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Thierry Gensane and Philippe Ryckelynck

Abstract. We consider two non-overlapping congruent squares q1 , q2 and the k k homothetic congruent squares q1 , q2 obtained from two similitudes centered at the centers of the squares. We study the supremum of the ratios of these k k similitudes for which q1 , q2 are non-overlapping. This yields a function = (q1 , q2 ) for which the squares q1 , q2 are non-overlapping although their boundaries intersect. When the squares q1 and q2 are not parallel, we give a 8-step construction using straight edge and compass of the intersection q1 q2 and we obtain two formulas for . We also give an angular characterization of a vertex which belongs to q1 q2 .

1. Introduction and notation We study here the problem of maximizing the ination of two non-overlapping congruent squares q1 = qa1 ,b1 ,1 ,c and q2 = qa2 ,b2 ,2 ,c . The square qi has the four vertices Sj (qi ) = (ai , bi ) + c (cos(i + j ), sin(i + j )). 2 2

k Let qa,b,,c = qa,b,,k be the homothetic of ratio k/c of the square qa,b,,c . Our problem amounts to determining the supremum = (q1 , q2 ) of the numbers k k k > 0 for which q1 and q2 are disjoint.

q2 q2

q2

q2

q1

q1

q1

q1

Figure 1

In [3, 4], = (q1 , q2 ) is called the maximum ination of a conguration of two squares. It plays a central part in computation of dense packings of squares in a larger square. We refer to the paper of P. Erd s and R. Graham [1] who initiated o the problem of maximizing the area sum of packings of an arbitrary square by unit

Publication Date: February 24, 2005. Communicating Editor: Paul Yiu. We thank the referee for his valuable and helpful suggestions.

24

squares, see also the survey of E. Friedman [2]. We note that is independent of c and that

k k k int(q1 ) int(q2 ) = ,

(1) (2)

k q1

k q2

= ,

where as usual, we denote by int(q) and q the interior and the boundary of a square q. An explicit formula for = (q1 , q2 ) is given in [3, Prop.2] as follows. Let us dene 0 (a, b, ) = min and (q1 , q2 ) = 0 (t cos 1 + t sin 1 , t sin 1 + t cos 1 , 2 1 ) , with (t, t ) = (a2 a1 , b2 b1 ). The maximal ination of two squares q1 and q2 is the maximum of (q1 , q2 ) and (q2 , q1 ). The minimum value, say k = (q1 , q2 ) < k , corresponds to the belongness of a vertex E of q2 to a straight line AB when k = ABCD, but without having E between A and B. This expression of gives q1 an efcient tool for doing calculations of maximal ination of congurations of n 2 squares. In this paper, the two congruent squares q1 , q2 are such that q1 q2 = and their centers are denoted by Ci = C(qi ). We say as in [3, 4], that q2 strikes q1 if the set q1 q2 contains a vertex of q2 . In 35, we suppose that the squares q1 , q2 are not parallel so that q1 q2 = {P }, where the vertex P of q1 or q2 is the percussion point. However, at the end of each of these sections, we discuss the parallel case in a nal remark. We nd in 4 a 8-step construction using straight edge and compass of P . Since P is a vertex of q1 or q2 , the construction gives immediately the other vertices of q1 , q2 . At the same time, we choose a frame in which we obtain two simpler formulas for . We give in 5 an angular characterization which allows to identify which square q1 or q2 strikes the other. 2. Quadrants dened by squares If q = qa,b,,c is a square, we dene the two axes A1 (q) and A2 (q) of q as the straight lines through (a, b) R2 which are parallel to the sides of q. We dene the four counterclockwise consecutive rays Di (q) as the half-lines with origin (a, b) and which contain the vertices of q; we set D0 (q) = D4 (q). A couple of consecutive rays Di (q) and Di+1 (q) denes the ith quadrant Qi (q) in R2 associated to the square q. If a point M , distinct from the center of q, belongs to int(Qi (q)), then we note S(q, M ) = Qi (q). If the point M lies on the boundaries of two consecutive quadrants Qi1 (q) and Qi (q), then we choose indifferently S(q, M ) as one of the two quadrants Qi1 (q) or Qi (q). Note that M int(S(q, N )) iff N int(S(q, M )).

Lemma 1. If the intersection set q1 q2 contains a vertex P of q2 , then P S(q2 , C1 ). i=1,...,4

+ i) 2

25

Proof. Let D be the straight line containing a diagonal of q2 and which does not contain P . Then the disc with center P and radius contains C1 and C2 since d(C1 , P ) d(C2 , P ) = . Hence there is only one half-plane H, bounded by D, which contains this disc. Now, H is the union S1 S2 of two quadrants associated / to q2 and the ray Di (q2 ) through P is S1 S2 . If C1 Di (q2 ), one of S1 and S2 is S(q2 , C1 ); but P Di (q2 ) = S1 S2 gives P S(q2 , C1 ). If C1 Di (q2 ), then P Di (q2 ) S(q2 , C1 ). Lemma 2. We have

q1 q2 S(q1 , C2 ) S(q2 , C1 ).

(3)

S(q1 , C2 ) S(q2 , C1 )

C2 C1

Figure 2

Proof. The proof is divided in three exclusive and exhaustive situations. (i) First, we suppose that the intersection set q1 q2 = {P } where P is a common vertex of q1 and q2 . We readily obtain P S(q2 , C1 ) and P S(q1 , C2 ) from Lemma 1. (ii) Second, we suppose that q1 q2 contains a vertex P = (xP , yP ) of q2 and that P is not a vertex of q1 . We denote by ABCD the square q1 with P ]A, B[ and let C1 A, C1 B be respectively the x-axis and the y-axis. For the interiors of the two squares to be disjoint, C2 must be in {(x, y) : x xp and y yp } since the straight line x + y = separates the two squares. Hence the percussion point P and the center C2 = (a, b) of q2 lie in the same quadrant S(q1 , C2 ). Due to Lemma 1, P is also in S(q2 , C1 ). (iii) Third, when q1 q2 is a common edge of the two squares qi , then S(q1 , C2 ) S(q2 , C1 ) is a square of size and having vertices C1 , P1 , C2 , P2 . Since q1 q2 is a diagonal of this square, the inclusion (3) is obvious.

26

Remark. When the segment [C1 , C2 ] contains a vertex of q1 or q2 , say A, the statement in (3) can be strengthened: q1 q2 = {A} is the percussion point.

3. Location of the percussion point We consider the integer i1 {0, 1} such that the axis Ai1 (q1 ) bounds an halfplane containing S(q1 , C2 ). Similarly, we consider the axis Ai2 (q2 ) which bounds an half-plane containing S(q2 , C1 ). Since Ai1 (q1 ), Ai2 (q2 ) are not parallel, we can set Ai1 (q1 ) Ai2 (q2 ) = {W }. We use in 4 the point V which is the intersection of the axis Aj2 (q2 ) and W C1 and where j2 {0, 1} is the integer different from i2 . The two straight lines Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ) dene one dihedral angle which contains both C1 and C2 , that we denote as C1 W C2 . Let = (q1 , q2 ) = 2 = C1 W C2 [0, ] be the measure of this dihedral angle. We dene now B(q1 , q2 ) as the half-line which bisects C1 W C2 . We also note 1 = ||W C1 || and 2 = ||W C2 ||. Lemma 3. We have = (q1 , q2 ) 0, . 2 Proof. If = 0, the two axes Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ) are equal to some straight line D. The centers C1 and C2 lie on D. But by construction Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ) have to be perpendicular to the line D, contradiction. If = , the two axes Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ) are perpendicular but this is ex2 cluded because the squares are not parallel. We now suppose that < < 3 . The quadrant S(q2 , C1 ) intersects the axis 2 4 Ai1 (q1 ) at a point M which belongs to the segment [W, C1 ] for C1 lies in S(q2 , C1 ). Since the angle W M C2 = 3 is strictly less than , the quadrant S(q1 , C2 ) 4 4 does not contain C2 , contradiction. See Figure 4. The last case 3 implies that S(q2 , C1 ) does not intersect the boundary 4 of C1 W C2 . This is in contradiction with C1 Ai1 (q1 ) S(q2 , C1 ).

x + y =

B C1

C2

C2 A

Figure 3

27

C2 W M C1

Figure 4

Lemma 4. We have q1 q2 B(q1 , q2 ). k k Proof. Let 0 < k . The homothetic square q1 (resp. q2 ) has two vertices in S(q1 , C2 ) (resp. S(q2 , C1 )). The straight line passing through those vertices of q1 (resp. q2 ) is parallel at distance k/ 2 to the axis Ai1 (q1 ) (resp. Ai2 (q2 )). The intersection of those two parallels belongs to B(q1 , q2 ) and, according to Lemma k k 2, allows to localize the point of percussion which is equal to q1 q2 when k = . Thus P B(q1 , q2 ).

Remark. When q1 and q2 are parallel, Lemma 4 remains true provided B(q1 , q2 ) is replaced with the straight line containing the points equidistant from the two parallel axes Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ). 4. Construction of the percussion point Two rays Di (q1 ) and Di+1 (q1 ) intersect B(q1 , q2 ) at I1 , I3 . We use the natural order on B(q1 , q2 ) and we can suppose that W < I1 < I3 . Similarly, we dene W < I2 < I4 relatively to q2 . Lemma 5. We have (a) 1 = 2 I1 = I2 < I3 = I4 . (b) 1 < 2 I1 < I2 < I3 < I4 . (c) 2 < 1 I2 < I1 < I4 < I3 . Proof. If 1 = 2 then I1 = I2 < I3 = I4 . Shifting C1 along W C1 towards W causes C1 I1 and C1 I3 to slide in a parallel fashion, so that I1 < I2 and I3 < I4 . Since C1 S(q2 , C1 ), the point C1 cannot pass the intersection C of C2 I2 and W C1 . But when C1 = C , we have W C1 I2 = W C C2 = 3/4. By Lemma 3, we deduce that /4 < W C1 I2 < 3/4 and accordingly I2 < I3 . The remaining implications are straightforward. Theorem 6. (i) Among the four points I1 , . . . , I4 , the second one is the percussion point: P = q1 q2 = max{I1 , I2 }. We have = max{ 1 ,

2}

2 . 1 + cot

(4)

28

C2 I4 I3 I1 I2

C C1

Figure 5

(ii) If, say 2 1 , then q2 strikes q1 at the point P which is the incenter of the triangle C2 W V . Proof. (i). We suppose rst that

2

>

1.

By Lemma 5 we have

d1 = ||C1 I1 || < d2 = ||C2 I2 || < d3 = ||C1 I3 || < d4 = ||C2 I4 ||. We know from Lemma 4 that P is one of the four points I1 , . . . , I4 and thus the percussion occurs at P = Ii if and only if = di . It is impossible that P = I1 d because in that case = d1 < d2 and then P q2 1 B(q1 , q2 ) = . Hence > d1 . If d3 and since I2 ]I1 , I3 [ by Lemma 5, the point I2 q2 belongs also to the interior of q1 and then the two interiors are not disjoint. We get = d2 and P = I2 > I1 . Easy calculations in the frame centered at W = (0, 0) and with x-axis W C1 , give I2 = 2 (1/(1 + tan ), tan /(1 + tan )) and (4). The symmetric case 1 > 2 gives q1 strikes q2 at P = I1 > I2 and (4) again. Finally, if 1 = 2 the point P = I1 = I2 is effectively the percussion point. (ii) If 2 1 , by Lemma 4, the point P = I2 belongs to the bisector ray B(q1 , q2 ) of the geometric angle C1 W C2 = V W C2 . Now, since P is a vertex of q2 , we have V C2 P = P C2 W = /4, so that P belongs to the bisector ray of the geometric angle V C2 W . We conclude that P is the incenter of the triangle V C2 W . Corollary 7. We have

1 2 1

< < =

2 1 2

q2 strikes q1 and q1 does not strike q2 , q1 strikes q2 and q2 does not strike q1 , q2 strikes q1 and q1 strikes q2 .

Proof. The three implications from left to right are direct consequences of Theorem 6 and its proof. Since the three cases are exclusive and exhaustive, the three converse implications readily follow.

29

C2

I2 W C1 V

Figure 6

We now synthesize the whole preceding results. For two points M and N , we denote by (M, N ) the circle with M as center and M N as radius. Construction of P . Given the eight vertices of two congruent, non parallel and non-overlapping squares q1 and q2 , construct (1-2) the two centers C1 , C2 , intersection of the straight lines passing through opposite vertices of qi , i = 1, 2, (3-4) the axes Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ) (this requires the determination of the quadrants S(q1 , C2 ) and S(q2 , C1 ) as much as two intermediate points), (5) the point W , intersection of Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ), (6) the point Cr , intersection of (W, C2 ) and the half-line W C1 , (7) the bisector B(q1 , q2 ) through W and (C2 , W ) (Cr , W ) (the four points I1 , , I4 appear at this stage), (8) the percussion point P , the second among the four points I1 , , I4 on the oriented half-line B(q1 , q2 ). Remarks. (1) We know that the area of the triangle V W C2 is equal to p r where p is the half-perimeter of the triangle and r = / 2 the radius of the incircle. Now, we also have the formula 2Area(V W C2 ) 2V C2 W C2 2 sin = = 2 . = p V C2 + W C 2 + V W sin + cos + 1 The last value is equal to (4) when 2 1 . (2) Let us suppose that the segment [C1 , C2 ] contains a vertex Si (q2 ). This amounts to saying that C1 = C , so that S(q2 , C1 ) has been chosen as one of two quadrants Qi1 (q2 ), Qi (q2 ). But these choices lead to consider the two dihedral angles C1 W C2 and C1 V C2 . Due to the second part of Theorem 6, P and the formula for are not altered by this choice. (3) When q1 and q2 are parallel, the construction of the four points I1 , , I4 makes sense using again the straight line B(q1 , q2 ) equidistant from the two axes

30

Ai1 (q1 ) and Ai2 (q2 ). We choose an order on B(q1 , q2 ) and next we label those four points in such a way that [I2 , I3 ] [I1 , I4 ] and we have q1 q2 = [I2 , I3 ]. In consequence, the steps (5-8) in the above Construction are replaced with the construction of the midpoint (C1 +C2 )/2 (three steps), of the straight line B(q1 , q2 ) (three steps) and lastly of the two points I2 , I3 .

5. An angular characterization of the percussion point We dene (q1 , q2 ) as the minimum of {Si (q1 )C(q1 )C(q2 ), 0 i 3}. This set contains two acute and two obtuse angles. We have 0 (q1 , q2 ) since 4 (q1 , q2 ) (q1 , q2 ). 2 Theorem 8. The square q2 strikes q1 if and only if (q2 , q1 ) (q1 , q2 ). The percussion point is the vertex of q1 or q2 which realizes the minimum of the eight angles appearing in (q1 , q2 ) and (q2 , q1 ). Proof. Suppose that q2 strikes q1 = ABCD at P in the interior of side AB, see Figure 7. Let AB be the x-axis and P the origin. Then for the interiors of q1 and q2 to be disjoint, the center C2 of q2 must be in {(x, y) : y |x|}. Also, C2 lies on the arc x2 + y 2 = 2 . Let C0 , C , Cr be the three points on this arc which intersect the lines C1 P , y = x and y = x respectively. Letting C2 moving along the arc from C0 to Cr , the angle P C2 C1 increases from P C0 C1 = 0 to P Cr C1 = BC1 Cr and the angle BC1 C2 decreases from BC1 C0 to BC1 Cr . Hence throughout the move we have P C2 C1 BC1 Cr BC1 C2 . But we have obviously P C2 C1 < AC1 C2 and thus P C2 C1 (q1 , q2 ). The same proof holds when C2 moves on the arc C0 C . Since P C2 C1 /4, we get (q2 , q1 ) = P C2 C1 and next (q2 , q1 ) (q1 , q2 ). The angle P C2 C1 realizes effectively the minimum of the eight angles. The converse implication holds because (q2 , q1 ) = (q1 , q2 ) is equivalent to the fact that q1 and q2 strike each other at a common vertex. Remark. In case q1 and q2 are parallel, q1 strikes q2 at P1 and q2 strikes q1 at P2 . We have (q1 , q2 ) = C2 C1 P1 = C1 C2 P2 = (q2 , q1 ). Hence the results in Theorem 8 remain true.

References

[1] P. Erd s and R. L. Graham, On packing squares with equal squares, J. Combin. Theory Ser. A, o 19 (1975), 119123. [2] E. Friedman, Packing unit squares in squares: A survey and new results, Electron. J. Combin., 7 (2000), #DS7. [3] Th. Gensane and Ph. Ryckelynck, Improved dense packings of congruent squares in a square, Discrete Comput. Geom., OF1-OF13 (2004) DOI: 10.1007/s00454-004-1129-z, and in press.

31

C0 C A P

C2 Cr

C1

Figure 7 Thierry Gensane: Laboratoire de Math matiques Pures et Appliqu es J. Liouville, 50 rue F. Buise e son, BP699, 62228 Calais cedex, France E-mail address: gensane@lmpa.univ-littoral.fr Philippe Ryckelynck: Laboratoire de Math matiques Pures et Appliqu es J. Liouville, 50 rue F. e e Buisson, BP699, 62228 Calais cedex, France E-mail address: ryckelyn@lmpa.univ-littoral.fr

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