepares people for better life. 4. 5. A part from teachers and parents. both literates and illiterates get high education and social respect.

CD‘s. This type of learning is floating university. Sending study materials through post. the S. Provides.1. DISTANCE LEARNING: If there is a time difference between the teachers and the taught. To complete a semester in their course of study. 2. If we want to increase the facilities for education. TV. Provides opportunities to all in the educational age groups. Lab facilities in educational institutions.universe and learned while sailing. Provides cultured advancement. INTERNATIONAL SCHOOLS: . 4. Lessons through Radio and TV. For the first timer from America 461 students drawn from various places of higher education travelled in the ship called s. 4. 5. Students visit places and get direct knowledge by visiting places. Provides facilities to working population to get further education. Pictures. continuing education is important. basic education to all.s. it is called Distance learning. This ship carrying 70 teachers and their families too visited 13 ports situated in 10 countries of the world.S. This is an innovative method. FLOATING UNIVERSITY: Sailing to various countries and during sailings. Methods of Teaching in Distance Learning: 1. In 1978. Adult education. Radio. they travelled for 100 days in the ship. University visited Chennai port. 2. 3. Computer and self learning materials etc are the learning aids apart from the contact classes for direct learning. 3.

The Indian International Schools follow the English medium of Instruction just like any other international schools functioning in countries like Australia. These schools were to start with affiliated to the Cambridge University in England. Canada and New Zealand. These schools have received the IGCSE syllabus from the Cambridge University. .These are the schools which provide instruction in languages of different countries so that the students from various countries can be admitted and given instructions.

UNIT III - Innovations in Teaching and Learning Process
Basic concepts of : Play –way Learning –Sensory Training –Joyful Learning – A B LA L M – M L L (Minimum Levels of Learning) –CLASS(Computer Literacy and Studies in Schools) ( O B I )-Mastery Learning –Individualized Instruction –Personalized Syste m of Instruction (P S I – Keller Plan )-Programmed Learning-Teaching Machine –Modules –Cybernetics- Models of Teaching

PLAY-WAY LEARING: Play is an activity in which natural urges of the child find spontaneous expression. It contributes to the physical, social and mental development of the child. Creative faculties of the child are developed here. The child grows into an adult with a balanced personality. Mr. birodel discovered first that plays will be useful in learning. He recommends a number of plays for learning. They are: 1. Refreshing games. 2. Constructive games. 3. Games which will be helpful in developing intelligence and imagination. 4. Games which are promoting unity and inculcate discipline. 5. Games which develop the skills of reading and writing.

Play- way: principles The following are the underlying principles of play-way method: 1. 2. 3. 4. Learning by Doing Related to Life Methods of Teaching Sympathetic Attitude

5. Free Expression 6. Individual‘s Importance 7. Advantages of Play-Way 8. Natural – Motivation 9. Whole-hearted Response 10.Balanced Development of Personality 11.Self-discipline 12.Self-advancement 13.Training of the Sensory Organs 14.Methods of Teaching Based on the Play-Way Principle a. Kindergarten method b. Montessory Method c. Project Method d. Dalton Plan e. Heuristic Method f. Basic Education g. Self-government h. Extracurricular activities PLAY-WAY in the Teaching of Different Subjects: 1. 2. 3. 4. Games may be arranged to give practices in spelling. Arithmetic. History and Geography. Nature study.

SENSORY TRAINING According to Maria Montessori, the Italian doctor (1870 - 1952) ― Education is the active help given to the normal expansion of the life of the child‖. SENSORY TRAINING : FUNCTIONS 1. Visual Sense. 2. Auditory Sense. 3. Olfactory Sense.

4. Gustatory Sense. 5. Tactile Sense.

JOYFUL LEARNING Joyful learning is an exception, having created a veritable revolution in classroom transactions. Joyful learning was started as an experiment in classroom transaction, spearheaded by the teachers themselves. ACTIVITY-BASED LEARNING (ABL) The ABL approach is unique and effective to attract out-of-school children to school/ AIE center. ABL has transformed the classrooms into hubs of activites and meaningful learning. To overcome the above malady in teaching learning process a suitable strategy called ABL. Implementation of ABL approach: 1. 2. 3. 4. Preparation Capacity Building Phase. Experimental Phase. Extension Phase. Evaluation Phase.

The process of ABL approach: Competencies are split into different parts/units and converted into different activities. Each part/unit is called a milestone. To enable the children to organize in groups group cards are used. Evaluation is provided with workbook/worksheet for further reinforcement activities.

Benefit s of ABL approach: Children learn on their pace. Provision of more time for self-directed learning and teacher directed learning is reduced considerably. Group learning, mutual learning and self learning are promoted. Classroom transaction is based on Childs needs and interests. Freedom to child in learning as he chooses his activity. ACTIVITY LEARNING METHOD [ALM] Properties of Learning Objects (Jonassen and Churchill, 2003) This view of a learning object for activity-based learning is fundamentally different

from the approaches proposed by industry-driven initiatives that argue for structuring content into small reusable chunks of information. Our view of learning objects includes that: (i) A learning object is not an explicit granular piece of information – information is not equal to instruction. (ii) A learning object is not a practice or assessment object – ability to apply knowledge cannot be tracked, it must be reflected in learning artifact and examined qualitatively through reflection within a context. (iii) Learning object is not a teaching object – instruction is not equal to learning and last but not least. (iv) Learning object is not reusable by itself - it is reused within activities rather than by itself.

MINIMUM LEVEL OF LEARNING The MLL approach emphasizes on the learing skills rather than rote memorizing or curriculum completion. Thus teaching is directed towards ensuring that all children attain the basic minimum skills or competencies at the level of mastery. The proposed definitions of MLL are 1. Expected learning outcomes defined as observable terminal behaviours. 2. Taxonomic analysis of learing objectives such as knowledge comprehension, application,analysis,synthesis,evaluation ect. 3.learning competencies expected to be mastered by every child by the end of a particular ciass or stage of education. BASIC FATURES OF MLL 1.Achievability 2.Communicability 3.EVALUABILTIY 4.learing continuum 5.comparison with NFE system 6.Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Areas of Learning

An action plan for implementing the national policy on education was evolved in which the concept of minimum levels of learning was important component. Not only hundred percent enrolment, but also qualitative improvement should be seriously attempted. For primary school classes, minimum levels of learning was spelt out by the DTERT/SCERT after consulting education and teachers. In Tamil Nadu ‗663‘ different skills were identified for all the subjects from std I to V. while identifying these skills average teacher and the available infrastructure in primary schools were kept in mind. If pupils could not master these skills either the teacher or the pupils or both are accountable for that.

prepare and submit online assignments. Aims are directions in education. Aims are long goals that are to be achieved after many years of efforts through both curricular and co-curricular activities. imparting training in computer applications etc. they are to be achieved after many years of education. Every subjects of study has its won aims. In school run in the private sector. Today computer education is provided right from VI standard in high schools and has been offered as one of the optional subjects in the highest secondary course. e-learning the subject matter content. becomes an utmost necessity. The main aim of this scheme was to create awareness among teachers and student about computer and its innumerable applications. Acquiring skills like gathering the required data by browsing the relevant websites in the internet. For such type of modern methods of learning. imparting computer education is considered as a progressive measure. send and receive e mails etc. Computer assisted instruction is a more useful method of individualizing instruction in the higher education classes. a scheme called ―class‖ was introduced in 248 high and higher secondary schools in our state. Educational aims are broad and general.MLL needs a different kind of evaluation scheme which was also designed by DTERT and model test papers and guide books were distributed to the pupils. COMPUTER LITERACY AND STUDIES IN SCHOOLS In 1984-85. They shape and guide the specific activities that are planned to develop a particular behavior among the students. OBJECTIVE BASED INSTRUCTION AIM Educational aim points out the ultimate goals to be reached. are in most of the educational institutions carried out through outsourcing. Functions like installation and maintenance of computers. GOAL .

Goal refers to the end point or terminal state to be reached. MEANING OF OBJECTIVE BASED INSTRUCTION After finalizing the appropriate instructional objectives for a particular topic to be taught. Therefore we can say that goals are attainable and measurable. Goals may either be short termed or attainable after a long period of efforts. immediate and attainable goals. Aims are long-term goals. goal and objective could be illustrated with examples given below. suitable instructional activities for the attainment of stated objectives are to be carefully planned and properly carried out. . RELATIONSHIP AMONG AIM. GOAL AND OBJECTIVE The relationship that exist among the terms aim. resulting from an instructional activity. pronounce words properly and write flawlessly. they could be precisely measured. in measurable terms as the ‗expected learning outcomes‘. To provide sufficient drill and practice in mother-tongue enabling the pupil to read fluently. As they are stated using ‗action verbs‘. the pupil will be able to write the address of one of this close relatives correctly. This kind of teaching is known as objective based instruction. Objectives could be spotted on ‗refraction‘ for X standard. They are well defined by the specification of behavior and hence generally referred to as ‗ Behavioral objectives‘. Objectives could be spotted at the beginning of each lesson in well written text books. But the goals of objectives are the knowledge and ability that are to be acquired after one or two periods of instruction. After completing class II pupils should be able to recognize and write properly all the letters in Tamil language. objectives may also be defined for each lesson in a subject. After a period of instruction in the class on ‗writing the address of a person‘. Objectives may pertain to a course or a subject of study . could be tested for their attainment. Objectives are stated. OBJECTIVES Objectives are specific.

I. III. based upon which different instructional activities like presenting information. no time is wasted in providing unnecessary informations and exercises. Following proper teaching strategy. By appropriate learning environment. II. MASTERY LEARNING According to Benjamin bloom though individual differences are there among students in their rate of learning and learning styles. makes the teacher understand what and how to teach in this class. CARROL‘S TEACHING MODEL AND PUPILS MASTERY LEARNING The teaching model proposed by John B. the knowledge and abilities that are to be developed by pupils after learning a particular topic. Helping students in learning those segments of subjects content which they feel difficult. As instructional objectives are stated in well defined terms learning outcomes exhibited by pupils could be precisely evaluated. we mean the inclusion of the following: I. Providing sufficient time to learn and master the content taught. most of the students learn a significant amount of what is being taught in their class. if sufficient time to learn and suitable learning experiences are provided. ADVANTAGES OF O. Carrol in 1963 states that the degree of learning is a function of the amount of time the learner actually spends on the learning task to the total amount of time needed to master it.After surveying the subject matter contents. are to be listed. any one could master any set of objectives. Once instructional objectives are determined well before start teaching.B. explaining demonstrating arranging for students practical work. are planned and executed.B. This could be stated in another way as . giving home assignments etc. O.I. Depending upon the appropriateness of the learning environment provided in the class.

Ability to understand instruction 2. ‗time required to master the task‘ us defined by two variable. Quality of instruction Therefore we can conclude that the degree of proficiency achieved by any student in any given set of objectives depends upon five factors: Opportunity to learn His aptitude Perseverance Ability to understand instruction quality of instruction ROLE OF TEACHER IN PUPILS MASTERY LEARNING To help the student attain mastery over a subject. 1. SALIENT FEATURES OF MASTERY LEARNING Mastery learning of pupil should be taken up as a challenge. the factor. Pupils self confidence and perseverance as well as teacher‘s hard work and presence . ―time actually spent in learning a task‖ is defined by three variables: Opportunity to learn Perseverance Aptitude The factor spotted in the denominator of the formula given above viz. the teacher should: 1) Improve his quality of instruction 2) Provide feed back then and there‘ 3) Pay special attention to those who struggle to learn difficult portions in the given topic.Time actually spent in learning a task Degree of proficiency attained = ----------------------------------------------------Time required mastering the task In the above formula.

Therefore the need for auto-education background many self-learning devices started emerging in education.of mind are essential for achieving success in this task. MEANING OF SELF-LEARNING Students learn themselves independently without the assistance of a teacher by operating on the instructional materials. is called self learning or auto instruction. The following five are the salient features of mastery learning:      Stating the behavioral objectives Small learning segments Self-pacing‘ Individual attention Criterion referenced testing INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION Psychology has pointed out that individuals differ in their intelligence. otherwise there is every danger of human resources being wasted. if education is to be effective and helpful for optimum development of every individual. It is also not practically possible to appoint a tutor for every individual student. growth and development. audio-tapes. Some of the important self learning devicds that are employed in education: 1) 2) 3) 4) Programmed instruction Keller Plan or Personalised system of instruction Computer assisted instruction Use of multimedia learning packages. abilities. aptitudes. resulting in the set back of the society. printed diagrams. interests. and learning kits containing programmed text. motivation. as such it is futile to offer same kind of education to all. . Self learning devices such as printed instructional modules. It is utmost important to cater in individual differences.

are available only on certain topics. Expressing the learning outcomes as behavioral objectives for each part of the content of learning 3. short film etc. film strips. an overview of what is to be learned in the package is to be outlined so that the learner will be motivated to go through the learning package. 2. Freedom for students to learn Allow the learners to proceed at their own speed Ensure mastery learning for each learner Present new ideas based on learner‘s previous knowledge Insure the active participation of each individual learner.        Take into account the individual differences among the learners. Every frame should contain only a small bit of information so that the learner will be able to answer correctly the test item in the frame. Provide feedback for each response of the learner. the content to be learned could be set accordingly as a series of short leaning steps or frames. At the start of the self learning package. . PRINCIPLES OF SELF LDEARNING DERICES As a result of the interest evinced in providing individualized instruction many self learning devices emerged. Mentioning the attainment of the skills after successfully finishing each art of the lesson or content of learning. By arranging the behavioral objectives sequentially. PREPARING AN INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE Teachers attempting to provide for individualized instruvtional packages should employ the following steps: 1. All these devices involve the following principles.video-casette disce. 4. 5.

as well as informing them of their level of mastery by periodical evaluation. Television programmes or film strips . a) Mastery oriented: In PSI the learning outcomes of a student is not peer group referenced but criterion referenced. learning method. These are supplemented by films. e) Use of peer-proctors in tutorials: peer-proctors are employed to help the students personally during their learning. Keller plan is different from other self learning techniques in that it provides for peer proctors.KELLER PLAN Fred Keller. model questions. The personalized system of instruction is one of the types of self learning technique. method of learning. the lessons to be learnt are divided into a number of small units or topics. titled ―GOODBYE TO TEACHER‖ are. which contain the learning objectives. b) Self pacing: here every student is allowed to proceed at his own speed. WORKING OF PSL Under Keller Plan in every subject. devised a new technique of self learning for college students in 1968. c) Supplementary—aids: students are motivated by the few lectures. reference books and exercise questions for that unit. demonstrations etc. d) Printed study guides : to make the learning easier. given by the teacher at the beginning of the semester. film strips. T. for each of which a printed study guide is provided which contains the objectives. Only when the learner achieves 80 to 90% of the set objectives he is allowed to move to the next lesson. Here the student can attain mastery over the content learnt through self learning and that too at his own speed. printed study guides are given. an American psychologist. SALIENT FEATURES OF KELLER PLAN Salient features of PSI. and reference books. as appeared in her research artricle published in 1968.V and radio programmes.

‘ Every frame contains a small bit of information of the content followed by a question based on the information contained in the frame. In programmed instruction. After learning a frame the leaner is required to answer the question in the frame. At the beginning of each semester. In this. Before proceeding to the next frame. the leaner is informed whether his answer is right or wrong The above mentioned steps followed in the progress of the content of the otherwise known as principles of programmed instruction. This are not compulsory for the students to attend and the students are free to choose their mode of learning. prepare the printed study guides and procure / develop supplementary learning aids. with the use of stimulus response reinforcement cycles individual learners plan to self learn a whole lesson. He has to prepare the terminal test also. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION An individulised learning technique called programmed instruction was introduced in 1950. teaching machine or computer.developed for the unit are provided through a video cassette. as a frame. outstanding students in the class. The content of the whole lesson is divided into a number of small bits of information and one such bit is presented at a time. if found unsatisfactory they will suggest guidelines for further learning to the concerned students. The teacher has to select the content for lessons. Peer proctors will test the level of learning achievement of each individual student. For this they may use a specially prepared booklet. called ‗proctors‘ also play a significant role. the teacher presents few lectures and demonstrations. In Keller Plan. along with the teacher. which are listed below: . Students can use these learning materials by sitting anywhere in the school/college.

LINEAR PROGRAMME In this all students learn the same programme material in the same sequence. Further interest in this field was kindled by skinner. They are simply asked to relearn the same frame.PRINCIPLES OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Principle of small steps Principle of active response Principle of feedback though knowledge of results Principle of self-pacing Principle of student testing or recoding of learning TYPE OF PROGRAMMES Sydney pressey was the first to introduce the technique of programmed instruction. . In 1930 he developed a teaching machine too. but the deficiencies of those who give wrong response are not rectified. those who give the correct response reach the goal in the shortest way. MERITS AND DEMERITS Preparing linear programme is easy and economical. Psychologists point out that mere repetition will not bring clarity or enlightenment. Those who give incorrect response for a frame have undergo the remedial frames before they proceed to the next frame and hence such student reach the goal in a circuteous route. Linear programme is formed with the belief that the student will answer the frames correctly almost all the times. who developed the linear programme later on crowder developed the branched programme. Of course with their own speed. BRANCHED PROGRAMME In this all students do not learn the same material.

Generally the printed texts in the learning package of a module does not follow the text book pattern. Putting it in other words it could be said that a module is a self contained instructional package on a single conceptual unit of subject matter.TEACHING MACHINES Teaching machines are electrical or mechanical devices used for selflearning. by pressey in 1920. Although they appear as light and sound devices.‘ They help the learner to proceed at his own speed They supervise the learning of each individual student Forerunner for the emergence of teaching mach is the development of automatic testing devices. they have special learning components in them some which are give below: They elicit overt or covert response of the student They provide feed backs to the learner. Following is the organizational pattern of an instructional module Over view / introduction Instructional objectives Sequential presentation of the content. This attempt led to the development of teaching machine in 1950 and programmed instruction in 1960 INSTRUCTIONAL MODULES An instructional module is a self-contained independent unit of a planned series of learning activities designed to help the student accomplish certain well defined objectives. Important concepts in every segment of the content are highlighted again by presenting them in a box like set up. Review List of enrichment activities Citation of reference books .

This term cybernetics is coined from the Greek word kybernetts meaning steerman. This can be taken to mean the science of control and communication systems. For example consider our school system. Infact all regulatory bodies throughout entire society are the dynamic feedback and self regulatory system. self adapting mechanism which is capable of storing information and changing its responses according to the changing environment. PROCESS This acts on the material or information to modify it in any way. All systems include atleast three basic elements. The school policies are changed by the sheer force of the public opinions generated by the parents. OUTPUT It consists of some techniques for discharging the results of the process from the system.  Input  Process  Output INPUT It provides some process by which material or information is entered into the system. When the error between what the parents want their children to learn in school and what they actually receive become too great. IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES OF THE CYBERNETIC THEORY 1. . The word cybernetics was first used by norbers wiener in 1948 to denote a flexible.CYBERNETICS MEANING OF CYBERNETICS The dictionary meaning of cybernetics is governor or steerman. The output from a system which returned to input to control future output is called feedback.

Its input consists of subject matter content. Characteristics and objectives stated as expected learning outcomes. Teacher education programme can be improved by employing innovative practices like micro teaching. The output for a cybernetic instructional system is the display to the learner which may be oral such as lecture. Student responses function as feedback for input.  It moves the system kin the direction of well defined objectives. structured and presented to the learner for the purpose of establishing some responses. The following are the major educational implications of cybernetics. . learner. APPLICATIONS OF CYBERNETICS INSTRUCTION Most useful concept in the cybernetic theory is that of dynamic feedback which has far reaching implications for teaching learning and training.  It compares the actual course in which it moves to that set by the objective and detects errors if any. iv.  Tacking cues from the errors. Any feedback control system carries out the following three functions. explanation or visual or written and so on. A display is any stimulus situation. i. iii. It provides the basis for self-education. The feedback control is used to develop programmed instructional material. ii. It enables the teacher to understanding some of the fundamental mechanisms which control learning. it steers the system towards the right course originally intended CYBERNETICS AND TEACHING Instruction also can be considered as a cybernetic system. In some advanced cybernetic instructional systems there is provision to record and present every response of the learner. The principles of cybernetics are applied for class room instruction for group as well as individual learning.2. stimulated social skill teaching and interaction analysis which are based on the theory of feedback.

some models of teaching have been developed. But so far no well developed theory of teaching has been formulated. Each one has been theoretically developed to serve a particular purpose. describing how certain learning situations could be designed through specific instructional activities. though classroom lectures and self reading.MODELS OF TEACHING CONCEPT OF A TEACHING MODEL Effects are made to develop theories of teaching. For example. As Dececco and Crawford rightly observe the best substitute for a theory of teaching is a model of teaching. The interaction between the teacher and the student through subject matter content and skills constitute instruction. Teaching models merely suggest how various teaching and learning conditions are interrelated. David Ausubel‘s Advanced organizer model describes how pupil could be made to learn clearly the facts and concepts contained in a topic and realize how they ate interrelated. Thus the instructional process provides an opportunity to develop physical and social efficiency of pupils III. Herbart‘s memory model describes the instructional activities meant for developing learning situations to increase pupils memory. SOME EXAMPLES OF TEACHING MODELS Many teaching models are available. . II. Different type of teaching objectives are achieved by organizing teaching elements in different ways. Educationists and psychologists have intensified their efforts in this regard. ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING TEACHING MODELS Teaching models are based upon the following assumptions: I. A theory is set of propostions putforth based on experimental evidences to explain a phenomenon. It involves independent variables. Teaching is a means for generating an environment of learning. As a result.

    Focus Syntax Social system Support system Support system relates to the facilities provides like the audio-visual aids. 4. . programmed text. field trips quizzes etc. laboratory work text books reference books. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD TEACHING MODEL All good teaching models have common identifiable characteristic which are given below:      Scientific procedure Specification of learning out comes Specification of environment Criterion of performance Specification of operations Role of teaching models Models of teaching serve the following purposes: 1. It helps the teacher to develop the capacity to teach more number of children and create conducive learning environment for them. 3. 2. It helps curriculum makers to plan curriculum which provides a variety of educational experiences to children. to cater to the needs of the individual learner during the implementation of teaching strategy. It helps teachers to create more interesting and effective instructional materials and learning resources.IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF A TEACHING MODELS A teaching model as stated by Joyce generally consists of the following four elements. It enables teachers to specify and procure the instructional materials that are to be used for brining about desirables behavior changes in pupils.

Bruner‘s concept attainment model J. Computer based teaching model of Stolurow and Davis iii. P.5. 6. Ausubel‘s advanced organizer model Development model of Jean Piaget. Ned A Flander‘s interaction model of teaching ISREAL SCHELLER has described three philosophical teaching models in hierarchial order  The impression model of john locke  The insight model of plato  The rule model of Kant Bruce Joyce and Marsh Weil. IV. It may help to formulate a theory of teaching. Richard Suchman‘s lnquiry training model ] David P. 5. The social interaction sources The information processing sources The personal sources Behavior modification source Type of teaching models Review of literature of teaching models suggests a variety of sources. 1. Group investigation model of John Dewery . III. John A Carroll‘s model of school learning iv. They are given below: I. describe teaching models classified into five families of which the following are the important ones. Sources of teaching models There are four important sources from which all the models have been derived. II. Skinner‘s behavior modification model Jerome S. 2. Dececco has discussed four basic psychological models of teaching i. Robert Glaser‘s basic teaching model ii. 4. 3.

TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION Finn and his associates define educational technology as under: The technology of employing machines for instructional purposes so as to enhance the learning of pupils is otherwise known as Educational Technology. has to be seen as part of a persistent and complex endeavour of bringing pupils.B. Integrating these three components.TECHNOLOGY ENABLED TEACHING IN THE CLASSROOM Concept of educational technology Educational technology. as J. This approach is called otherwise as ‗Technology of education‘. teachers and technical means together in an effective way. application and evaluation of system and techniques involving. includes the development. arHdware technology Applications of software technology in education is knows as Technology of education. Educational technology. BROADLY ACCEPTED TECHNOLOGY DEFINITION OF EDUCATIONAL Modern definition of educational technology apart from encompassing both the approaches of ‗Technology in Education‘ and ‗Technology of Education‘. . It consists of two important streams: i. This definition gives importance for applying psychological principles in the preparation of instructional materials and their presentation in the instructional process. men. Gases puts its. media and instructional materials as components. machines. Software technology ii. Davies and Hartley putsforth the broad definition of educational technology as under. incorporates ‗Systems approach in Education‘ also. Whereas educational use of hardware technology is called as technology in education. in its wide sense as understood today. Software approach is emphasized.

To make teaching and learning.so as to improve the process of human learning and attain the educational goals. suitable and necessary modifications could be attempted in education. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Educational technology is necessary to achieve the following: i. As such the scope of educational technology encompasses defining educational objectives. 1. Assessing the entry behavior of pupils . Formulating the instructional objectives 2. planned and structured It emphasizes objective based programmed instruction It help to express the instructional objectives in terms of behavior outcomes It helps to answer the issues in education like Why? To Whom? When? How? It urges the learning material are to be presented in small and easy to learn. v. media and learning materials constitute the important components of the system called education. iv. iii. ii. as well as their evaluation. An analysis of the above definition reveals the following: a) Men. collecting information about different media and their characteristics. steps TECHNIQUE OF USING EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY The various steps in carrying out interrelated use of media. developing the criteria for selection of media and resources management of resources. b) These 4 components of the system are associated with each other and should function in an integrated manner so as to attain the educational goals and objectives. materials and various teaching and learning strategies to create effective learning experience are discussed below. c) Based on the feedback received as a result of evaluation of the system. machines.

i. Wholesome instructional materials could be prepared and standardized vii. It helps to enrich and enliven the instructional process ii. SOME OF THE MODERN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES USING EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Language laboratory. iii. Finalizing the instructional methods and strategies 5. We shall deal with the applications of different information and communication technologies in education in the next lesson. v. Developing the criterion test 4. It helps to provide education to a large number of students at a time and that too taking into account the individual differences and the differential speed of learning among students.3. compact disc teleconferencing computer assisted instruction web based learning EDUSAT etc. Evaluation and feed back ADVANTAGES OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY The following are the major advantages of using educational technology. closed circuit television video cassette. are some of the important technology enabled instructional methods which find place in modern class rooms. Students are able to learn more and remember them for long quantity and quality of learning are improved. It helps the learners to easily understand what they learn and retain it for long iv. It helps to win and sustain the attention of the learner. It stimulates the interest of the learners for further learning. vi. .

the meaning of information and communication technology the recent advances made and their applications in education viz. Interactive video. e-learning. and electronic community have been taken up for detailed discussion. web-based learning.e –tutoring ComputerAssisted Instruction ( C A I )-Computer Managed Learning (C M L )-Tele/ Video Conferencing –Interactive Video -Multi media –Multi purpose Kits –S I T E (Satellite Instruction TelevisionProgramme) –E T V (Educational Television) –Edusat –Reach the Unreach –U N E S C O’s Learning Without Frontiers (L W F ).I C T in Education I C T in Education –We b based Education (Virtual) – e-learning . . Reach the unreach. and rapid access of information to users.Virtual Classrooms Technology -e book –Digital Library –Electronic Community UNIT-IV INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION INTRODUCTION In this lesson. multimedia learning satellite Instructional Television Programme. CMI. UNESCOS learning without Frontiers(LWF). e-book. Tele-conferencing.(A) Educational Innovations UNIT IV . CAI. EDUSAT. e-tutoring. Virtual classroom. storage. MEANING OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Information and Communication Technology (ICT) deals with the application of different electronic media in the collection. digital library.

2.ROMs. 3. video tapes. Still images such as slides. Computer as a teaching machine Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) Computer-managed instruction(CMI) Computer-mediated education(CME) audio- . 1. VOICE Instructional audio-tools are of two types. Two-way (interactive) audio-tools such as telephone. e-mail. 4. internet. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS IN TEACHING A wide range of technologies are available today to teachers. 2. VIDEO Instructional video tools include 1. teleconferencing etc. Interactive video. One-way audio-tools such as radio and audio-tape 2. These could be broadly classified into the following four major categories. audioconferencing and short-wave radio. DVDs. Computer makes use of data in the following four ways for providing instruction. CD. 1. Pre-recorded moving images(e. Real – time moving images combined with conferencing(one or two way video with two-audio) DATA Computer receive and provide information electronically.USE OF INFRORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EDUCATION The use of new technologies like computer.g. Enabling large number of students to get access to quality education and adopt self-learning to improve their potentials is known as teaching through ICT. Through which they could impart instruction to students. film ) 3.

eliminating expensive and time-consuming long distance journeys. INTERACTIVE AUDIO OR VIDEO CONFERENCING Teleconferencing facilitates people situated at distant places to have face-to-face interaction. SELECTION OF THE BEST TECHNOLOGY FOR THE DELIVERY OF INSTRUCTION Through many technological options are available for teaching. PRINTED MATERIALS They are used to present the basic instructional content in the form of text. laboratory practical instructions. When this method is employed in education. workbooks.PRINT This is the basic element of teaching and learning and all other instructional delivery system have evolved from it. students operate these and learn themselves. even in the absence of the teacher. Textbooks. schedule of work. the teacher. synopsis of lectures. the syllabus. the teacher must focus on instructional outcomes rather than the kind of technology to be used for teaching. etc. That technology which is less expensive. visuallyoriented contents of the lesson etc. are different formats of print materials used in education. course syllabus. pupils of different institutions and those in different campuses could establish direct contact with expert professors and educationists and get guidance and . case studies etc. PRE-RECORDED VIDEO-TAPES They can be used to present classroom demonstrations. low time consuming and highly effective in delivering the contents to students (which is inferred by the learning outcomes of students) is considered as the best one. study guides.

PRINCIPLES OF WEB-BASED LEARNING 1. business houses and other organizations. The learner should be actively engaged and made to feel the reallife experiences through simulation. FAX As this is useful in transmitting printed documents of many pages from one place to another instantly. anyone can visit the home pages available in the websites. 2. With a computer having an internet connection. participants situated at far off places too could participate in a seminar and exchange their views. . shortly referred to as www. In this method. Keeping in mind the various learning styles of students. a variety of media are made use of to develop appropriate learning environment to achieve the desired learning out-comes. It can also be used to increase interaction among students.] 3. assignments. The learning experiences designed for web-based teaching must focus specific learning objectives and outcomes. WEB BASED LEARNING MEANING OF WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW) The world-wide web. it is generally employed to distributed assignments to reach out last minute announcements to students. feedback and other specific communications to one or more class members. to receive students‘ assignments and to provide timely feedback. COMPUTER CONFERENCING OR E-MAIL This can be used when the teacher wants to send messages. is a graphical hypertext-based internet tool that provides access to home pages created by individuals.clarifications in their curricular programmes.

7. 6. CHARACTERISTICS OF WEB-BASED LEARNING Quality web-based learning has the following characteristics: 1. 4. It is learner. Knowledge becomes functional when the individual creates meaning from his experiences instead of simply accepting what others say as true. Develops the ability to derive meaning and engage in active discourse. Fosters the higher order cognitive abilities like analysis. Learning environment must include both knowledge based as well as problem-based learning. Knowledge based learning involves recall. 2. synthesis and evaluation. 5. . 3. Provides for the teacher and the taught to share information mutually. Allows for group learning too. encourages collaboration and cooperation among the group members to collect and share the needed information. Encourages the learners to collect the information they need and develop their own knowledge instead of providing tailor-made knowledge. comprehension and application whereas problem-based learning focuses on higher order cognitive abilities like analysis. Focuses on real-world events and problem-solving. 6. True knowledge results from critical analysis of what one happens to learn.centred and encourages active participation and knowledge-construction. Provisions should be made for the visitors of the website to react and exchange ideas with it. synthesis and evaluation.4. Incorporation new knowledge and viewpoints empower learners and encourage critical thinking. Learning experiences must reflect the needs and interests of the community. 5.

5.NATURE OF INFORMATION PROVIDED ON THE WEBSITE Each educational institution may include the following information on its website.e. Designing personal web-pages 3. animation. In e-learning the . 2. 1. With e-learning. presents it in a suitable way and answers the learners question so as to clarify doubts. E-learning. the teacher designs the learning material. e-learning can be done anywhere and anytime as long as the user has the proper hardware. 6. web-based training. 4. In a traditional classroom. audio and video Cited reference materials SKILLS FOR WEB-BASED TEACHING Important skills required for web-based teaching are: 1. World processing 2. 3. Moreover. internet-based training and computer-based training are the next generation instructional methods being developed today. its presentation and support services offered to the learners remain separated with the use of the internet. creation of the learning material. Handling e-mails E-LEARNING E-learning is learning that takes place in an electronically stimulated environment. users can immerse themselves in a threedimensional environment to further enhance their learning experience. Details of the courses Class communication Assignment and tests Contents covered in the class Demonstration. Today e-learning is fast becoming a reality through companies like trainer soft and others. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN E-LEARNING AND CLASS ROOM LEARNING 1. In e-learning these three tasks i.

THE CATEGORIES OR LEVELSOF E-LEARNING KNOWLEDGE DATA – BASE Online database are a form of e-learning that is used nowadays. 2. learners assemble at a particular time in a place and learn in a particular environment. These are usually moderately interactive. With asynchronous training students learn through internet-based. . network based or storage disk based modules. the learner could gain rich learning experience. virtual environment and animation. usually at any time as long as you have a properly configured computer. In the traditional classroom learning. 3. As the learning materials are provided in e-learning through different media like audio. meaning that you can either type in a key word or phrase to search the database. or make a selection from an alphabetical list. video. Further pleasant learning environment kindles interest for learning and helps to retrain longer what is learnt. text. You would have probably seen knowledge databases on software sites offering indexed explanations and guidance for software questions.emphasis is mainly on the design of the e-courseware rather than its delivery. But e-learning allow you to learn anywhere. The difference between e-learning and traditional classroom learning could be compared to that between a cell phone and a pay phone at the bus station. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANING Asynchronous training is a combination of the two forms of e-learning mentioned above. ONLINE SUPPORT Online support is more interactive form of e-learning as it gives the user an opportunity to interact with real people when he or she is looking for an explanation or answer to a problem. along with step-bystep instructions for performing specific tasks.

9. One can learn a subject faster (compared to the time required in the traditional classroom approach). Students should have their own computer and an internet connection to get avail this service. Learners. 6. While the most obvious are the flexibility and the cost saving from not having to travel or spend excess time away from work. Learner can work from any location at any time. Those who wish to avail the facility of e- . 2. could still pursue their courses during their leisure time. It is called such because students have to log in at a specified time and the classed will be held for a specified period time. One can go through the learning materials following his own preferred sequence. through they remain employed. A web based e-learning programme is a lot less expensive to maintain compared to what is required to pay for instructors and training personnel in the classroom style. text.SYNCHRONOUS TRANING Synchronous training is a real-time method of e-learning with live interaction between the instructions and the students. BENFITS OF E-LEARNING E-learning has definite benefits over traditional class room training. It can be easily managed for large group of students. E-learning lets the user learn the subject at his own pace. No travel to go to the learning centre. 3. hence savings of time and money. 7. virtual environments and three dimensional pictures. Learning materials can be updated easily and quickly. video. E-TUTORING Students getting instructional facilities through online services are called e-tutoring. there are also others that might not be so obvious. 8. 5. 4. 1. E-learning leads to increased retention and stronger grasp of the subject as the learning materials presented are rich in quality having animation.

each followed by a question. The software in the form a C. 2. MERITS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION i. BENEFITS OF E-TUTORING Benefits of e-tutoring are plenty of which the following are the important ones: 1. by paying the requisite fees. 9. If answer is incorrect. the lesson and its contents to be learnt are recorded in the software of the computer. 3. . Save time and money Convenience Subject specialists Anywhere. 6. with animation and appropriate background sound. 7. 4. 2.D. or Cassette is inserted in the computer and when the student presses the keys in the keyboard. 10. As the quality of learning material presented is rich. ii.tutoring should register them self with the agency which provides this service. he is given alternate explanations or asked to study the same frame again before answering the question. 5. 8. lessons appear in the monitor as small texts. In this way the computer manages the response of the individual learner. any time Multi-subjects at one place Highly individualized and customized Security Direct approach Easy as 1. Flexibility COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CIA) In computer assisted instruction. The learner can receive the content (study material) sequentially very fast and that too without any error. The student has to answer the questions by pressing the keys and the answers to appear in the monitor screen. interest for learning is kindled. 3.

simulation. It is the use in teaching –learning process such as tutorial. Since the learner himself operates his computer and learns. it will not help in the development of wholesome personality of students and achievement of objectives (in the affective and psychomotor domain) through competitions. drills. adjusting with others. There is no scope in CAI for the development of virtues like kindness. helping others. on the other hand refers to the academic discipline dealing with the imparting of knowledge in hardware. iv. 5. 4. diagrams or in animated forms. and participation in co-curricular activities and skills development. . Drill and practice Tutorial Simulation Browsing Calculation DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPUTER ASSISTED EDUCATION AND COMPUTER EDUCATION Educational computing or computers in education refers to using computer as a self-learning device and medium to progress at one‘s own rate. and derive joy in meticulous planning and execution. software programme preparation and application. sympathy. The content of the lesson could be presented as text. computation etc. DEMERITS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION As the teaching – learning process is controlled by machine. 2.iii. browsing. ROLE OF COMPUTER IN INSTRUCTION 1. 3. v. Computer education. learning interest is sustained throughout the session. CAI can develop cognitive objectives only. peer-group relations. software languages etc. The computer successfully manages the different responses of the learner by directing him appropriately what to do further.

business processing centers. called computer professionals find jobs in software industries. the computer managed instruction developed by stulurow and Daniel Davies appears to have many superior features. In conventional instruction. wherein computer is used in tutorial work. CML makes use of the computer in a different role in instruction. scientific organizations etc. There are: i.People trained in computer education. This sophisticated method liberates people from undertaking expensive and time consuming long distance journeys. the teacher must make the decision instead of the computer. And he must determine the extent of the student‘s success. Video-conferencing Audio-conferencing Computer-conferencing . COMPUTER MANAGED LEARNING (CML) Unlike CAI. COMPARISON OF CMI WITH CONVENTIONAL INSTRUCTION As compared to conventional classroom instruction. TELE-CONFERENCING In tele-conferencing.keeping and it does not provide any direct instruction to the learner. In CML the main role of the computer is record. iii. He must decide what to teach to whom and how. TYPE OF TELE-CONFERENCING At present tele-conferencing is arranged along three basic types. ii. people situated at distant places establish direct contact through tele-communication and converse among themselves. commercial establishments.

This helps in conducting off-campus courses in a number of widely scattered centres. 5. 4. Group discussions and seminars could be arranged economically even for students under distant education mode. IMPROTANT DEVICES IN THE AUDIO-PLUS SYSTEM i. As immediate feedback is available to students in tele-conferencing they could undertake remedial measures easily. vi. iv. 3. It cuts down the cost and time involved for the learners to undertake long journeys to reach the study centres and experts for getting guidance and clarifications. 6. are need. electronic chalk-board. ii.EQUIPMENTS AND DEVICES USED IN TELE-CONFERENCING To arrange for tele-conferencing. teachers initiate and regulate students learning while offering lot of freedom to students and hence quite welcome among the students. information from distance places could be obtained at a great speed of 300 to 1200 bauds. This serves as an additional system to help the learners belonging to different educational institutions spread out in a particular area. etc. In this method. Electronic chalk-board Slow scan television system Electronic over-head projector Vide text system –tele text Fax to transmit documents compressed video ADVANTAGES OF TELE-CONFERENCING Following are the important advantages of using tele-conferencing in education: 1. equipments and devices like multidimensional visual and audio transmission system. v. tele-text system. . By connecting micro computers to high power modem. iii. 2.

2. 3. them the learner has to speak to the computer. .INTERACTIVE VIDEO (IV) Interactive video is an individualised instructional system providing a multi-media learning environment. For the student to respond to the questions asked or to raise questions in order to get his doubts clarified there will be a provision from among the following: 1. Pre-recorded video materials. the learner has to only touch the cues on the screen. Freeze a particular still frame for a fixed period of time. Video disc 3. If a touch screen is provided. move around on the flat surface of the screen with the cursor and double click at the appropriate spot. Search for a particular segment or still frame. Student views each of the video materials recorded with background sound. This system is no yet commercially available. If a voice recognition system is provided. 4. Using a mouse.V. A keyboard to type the responses. Monitor INTERACTIVE VIDEO FACILITIES An interactive video has the following provisions 1. Micro computer 2. easily understands the content and interacts with the computer by answering the questions (usually in the form of multiple choice questions) accompanying each frame of the content material. animation and virtual environment. The responses of the viewers affect the pace and sequence of the video presentation. COMPONENTS OF AN INTERACTIVE VIDEO SYSTEM In any IV system the following three components find place. T. It combines the features of instructional television and computer assisted instruction. 1. 2. arranged sequentially are presented to viewers in steps at a particular speed under the control of a computer.

. 4. It is also called instructional materials centre multimedia library curriculum materials centre instructional or learning resources centre and provides all necessary materials for both teachers and students. It evaluates each response of the students to judge whether he has understood the content viewed. Examine the response of the learner and process it as an instruction for further play in the forward direction or replay. Majority of students are interested in using audio-visual aids in their learning. Keep record on how many times a particular action has occurred. 1. single administrative organization. MULTIMEDIA CENTRE Media centre is a school in itself as well as a centre which serves a school system. Play in either normal or slow step by step mode in the forward direction. Some prefer learning by reading. Such king of individual differences in students learning could be successfully met to a large extent by providing for mutlt-media instruction.3. 2. materials and accompanying services putting audio-visual and printed resources under a more favorable. The media center will house all learning. INSTRUCTIONAL USES OF INTERACTIVE VIDEO Interactive video has the following two instructional uses. MULTI-MEDIA APPROACH IN LEARNING We could observe in today‘s classrooms the vast individual differences in the potentials and styles of learning among the pupils. subsequent video content materials will be presented in the normal mode in the forward direction. It enables the student to select the desired video disc segment and desired contents for learning. If it indicates lack of comprehension. If the student‘s comprehension is confirmed. then through a branch loop containing supplementary or remedial materials will be presented. some others prefer hearing to experts and some like to learn by seeing. 5.

then to get further details regarding a fact or figure involved in the scene of the frame we have to press the hot spot over it by clicking the mouse and get at the related file. in a computer screen then it is called in information technology as multimedia presentation many of the techniques used in data transmission are employed in multimedia presentation.e. we are able to interact with the programme as per our interest and expand our knowledge. along with the natural movements of the figures in the scenes and the sounds they make. INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION Here when we are viewing a frame containing a text or picture. TYPES OF MULTI MEDIA PRESENTATION In simple multimedia presentation programmes. lateral movement is not possible. by leaping to another file related to the particular scene i. In this type we can view the frames moving either in forward or reverse direction. Interactive multimedia programmes allow us to move in any direction laterally or linearly i. But it may not be possible to get further details about the scene which we are viewing in the programme. .e. visual frames are linearly moved. Thus we are able to leap from a file to many related files of the programme laterally also and get detailed knowledge about any concept. one after the other. in the multimedia programme. fact or figure.MULTI-MEDIA PRESENTATION OF THE CONTENT THROUGH COMPUTER MEANING OF MULTI MEDIA PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION If the learning content or information is made top appear as visuals in color.

EQUIPMENTS REQURIED TO PROVIDE MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION 1. Digital computer. . visuals. factories and plants. Multimedia learning enables the teacher to provide assignments to students which demand creative expressions on their part. EDUCATIONAL USES 1. analog devices and hardware devices that serve as interface to digital computer and analog devices. Computer 2. 5. drawings and films. While learning a topic. in the form of pictures. This could be effectively employed in the fields like planning. Teacher and the taught join together and search for information and knowledge. Computer hardware for analyzing information and arranging them media-wise. Pupils could learn the content not only in the textual form but also through visuals in true life-like settings. 2. texts. Software to integratethe different kinds of information like drivers editors processing software and authoring software. education. pupils could use their computers at home and learn through multimedia. It promotes the curiosity of the learners. and sounds and acquire comprehensive knowledge. Apart from classroom regular learning. 3. business etc. recreation. 4. the teacher could provide detailed information with the aid of pictures. No more is the teacher considered as the exclusive source of knowledge for pupils. 3. the pupils could obtain various information related to the topic. To clarify pupil‘s doubts. 4. building database. ADVANTAGE OF MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION All information are categorized media-wise and stored as database so that we could present any of the needed information as and when required. Habit of selflearning is promoted.

8. along with sufficient television receivers or projectors to accommodate costs are making possible direct home reception of television . 5. 7. 7. In addition to satellites with uplink and downlink capability. SATELITE INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAMME (SITE) Satellite technology has become one of the most important components of global telecommunication. It has facilitated a dramatic increase in the volume of telecommunication traffic worldwide via the traditional distribution methods of cable.300 miles above the equator (gross 1990) Satellites provide the communication link between origination and receiving locations and devices. Printed handbook Transparencies Collection of slides Audio-tape Video-tape Printed diagrams Film strips Short films Manufacturers of multimedia kits employ the services of expert teachers and educational technologists. 2. Each kit contains 1. 6. Multimedia presentation is highly useful in museums and archaeology. or computer-based program origination facilities are required. microwave. television. 4. Multimedia programmes find extensive applications in computer-based training. Most of the world can be covered by three strategically located satellites in geostationary orbit 22. MULTI-MEDIA KITS Multi-media learning materials prepared on different topics in a subject and packed in a handy kit are available now a day in the market.6. radio. Teachers could prepare multimedia programme packages for pupils effective self-learning. 3. and broadcast radio and television.

Communication by TV is effective because it can bring very good demonstrations and audio visual materials to the classroom. Instructional television(ITV) ADVANTAGES OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION 1. 2. It helps to provide education to children even in places where there are no schools or teaches such as far off hilly places. 7. In the telecast services of INSAT-1B. utilised the services of INSAT-1B launched by the Indian Government in 1986 to telecast educational programmes in the elementary school subjects of 11/2 hours daily in the morning. 11/2 hours duration in the evening was allotted for non-formal adult education and recreational programmes. In other application. appealing to a wide variety of age and educational levels of people. 8. EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTS The central institute of educational technology situated in Delhi. 3. TV can be both instructive and enjoyable. 5. 9. television companies may use a satellite connection to jump across continents and oceans and make voice and computer communication easier and less costly. Physical and health education for farmers etc. The concrete nature of TV makes some programmes understandable. . TV facilitates a school or college top share its best teachers rather than rationing them.V.and radio signals. 6. 4. TV can bring the world to the home and to the classroom. Micro skills in teacher training could be taught using T. on all days except Sunday. Instructional television programmes tend to bring into the classroom learning experiences that local teachers cannot arrange. Commercial television 2. TYPES OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMES 1. Educational television(ETV) 3. TV can save the time and effort of the student and teacher. were predominant in the non-formal education programmes.

TV is a one-way communication. It should be judged how far the television programmes is superior to instructional programme presented through other media 2. The availability of suitable educational programmes locally produced and the equipments and devices for telecasting etc. 3. The programmes do not adjust well to individual differences. The equipments necessary for ITV is costly and complicated. 2. It does not provide for laboratory experience. primarily children from remote areas of the country who cannot go to schools or colleges. SELECTION OF TELEVISION PROGRAMMES Important points to be borne in mind while selecting educational television programmes are stated below: 1. Universities etc. 4. The main purpose of this is to provide education to all people. in a studio environment using PowerPoint presentations as well as the common blackboard. The range of its effective use is also to be assessed. It does not permit class discussion. CBSE.S. TV screen is small in size as compared to projected pictures. There is no personal contact with the teacher.L.V. A properly designed studio with controllable lighting facilities and with acoustic-proof walls is necessary. It cannot provide for individual and group activities. The classes are conducted by various state education boards. are also to be taken into consideration. rocket. using a G. Both interactive as well as non-interactive sessions are . It should be maintained by competent staff all the time.LIMITATIONS OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION 1. EDUCATIONAL SATELLITE (EDUSAT) The EDUSAT or the education satellite was launched by the Indian space research organization (ISRO) on 20 th September 2004 from the sri harikota space research located in Andhra Pradesh. 5. 3. NCERT. It does not stop to answer questions. TV encourages a passive from of learning rather than an active seeking.

5. Distance education will get strengthened. there are millions of people who never had an opportunity to learn. it eliminates the demand for a large number of teachers. Any person can join these institutions after satisfying the minimum age rule and take an entrance test. In short we can say instruction through EDUSAT will give a thrust to homeschooling. OPEN SHOOLS AND OPEN UNIVERSITIES Open learning system does not require any previous formal qualifying education. These persons were till recently termed as unreachable. For entry. Education reaches the door steps of students. REACHING THE UNREACHED Through there is a phenomenal expansion of educational institutions and india‘s literacy rate has gone up to seventy percent. ADVANTAGES OF EDUSAT ASSISTED INSTRUCTION 1. minimum age is prescribed. Indira Gandhi National Open University and State Open Universities.offered as many as 5000 educational institutions participate in this programme and get benefitted. 3. Students can receive education at their own pace and convenience especially in the case of those who are employed. These unfortunate people include nomadic tribes. 2. Education could be made available at a fraction of its cost to a large number of students. there is no need for students to go in search of good education. .e. landless agricultural labourers. 4. Now. tribals living in hilly tracts. street children. adults and children living in remote islands and children with learning problems. A large number of students can be educated by a very few extremely efficient teachers who can reach them from the studios located in the universities or education boards i. with the aid of technology and enthusiastic social workers they have been reached by the National Open School.

diplomas and certificates are given to successful candidates in the annual convocation or by post. In such a situation individuals and institutions should rise to the occasion and utilise fully the various knowledge related organisations to develop and update their knowledge and skills and there by understand the changing trends in social and economic scenario and to modify their beliefs and customs. when they are ready for it. Contact programmes are conducted regularly. Social consciousness among the people of advanced countries and communities is needed to develop humanism. Life in modern times is becoming more complex. glaring inequalities in education. Learners may appear for any subject or subjects. Learners could choose the subjects of their preference and no group or combination of subjects are thrust upon them. LEARNING WITHOUT FRONTIERS (LWF) Learning without frontiers is a concept propounded and implemented by UNESCO. higher productivity and universal welfare. . though attendance required is minimal or optional.Courses offered relate to the needs of learners and learner groups could ask for new course to meet their needs. that is why lifelong education and many faceted education system the advanced countries and underdeveloped countries. learn during their free time. Learners may or may not appear for the examinations held twice in a year. Learners are provided with printed self-learning materials (SLM). select courses which will be useful. They could contact the nearest study centre for any academic help. employment opportunities and economic growth result in conflict and violence. Only when everyone discharges his duties and responsibilities. in their career and above all derive satisfaction that they are enjoying something. the progress of the world will be smooth. Degrees. choose subjects of their choice for study. Open learning system encourages learners to learn by themselves. which they missed as children or youth. unregulated and challenging.

To develop this vision. philanthropists. Use of technology in education DELHI SUMMIT (1993) A conference was held in New Delhi in 1993 on the theme education for all this was termed as distance education initiative. Open learning climate 2. It removes obstacles like distance. The participant countries agreed to co operate in the fields of teacher education. It empowers the individuals and enables them to reconstruct the society. CONSTRUCTION OF LEARNING WITHOUT FRONTIERS Learning without frontiers. privately owned business houses. voluntary organisations all over the world. In this summit. It identified four phase in using technology in LWF. universities and charitable houses.To consider education is a need for young person‘s only is a myth. . It is not only a preparation for a job to meet temporary need. philanthropists. The total population of these nine countries constitutes fifty percent of world population. time. the role of distance education in national development was emphasised. universities and charitable trusts should work together so that a conducive environment for LWF is created. TECHNOLOGY IN LEARNING WITHOUT FRONTIERS In 1996 a conference was held in Bangkok (Thailand) to deliberate on the theme communication and information technology in LWF. but also a necessity to cope up with modern life. sponsored by UNESCO is an attempt to solve complex social and political problems. situations and tries to meet the needs of various sections of people all over the world. meeting the further education needs of neoliterates and providing educational facilities for the school dropouts. age. SATIENT FEATURES OF LEARNING WITHOUT FRONTIERS 1. In this summiot nine densely populated countries participated. non-governmental agencies.

The objectives of a virtual classroom are to improve access to advanced educational experiences by allowing students and instructors to participate in remote learning communities using personal computers. hyperlinks connect text. Planning 2. Execution evaluation VIRTUAL CLASSROOM TECHNOLOGIES VIRTUAL CLASSROOM A virtual classroom is a learning environment created in the cyber space. Videostreaming technologies are used. HYPERTEXT COURSES Structured course material is used as in a conventional distance education programe. The explosion of the knowledge age has changed the context of what is learnt and how it is learnt – the concept of virtual classrooms is a manifestation of this knowledge revolution. . multimedia parts and exercises in a meaningful way. Students watch the video by means of freeware of plug-ins (e. and to improve the quality and effectiveness of education by using the computer to support a collaborative learning process. AUDIO-BASED COURSES These are similar to video based courses but instead of moving picture.g. Often the course pages are enhanced with a text transcription of the lecture.1. all materials are provided electronically and can be viewed with a browser. real player). windows media player. However. with a lecturer speaking and PowerPoint slides or online examples used for illustration. VIDEO-BASED COURSES These are like face-to-face classroom courses. Pilot study 3. only the sound track of the lecturer is provided.

e-mail. . Many mobile phones can also be used to read e-books. are often employed for communication. These animations help understand key concepts and also allow for better retention of learning. etc. solving exercise. 4. case studies. A new field of online education has emerged in 2007 through new online education platforms.ANIMATED COURSES Enriching text-oriented or audio-based course material by animations is generally a good way of making the content and its appearance more interesting. etc. 2. E-BOOK An e-book is an e-text that forms the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. E-books are usually read on personal computers or smart phones or dedicated hardware devices known as e-book readers or ebook devices. 3. COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION IN VIRTUAL EDUCATION Students in virtual education typically acquire knowledge in a unidirectional manner first. an e-book may be difficult to read in bright sunlight. COMPARISION OF E-BOOKS WITH PRINTED BOOKS 1. review questions. voice mail. PEER-TO-PEER COURSES These are courses taught on demand and without a prepared curriculum. Electronic media like a discussion forum. Animations are created using macromedia flash or similar technologies. E-book readers can malfunction and e-books can be damaged due to faults n hardware of software. chat room. Depending on the device. E-book readers are more fragile than paper books and more susceptible to physical damage. help the students to understand better what they learned before. E-book readers are more likely to be stolen than paper books. Subsequent discussions of problems.

magazines research journals. generally by documents scanning. EMERGENCE OF DIGITAL LIBRARIES In ancient times information stored in palm leaves. saraswathimahal library in tanjore etc. Occasionally. libraries were considered as store houses of all types of information.). nalanda vishwa vidyalaya in bihar. though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. diagrams etc. documents. cassette discs. having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. micro form. were collected and preserved in libraries (e. A digital library is an information retrieval system of digitally stored content. which may be additionally be converted into text format by an OCR programme. e-books are produced from pre-existing hard-copy books. . From 19 th century. or other media and accessible by computers. Most publishers don‘t produce the e-book may be c=difficult to read in bright sunlight. PRODUCTION OF E-BOOKS Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format. after the advent of printing machine. Scanning a book produces a set of image files. as in some e-text projects. The digital content may be stored locally. a book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard. microfilms. etc. DIGITAL LIBRARY MEANING OF DIGITAL LIBRARY a digital library is a library in which wide range of collections are stored in digital formats as opposed to print.5. In the later part of the 20th century. Often.g. were preserved in libraries and made available for use to the general public. sometimes with the use of robotic book scanners. information available in the form of printed books. existing information in the print form were transformed into advanced forms such as audio and video tapes. or accessed remotely via computer networks. as described in electronic publishing.

as long as an internet connection is available. CONCLUSION In this unit. and having common interests. 3. 4. people from all over the world can gain access to the same information. Technological changes ELECTRONIC COMMUNITY According to Webster‘s dictionary. community is a group of people living together as a smaller social unit within a larger one. the multi various applications of computer in education and the revolutionary changes that are being ushered in information technology by electronic devices have been discussed. only their interests are mediated through a computer net work rather than through physical proximity. customs. No physical boundary. 5. Round the clock availability of information. Copyright confusion 2. 2. In downloading information. Our youngsters are showing keen interest in knowing how to use the computer and internet for our day-to-day activities.. DEMERITS OF DIGITAL LIBRARY 1. an electronic community focuses on a group of people with common interests. language etc. It is responsibility of the teacher to motivate and guide the students to listen and view educational audio and television broadcasts so that our people will also becomes the active members of the global knowledge society. The user of a digital library need not go to the library physically. Similarly. life style.ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL LIBRARYS 1. The most significant aspect of digital library is that the information available is updated and gets refined every day. . there is no chance for mistake or confusion to take place. two important innovative information‘s viz. work.

James M. . The use of the term ‗Measurement‘ is more appropriate only in the cases of concrete objects. When quantitative measurements obtained objectively by the use of tests or other kinds of tools are combined with qualitative assessments made.student evaluation National Testing Service Measurement and Evaluation Till the first half of the 20 th entry.UNIT V .Bradfield Measurement is a process of assigning numerical values according to well established rules to animate and inanimate objects as per the nature units of what is being assessed. Thus evaluation could be defined as an act or process that allows one to make a judgment about the desirability or value of a measure. (b) Evaluation of Teachers: self evaluation –peer evaluation. the term ‗Educational Measurement‘ alone was in use. Evaluation = Quantitative measurement + qualitative assessment. judging the value or worth of a thing becomes possible. This value judgment is called ―evaluation‖. According told.Innovations in Evaluation (a) Evaluation of Students: continuous evaluation – self evaluation –question bank – open book examination-grading.

 The effectiveness of the learning experiences provided in the classroom and  How well the goals of education have been accomplished.  The extent to which specified educational objectives. continuous process of determining. . o It assumes that educational objectives have been previously been identified and defined.Education and Evaluation Definition of Educational Evaluation Evaluation is a systematic. it goes hand in hand with the teaching learning process. to achieve the defined objectives. From the definition of educational evaluation we derive its important features as follows: o It is a systematic process. o A comprehensive evaluation involves the use of many tools and techniques. o It is a continuous process. o It helps to determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the learning experience provided. are attained. o It emphasizes the broad personality changes and major objectives of a an educational programme. o It attempts to determine the congruence between performance and objectives. previously identified and defined. Important Features of Educational Evaluation.

Evaluation becomes a basis for research if wide differences are noticed in achievements of students in his class. On the basis of such . Evaluation helps in classifying students as high moderate and low achievers. By comparing the achievement scores of students with the expected or minimum scores to be obtained teachers students and curriculum framers become aware of specific deficiencies and drawbacks of the students. Role and Functions of Educational Evaluation  Evaluation is an indispensable part of the education system and performs the following functions. Principles of Educational Evaluation The purpose f evaluation is to give shape to educational objectives and learning materials to make teaching methods simple and effective and the classroom climate pleasant and conducive for completing the teaching learning process.  I t is useful as a good tool for assessing the student‘s progress in learning and observing his overall development. Evaluation helps the teacher to know the effectiveness of his teaching method so that necessary changes could be incorporated if need be.Aim /Importance of Educational Evaluation Through educational evaluation it is possible to assess academic achievement of students in every school subject. Every student is enabled to compare his present performance with his own past performance and readjust his learning style.

 E valuation ‗attainment. forms a basis also for indirect evaluation of teachers. INNOVATIONS IN EVALUATION INTRODUCED IN TAMILNADU Thailand is in the forefront in modernizing the education system and has introduced several welcome changes which are noted below: . E valuation undertaken at the terminal stage of the instructional process (this may be at the end of an instructional unit or the total instructional period) is called ‗Summative Evolution‘. interpretation and grading.  Students‘ attainment forms a basis also for indirect evolution of teachers.  Evaluating the leering progress of pupils intermittently as the instructional process proceeds are otherwise known as ‗Formative Evaluation‘.  The findings obtained in evaluation form the basis for bringing about changes in  The curriculum so as to make it more relevant and purposeful.assessments.  Evaluation techniques could be perfected by carrying out researches on test construction. administration. individualized instruction may be adopted whenever necessary.

with no intraexaminer and inter-examiner variations.C. Thailand has introduces Central valuation system for S. In ether weeds. This system will eliminate mass copying but is expensive and will increase the work load of the authorities. Multiple Question Papers For Public Examinations when thou8sands of students appeart for an examination. they order for candidates in every roe.L. Objectivity refers to the possibility of having only one answer for any given test item which eliminates the discretion of the examiner in scoring the responses. .S. If there are four sets.New Type Tests Reliability of a test indicates the consistency of test scores. multiple question papers are recommended. Central Valuation System From 1968 onwards. Now this system is followed for +2 and Degree Examination also. objectivity means the elimination of score‘s bias in evaluation tester‘s responses. Public Examination.

Some newer techniques have come into practice now. Revaluation and Rebottling Candidates have been given the right to apply within two weeks from the date of publication of results.Central valuation is carried out in several centers across the state for each paper pith tight security arrangements. Conduction Improvement Examinations This system enables the failed students (failed in three or less number of subjects only) to reappear for the examinations to be held before the reopening of schools and colleges in the failed subjects alone. without waiting for the examinations in the next semester or year. Continues Evaluation . Answer scripts are governing dummy numbers and schools are advised not to stamp their school name on the answer sheets. for revaluation of their answer scripts or rebottling of the marks awarded in a particular subject to the Director/Controller of Examinations by paying th4e prescribed fees. of which the following are the important ones.

Self-evaluation has to be guided and supervised by the teachers at the initial stages. QUESTION BANK Experts in each subject discipline are requested to prepare test items covering the entire syllabus meant for a course at a given level of examination. The practice of having continuous evaluation for each level of the course and maintaining cumulative records is in vogue only in some institutions. conforming to the guidelines provided.Continuous evaluation‘ refers to the practice of evaluating students‘ skills and proficiency periodically throughout the course and maintaining a record of the cumulative progress achieved. . SELF-EVALUTION Students could be encouraged to evaluate themselves their own answer scripts by comparing them with the scoring days/model answers provided. The test items so prepared are then examined in an open session and those approved with necessary modifications if any. are put into the question band.

E.G. there is no maximum limit.Bodies like N. tests items are prepared under four categories: (a) Long answer questions (b) Short answer questions (c) Very b short answer questions and (d) Objective type questions. and State Service Commissions conduct periodically wedgies fir developing question bands. ‗anytime examination‘ conducted ‗on-line‘. use computers to generate different sets of question papers within a given framework and make use of them for those who take the examinations in select study centers.S. Any number of test items could be added to the question Bandon any. Merits of Question Bank  Question Banks serve as a ready source for Question paper-setters to prepare appropriate question papers at short notice. .C.T.R.P.C.U. in open schools and universities.  Question banks facilitate students‘ self-learning and self-evaluation.  Test-items contained in the question bank have high validity as they are carefully prepared by a set of subject experts and scrutinized by another set of experts.  Question banks clearly indicate the range of the content to be learnt. In each topic.C.U.  Students could attain mastery never the subject by preparing answers to all questions found in the question bank.

Though open-book examinations appear to be easy and interesting. OPEN-BOOK EXAMINATIOIN In some examinations. . As the syllabus is changed or revised within three yraes. its use becomes very limited.  What are the differences between the language style in Tamil between ‗Sangam-lit6erature‘and ‗Devotional literature‘. Syllabi and text books very from University to University and from one State to another State in the case of school education. Students appreciate the clarity and accuracy of the test items contained in the question bank. Some model questions that conform too the requirements of open-book system of examination are given as follows:  Compare the preaching of Buddha and Manager on ‗Nonviolence‘.  Question Banks are useful only within the University as they relate to its syllabus only. Fresh Question Banks have to be created. they are really tough as the catch in this. students may be given the freedom to consult the books and write answers for the questions in the examination. is the limited time given and the condition laid that all questions are to be answered. LIMITATIONS OF QUESTION BAND  It takes around one year to prepare. validate and publish Question Bank for each subject.

literacy rate and financial allocation for education in different states in India. . List the population.  Point out the important aspects in which constitutions of India and Sri Lanka differ.

numerical points could also be given as shown below. For example. it may be taken to mean that A = 80% and above B = Above 60% but below 80% C = 40% and above but below 60% F = Less than 40% Instead of letter grades. to indicate the grade of proficiency. answer scripts are valued and the scores are oppressed as percentages. Parents and students believe that marks accurately measure one‘s proficiency. It is more apt to express one‘s proficiency as a grade representing a particular range or marks. Very Good Good Average Below Average (Improvements Required) = 4 points = 3 points = 2 points = 1 points .Grading System In educational institutions.

in institutions of higher education. The success of the teacher does not depend only on his depth of knowledge about the subject matter. National assessment and accreditation Council (NAAC) is an automats institution established by the University Grants Commission (UGS). he is guilty of wasting the precious time of his students and also will be considered responsible for pulling back the progress of his students. then it gives ‗Cumulative Grade Point Average‘. his dedication to duty and his interest in the welfare of his students. Teachers could be evaluated mainly by the following tree methods: Self-evaluation Peer evaluation Student-evaluation . this kind of ‗Grade Point Average‘ (GPA) IS THE AVERAGE OF THE MARKS SCORED IN ALL THE ACAADEMIC TERMS INM A YEAR OR COURS IS calculated. Evaluation of Teachers If the teacher fails to perform his duties well.

Motivating. Classroom management.Self-Evaluation by Teachers Every teacher should cultivate the virtue of objectively evaluating his strengths and weaknesses. A model rating scale for self-evaluation of teachers is as follows: SNo. Providing suitable Assignments. Review / Recapitulating. Aspect being rated given 0 1 Rating points 2 3 4 1 2 3 Preparation for teaching Use of teaching aids Explaining/ Describing. Cordial relations with students. . Special attention for slow learners. This enables him to expand his good qualities and eliminate those which interferer with his work in becoming a good and effective teacher. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Questioning.

Adopting innovative instructional techniques. Sense of humour. Peer evaluation. Pleasing voice. . Enthusiastic participation in cocurricular Activities. 20 Contact with parents of pupils. Clean Appearance. Skill in narration. Dignified behavior. A teacher could get his teaching effectiveness assessed either by his colleagues in the same department or by other fellow teachers working in the same institution. 19 Language Fluency.11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Punctuality.

Teaching competence Classroom Management.No Aspect of Assessment Requires improve ment Fair Satisfacto ry Good Very Good 1 2 Depth of knowledge in the subject. 4 5 6 Questioning Skill / Test preparation.Evaluation Rating S. Handling of apparatus / Using instructional aids. 3 Language Fluency. 8 9 Dignified Behavior and Conduct. Interest in teaching. 10 . Dedication to Duty. 7 Concern for Students welfare.

. Narration of stories and episodes 5 Skill in explaining with examples 6 Explaining skill 7 Clarifying students doubts 8 Delivering instruction at even pace 9 10 Promptly returning back students evaluated Assignments. Evaluation Grades Assessment Criteria Fair S.Student evaluation of teachers The saying that ―the students are the best judges of teacher‖ is a blunt truth. Conducting demonstrations.No Inadequa te Very inadequat e Very Good Good 1 2 3 4 Appearance Sociability Use of Teaching aids and instructional Techniques followed. But many a time the teacher‘s ego does not allow for being judged by his own students.

 to design norms and models to implement them. concept based continuous and developing syllabus for Indian languages. . An organization to prepare a series of good test papers was needed and Mysore was selected as the most Indian languages which had prior experience in standardization of tests.National testing service Establishment of national testing services (NTS) was one of the recommendations of national policy on education (1986). Objectives of national testing service The major objectives of national testing service are:  to prepare for all the seven stages of general education.  to create a center level technology to develop a national region.

have been extensively discussed in this lesson. As evaluation is a continuous process reforms and innovations too should continue for ever. to facilitate comparative study of the languages in the region. Use of Question Bank. Plans are underway to expand these centre.. National Testing Service etc. Presently there are 10 centre for hindi language and 10 for urudu. Functioning of national testing service National testing service is carried out at 30 places in India of which 10 centre for Tamil language are spread over in several parts of Tamilnadu. Peer evaluation and student evaluation. . Openbook systems grading system and modern techniques of evaluating teachereffectiveness like self-evaluation. Continuous Assessment.  to award certificates of accreditation to language courses and institutions that offer them. Under this scheme it is planned to create 60 regional field centre across 15 states to train 6000 college and school teachers. These centre undertake research in testing and standardization to develop benchmarks of performance. Conclusion The meaning of evaluation difference between measurement and evaluation aims of educational evaluation its objectives and functions some innovative measures undertaken in educational evaluation in our state particularly the improved methods used in assessing students achievement such as self evaluation.

Reporting. Ducker According toy him management ―is a dynamic process of systematically planning the human and physical resources of an organization.Management Meaning-Definition –Objectives of M anage ment –Role of M anage ment –Difference between Administration and Manage ment . Budgeting) Modern Functions: Planning . .Functions of Manage ment –PODSCORB (Planning. Involves integrating the various categories of personnel groped in accordance with abilities and skills.Controlling-M anage ment skills: Conceptual skills. Organization. effic iently integrating every sub-unit in it and making the4 whole system function effectively so as to achieve the set objectives full at the optimal cost‖ Is a systematically planned proce4ss.(B) Educational Management UNIT VI . Staffing .Organizing . Human skills.Leading . Technical skills Management is a growing discipline and is receiving great attention during the past fifty years.Co ordination . Direction. Meaning of ‗Management‘ The conception management has been expounded by Peter F. Originally the art and science of management was confined to the principles and practices governing multinational corporations and public sector undertaking multinational corporations and public sector undertakings.

. Clough Keith and Goblin Different dimensions of Management  Functions of managers  Warm human Relation s  Providing leadership  Maximizing productivity  Integration of resources.     James L.D. Functional dimension of management According to this approach a good manager is one who obis easily accessible to the staff and listen to what they have to say.Definition of management Experts in the field of management have numerous definitions for the term ‗Management‘ of which a few considered important are given below.C. Lundy J. money and A. Riley Harold Koontz Donald J.

. Productivity dimension of management Efficiency of management is reflected ii increased production. wrong decisions and half-hearted decisions are the hallmarks of poor leadership. hasty decisions. Leadership style and decision making dimension of management A good leader is one who takes correct decision at the right time. Delayed decisions. employees are not subjected to intense supervision but allowed free to function with their full pppote4ntial.Hunan relations dimension of management In organizations with such type of management. Me defines management as the art of securing maximum productivity with minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both the employer and employees and give the public the best possible service. John F.

functions and responsibilities of other different positions in the organization.Integration dimension of management Resources are to bone neither wasted unnecessarily nor under-utilizes resulting in poor quality of the goods/services reduced. . Stages in the management process  Decision making of the superior  Forwarding communication  Execution by sub-ordinates  receiving feed-back communication Objectives of Management Management should strive to fulfill the following objectives  it helps pin the task off running the institution smoothly and effectively  it frames the policies. labor abs=nod time. at minimum cost. authority. High productivity refers to maximum production. rules and regulations  it lays down the structure of the origination  it prescribes the peppier.

―management is a distinct process dealing with some form of group activity‖.  It resolves the various conflicts that arise within the institution Principles of Management According type Cleland and king. Koontz and O‘Donnell To increase efficiency To give a definite shale to the management to improve research and development pin the organization To attain the social goal by increasing the efficiency in the use of r sources. . It provides good professional leadership anted dynamic supervision it coordinates the various activities of the institution.  It creates conducive conducive conditions for experimentation and research. They have the following principles Management has its own objectives. Leadershi0op is bah essential part of the management process. applicable to any management. A manager t5r8es 6t9 archives the objectives of other institution by working with other people in the organism=action. Planning and decision-making are pervasive in the management process.

The basic principles stated by him could be briefly oil=tined as follows: o Division of work o Authority and responsibility o Discipline o Unity of command o Unity in direction o Subordination of individual interest to the general interest o Fair remuneration of employees o Centralization o Hierarchy of the official-chain o Order o Equity o Stability of tenure of personnel o Initiative o Unity is strength Role of Management in Education Educational management is defined as ―the application of other principles and practices of the science of management in the filed of education so as to optimize the teaching-learning actives. ensuring sustained maximum output in the form of student achievement with reference to the set educational objectives. Henry Fail. . ―The father of modern theory of management‘ evolved principles which can be used in all management situations. irrespective of the type of organization.To fulfill these objectives.‖ In this process different components like Planning Finance Sharing of work Supervision and Evaluation are involved.

It gives more important to human relations and operation. It encourages involvement of all functionaries.Important functions of educational management arte: Organizing and administering educational institutions Optimizing the teaching-learning activities Ensuring sustained output in the form of student-achievement Differences Between Management and Administration. It is subjective and mostly guided by the rules of the thumb. It is mostly democratic and innovative in nature. decentralization and participation. 3. aims and objectives. There is no participative culture and is perceived to be bureaucratic. . It is democratic and participative in nature. plans and programmes of an educational institution. It lays more stress on rigidity of rules and regulations. Educational Management Educational Administration 1. It is mostly professional and supported by a quantum of scientific principles and precepts. 4. 2. 5.It is modern concept and lays It is a traditional concept which is more stress on democratic autocratic in nature. It is result oriented and accountability is emphasized. theories and expertise. (blind implementation) It is also result oriented and accountability is expected from the staff.

Organising Providing infrastructural facilities Staffing .Functions of management. Functions Related Functional Aspects Framing policies and programmers 1. Planning Budgeting Physical resources required Human resources required 3. Decision making laying down the structure of the organization Financial commitment Forecasting 2 . The major functions of educational management and their related aspects are presented in the flow chart given below.

Officials With the management officials 5. Motivating (Directing) Staff Students 6. Forecasting Decision making Planning Organization Direction Control Coordination . Coordinating Personnel Resources 7. Evaluating Performance appraisal of the programmers Performance evolution of the staff Evaluation of student achievement Among the above mentioned components of educational management. the important ones are briefly explained below.With the students With parents With the staff 4. Communicating With the dept.

Budgetting 2.Staffing 5. staffing. organizing. for the purpose of achieving stated goals. He indicated the sequential components through the acronym ‗POSDCORB‘ which are briefly explained below.Reporting 3.Planning 7. Luther gunlock considered that components the process of management are sequential and related successively to form a cycle.Evaluation Recording and reporting Process of management Albert‘s considers management as a process which uses the functions of planning. controlling / co-ordination.Controlling . reporting and budgeting human and material resources. directing.Organising 6. 1.

Directing .(Coordinating) 4.

Modern functions of management The role and responsibilities of modern managers have been expanded so oars to smoothly govern large corporate institutions consisting of many units with huge pote4ntials and synergy.  Planning  Organizing  The important steps involved in the process of organization are: o Determination anode enumeration of activities o Grouping and assignment of activities o Allocation of faired responsibilities to definite persons and o Delegation of authority Leading o Task-oriented o Human consider ration .

controlling function is performed to ensure that the work is done properly. Following are some such remedial measures:  Improving the work environment and facilities  Introducing the required changes in the materials used panda procedures adopted  Examining the level of abilities. devotion and motorization of the subordinates Management skills Managerial skills could be classified under three broad categories. Conceptual skills Human relations skills Technical skill Conceptual skills .Controlling While other management functions are undertaken to get things doormen through the employees.

Management executives should have the foresight to conceive first a vague idea and then develop pit step by step into an innovative project. Electricity. to improve efficiency and reduce waste. It is necessary to develop human relations among the employees themselves. Employees expect a friendly atmosphere in their workplaces. semi- conductors. . Human relations skill The success of an organization depends upon the cordial relations among its employees. Technical skills Human civilization ha recorded greater advances in the twentieth century than in the preceding nineteen centuries. electronics.lingual and multi-religious country and we accept secular ideals. nanotechnology and genetic engineering are changing human life and values. Our country is a mullet. Managements should phase out outdated machines and equipments anode and replace them with modern ones.

subordinate of performance and feedback communication). human relations. forward communication. in this lesson.modern functions of management (planning. the four steps involved in the managerial function (superior making decision.objectives and principles management. leadership. role of management in education. leading and controlling) and the three important managerial skills (concept ional skills. productivity and coordination of resources ensuring their optimum utilization). various functions of management. organizing. the seven aspects of the process of management (POSDCORB). human relation skills and technical skills) have been elaborately dealt with. differences between management and administration. . one ore the other of its five dimensions (function.Conclusion Meaning of the term ‗management‘ and the stressing various definitions offered.

Financial M anage ment. Administration and management in education In other words it could be stated that management takes practical measures to ensure the smooth functioning of the system to achieve its objectives. Personnel Manage ment .Material . students in the context of education). each institution has its own unique functional style called its institutional culture. kind and the nature of work carried out. Though different institutions have specific functional styles according to their nature.-Scope . .Maintenance ( or Status quo) and Developmental(or Creative )Manage ment.Areas of Educational Management Administration and Manage ment of Education . bringing the greatest benefit for a great number of beneficiaries (i. Material Manage ment . Their working style largely depends on their size. and Manage me nt of Examination. Introduction There are significant differences in the functioning of organizations.Human . Instructional manage ment .e.UNIT VII .Time – Basic concepts of M anage ment at different levels (Primary and Secondary ) :Institutional Manage ment .

schools were classified under the following heads:  Centrally administered institutions  State administered institutions  Institutions administered by local bodies like district boards. Municipalities.  State. based on their objectives. administration executes the4 policies and decisions of management.aided institutions run by religious organizations  Institutions administered by non-religious committees  State-aided institutions run by private endowments. aanchayals. both human and material. In short we can say management make decisions. made available by the management to achieve the objectives assigned to it. Developmental management Maintenance of s6tatus-quo management Maintenance of status-quo management . corporations. Only during the British period.Administration on the other had is the process of striving for efficient coordination of resources. Types of management Functioning of management could be classified into the following two major types.

Basic concepts of management at different levels of education . Scope of management In educational institutions. These plans aim asst mobilizing local community resources and optimum utio8sation of available human resources to fulfill the immediate requirements of the institution.When a crisis crops up. Short-term institutional plans developed by parents constitute a major feature of development management. It is conservative in nature and very careful in keeping the individuality of other institution. whatever may be the type of management in its functioning. Developmental management It is more interested in expansion and development rather than consolidation. the important areas of operation which fall under the scope of management are Resources Time resources are of two types Human resources and material or physical resources. it searches for precedents panda reluctant to adopt new solutions which are precedenp5s and reluctant to adopt new solutions which are not in tune with the traditions.

Basic concepts of education management at secondary level According to other objectives of secondary education. V At the primaries. Educational management at the primary level The major focus of education management at primary school level shall be on ensuring: 100% e dolmen of children who have completed m years of age at least 80% of children admitted in primary schools regularly attend all children enrolled in primary schools continue their education. ‗joyful learning‘ should be ensured by following activitybased curriculum laming at the development of basic skills in education. attendance. and making pupils‘ learning joyful by employing newer techniques. the focus of its management too differs from that at the primary level.Primary middle and high schools constitute different levels of school education. Thus educational management at the primary school level focuses its attention on student-admission. all completing primary education. . without any droop out and complete std. Educational management of these thr5ee different categories of institutions differs according to third objectives.

A manager can individually manage all three activates of a small institution. vi.Subject-teacher method. class wise time table. v. etc. In schools run by registered bodies. The importantly six areas of educational management are. ii. the elected secretary of the governing body takes care of the day-to-day affairs of management of the school. In universities. teacher‘ time table. vii. are introduced at the secondary level of education Areas of educational management i. iii. Institutional management Financial management Instructional management Personnel management Material management Examination management Institutional management Institutional management deals with all the activities if an institution as a whole. . the administrative power rests with the registrar. iv.

the sources of income of an institution are: a) Income deliverer from its immovable properties like land. b) Overmanned grants received c) Donations receive4d from inland and abroad d) Disposal of waste materials The expenses of an institution generally fall under the following heads: I. Staff salary. III. farms. ‗Reserve fund‘ should be created to meet unexpected contingencies. gardens etc. .Financial management In general. II. buildings. shops. V. allowances and advances made rent paid for the campus (in some cases only) repair and annual maintenance of buildings procurement6 of materials and equipments taxes paid for the local civic bodies Prudent financial management Expenses should be controlled so as the be well within the limits of income. IV.

Instructional management Planning the curricular schedule to be followed. delivering pother instructional content in the class band guiding students in co-curricular activities outside the classroom. appraisal. preparation for providing instruction. promotion. Personnel management According to Prof. The various functions of personnel management can be grouped into four categories. compensation and welfare of employees and training of people so that the organization could continue to operate efficiently with high employee-morale and discipline to accomplish its goals fully. ‗personnel management‘ is a group of functions related to recruitment. Employment functions Employee remunerations Human relation functions Welfare functions Approach for personnel management . are involved in instructional management. Mitchell. placement. selection.

 Direct communication Periodical staff-meetings facilitate direct communication between the headmaster and the teaching and non-teaching staff in educational institutions Characteristics of personnel management Exploiting fully the individual potentials Promotion of team-spirit Development of job-satisfaction . When his decisions prove to be wrong.Inn an educational institution teaching and non-teaching staff are placed at different levels of organizational positions in some institutions problems arise more due to staff than the students.  Democratic approach The manager could be strict but polite with his subordinates. As Napoleon the great had said ―There may be poor generals but no poor soldiers‖. should be democratic in his outlook and practices. the manager should not hesitate to withdraw his orders.  Objectivity The management should be objective and transparent in hading out rewards and punishments to its employees. Its decisions should be unbiased amend based on reason.

. In some schools. test marks form part of internal assessment that is taken into account during annual promotion. Materials purchased for an institution fall under two categories Consumable goods Durable goods. Tests may be conducted periodically very week or month. Consumable/Non-Durable goods Durable/Non-consumable goods Examination management Annual examinations make the terminal stageof the educational activates undertaken in an academic year.It is a continuous process Material management Many materials and facilities re required in the functioning of an institution. They should be made available adequately at the right time to make the institution function smoothly and efficiently.

the benefic objectives of educational management at primary and secondary levels of educational management at primary and secondary level s of education. Conclusion Difference between the concepts ‗management‘ and ‗administration‘ the two kinds of management based on objectives viz.e. ‗status –quo management‘ and ‗developmental management‘ three important factors which const6itute the scope of management i. conducting the examination as per the announced schedule. though not canted for promotion of students to the next higher class. material management and examination management have been studied in detail in this lesson. tabulating the marks scored by pupils in different subjects and finalizing the list of the promotes too the next higher class after the annual examination as well as safeguarding confidentiality at every stage. human resources and time management. personnel management.Examinations on the other hand are summative in nature and held at the terminal stage of every semester. follow all other features of annual examinations. six important areas of educational management viz. Instructional management. material resources. . getting the answer scripts evaluated. The important responsibilities in examination management are to see that no mistake occurs in any of the steps like preparing question papers. In schools quarterly and half-m. early examinations are considered very important and mandatory for all students Quarterly and half-yearly examinations.

Procedures .Educational Planning and Organization (a) Planning.Objectives . Educational planning:. Educational planning: -definitions C.UNIT VIII .Programme s .MEANING Before setting up any institution or starting as work its objectives are determined. Betty:.-Six ele ments. (b)Organization – Principles or criteria –Organisational structures – Administrative structures at Central and State levels . to fix up priorities for action according to the needs of the students and to decided the cost and investment of educational planning. This process is called ―planning‖. Objectives give meaning and purpose to a business enterprise. expenditure and labor in implementing the plan but it also increases the efficiency * effect of the administration.Policies . This decision not only saves time. Objectives Organizations are artificially created for achieving some common objectives. 1. ―objectives is a . where and how a task is to be done so that the desired objectives may be attained. According to koontz and o‘donnell.―educational planning is such an effort which keeping in view the economic and political facts is done to make the educational system more effective in future.E. While planning the planers first decide as to when.Budgets and Strategies–Educational planning –Long term and Short term Perspectives Institutional planning –Acade mic : curricular and co curricular activities – Time table –assignme nt of work to teachers. Educational planning: six elements The planning function which is the basis for other managerial functions has to beperformed a all the levels of management.

Procedure: Procedure indicates the exact manner in which the integrated series of activities will have to be performed. Physical and financial recourses. In the words of George R. which may be a written statement or oral understanding. Work performance and attitude. In other words. Policies are guides to thinking and action of subordinates in any eEnterprise. A procedure is a series of related tasks the make up the . 6.term commonly used to indicate the end point of a management programme‖. procedure charts out of the specific manner in which actions are taken and accomplished. Teacher performance and development. to be followed in repetitive situation. 2. 5. 7. Innovation.Terry. Profitability. 2. 3. Productivity. Objectives the following eight areas should be taken into account without fail. objectives are established to guide the efforts of the company and to achive the end result of the business. promotion of employees within the organization is a policy to be observed by all. 4. Public and social responsibility. policies: Policies are guide-posts for managerial action. It is the general rule. In other words. one can understand that objectives decide where we want to go. For example. 8. 1. what we want achieve and what is our destination. 3. From this definition. Quality standing.

man-hours of unit. Strategies: Strategies are described as interpretative planning. ―strategy is an interpretation of policy. Budgets may be prepared in terms of rupee. For example.chronological sequence and the establishes way of performing the work to be accomplished. Group discussion. of Hsimsnn. 4. Appointment. 5. plans are changed and modified very often for the purpose of meeting the movement of the enemy. 6. Preliminary interview al lower level. Written test. 5. Is assembles the individual plans in the form achieve the objectives. 2. Final interview at top level. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING: TYPES . ‖The strategy concept of borrowed from military. 6. In the words. 3. Medical check up. Orientation. 7. Programmes: Programme is a sequence of activity to implement the policies. Application form. Budgets: A budget is a plan containing a statement of excepted results expressed in numerical terms. It specifies as step-by-step approach to guide the action necessary to reach a pre-determined goal. 8. the selection of employees may taken the following procedure: 1. 4.

competence of teachers. the experiences gathered in the laboratory auditorium and the play ground constitute the curriculum. spreads over 3 to 5year‘s duration. fair distribution of syllabi. It spreads over ten to twenty years and is based on a large perspective. improving the internal assessment. Institutional planning: academic (curricular) activities Improving methods of teaching . etc.LONG TERM OR STRATEGYC PLANNING Also known as long-term planning of perspective planning. Therefore what were once described as the extra curricular activities are now called the co-curricular activities. Besides the subjects taught in the classrooms. undertaking remedial instruction services. It is more appropriate for specific and narrow purposes. Short term planning: Also known as tactical planning of operational planning. improving the subject. It is being increasingly adopted in almost all the countries of the world. preparation of instructional material. it focuses on the system as a whole. It fosters and requires productive relations and linkages with public agencies and groups other then those directly responsible for education. It makes sufficient time available for implementing the plans and seeing their results. TIME TABLE . It emphasizes attainment of organization goals and gives directions to all other efforts to be made at various levels. It focuses on solving immediate and pressing problems. Institutional planning: co-curricular activities Curriculum means the totally of the learning experiences provided to pupils ii schools.

It ensures smooth and orderly working of the school. It prevents work of time and every.Time table: meaning The school time table is a methodical and a pre-arranged scheme of studies and activities. the time allotted to different items of work. 6. Some of the favors which should be kept in mind while framing time table are: . It ensures equitable distribution of work among teachers. It ensures equitable distribution of time to different subjects and activities. It requires through concentration and skill. 2. the length of each period and the time if interval. 4. It is a mirror that reflects the entire educations programme of the school proceeds. The main importance of the time table lies in its values they are: 1. Importance / uses of school time-table. It shows the hours of school work. It is a plan or chart showing the daily allotment of time among the various subjects activities and classes. 7. the teaching load of each teacher. Important principles of time table construction: It is easy work to prepare a good time table. Time table is a necessary tool for the efficient working of a school. It helps in adjusting school work according to needs of pupils. 5. 3. It aids the school discipline. It helps in the formulation of good habits.

the needs of boys school will be different from that of a girls school. 2. 1. Time factor: The length of the periods should depend on the age of the pupils the subject and the length of the school day.1. 5. In the lower classes. Hence the school time table should be period according to the prescribed Department instructions. Department of regulations: The department of education fixes the length of the school year. 3. . Types of Time table: Generally the following types of time table are used in a school. 4.ore time of developed to reading. writing and arithmetic because of their difficult nature. 6. The period for the lower standards should be of thirty minutes: In the primary classes the duration of each period should not be more than 40 minutes. Types of school: The time table depends upon the type of school which determines the nature of co-curricular activities to be organized in the school ―work according to need ― should ne the chief principle . Time table not be rigid and foxed. the duration of each teaching period and the number periods for each subject. the duration of the school day. Relative importance and difficulty of subjects: More time should be allotted to more important to difficult subjects. It should make as flexible and elastic as possible. Consolidate time table .

In the distribution of work all the requisite facilities should be provided to all the teachers. . ASSIGNMENT OF WORK TO TEACHERS: The following facts should keep in mind while allotting assignment of work to the teachers. Leisure period time-table. All the teachers should be allotted to express their open icons on regard to the distribution of work so that the scheme of work may be chalked out in such a way that the teacher may take it to be his own and may give his full vo-operation. lock of equipment. In distributing the work all teachers should be given equal consideration such a situations in which the load of work on to much on some teachers and too little on others should be avoided because this leads to discontentment among the teachers. 7.2. 4. Home work time-table. he should not let the teachers feel that he is not sure about their discharging duties successfully. Teachers have their own limitations. 5. A highly qualified teacher may not be efficient in his work on the other hand a teacher without such qualification may be very efficient in his work. Games time-table. the head should keep in mind the ability and the capacity of the teachers. 1. intellectual limitations. 5. 6. Class time table. The headmaster should have faith in the teachers. lack of proper raining etc. 6. 3. 2. Teachers time-table 4. there are physical limitations. While distributing the work. 3. Co-curricular activities time-table.

centered principle: Since education aims at the all-round department of the child. An informal organization grows out of a organization or otherwise on account of the interpersonal relationships of the group. Child. For the maximum attainment of educational goals. Once the work has been distributed the teacher should be left free to discharging in his own way the head master should only guide them. it is essential that school organization should be child-cent red. Organization is directly connected with planning and efforts made by the people. After the distribution of work. the organization refers to a body or a controlling organization.A. 9. 2. As result. It is a medium. Organizational can also be interpreted in another two ways: for example when we say that this school is under D. ORGANIZATION: Organization: meaning Organization means to bring into existence. emotions.V organization. t can help in developing students abilities. through which goals and the objectives envisaged by the administration are achieved.7. the headmaster should supervise the work and keep a record of each teachers work in separate books. Community-centred principle . Meeting of teachers should be convened occasionally in order discuss the system of distribution of work. innate qualities. 8. Organization: principles/criteria Educational thinkers have propounded the following principles. 1. attitudes and natural traits. There is a common affinity among the members of the formal organization.

5. . In order to achieve these objectives. Students can develop knowledge about democratic principles if we can organize schools on democratic lines. not static. 4. Principle of optimum use of available recourses: Education has certain objectives to be achieved. 3. useful and worthy member of the society. Organization / administrative structure Administrative structure at central level The central government is like the leader of the educational system and provides the frame work to the states for formulating educational policies and programmers which would work for achieving national goals. along with child-centred principle. Therefore. it becomes necessary to effect changes in school organization from time to time. Therefore.One of the objectives of education is to make the child an active. The democratic ideals are inculcated in the minds of the children through the school activities. optimum use of available recourses must be made while organizing the school. not static. Since education aims at development the faculties of the child in a manner that would help in the development of the society. community-centred principle should be adopted in schools. Principle of flexibility: Society is dynamic in nature. Democratic principle: The school prepares the future citizens and inculcates democratic values in them. school organization should be dynamic in nature.

secondary university education as well as scientific and technical education. The department of human resource development has to get the educational plans prepared and implement them. The minister is responsible to the state legislature regarding matters concerned with education. The department is generally under the control of a cabinet minister one or two ministers of state look after the sub-divisions. secondary and higher education. . Administrative structure in state levels: In our country education is a concurrent subject. direction. This department has to strive to attain the goal of free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14 years. The MHRD ( Minstryof Human Recourse Development ) has control over the cultural affairs also. The central government has joint responsibility in the stats educational matters. The minister for education administers his duties though the department of education policy making. regulation inspection etc… are the functions carried on by the minister. At the state level in Tamilnadu there is a minister his for education to lookafter primary. It is taking measures for reforming the primary education. co-ordination.The department of human resource development(HRD) is entrusted with the task of the educational administration of the Indian union.

So. a proper management of human resources is essential to make the system of the intuition work effectively. Better performance by students in all school activities. The accomplishments of any intuition are dependant upon the caliber and the effectiveness of the human resources. and material -Head master and Teacher : duties and responsibilities. 6. Job satisfaction among teachers and others. An educational intuition of school deals with human beings. Classroom manage ment –Manage ment of school building –equipments –library – records and registers – hostel. Their specific goal is the development of the raw human beings through the associations with other learned human beings. games teacher coaches and other higher authorities who are concerned with education.Management of Resources Manage ment of Resources –Human. Liberian. 3. 5. fellow feelings and respect for each other among all the personnel. The human resources include school personal who are the principal. 4. loyalty and sense of belongingness towards the institution. 2. Increase in deficiency of all school personal in the discharge of their duties.UNIT IX . Proper management of human recourses leads to: 1. But presently we will concentrate on the management of school personal. teachers office. Management of material resources: .Leadership-Meaning – styles -Manage ment Grid – Morale – Organizational commitments –Acade mic freedom –Professional development. Dedication. Better inter personnel relations. Continuous professional growth of the teachers ad other employees.

seating arrangement all affect the health of the students. following points should be borne in mind: 1. equipment. books pen map stand etc. It should not be in a congested locality and should be away from noise and pollution. The other items needed in the classroom are teachers desk and chair. playground etc. furniture audio-visual aids. The desk should have slightly down slope 15 3. The desks and chairs must be separate. which is suitable for the use of students. library. .The material recourses include the school building. It permits easy cleaning of the room. museum. The size of furniture should depend on the seize of the students. 2. Management of school plant: The location of the school . their proper utilization increases the learning capabilities of the students. its neighborhood. platform. wall almirah. a proper management of all these resources is essential so that an optimum use of these can be made. garden. The management should purchase the equipment and furniture. The school building should be situated in a neat and healthy environment. ventilation in the class room. While arranging for the furniture. Sufficient lighting must be there in the building and there must be provision for proper ventilation in the classrooms. The height if the seat should be appropriate. Black board: The wall blackboard should be four feet wide and should be two feet high from the floor. Equipment: The school management should take care of the procurement and upkeep of the equipment and furniture of the school. laboratories.

The head master is the real architect if the structure of the school. . office room. an inspiring leader. He should secure willing co-operation of his assessments. and laboratories etc. HEAD MASTER DUTIES AND RESPONSIBLITIES: The head master position in a school is one of the authority and responsibility. Qualities of head master: A good head master to be acceptable to the society should posse‘s majority of the qualities. He should have the qualities of a good human being. He is answerable to his superiors parents and the public for whatever happens in the school. When difficult questions arise a good head master never fails to take dis staff into his confidence. A modern head master cannot be an autocrat. and research in the field of education if he has to provide academic leadership to other members of the staff and kindle their spirit to acquire further knowledge and become good teachers in their subjects. He has to supervise and organize the formal and informal teaching of the institution. He should rather think that he is a leader among equals. General grant once remarked that ―there are no poor regiments but only colonels‖. He should be a model teacher. staff room.There must be adequate furniture for principals room. a man of character. ideas. A modal teacher: One who is curious to ready? Head maser should be eager to learn about the latest developments. an excellent organizer. a skilled administrator.

. Democratic: Children need to be trained in good citizenship and democratic way of governing the country. He must be a good orator. Good speaker: The headmaster should possess a clear and commanding vo0ice. He should be sympathetic towards them in their difficulties and help them to carry on their work in a free atmosphere. Then only he can gain the co-operation of the teacher in the work of the school. He must be in a position to convince others about his way of thinking. Skilled administrator and organizer: The headmaster must be able to carry on the administrator of the school in very smooth manner. Unless the headmaster develops democratic outlook he cannot pass on the benefit of the same to have student government. The headmaster should see that proper type of education is imparted to schools children. He has to organize both curricular and co-curricular activities. He has co-ordinate the activities of the school and the community. High character: The headmaster should bear such a moral character which inspires the teacher and students.A good teacher: The head master should have the qualities of a efficient leader. Sympathetic and friendly attitude: The headmaster must be friendly and broad minded towards the members of his staff.

THE DAILY DUTIES OF THE HEADMASTER: It is highly desirable for the Headmaster to arrive at the school at least half an hour earlier so that he may satisfy himself about the cleanliness and neatness of the school premises and all the classrooms. Optimism: The headmaster should be optimistic otherwise he will damp the sprits of the students and teachers at every step. Teachers and students should feel that they have a good model to follow. The headmaster should be a man of high ideals for them only will be able to make the teachers and the students love and pursue high ideals.Self discipline and self confidence: The headmaster should have full control over all his emotions. He must have full confidence in his learning and ability to carry on administration of the intuition. He must work as a liaison officer between school and the society. He should attend regularly both academic and administrative work. . Punctuality: The headmaster should always be punctual in his work. Influential personality: With all the fine qualities and good work the headmaster must be in a position to build good reputation for him self and to the institution in the society. he should have on interest in life and faith in human power. He must have pleasant demeanor and wining personality. Dutiful and efficient: The headmaster must be dutiful and make all efforts to be an efficient teacher and administrator he must regard the work as an art himself as an artist.

Healthy . If they do not work enthusiastically and sincerely. They should have enthusiasm. interest and enthusiasm of teachers are essential to attain then. T E A C H E . he should be present in the midst of his pupils and assistants and see that this programmer is up to the mark. However perfect the educational aims and objectives may be. patriotism and knowledge.Cheerful .Efficiency . He should create an atmosphere which may lead to the development of the social personality of the child. He considers the teacher to be the servant of society. the co-operation.Truthful .Energetic . he may have to make certain announcements to the gathering immediately after the prayer. His duty is the lay the foundation of a good social life. TEACHER: DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The success of any educational system or curriculum depends upon teachers.When the daily prayer is held. Sometimes. no educational reforms can be translated into action. John Dewey has given and important to the teacher in education. If any member of the teaching staff is on leave: the Headmaster has to make changes in the time-table and send a memo to the teachers and the classes.Affectionate . They should be alive to the objectives of life and education. Gandhi thought teachers should be well equipped to implement the basic scheme successfully.

It means providing opportunities of development for the younger generation. TEACHER‘S DUTIES: The teachers are instrumental in interpreting ideals before the students and are a formidable factor in translating those ideals into practice. He known‘s not only to give commands. In a democratic state this leadership is all the more important. Its importance for our new and infant democracy can hardly be emphasized.Respurceful/Regular. plan for education for democracy. He cooperates with the members of the group to the utmost extent possible. A group decision is always taken by the leaders based on decision with the members of the group. community and every nation. LEADERSHIP TRAITS LEADERSHIP: INTRODUCTION A leader is always an individual who has outstanding qualities of head and heart. Democratic Leader: He lives for the members of the group. He expects the members of the group to simply o9bey and follow his decisions. We. Types of Leaders There are three types of leaders which are as follows: Autocratic Leader: He does not discuss the problems of the group with members and he takes independent decisions and decides the group activities. The destiny of the state depends on the elected representatives of the people. but also to follow the commands.R . The destiny of a nation depends upon its leaders. Such leaders are found in every group. therefore. .

Role of the Teacher The teacher has to play a vital role in this training for leadership for the following reasons: The teacher is respected and occupies an important place in the school group. The indifferent leadership style(1. by restarting the executive‘s two major concerns as being ―for People‖ and ―for production‖ that is.Fair Leader: He is a leader only in name. managers have low concern for both people and production. consideration and initiating structure respectively. The Members have complete freedom. He should be able to inspire confidence in others. His instinct of selfassertion should be strong but well-balanced. two industrial psychologists. MANAGEMENT GRID Blake and Mouton.Laissez. A fine physique always appeals to the masses and can be hardly missed. Their Managerial Grid gives mere numbers and names too the Ohio State Leader Grid format. protecting themselve3s by avoiding getting into trouble. and describes five types of leadership styles.1): In this style. He is like a hero in the eyes of his pupils. popularized the Ohio State University studies on leadership styles. He does not involve himself with any of the group decisions and group behaviors. He should be able to convince others about his superior powers so that they accept him as their leader. He should have a lot of confidence in himself. Headmasters use this style to preserve job and job seniority. Qualities of leaders A leader should be a person of dynamic personality. The main concern .

1) The Status quo Leadership Style(5. 6. In business.9) The dictatorial leadership style(9. attitudes and emotions of individuals themselves and in the group‘s reaction. From individual point of view. The accommodating leadership style(1. it is a feeling of togetherness. Where it resides? : In the minds. morale is a mental attitude. Nature of Morale What it is? : An attitude of mind. enthusiasm. Too a Psychologist. What id does? : Affects output. morale is a mental attitude. discipline. quality. 4. 3. a state of well being and an emotional force. Types of morale surveys: Objective surveys: It presents questions and a choice of answers in such a way that employees merely mark the answer which in their choice. co-operation. whereas to a Sociologist.5) The Sound leadership style(9.9) The opportunistic leadership style The paternalistic leadership style MORALE The term ‗Morale‘ cannot be easily described as it conveys different meanings to different people.for the manager is not to be held responsible for any mistakes. employees and executives in their interactions and ultimately the customer and the community. . the term is used as a group consent and refers to the attitude and behavior of individuals towards their work environment. whereas to a Sociologist it is a social behavior. initiative and other aspects of success. Whom it affects? : Immediately. an spirit de corps. costs. 1.. 5. 2. which results in less innovative decisions. Here the employees mark the answer which is nearest to how they feel.

ORCANIZATION COMMITMENTS Organization commitments: Meaning Organizational commitment in the fields of Organizational Behavior and Industrial/ Organizational Psychology is. defined as the degree to which an employee experiences a ‗sense of oneness‘ with their organization. For E. and Organizational identification. It can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes. Continuance Commitment . such as job Satisfaction. Thematic apperception tests are used to get the feelings out of the minds of the people. in a general sense.g. the employee‘s psychological attachment to the organization. An employee who is affectively committed strongly identifies with the goals of the organization and desires to remain a part of the organization. psychological techniques like Rorschach Ink blot test. Affective Commitment Affective Commitment is defined as the employee‘s positive emotional attachment to the organization. what do you like best in your job?. Very rarely these test are used where the employees are tight mouthed and do not actually reveal their hidden feelings. defined as an employee‘s feelings about their job. The answer will be more descriptive and actual feelings are reflected.Descriptive surveys: It gets the worker‘s response in his own words. Projective surveys: It is a way to interpret the attitudes. In order to bring to the surface the hidden attitudes.

The Headmaster should give due recognition to any signs of display of resourcefulness of the part of teacher. an important requisite a democracy. offer constructive suggestions conduct fresh experiments and bring about healthy changes. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT In all professions there is a need to provide further training and special courses of study on continuing basis after initial basic preparation. These feelings may derive from many sources. The pupils should also be allowed enough freedom to rise to the full stature of their abilities. the organization may have invested resources in training an employee who then feels a ‗moral‘ obligation to put forth effort on the job and stay with the organization to ‗repay the debt‘. For example. The need is most urgent in the teaching profession because of the rapid advances in all fields of knowledge and continuing evolution of pedagogical theory anode practice. Teachers should be free to question. The employee remains a member of the organization because he/she ―has to‖. Normative Commitment The individual commits to and remains with an organization because of feelings of obligation. The programmed will have to be developed through a number of agencies and activities. The power of critical thinking. The first is the school itself which must provide .The individual commits to the organization because he/she perceives high costs of losing organizational membership including economic costs ( such as pension accruals) and social costs (friendship ties with co-workers) that would be incurred. ACADEMIC FREEDOM Enough freedom should be given to all to exercise teacher‘s powers and talents. can only be cultivated by individuals in an atmosphere of freedom.

Be demonstrated to the in-service teachers. The teacher in the true sense is the friend. . The environment is based on mutual goodwill and trust. The teacher and the students are full of enthusiasm.room management is a very broad concept. Significance of class-room management Class-room management is one of the most important elements of the school programme. ‗team teaching‘. 2. Development of mental process through intellectual activities. The Commission has given so much importance to this element that the report begins with these remarks. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT Meaning and concept of class-room management Class. should. ‗micro-teaching‘. Philosopher and guide to the students. ‗open space‘ etc. Improvement in the behavior of the students. This. The teacher gives due regard to the individuality of the students and the students in turn show spontaneous regard for the teacher. we believe. The teacher and the students are full of enthusiasm. Organizing seminars and workshops to demonstrate experiments on modern teaching devices. is no more rhetoric‖. It includes all the activities of the teacher that he undertaken for the creation of such an environment that allows the best display of student‘s abilities in the teachinglearning process. The environment involves the maximum involvement of the students in the class-room activities.opportunities to the teacher to learn from his experience and through consultation and discussion with experienced teachers in the school. The experiments on new teaching devices like. It is not without reason that the Education Commission (1964-66) observed: ‗The destiny of India is being shaped in her class-rooms. 1.

1. Schools should be housed in beautiful buildings which are not only stimulating centers of education of children but also vital centers soft community life. open shelves. combining functional efficiency with simplicity as well as artistic affect. Preparation for social life present as well as future social life. Almirahs . The school buildings should meet the immediate needs as well as the prospective needs of the locality for educating its children. shape and topography should meet proper standard. Their size. Davis has given the four-fold process for class-room management. EQUIPMENTS LIBRARY EQUIPMENT It may include the following items. chairs etc. Leading and motivating 4. tables. A School building should be planned with imagination and a sense of beauty. 4. FOUR-FOLD PROCESS OF CLASS ROOM MANAGEMENT K. Controlling MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL BUILDING The school building occupies a very important place as it provides the teachers and pupils a place to do their job calmly and quietly. Development of feeling of service. Exciting sympathy of members.3. Organizing 3. 5. Planning 2. .

flash. Reading room with magazines. Relating to school curriculum. hockey materials etc. cards. doll making. clay modeling. The equipment in these laboratories should meet the curricular needs of the subjects concerned and also the number of pupils studying these subjects. General books autobiographies. books of travel and adventure etc. Equipment of Subject Rooms: . accountancy. basket ball. periodicals. graphs. Audio.table tennis. Sports Equipment The sports equipment includes sports materials like nets. interior decoration. Laboratory Equipment: This relates to equipment in various laboratories physics laboratory.Subject-wise books. leather work. gardening. volley balls. charts. shuttle cocks. foot balls. and painting. fashion designing.g. flannel board and also projected aids like film strips. year books. football.tennis. In fact the sports materials should be according to the games introduced in the schoolbadminton. cooking. kho-kho and athletic events etc. chemistry laboratory. pictures. art. maps. films and transparencies etc. Biology laboratory etc.Visual equipment: This includes models. Reference materials dictionaries. Craft Equipment: The craft equipment depends upon the number of crafts or nature of work experience introduced in the school e. story books. rackets. reading desks. maps. pamphlets. typing etc. charts etc. hockey. atlases. newspapers. encyclopedias. slides. globes.

RECORDS Types of School Reecords . It should fulfill the needs of students. It should provide joy and satisfaction to students. water cooler. It should be a quite place. 2. The instructional programmed of a school is tremendously influenced by the quality of its library. table. parents and other community members. Characteristics of a good library It should provide the following facilities and environment: 1. shelves. Library is the heart of a school‘s academic activities. teachers. 5. A library is the second teacher of children. Miscellaneous: This includes chairs. stools. Its environment should encourage study and reading. home science room. heaters and press etc. 4. The equipment in each room will be according to the curricular requirements of each room. electric fitting and materials like electric fans. benches. LIBRARY Library: Meaning Library is like a live workshop in a school providing knowledge to students in a changing world. It should provide leading material necessary for student‘s growth and development. 3. art room and so on. admirals.This includes the equipment of various special room slice the science room.

1. Student related records a. Admission register, b. Scholar register c. Student attendance register d. Examination result register e. Certificate book f. Student find book g. Freeship book h. Admission and discharge register. REGISTERS Important school registers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Admission and Withdrawal Register Attendance Register Service Register Attendance Register for staff Log book School Calendar Cash Book Boy‘s fund register

HOSTEL Hostel: Introduction An important component of the school plant is the school hostel. It is an important institution, where pupils develop their personality by learning punctuality, discipline, citizenship, regularity in works and leadership habits. The hostel should be in the school compound at a sufficient distance from the school. It may be behind the school building with playing fields and garden between. The design of the hostel building will depend on the site available, on local circumstances, and on the amount of money available.

Lighting arrangements should be good, especially in study and reading rooms. There should be plenty of windows and skylights for proper ventilation.

General Supervision He must supervise all the arrangements of the bostel and all its activities He must keep an eye on how pupils utilize their leisure. Supervision of living conditions of the Hostel He must see that there is sufficient Ventilation in the dormitories. He should pay attention to the neatness of the rooms and the way in which they are kept. Supervision of Food He should make a study of the subject of diets. He must take into consideration the values of different kinds of food, the amount of the protein, fat and carbohydrate in the food, eaten by the pupils.

UNIT X – Quality in Education
Quality in Education- Input –Process –Output Analysis – Concept of Total Quality Manage ment ( T Q M )- Supervision and Inspection –functions - Accreditation and certification


The students who are direct beneficiaries of education , the parents who evince keen interest in the education of their children. The state and central governments which allocate sizable amount of their resources for the development of education .all expect that the quality of education is to be improved . Defining quality in education is a massive challenge since it deals with the most sensitive creation on the earth the human beings. Industrial products are finished goods take them or leave them. Nothing can be done once they are finished. Service is here and now. you can look for better quality in next time QUALITY IN EDUCATION; MEANING OF QUALITY IN EDUCATION The word ‗quality‘ means high level of attainment. High attainment is multifaceted in character. Human abilities are many like verbal ability, numerical ability ,ability to imitate, creativity, imagination, rapidity in doing, accuracy etc DEFINITION OF QUALITY EDUCATION Quality education is defined as that which not only prepares pupils for jobs and leisure but makes them wise enough and adaptable enough to grapple successfully with the problems of everyday life. hence quality education must be upto-date in content as well as in methods of instruction. THE NEW CONCEPT OF ‗QUALITY‘ IN EDUCATION

3] Abolition of poverty . Process refers to the morale and skills of the manpower utilized and also the use of technology . labour and capital Input refers to the providing of essential infrastructural facilities and finane. 2] Emphasis on equality and austerity . INPUT-OUTPUT PROCESS Input process output model is used in economics as an analytical tool to bring about cost effectiveness. self-restraint. Quality of education will now have to be measured in terms of its 1] Capacity to create the new social order. Inputs monitory Nonmonitory Process Human effects Tools/ technique s Developme nt of culture value orientation Increases in achievement scores Increase in pass output qualitative quantitative Subsides and grants Scholarship s Autonomou s status Curriculum and Commitmen courseware‘s ts Teachers Text books .It is obvious that the old concepts of quality need radical changes in the light of the changes in our concept of society and education. 4] Emphasis on cooperation. It is useful in reducing wastage and increasing production by adopting aptimum mix of land. consideration for others and 5] Intensive pursuit of knowledge and excellence. Output refers to the tangible (measurable)and intangible benefits to the organization.

agriculture etc. TQM is adopted by many reputed companies to meet the client needs by deploying knowledge and skills to the best effect. TECHNOLOGY: . But achievement of qualitative improvement is always a slow process. administration. Total quality denotes to that state in which the components of a product not only remains free from any deficiency but contains many value additions and worthy virtues. business. but its utility has not yet been fully established in education.Salaries Supervision Interest of pupils Administrat ive Administrat efficiency ors support Treating everyone equality methods of evaluation Teaching strategies Citizenshi p training Humanisti c outlook percentage Reduction in unit cost of education Maintaining uniform teacher pupil ratio Increase in working days Pension Provident fund Co-curricular Functioning Proficienc activities of the office y in skills Pupils learning staff Developme experience Mutual nt of understandi cognitive ng abilities Administrat ive expanses Progressiv Increase in e attitudes working hours TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT(TQM) Quantitative expansion may take place rapidly. TQM has been increasingly applied with suitable modifications in industry.

1] supervision is a planned programme for improvement of institutions. It involves self automatic rectification machines. Good developed process leads to quality product. a good teacher is enhancing the learning of the students. . INSPECTION AND FUNCTION MEANING OF SUPERVISION: To make a teacher . for example in automobile industry 70% of this is used by distributers.Modern technology is very important to total quality management . The total process involves the process involved in parts.the total quality can be achieved. To prepare software materials .because this modern technology is useful in manufacturing good . the distributers maintaining this high quality.all the raw materials are to be supplied in good quality. Computers and quality machineries are put into use to improve the quality of the manufacturing skills. PROCESS: Skilled labors are experts in good manufacturing process. If qualify. increasing the management qualities etc. Distributers in coordination with the buyers must maintain good quality. is maintained in the manufacture of each part . SUPERVISION . RAW MATERIALS : To get quality output products the quality of input raw materials must be high. This occurs in heavy industries. strong high quality instruments.

2] Improve the social relations and discipline among the teachers. 4] Supervision should be done on a regular basis and notes should be maintained.(W. 2] The purpose of supervision should be positive and not negative. . teachers. IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION: According to Harris the following are the important functions of supervision in education.A Yeager) PRINCIPLES OF SUPERVISION Supervisors should bear in mind the following principles while discharging their duties. 3] In other words supervision should provide better stimulus and incentives to those who demonstrative greater efficiency.2] good supervision is always concerned with the development of the teacher .the growth of the pupil and the improvement of the teaching. Evaluation tools must be kept ready and the procedures to be adopted should be clear. 1] Supervision should be comprehensive and thorough supervision should be related to the whole work of teachers and students in the school campus. 5] Supervision should be well planned.learning process. 3] Plan for further development in growth-oriented activities in effecting curriculum transaction. 1] Monitor the teachers to make sure whether they are discharging their duties properly. It should be beneficial to all viz. pupils and the institutions and not harmful to anybody.

. 4] To provide for an effective coordination of the total programmes . the supervisor visits a school with the sole intention of finding out. being a man of considerable experience and insight. 2] To ensure continuous evaluation practice in schools and classrooms. 3] To direct the various programmes and services in the schools to ensure coordination and efficiency. TYPES OF SUPERVISION 1] The corrective type: In this. NEED OF SUPERVISION 1] To ensure continuous professional growth through expert service. 4] To prevent misdirection of resources and energies. 2] The preventive type: Under this type. He must try to remove the teachers‘ faults and encourage their good work.AIMS OF SUPERVISION 1] To improve the quality of education by providing professional leadership 2] To improve the work of the educational institution and to offer suggestion for improvement 3] To promote the professional growth of all teachers by providing them in-service training. ―the supervisor. 5] To simulate teachers through opportunities of self criticism. rather detecting ‘loopholes‘. anticipates the difficulties of teachers and headmasters and helps them to avoid the difficult‖. selfanalysis and self-development. 3] Creative type: this is the best type of supervision which is based on the assumption that an atmosphere of spontaneity and freedom is the prerequisite for the wholesome development of children.

documents and records. admission of students and their annual promotion are carried out is accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the government? 3] Achievement of pupils is to the expected level? 4] The management is able to enlist the co-operation of the local people in its functioning? 5] The welfare schemes for the teachers and pupils are carried out properly? Scope of school inspection . AIMS OF INSPECTION IN EDUCATION 1] The salary granted by the government is paid properly by the management to the teaching and non-teaching staff? 2] Appointment of staff. 2] Co-curricular and other student activities. aids. 4] Activities promoting school and community relationship 5] Activities for stimulating pupil‘s growth and development of personality Inspection CONCEPT OF INSPECTION The word inspection is a legacy of the British educational system introduced in India Generally supervision is the function of the management while inspection is done by the education department of the government. devices and methods. 3] School Registers.AREAS OF SUPERVISION 1] Instructional areas including techniques. Annual inspection is the norm in the case of government and aided schools and quinquennial inspection for colleges.

2] Preventive type: Some inspectors are anxious that schools under their control should not commit mistakes or fail to carry out safety precautions. PERIODICITY OF INSPECTION . 4] Creative type: Some inspectors have constructive ideas and are enthusiastic to experiment these ideas. There are four types of inspection 1) Corrective type 2) Preventive type 3) Constructive type 4) Creative type 1] Corrective type: Some inspectors think purpose of inspection is one of fault finding.1] Inspection of the quality of instructional work in the context of curriculum transaction 2] Inspection regarding attendance of teachers and students. philosopher and guide. 3] Inspection of records and registers. 3] Constructive type: under this type of inspection the inspector acts as a friend. 4] Inspecting the schools physical and social environments. The teacher is free to experiment with his ideas. They are quick to notice the lapses and mistakes of the teachers and headmasters. 5] Offering suggestions and help for the development of school activities both curricular and co curricular TYPES OF INSPECTION IN EDUCATION. For them school is a laboratory and teachers continue to show interest in action research.

watching the class teaching and giving proper advice and guidance the teachers to improve their teaching strategies. Accredited institutions enjoy the respect of the people in the community and become popular among the students. They go round various schools and remain there for sometimes. quinquennial inspections the norm for colleges and the regional joint director of collegiate education is the inspecting authority. ‘Grades‘ are assigned. PANEL INSPECTION In this system inspection is done by a team of subject experts. . Middle schools and higher schools. Administrative set up. 2] Accreditation process helps the colleges and universities to strive continuously to improve their quality. instead of ‗stars‘. ADVANTAGES OF GETTING ACCREDITATION 1] Accreditation guides the scholars to choose the quality intuitions to continue their higher learning or research. Accreditation and certification The national and accreditation council (NAAC)is an autonomous institution established by the university grants (U. 3] Accredited intuitions alone are nowadays permitted to apply for getting institutional autonomy from the U.Annual inspection is the norm in the case of government aided elementary schools. In a higher secondary schools inspection is undertaken once in two years.G. qualifications and experience of the faculty. policies and programmers followed etc.G. At present. the contributors made by the particular college of university to education as well the community at large.C) NAAC‘s primary agenda is to assess the quality of intuitions of higher learning with respect to infrastructural and infrastructural facilities available.C.

Number of research articles published in national and international journals number of dissertations submitted for the award for research degrees number of research scholars enrolled and presently working in the department with industries. only grades are given. qualification of the faculty members. Instuitional and 2.TYPES OF ACCREDITATION: There are two types of accreditation 1. the rapport developed by the department with industries. structure and all department/centre‘s. the service to education rendered by the institution administrative set up. and objectives of the institution BENEFITS OF NAAC RANKING: 1] UGC gives special plans. and financial assistance to those institutions which are given NAAC ranking 2] This NAAC ranking is helpful to students in selecting the best institutions to continue their higher studies. . journal published by the department etc. Now ranking is not given in stars. Departmental accreditation focuses on the department considering the quality of teaching and research work in the department under study. THE IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF NAAC: This council gives rank code on a five star scale based on their inspection of any higher educational institutions checking their infrastructural facilities standard of the teachers. its central governance. income generated for the department by making available the expertise of faculty members. Department Instuitional accreditation evaluates the overall functioning of the institution in its totality.

3] This motivates the higher education institutions to raise their standards as a continuous process. ELIGIBILITY TO APPLY FOR ACCREDITATION: The eligibility to apply for this for the first time are as follows: 1] The colleges or universities must have completed 5 years after their starting 2] At least two sets of students should have completed their studies in the colleges. . Up to 2001. nearly 47 universities and 113 colleges have obtained accreditation certificates out of which 50 institutions belong to Tamilnadu.

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