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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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R represent the large but finite output resistance of the OTA stage gm The current ( ) is given by : ( )

( )

( (

(

) )

)

* * (

( )+

)+

Typically ,

A21 ( )

so

, where

( )

So Wa is the open loop bandwidth of the op amp. Note that the product of the DC gain and the BW is equal to ( ) ( )( )

and this

so we see , A(s) has a single pole at on the negative real axis of the S_plane .This equation is referred to as the one pole model of the opamp .let us take a realistic parameter values into specific design and the technology used .typically values for the 741 are : , ,C1=30pF so we use this values The dc gain =A(0)=gm.R.A2=( = =106dB )( )

And the -3dB frequency Wa is equal to Or Fa=5.3 Hz And the gain bandwidth product =Wt=

Observe that the opamp has very high Dc gain ,and its -3dB frequency is very low ,typically less than 10Hz ,and that the unity gain frequency is large typically 1MHz or higher . Note that is very small ,typically less 10Hz for in expensive opamp , so that in practice most design work in active filter is concerned with frequencies

So

Which gives wt the name unity gain and this model is adequate in the range of about 100Hz to 100 KHz .

Introduction :

Note that A1 is connected in inverting and A2 is in noninverting mode ,so that the loop gain is negative and negative feedback is applied . Assume that the opamps are identical A1=A2=A , for example dual opamps on the the same IC. The voltage gain of this current is given as :

.equation 7 A gain of 500(54 db) require that R1=1k ,R2=500k To compute the bandwidth ,inserting the integrator model ,that is putting equation 7 To obtain for s=jw

* +

( )

in

The amplifier becomes infinite , the experimental result shown in fig ,which shows that the gain is constant at 54 dB only up to about 9KHZ ,after which it uses to a peak value of over 127 dB at about 66.9 KHZ ,The peak is , of course finite .but it is at frequency predicates (67KHZ) for higher frequencies the gain amps at the rate -40 dB which decade roll-off is understandable because frequencies as shown in equation (a) To increase the bandwidth and to overcome the problem of peak value a feedback resistor is connected across A1 ,and the final circuit is shown in figure with the experimental result . decreases as for large

We observe that the gain is almost perfectly flat at 54 dB until 36 KHZ ,with the -3dB bandwidth at about 71 KHZ.

( ( And

) )

Put equation 2 in 1 ( ( *

(

) ) (

)

where G=G1+G2+G3

To show the frequency dependence explicitly , we insert the integrator model of opamp ,i.e.

( )

( ( ) ) ( )

Compare this with the general Transfer function of the LP second order Filter ( )

We get , ,

SO with R1=1k,R2=500K and R3=16k We get Ho(Dc Gain) =500 And Fo =67 KHZ

In case That R3= (no feedback action) ,the Q-factor will be equal to with excessive peaking .with R3 has a finit value=16k

=0.738

According to the design curves given in fig 4.13 this value result in approximately flat pass band with no peaking

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