Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA Semester: 3

MB0050 – Research Methodology

Name Roll No

Valerie Roshini Rodrigues 521051574

MB0050 – Research Methodology (Set 1)
1.a. Differentiate between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales, with an example of each. Ans. Measurement may be classified into four different levels, based on the characteristics of order, distance and origin. 1. Nominal measurement This level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to different categories of a variable. The example of male and female applicants to an MBA program mentioned earlier is an example of nominal measurement. The numerals or symbols are just labels and have no quantitative value. The number of cases under each category are counted. Nominal measurement is therefore the simplest level of measurement. It does not have characteristics such as order, distance or arithmetic origin. 2. Ordinal measurement In this level of measurement, persons or objects are assigned numerals which indicate ranks with respect to one or more properties, either in ascending or descending order. Example Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio-economic class”, which is measured by a combination of income, education, occupation and wealth. The individual with the highest score might be assigned rank 1, the next highest rank 2, and so on, or vice versa. The numbers in this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal distance or absolute quantities. This means that the distance between ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal to the distance between ranks 2 and 3. Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order, rating and paired comparisons. Variables that lend themselves to ordinal measurement include preferences, ratings of organizations and economic status. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to analyze ordinal scale data are the median and rank order correlation coefficients. 3. Interval measurement This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and ordinal levels of measurement, since it has one additional characteristic – equality of distance. However, it does not have an origin or a true zero. This implies that it is not possible to multiply or divide the numbers on an interval scale. Example

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA Semester: 3

MB0050 – Research Methodology

The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the interval level of measurement. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly 10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10 degrees cooler than 60 degrees. Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or ordinal scales, they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical techniques, such as standard deviation, product moment correlation and “t” tests and “F” tests of significance. 4. Ratio measurement This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when measuring characteristics which have an absolute zero point. This level of measurement has all the three characteristics – order, distance and origin. Examples Height, weight, distance and area. Since there is a natural zero, it is possible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio scale. Apart from being able to use all the statistical techniques that are used with the nominal, ordinal and interval scales, techniques like the geometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used. The main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for characteristics such as leadership quality, happiness, satisfaction and other properties which do not have natural zero points. The different levels of measurement and their characteristics may be summed up. In the table below – Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Characteristics No order, distance or origin Order, but no distance or origin Both order and distance, but no origin Order, distance and origin

b. What are the purposes of measurement in social science research? Ans. Measurement has several purposes – • The researcher constructs theories to explain social and psychological phenomena (e.g. labor unrest, employee satisfaction), which in turn are used to derive hypotheses or assumptions. These hypotheses can be verified statistically only by measuring the variables in the hypotheses.

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA Semester: 3

MB0050 – Research Methodology

• Measurement makes the empirical description of social and psychological phenomena easier. Example – When conducting a study of a tribal community, measuring devices help the researcher in classifying cultural patterns and behaviors. • Measurement also makes it possible to quantify variables and use statistical techniques to analyze the data gathered. • Measurement enables the researcher to classify individuals or objects and to compare them in terms of specific properties or characteristics by measuring the concerned variables. Examples – Comparison of male and female students’ performance in college exams or of length of stay on the job of older and younger employees. 2. a. What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? Ans. The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria, which may be grouped into: A. Internal Source Internal Criteria consists of: 1) Researcher’s interest: The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. Without interest and curiosity, he may not develop sustained perseverance. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher’s educational background, experience, outlook and sensitivity. 2) Researcher’s competence: A mere interest in a problem will not do. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter, relevant methodology and statistical procedures. 3) Researcher’s own resource: In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won, consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. If it is beyond his means, he will not be able to complete the work, unless he gets some external financial support. Time resource is more important than finance. Research is a time-consuming process; hence it should be properly utilized. B. External Source –

e. but available research efforts are very much limited. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. This does not mean that replication is always needless. but if research on it is not feasible. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. b. data analysis facility. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research. in selecting problems for research. In some areas of the subject matter. Why literature survey is important in research? Ans. i. Sociological journals. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. 4) Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration 5) Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility. In addition to these general sources. The researcher’s task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. 2) Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited. some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings . directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. But in India and other developing countries. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. suitable and competent guidance. Frequently. Therefore. 3) Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. There is no use of wasting one’s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. It should be socially relevant. it cannot be selected. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. economic reviews.. In social sciences in some cases. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. 7) Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. 6) Usefulness and social relevance: Above all.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 1) Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. research has not yet become a prospective profession.Sikkim Manipal University . The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. etc. their relative importance and significance should be considered.

For instance. if demand depends upon price. income. like height. as circumstances demand. new aspects. It has also to be kept within the manageable limits b. It has to be geared to the availability of data and the cooperation of the informants. Characteristics of a Good Research Design 1.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology of summaries of research in their special fields of service. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables. the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. The concept may assume different quantitative values. 6. In statistical term. when the study progresses. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as „continuous variables‟. 5. Components of Research Design1. 4. 2. then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications. weight. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity.Sikkim Manipal University . research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields. it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable. then demand is a dependent variable. like income and prices of substitute commodity. where as the number of children is a noncontinuous variable. However. income and price of substitute.a. 3. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. And if. age is a continuous variable. demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price. assume . For example. Then. more variables determine demand. What are the characteristics of a good research design? Ans. 3. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called „non-continuous variables‟. It is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. It encourages co-ordination and effective organization. etc. For example. while price is the independent variable. Professional organizations. It reduces wastage of time and cost. all variables need not be continuous. But. What are the components of a research design? Ans. new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. they are also known as „discrete variable‟. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. 2.

Likewise. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an „experimental error‟. when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition.  Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research. experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new . However. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. when the dependent variable is not free from its effects. it is known as „control group‟. For instance. Therefore. it is known as research hypothesis. the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. In this context. A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together. In the example considered. then both the groups may be called as „experimental groups‟. a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. 4. if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop. the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. 3. the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. intelligence may also influence the school performance. then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. it is known as an „experimental group‟. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable. in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former. a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. it would be known as an extraneous variable. the relationships that are assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children‟s school performance and their self-concepts. On the other hand.  Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher. Generally. Whereas.  Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature.Sikkim Manipal University .  Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. In the afore-mentioned example. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Technically. the dependent variable.

When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop. It is practical. if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of biofertilizer. b. Instead. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling? Ans. This is also known as sequential sampling. Further. a. then it is known as absolute experiment. Distinguish between Doubles sampling and multiphase sampling. called multi-phase sampling. Instead. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. called multi-phase sampling. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology variety of rice crop developed. 4. The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors. then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. to which the different treatments are applied. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified. Experiments may be categorized into two types namely. it is then. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. . This is also known as sequential sampling. Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. Ans. it is then. extraneousDouble sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n. Meanwhile. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution.  Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots. characteristics or the blocks. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements.Sikkim Manipal University . absolute experiment and comparative experiment.

Trade in credit allocation in commercial banks. Finally. The use of secondary data broadens the data base from which scientific generalizations can be made. Censes Reports etc. . may be taken from published reports and quoted as background information in a study on the evaluation of performance of cooperative credit societies in a selected district/state. some specific information from secondary sources may be used for reference purpose. if available can be secured quickly and cheaply. Thus. the general statistical information in the number of co-operative credit societies in the country. historical studies. e. 2.. the use of secondary data extends the researcher’s space and time reach. 4. Financial Analysis of companies. The most important limitation is the available data may not meet our specific needs. and time periods may also be different. and the like. Secondary data. their coverage of villages. Disadvantages of Secondary Data The use of a secondary data has its own limitations. How is secondary data useful to researcher? Ans. 3. thanks to Xeroxing facilities.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 5. Second. It readily meets the need for additional empirical support.Sikkim Manipal University . First. For example.g. Advantages of Secondary Data Secondary sources have some advantages: 1. the performance indicators of a particular bank may be tested against the corresponding indicators of the banking industry as a whole. Use of Secondary Data The second data may be used in three ways by a researcher. Wider geographical area and longer reference period may be covered without much cost. their capital structure. serve as major data sources for such research studies. 5. secondary data may be used as the sole source of information for a research project. The definitions adopted by those who collected those data may be different. The researcher need not wait the time when additional primary data can be collected. Year books. Environmental and cultural settings are required for the study. a. depend primarily on secondary data. statistical reports of government departments. the findings of a local or regional survey may be compared with the national averages. Such studies as securities Market Behaviour. Even the tediousness of copying the data from the source can now be avoided. Once their source of documents and reports are located. collection of data is just matter of desk work. The use of secondary data enables a researcher to verify the findings bases on primary data. sociological studies on crimes. units of measure may not match. secondary data may be used as bench marks against which the findings of research may be tested. report of public organizations of Bureau of Public Enterprises. 1. and so on. volume of business etc..

The assurance and reliability of the available secondary data depends on the organization which collected them and the purpose for which they were collected. . The available data may not be as accurate as desired. Data Pertinence The first consideration in evaluation is to examine the pertinence of the available secondary data to the research problem under study.  What are the definitions and classifications employed? Are they consistent ? What are the measurements of variables used? What is the degree to which they conform to the requirements of our research?  What is the coverage of the secondary data in terms of topic and time? Does this coverage fit the needs of our research? On the basis of above consideration. b. Finally. the pertinence of the secondary data to the research on hand should be determined. Then only. 4. reliability and completeness. Evaluation of Secondary Data When a researcher wants to use secondary data for his research. he should evaluate them before deciding to use them. 1. as a researcher who is imaginative and flexible may be able to redefine his research problem so as to make use of otherwise unusable available data. Even if the location of the source is known. because of time lag in producing them. and no new figures will be available for another ten years.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 2. population census data are published tow or three years later after compilation. 2. the next step is to examine the quality of the data. For example. It is important to go to the original source of the secondary data rather than to use an immediate source which has quoted from the original. the accessibility depends primarily on proximity. and they are not within the easy reach of researchers based in far off places. What are the criteria used for evaluation of secondary data? Ans. the researcher can review the cautionary ands other comments that were made in the original source. To assess their accuracy we need to know how the data were collected. most of the unpublished official records and compilations are located in the capital city. information about the whereabouts of sources may not be available to all social scientists. For example. The following questions should be considered.Sikkim Manipal University . The secondary data are not up-to-date and become obsolete when they appear in print. What is the authority and prestige of the organization? Is it well recognized? Is it noted for reliability? It is capable of collecting reliable data? Does it use trained and well qualified investigators? The answers to these questions determine the degree of confidence we can have in the data and their accuracy. 3. Data Quality If the researcher is convinced about the available secondary data for his needs. The quality of data refers to their accuracy.

Observation vs interviewing as Methods of Data Collection Collection of data is the most crucial part of any research project as the success or failure of the project is dependent upon the accuracy of the data. there are differences that will be highlighted in this article. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon.Sikkim Manipal University . Ans. Though they try to be honest. The question of possible bias should also be examined. 6. observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. Data Completeness The completeness refers to the actual coverage of the published data. Whether the purpose for which the original organization collected the data had a particular orientation? Has the study been made to promote the organization’s own interest? How the study was conducted? These are important clues. in the form of questionnaires. there are limitations of interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. Though there are many similarities in these two methods and they serve the same basic purpose.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 3. This depends on the methodology and sampling design adopted by the original organization. as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely. Is the methodology sound? Is the sample size small or large? Is the sampling method appropriate? Answers to these questions may indicate the appropriateness and adequacy of the data for the problem under study. The researcher must be on guard when the source does not report the methodology and sampling design. As a method of data collection. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. These interviews could be either one to one. Observation Observation. . Interviewing Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. It is a time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. However. There are many techniques of data collection along a continuum and observation and interviewing are two of the popular methods on this continuum that has quantitative methods at one end while qualitative methods at the other end. Use of wrong methods of data collection or any inaccuracy in collecting data can have significant impact on the results of a study and may lead to results that are not valid. there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project. or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. Then it is not possible to determine the adequacy of the secondary data for the researcher’s study.

• Observation requires precise analysis by the researcher and often produces most accurate results although it is very time consuming • Interviewing is easier but suffers from the fact that participants may not come up with honest replies. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. Observation vs Interviewing • Data collection is an integral part of any research and various techniques are employed for this purpose.interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. It is a good idea to ask the organisation in advance what format the interview will take. Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer .MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Though both observation and interviewing are great techniques of data collection. Interview format: Interviews take many different forms.Sikkim Manipal University .) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. The Screening Interview: Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements. Competency/criteria based interviews: These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job. It is important to keep in mind which one of the two will produce desired results before finalizing. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: µGive an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal. but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. they have their own strengths and weaknesses. Technical interviews: If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge. You should be prepared to prove yourself. which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert. it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. See our resume centre for help. Remember they do not need to know whether you are the best fit for .

or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. Jobseekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. A meeting that you initiate. MB0050 – Research Methodology (Set 2) 1. . The Informational Interview: On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. especially if they like to share their knowledge. the informational interview is underutilized by job-seekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology the position. are often open to informational interviews. screeners tend to dig for dirt. the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to specific job opening.Sikkim Manipal University . only whether you are not a match. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. During an informational interview. a. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do not have current job openings. feel flattered by your interest. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company. For this reason. Explain the General characteristics of observation.

customs. animals etc. General Characteristics of Observation Method Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. crowd behaviour. (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. etc. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything. 4. suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. the persons sitting in them.. residences etc. managerial style. Interviewing techniques in Business Research The interview process consists of the following stages: · Preparation · Introduction · Developing rapport · Carrying the interview forward · Recording the interview · Closing the interview . social metric scale etc. and precision instruments.Sikkim Manipal University . What is the Utility of Observation in Business Research? Ans. 1. and manner. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Ans. group dynamics. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. interpersonal relations.: life style. It captures the natural social context in which persons behaviour occur. other behaviours and actions. Utility of Observation in Business Research Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. b. make. the type. many things are before his eyes. but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature. For example. a. size and colour of the vehicles. leadership styles. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. scope and objectives of his study. 3. if any. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. 2. Briefly explain Interviewing techniques in Business Research? Ans. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him. factories. 2. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) movement of materials and products through a plant. their hair style.

Describe the method by which the respondent was selected. what mode of introduction he could adopt. He should have the list of names and addresses of respondents. Therefore. diffidence. 2. residents cooperation can be easily secured. he should regroup them into contiguous groups in terms of location in order to save time and cost in traveling. After getting himself introduced to the respondent in the most appropriate manner. The interviewer may come across such situations as respondents. Explain their usefulness of the study. With a smile. 6. the research organization’s letter of introduction and the interviewer’s identity card can be shown. Mention the name of the organization conducting the research. the head of the organization should be approached first and his cooperation secured before contacting the sample inmates/employees. He should not also approach them through a local political leader. Identify the respondent by name. For a survey or urban households. he should be properly introduced to each of the respondents. 3. reluctance. When studying a community or a cultural group. 5. What is the proper mode of introduction? There is no one appropriate universal mode of introduction. In these days of fear of opening the door for a stranger. Mode varies according to the type of respondents. For interviewing rural respondents. distortion. The investigator should plan the strategies for dealing with them. avoidance. in order to motivate the respondent to permit the interview: 1. presuming that they are being contacted for collection of land revenue or subscription to some government bond. It is rather desirable to approach the rural respondents through the local teacher or social worker. It is possible to plan in advance and keep the plan and mind flexible and expectant of new development. When making a study of an organization or institution. suspicion. for they would immediately hide themselves. 4. it is essential to approach the leader first and to enlist cooperation.g. say a popular person in the area e. greet the respondent in accordance with his cultural pattern. Assure the anonymity or confidential nature of the interview. inadequate responses. 2 Introduction The investigator is a stranger to the respondents. etc. what situations he may have to face and how he could deal with them. He should think about how he should approach a respondent. The interviewer should find out the general daily routine of the respondents in order to determine the suitable timings for interview. the interviewer should never attempt to approach them along with someone from the revenue department.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 1 Preparation The interviewing requires some preplanning and preparation. he should mentally prepare himself for the interview.. Above all. the interviewer can follow a sequence of procedures as under. .Sikkim Manipal University . If such preplanning is not done. if the interviewer attempts to get him introduced through a person known to them. a social worker. he will be caught unaware and fail to deal appropriately when he actually faces any such situation. The interviewer should keep the copies of interview schedule/guide (as the case may be) ready to use. because persons who do not belong to his party will not cooperate with the interviewer.

At the same time. the following guidelines may be followed: 1. 4 Carrying the Interview Forward After establishing rapport. the interviewer should establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. sensitivity. 7. when necessary.” “I have come to learn from your experience and knowledge”. In carrying on this task of gathering information from the respondent by putting questions to him. but avoid . However. Listen quietly with patience and humility. Start the interview. This task requires care. never showing disapproval or surprise. 6. If a question is not understood. Ask all the applicable questions listed in the schedule. He will be motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is permissive and the listener’s attitude is non judgmental and is genuinely absorbed in the revelations. experience. self-restraint. This is described as “rapport”. It means establishing a relationship of confidence and understanding between the interviewer and the respondent. Such initial conversation may create a friendly atmosphere and a warm interpersonal relationship and mutual understanding. alertness and ability to listen with understanding.Sikkim Manipal University . or the like perceiving the probable of the respondent from his context. Give not only undivided attention. denial. 5. and keen observation. 3 Developing Rapport Before starting the research interview. sports event. Carry it on in an informal and natural conversational style.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 7. but also personal warmth. repeat it slowly with proper emphasis and appropriate explanation. the technical task of asking questions from the interview schedule starts. making such statements as “You are among the few in a position to supply the information”. It is a skill which depends primarily on the interviewer’s commonsense. be alert and analytic to incomplete.” The interviewer should use his discretion in striking a happy medium. the areas to be investigated. Talk all answers naturally. he may feel free and may not try to withhold information. 2. 3. non specific and inconsistent answers. Start the conversation with a general topic of interest such as weather. Too much identification and too much courtesy result in tailoring replied to the image of a “nice interviewer. “Your response is invaluable. current news. If interview guide is used. covering of course. Ask all the applicable questions in the same order as they appear on the schedule without any elucidation and change in the wording. Do not take answers for granted. Know the objectives of each question so as to make sure that the answers adequately satisfy the question objectives. the interviewer should “guard against the over rapport” as cautioned by Herbert Hyman. contradiction and other harassment. 4. When the respondent does not meet the interruptions. respect and curiosity. the interviewer may tailor his questions to each respondent. Emphasize the value of respondent’s cooperation.

How can complete recording be made without interrupting the free flow of conversation? Electronic transcription through devices like tape recorder can achieve this. Nothing should be made in the schedule under respective question. emotional blockage may occur. The responses should not be summarized or paraphrased. Hence.” 11. at the same time. When the interviewee fails to supply his reactions to related past experiences. is this…. 15. However. your opinions are more important than mine. he can use it with advantage. Otherwise. a good deal of relevant information may be lost. Should not reveal your own opinion or reaction. At times.what you meant?” 8. 10. Even when you are asked of your views. If the note taking is done after the interview. Then drop the subject for the time being and pursue another line of conversation for a while so that a less direct approach to the subject can be made later. If the interviewer knows short-hand. Some respondents may object to or fear “going on record”. it is desirable to have two or more sittings with the consent of the respondent. If necessary. represent the stimulus situation. as it would cause interview weariness. maintain an impartial and objective attitude. It should be complete and verbatim. It has obvious advantages over note-taking during the interview. even the fast writer may fail to record all . But it also has certain disadvantages. 9. “Under what circumstances did such and such a phenomenon occur?” or “How did you feel about it and the like. “you know. Be alert to discover drifting. and particularly when it deals with crises in the life of the individual. steer the conversation back to the track by some such remark as. the conversation may go off the track. 13. Consequently the risk of lower response rate will rise especially for sensitive topics. he can write rapidly by abbreviating word and using only key words and the like.Sikkim Manipal University . Could you tell me more about it?” 14. introducing appropriate questions which will aid in revealing the past. introduce a stimulus saying “You mentioned that… What happened then?” 5 Additional Sittings In the case of qualitative interviews involving longer duration. saying “Well. jot down unobtrusively the points which need elaboration or verification for later and timelier probing. Then use such expressions as “Uh-huh” or “That interesting” or “I see” “can you tell me more about that?” and the like. The appropriate technique for this probing is to ask for further clarification in such a polite manner as “I am not sure. If the silence is too prolonged. laugh off the request. I was very much interested in what you said a moment ago. one single sitting will not do. Show genuine concern and interest in the ideas expressed by the respondent. 6 Recording the Interview It is essential to record responses as they take place. I understood fully. Take it as a matter of course with an interested look or a sympathetic half-smile. do not hurry the interview. At times the interview “runs dry” and needs re-stimulation. Neither argue nor dispute. When there is a pause in the flow of information. 12.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology interrupting the flow of information. When the conversation turns to some intimate subjects.

The interviewer should also record all his probes and other comments on the schedule. He must ensure that everything is legible. Interview Problems In personal interviewing.” The respondent is usually flattered by this attention and the rapport is not disturbed.Sikkim Manipal University . He has to simply ring the appropriate code or tick the appropriate box. b. It is desirable to record a brief sketch of his impressions of the interview and observational notes on the respondent’s living environment. . If the respondent desires to know the result of the survey. in which the respondent’s answer is not relevant to the question asked · inaccurate response. nonresponse and interviewer’s bias. What are the problems encountered in Interview? Ans. in brackets to set them off from responses. Abbreviations in recording must be replaced by full words. as the case may be. 8 Editing At the close of the interview. At such times. his attitude to the survey. if any. when the respondent remains silent or refuses to answer the question · irrelevant response. the interviewer’s task is easy. He should not make mistakes by carelessly ringing or ticketing a wrong item. faced in securing his cooperation and the interviewer’s assessment of the validity of the respondent’s answers. a thank-you and a good-bye. 7 Closing the Interview After the interview is over.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology that is said at conversational speed. the interviewer must edit the schedule to check that he has asked all the questions and recorded all the answers and that there is no inconsistency between answers. when the reply is biased or distorted and · verbalized response problem. which arises on account of respondent’s failure to understand a question or lack of information necessary for answering it. They are: · partial response. take leave off the respondent thanking him with a friendly smile. note down his name and address so that a summary of the result could be posted to him when ready. would you mind repeating it. In the case of a qualitative interview of longer duration. 1 Inadequate response Kahn and Cannel distinguish five principal symptoms of inadequate response. inadequate response. With the pre-coded structured questions. in which the respondent gives a relevant but incomplete answer · non-response. select the occasion for departure more carefully. Assembling the papers for putting them in the folder at the time of asking the final question sets the stage for a final handshake. it is useful to interrupt by some such comment as “that seems to be a very important point. so that I can get your words exactly. difficulties. the researcher must deal with two major problems.

Another source of response bias arises from interviewer’s perception of the situation. such biasing factors can never be overcome completely. Another source of response of the interviewer’s characteristics (education. Selection of appropriate timing for calls could solve this problem. This depends upon the nature of the respondent and the time of calls. For example. . word emphasis. standardization or interview procedures (use of standard wording in survey questions. Incapacity or inability may refer to illness which prevents a response during the entire survey period. 6 Inaccessibility Some respondents may be inaccessible. apparent social status. Farmers may not be available at home during cultivation season. The interviewers can influence the responses by inappropriate suggestions. a hardcore of refusals remains.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 2 Interviewer’s Bias The interviewer is an important cause of response bias. employed persons may not be available during working hours. His own attitudes and expectations about what a particular category of respondents may say or think may bias the data. As interviewers are human beings. He may resort to cheating by ‘cooking up’ data without actually interviewing. 3 Non-response Non-response refers to failure to obtain responses from some sample respondents. 5 Refusal Some persons may refuse to furnish information because they are ill-disposed.Sikkim Manipal University . etc) may also bias his answers. Although. incapacity and inaccessibility. another try or perhaps another approach may find some of them cooperative. tone of voice and question rephrasing. if he regards the assignment as impossible or sees the results of the survey as possible threats to personal interests or beliefs he is likely to introduce bias. 4 Non-availability Some respondents may not be available at home at the time of call. refusal. There is need for more research on ways to minimize bias in the interview. There are many sources of non-response. then. proper motivation and supervision. Some may not be found due to migration and other reasons. non-availability. but their effects can be reduced by careful selection and training of interviewers. This may also arise on account of language barrier. Evenings and weekends may be favourable interviewing hours for such respondents. If someone is available. line respondent’s hours of availability can be ascertained and the next visit can be planned accordingly. or approached at the wrong hour and so on. standard instructions on probing procedure and so on) and standardization of interviewer behaviour. Nonresponses reduce the effective sample size and its representativeness.

a. The latter effect can be easily overcome. substitution for a respondent with a particular size holding by another with the holding of the same size is possible. 2. 3. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand: Checking for analysis Editing Coding Classification Transcription of data Tabulation . The various steps in processing of data may be stated as: • • • • • Identifying the data structures Editing the data Coding and classifying the data Transcription of data Tabulation of data. the farm size is an important variable and if the sampling is based on farm size. as are repeated mailings to no-returns in mail surveys. These adjustments increase the size of the response and the sampling precision. For example.Sikkim Manipal University . beneficial substitution methods can sometimes be designed with reference to important characteristics of the population. (d) advance notice to the respondents. The non-response bias should not be confused with the reduction of sampled size due to non-response. Improvements advocated are (a) guarantees of anonymity.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 7 Methods and Aims of control of non-response Kish suggests the following methods to reduce either the percentage of non-response or its effects: 1. What are the various steps in processing of data? Ans. in a farm management study. 3. Attempts to reduce the percentage or effects on non-responses aim at reducing the bias caused by differences on non-respondents from respondents. Nevertheless. Call-backs are most effective way of reducing not-at-homes in personal interviews. Improved procedures for collecting data are the most obvious remedy for non-response. either by anticipating the size of non-response in designing the sample size or by compensating for it with a supplement. but they do not reduce the non-response percentage or bias. Usually this is a mistake because the substitutes resemble the responses rather than the non-responses. Substitution for the non-response is often suggested as a remedy. (b) motivation of the respondent to cooperate (c) arousing the respondents’ interest with clever opening remarks and questions.

Most data structures can be graphically presented to give clarity as to the frames researched hypothesis. the clear definition of such data structures would help in the further processing of data. In several intermediate steps. 2 Editing The next step in the processing of data is editing of the data instruments. Data Editing at the Time of Recording of Data Document editing and testing of the data at the time of data recording is done considering the following questions in mind. the procedures for drawing the data structure would involve a series of steps. The identification of the nodal points and the relationships among the nodes could sometimes be a complex task than estimated. A sample structure could be a linear structure.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Construction of Frequency Table Components of a table Principles of table construction Frequency distribution and class intervals Graphs. A data structure is a dynamic collection of related variables and can be conveniently represented as a graph where nodes are labelled by variables. The data structure also defines and stages of the preliminary relationship between variables/groups that have been pre-planned by the researcher. Data editing happens at two stages. which are the same for all research questions? Have variable descriptions been specified? . Editing is a process of checking to detect and correct errors and omissions. When the task is complex. which allows the analyst to use modern analysis software such as SAS or SPSS. a. the heterogeneous data structure of the individual data sets can be harmonized to a common standard and the separate data sets are then integrated into a single data set. However. the data are prepared in a data format. Do the filters agree or are the data inconsistent? Have missing values been set to values.Sikkim Manipal University . which involves several types of instruments being collected for the same research question. one at the time of recording of the data and second at the time of analysis of data. in which one variable leads to the other and finally. The major criterion in this is to define the data structure. charts and diagrams Types of graphs and general rules Quantitative and qualitative analysis Measures of central tendency Dispersion Correlation analysis Coefficient of determination 1 Checking for Analysis In the data preparation step. to the resultant end variable.

While clear inconsistencies should be rectified in the data sets. 3. the data set has to rewritten on the basis of the new information. Accuracy: Apart from checking for omissions. Some of the usual check list questions that can be had by a researcher for editing data sets before analysis would be: 1. the accuracy of each recorded answer should be checked. The reliability of the data set would heavily depend on this step of error correction. Has the correct data set been framed? Is the number of cases correct? Are there differences between questionnaire. Data Editing at the Time of Analysis of Data Data editing is also a requisite before the analysis of data is carried out. another keen lookout should be for any lack of uniformity. care should be taken as a record the answer as a positive question response or as negative question response in all . so that. fact responses should be dropped from the data sets. Uniformity: In editing data sets. approximate spending and saving and borrowing habits of family members etc. sources of income. the approximate family income can be inferred from other answers to probes such as occupation of family members. 2. Completeness: The first step of editing is to check whether there is an answer to all the questions/variables set out in the data set. For instance. coding frame and data? Are there undefined and so-called wild codes? Comparison of the first counting of the data with the original documents of the researcher. 6. The editing step checks for the completeness. 5. While interpreting the answers.Sikkim Manipal University . For example. 4. then the researcher can take the step of contacting the respondent personally again and solicit the requisite data again. the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets. accuracy and uniformity of the data as created by the researcher. The cross verification to a few related responses would help in checking for consistency in responses. This ensures that the data is complete in all respect for subjecting them to further analysis. 7. A random check process can be applied to trace the errors at this step. Is the coding frame complete? Is the documentary material sufficient for the methodological description of the study? Is the storage medium readable and reliable. the researcher sometimes would be able to deduce the correct answer from other related data on the same instrument. b.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Have labels for variable names and value labels been defined and written? All editing and cleaning steps are documented. in interpretation of questions and instructions by the data recorders. If this is possible. 8. If the information is vital and has been found to be incomplete. If none of these steps could be resorted to the marking of the data as missing must be resorted to. If there were any omission. Consistency in response can also be checked at this step. the responses towards a specific feeling could have been queried from a positive as well as a negative angle.

This code sheet will help in the identification of variables/observations and the basis for such codification. it would be useful in the data analysis. It is therefore a pre-requisite to prepare a coding scheme for the data set. The first coding done to primary data sets are the individual observation themselves. The codes can be alphanumeric to keep track of where and to whom it had been sent. Even at a latter stage. In such instances. most preferable to not preferable. The final point in the editing of data set is to maintain a log of all corrections that have been carried out at this stage. sometimes the response could be in terms of values and sometimes the response could be alphanumeric. For instance. especially when they are categorized. the sheets that are distributed in a specific locality may carry a unique part code which is alphabetic. The variables or observations in the primary instrument would also need codification. .e. When codification is done. Illiterate. a numeric code can be attached to distinguish the person to whom the primary instrument was distributed. Graduate. At the recording stage itself. then it will be better to create a separate variable for the Others please specify category and records all responses as such. Certain classifications can lead to open ended classification such as education classification. The recording of the data is done on the basis of this coding scheme. Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses of the data set.. The documentation of these corrections helps the researcher to retain the original data set. Numeric Coding: Coding need not necessarily be numeric. Professional.Sikkim Manipal University . Coding has to be compulsorily numeric. or it could be very specific such as Gender classified as Male and Female. any specific queries on a specific responses sheet can be clarified. Others. If the preparation of the exhaustive list is not feasible. in that. it is imperative to keep a log of the codes allotted to the observations. The responses collected in a data sheet varies.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology uniformity checks for consistency in coding throughout the questionnaire/interview schedule response/data set. if some codification were done to the responses collected. 3 Coding The edited data are then subject to codification and classification. The codification can be made at the time of distribution of the primary data sheets itself. It can also be alphabetic. The categorization could be on a scale i. Please specify. This also helps the researcher to keep track of who the respondents are and who are the probable respondents from whom primary data sheets are yet to be collected. if the data consists of several public at different localities. please specify. Alphabetic Coding: A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given in an alphabetic coding. the codification needs to be carefully done to include all possible responses under Others. sometimes the responses could be the choice among a multiple response. the verification and editing of recordings and further contact with respondents can be achieved without any difficulty. when the variable is subject to further parametric analysis. To this alphabetic code. This responses sheet coding gives a benefit to the research.

a code of 0 would imply a no response from the respondents. then a different coding than 0 should be given in the data sheet. The new . as the researcher would like to view it. For this purpose. but is outsourced to a data entry firm or individual. Hence. He may need to classify the responses and then code them. if the data recording is not done by the researcher. the data coding sheet is to be prepared first and a copy of the data coding sheet should be given to the outsourcer to help in the data entry procedure. An illustration of the coding process of some of the demographic variables is given in the following table.1 Age Up to 20 years 21-40 years 40-60 years 5. For instance.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Zero Coding: A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. if a value of 0 is to be given to specific responses in the data sheet.Sikkim Manipal University .2 Owner of Vehicle Vehicle performs Yes No1 Excellent Good Adequate Bad Worst 5.1 Variable observation Organisation Private Public Government 3. In many instances. the researcher might not be able to code the data from the primary instrument itself. Question Number 1.4 4. T B R H = 3 S P 1 1 2 3 2 5 4 Pt Pb Go 2 Response categories Code = Could be treated as a separate variable/observation and the actual response could be recorded. In order to enter the data in the same perspective. classification of data is also necessary at the data entry stage. it should not lead to the same interpretation of non response. there will be a tendency to give a code of 0 to a no. Sometimes. when manual analysis is done.2 Occupation Salaried Professional Technical Business Retired Housewife Others variable could be termed as other occupation The coding sheet needs to be prepared carefully.

Here. The inclusion of the classification Others tends to fill the cluttered. which can be drawn from the observations. For example. but few responses from the data sheets. A classification method should meet certain requirements or should be guided by certain rules. The number of categorization for a specific question/observation at the coding stage should be maximum permissible since. the classification of martial status into three category viz. which is a summary of all responses on all observations from a research instrument. the income of the respondent could be an open-ended question. For instance. an open ended question will be the best mode of getting the responses.. the scheme of classification should be exhaustive. there must be a category for every response. a suitable classification can be arrived at. the categories must also be mutually exhaustive. The process is quite tedious if several summary tables are to be prepared from the instrument. The transcription process helps in the . That is. The main aim of transition is to minimize the shuffling proceeds between several responses and several observations. the researcher can fit a meaningful and theoretically supportive classification. The objectives of the study will determine the dimensions chosen for coding. From all responses. The classification others will be very useful when a minority of respondents in the data set give varying answers. the other categorization tends to defeat the very purpose of classification. These given answer rather than being separately considered could be clubbed under the others heading for meaningful interpretation of respondents and reading habits. the simple inferences.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology 4 Classifications When open ended responses have been received. married Single and divorced is not exhaustive. classification is necessary to code the responses. the reading habits of newspaper may be surveyed. For instance. which is designed to distinguish between observations in terms of the properties under study. because responses like widower or separated cannot be fitted into the scheme. can be transferred to a data sheet. classification should be linked to the theory and the aim of the particular study. However. The categorization should meet the information required to test the hypothesis or investigate the questions. From the responses collected. But others categorization has to carefully used by the researcher. Suppose a research instrument contains 120 responses and the observations has been collected from 200 respondents. reducing the categorization at the analysis level would be easier than splitting an already classified group of responses. Third. so that each case is classified only once. a simple summary of one response from all 200 observations would require shuffling of 200 pages. However the number of categories is limited by the number of cases and the anticipated statistical analysis that are to be used on the observation. The 95 respondents out of 100 could be easily classified into 5 large reading groups while 5 respondents could have given a unique answer. Second. This requirement is violated when some of the categories overlap or different dimensions are mixed up. 5 Transcriptions of Data When the observations collected by the researcher are not very large.Sikkim Manipal University . First.

CS5. If. Once the labelling process has been done for all the responses in the research instrument. if the number of responses is less than 30. Heading of responses which are variable names and their coding (options) are filled in the first two rows. now the responses from the research instrument are then transferred to the worksheet by ticking the specific option that the observer has . Manual Transcription When the sample size is manageable. CS8. The first column contains the code of observations. the researcher need not use any computerization process to analyze the data. In the second instance. The computerized transcription could be done using a data base package such as spreadsheets. on the other hand the variables in the research instrument are more than 40 and each variable has 5 options. an intermediary process between data coding and data tabulation. opinion on consumer satisfaction could be identified through a number of statements (say 10). then the manual worksheet could be attempted manually. but gives a link to the question in the research instrument though variable labels. Each variable should be given a label so that long questions can be covered under the label names. CS4. and the numbers of observations collected are within 100. Transcription is hence. Long work sheets. CS9 and CS10. If one sheet is not sufficient. the transcription of the response is done. preferably chart sheets. The label CS indicating Consumer satisfaction and the number 1 to 10 indicate the statement measuring consumer satisfaction. For each variable. it is advisable to use a computerized transcription process. text files or other databases. These worksheets normally are ruled both horizontally and vertically. The main requisite for a transcription process is the preparation of the data sheets where observations are the row of the database and the responses/variables are the columns of the data sheet.Sikkim Manipal University . The researcher could prefer a manual transcription and analysis of responses. CS3. In all other instances. For instance. the data sheet does not contain the details of the statement. CS2. A transcription sheet with 100x50 (assuming each response has 5 options) row/column can be easily managed by a researcher manually. The label names are thus the links to specific questions in the research instrument. Long Worksheets Long worksheets require quality paper. the researcher may use multiple rules sheets to accommodate all the observations. CS6. CS7. sorting cards or sorting strips could be used by the researcher to manually transcript the responses. In this instance the variable names could be given as CS1. a. thick enough to last several usages. say 10 responses. it leads to a worksheet of 100x200 sizes which might not be easily managed by the researcher manually. c. allowing responses to be written in the boxes. The choice of manual transcription would be when the number of responses in a research instrument is very less. b. Methods of Transcription The researcher may adopt a manual or computerized transcription.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology presentation of all responses and observations on data sheets which can help the researcher to arrive at preliminary conclusions as to the nature of the sample collected etc.

The choice depends upon the size and type of study. time pressures and the availability of software packages. Other methods of manual transcription include adoption of sorting strips or cards. Data Editing at the Time of Recording of Data Document editing and testing of the data at the time of data recording is done considering the following questions in mind. Copies of the data sheets can also be kept for future references. 6 Tabulation The transcription of data can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact form for further analysis. requisite length for recording the actual response of the observer should be provided for in the work sheet. which are the same for all research questions? Have variable descriptions been specified? .Sikkim Manipal University . Thus. tabulation is a process of summarizing raw data displaying them on compact statistical tables for further analysis. The worksheet can then be used for preparing the summary tables or can be subjected to further analysis of data. Once all schedules/questionnaires have been transcribed. In olden days. Manual tabulation is suitable for small and simple studies. cost considerations. the frequency tables can be constructed straight from worksheet. As has been discussed under the editing section. If the variable cannot be coded into categories. It involves counting the number of cases falling into each of the categories identified by the researcher.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology chosen. The original research instrument can be now kept aside as safe documents. the transcript data has to be subjected to a testing to ensure error free transcription of data. The arrival of computers has changed the data processing methodology altogether. A sample worksheet is given below for reference. b. How is data editing is done at the Time of Recording of Data? Ans. Tabulation can be done manually or through the computer. The process is called tabulation. data entry and processing were made through mechanical and semi auto-metric devices such as key punch using punch cards. Transcription can be made as and when the edited instrument is ready for processing. Do the filters agree or are the data inconsistent? Have missing values been set to values.

Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate. 3. Frequency Distribution Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. business. For example. What are the fundamental of frequency Distribution? Ans. length is described in discrete units of millimetres or a tenth of an inch. so that. concise and simple and should describe the nature of the data presented. The horizontal line measures time or independent variable and the vertical line the measured variable. they should be clearly differentiated from one another by .MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Have labels for variable names and value labels been defined and written? All editing and cleaning steps are documented. What are the types and general rules for graphical representation of data? Ans. Each curve or bar on the chart should be labelled. Measurements proceed from left to right on the horizontal line and from bottom to top on the vertical.Sikkim Manipal University . weight. If there are more than one curves or bar. temperature etc. A discrete variable can have a series of specified values with no possibility of values between these points. Scatter plots Bubble charts Stock plots Pictographs Chesnokov Faces The general rules to be followed in graphic representations are: 1. 6. A continuous variable has an unlimited number of possible values between the lowest and highest with no gaps or breaks. 7. The chart should have a title placed directly above the chart. profession) car size (800cc. Examples of continuous variable are age. 2. In constructing this table. all variables are treated as discrete units. 4. 1200cc) In practice. The title should be clear. the continuous variables being stated in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. 5. b. The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Line Graphs or Charts Bar Charts Segmental presentations. the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets. Examples of discrete variables are gender of persons (male/female) occupation (salaried. 1000cc. a. A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. 4. it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals. Numerical data upon which the chart is based should be presented in an accompanying table.

Variable: Characteristics by which people or things can be described. answers to general questions. The zero point should always be represented and the scale intervals should be equal. small group. Cases are designed to confront readers with specific real-life problems that do not lend themselves to easy answers. By providing a focus for discussion. in other words. cases are only one of many possible tools.Graphic forms should follow and not precede the related textual discussion. relevance.). and to develop skills for analyzing and dealing with hard problems on their own. including: appropriate selection of case(s) (topic. Many of the principles discussed below for discussing case studies can be generalized to other approaches to encouraging discussion about research ethics. before or during discussion) format for case discussion (Email or Internet-based. This is important whether you're conducting evaluation or merely reading articles about other studies to incorporate in your program. 8. Must have more than one level. or from person to person. Some variables can be      . here are some basic definitions used. to appreciate alternative approaches to identifying and resolving ethical problems. Too many forms detract rather than illuminating the presentation. 5. to be able to change over time for the same person/object. written or verbal summaries) Research methods don't seem so intimidating when you're familiar with the terminology. or object to object.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology distinct patterns or colours. also fosters collaboration (Pimple. length. Case discussion demands critical and analytical skills and. socioeconomic status. large group) leadership of case discussion (choice of discussion leader. Some variables. race. etc. gender. called attributes. IQ score.g. cases help trainees to define or refine their own standards. 2002). The effective use of case studies is comprised of many factors. Strictly speaking. Graphic forms should be used sparingly. complexity) method of case presentation (verbal. cannot be manipulated by the researcher (e. 10. when implemented in small groups. To help with understanding.Sikkim Manipal University . printed. would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? Case studies are a tool for discussing scientific integrity.. 9. roles and responsibilities for discussion leader)  outcomes for case discussion (answers to specific questions. Although one of the most frequently used tools for encouraging discussion.

Sikkim Manipal University . There are a variety of ways samples can be taken. animals. objects. school classroom. This is what the experimenter tries to manipulate." Population: The complete set of subjects that can be studied: people. This is the observation made and is denoted by "Y" on the vertical axis of a graph. club. It is denoted as "X" on the horizontal axis of a graph. factor. etc. This is typically considered qualitative research.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology manipulated but are not in a particular study. is what you're trying to "prove. or the level is naturally occurring (as with ex post facto research).        . Sample: A subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. or presumed cause that will produce a change in the dependent variable. The score of "Y" depends on the score of "X." Examples of research hypotheses for a relational study: The older the person. plants. A case study often involves direct observation or interviews with single subjects or single small social units such as a family. the results can be statistically similar to taking a census of an entire population--with reduced effort and cost. This occurs when subjects self-select the level of the independent variable. Independent variable: The treatment. that is. Dependent variable: The presumed effect or consequence resulting from changes in the independent variable. Purpose: Explain or Predict Type of Research to Use: Relational Study In a relational study you start with a research hypothesis. the more health problems he or she encounters. Case Study: A case study is conducted for similar purpose as the above but is usually done with a smaller sample size for more in-depth study. 4-H members attending 4-H summer camp stay enrolled in 4-H longer. Manipulation: Random assignment of subjects to levels of the independent variable (treatment groups). If a large enough random samples are taken. etc.

Correlational Study: A correlational study compares two or more different characteristics from the same group of people and explains how two characteristics vary together and how well one can be predicted from knowledge of the other. vary together due to nothing more than coincidence. The researcher starts by specifying a dependent variable and then tries to identify possible reasons for its occurrence as well as alternative (rival) explanations such confounding (intervening. contaminating." For example. A predictive correlational study could also use one characteristic to predict what another characteristic will be at another time. such as differences in income. A predictive correlational study could predict a later set of data from an earlier set. For that matter. it might be . a student's grade point average might predict the same student's grade point average during senior year. it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. ethnicity. Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) Study: An ex post facto study is used when experimental research is not possible. For example. specific reasons for the differences would be explored. parent support. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study. That is why the researcher needs to establish a plausible reason (research hypothesis) for why there might be a relationship between two variables before conducting a study. This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-world situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact. in a relational study. A concurrent correlational study draws a relationship between characteristics at the same point in time. etc. "cause and effect" cannot be claimed. Types of relational studies include correlational studies and ex post facto studies. the greater the amount of annual savings achieved. It is important to recognize that. or extraneous) variables are "controlled" using statistics. All that can be claimed is that that there is a relationship between the variables. For instance. in fact.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology  The greater the number of money management classes attended. For example. For example.Sikkim Manipal University . a student's grade point average is related to his or her class rank. a student's SAT score is designed to predict college freshman grade point average. variables that are completely unrelated could. such as when people have selfselected levels of an independent variable or when a treatment is naturally occurring and the researcher could not "control" the degree of its use.

more people will live a healthy life. averages and other statistical calculations. But there are always restrictions to that. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. Often the best approach. often within the same study. In other words. is to conduct a survey investigation. and it certainly was not the cause for victory. Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship. descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity.g. where one variable affects another. but instead it can utilize elements of both. Analyse the case study and descriptive approach to research? a) Case Study and descriptive approach to research: Descriptive research.Sikkim Manipal University . Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. 6. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus.. Similarly. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question. and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. There is no likely reason why the uniform color had any relationship to the games' outcomes.. A case study is a research method common in social science. prior to writing descriptive research. when and how. you must be careful about claiming that your Extension program was the "cause" of possible results. in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study. Thus. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you e. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual. or retrospective. also known as statistical research. Descriptive statistics tell what is. what. . group. while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. They may be prospective.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology found that all football teams with blue uniforms won last week. design. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. a. or event. the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Descriptive research answers the questions who. The description is used for frequencies. where. accurate and systematic. in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available. Although the data description is factual.

Essentially. All the methods used by a researcher during a research study are termed as research methods. can include quantitative evidence. the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing. scientific research methods call for explanations based on collected facts. It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. measurements and observations and not on reasoning alone. etc. . collecting data.MBA Semester: 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses. Research Methodology Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data b. analyzing information. scientific and value-neutral. Research methods help us collect samples. They are essentially planned. Particularly. experimental studies. Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. They accept only those explanations which can be verified by experiments. Case study research means single and multiple case studies. statistical approaches. longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. They provide a systematic way of looking at events. numerical schemes. It is also defined as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained.Sikkim Manipal University . and reporting the results. relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. schemes. Research Methods Research methods are the various procedures. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy. data and find a solution to a problem. Ans. etc. case study methods involve an in-depth. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did. algorithms. used in research. They include theoretical procedures. Its aim is to give the work plan of research.

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