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The integrator model of op amp :The opamp can be modeled as shown

R represent the large but finite output resistance of the OTA stage gm The current ( ) is given by : ( )

So the resistance current = And the capacitor current = So by KCL ( ( ) ) ( )

( )

( (

) )

* * (

( )+


( ) open loop gain

Typically ,

A21 ( )


( ) At DC , i.e. s=0 , then And at The gain is reduced by 3dB to ( )

, where

( )

So Wa is the open loop bandwidth of the op amp. Note that the product of the DC gain and the BW is equal to ( ) ( )( )

and this

is called G.B the literature ,so the gain is written as ( )

so we see , A(s) has a single pole at on the negative real axis of the S_plane .This equation is referred to as the one pole model of the opamp .let us take a realistic parameter values into specific design and the technology used .typically values for the 741 are : , ,C1=30pF so we use this values The dc gain =A(0)=gm.R.A2=( = =106dB )( )

And the -3dB frequency Wa is equal to Or Fa=5.3 Hz And the gain bandwidth product =Wt=

Observe that the opamp has very high Dc gain ,and its -3dB frequency is very low ,typically less than 10Hz ,and that the unity gain frequency is large typically 1MHz or higher . Note that is very small ,typically less 10Hz for in expensive opamp , so that in practice most design work in active filter is concerned with frequencies


( ) represent integration ,so the opamp is therefore called the

In the Laplace domain , integrator model. And note that (

Which gives wt the name unity gain and this model is adequate in the range of about 100Hz to 100 KHz .

Introduction :

Note that A1 is connected in inverting and A2 is in noninverting mode ,so that the loop gain is negative and negative feedback is applied . Assume that the opamps are identical A1=A2=A , for example dual opamps on the the same IC. The voltage gain of this current is given as :

.equation 7 A gain of 500(54 db) require that R1=1k ,R2=500k To compute the bandwidth ,inserting the integrator model ,that is putting equation 7 To obtain for s=jw
* +

( )


This is a worrisome result because it indicates that at

The amplifier becomes infinite , the experimental result shown in fig ,which shows that the gain is constant at 54 dB only up to about 9KHZ ,after which it uses to a peak value of over 127 dB at about 66.9 KHZ ,The peak is , of course finite .but it is at frequency predicates (67KHZ) for higher frequencies the gain amps at the rate -40 dB which decade roll-off is understandable because frequencies as shown in equation (a) To increase the bandwidth and to overcome the problem of peak value a feedback resistor is connected across A1 ,and the final circuit is shown in figure with the experimental result . decreases as for large

We observe that the gain is almost perfectly flat at 54 dB until 36 KHZ ,with the -3dB bandwidth at about 71 KHZ.

Capacitorless 2nd order filter circuit:

( ( And

) )

Put equation 2 in 1 ( ( *

) ) (

where G=G1+G2+G3
To show the frequency dependence explicitly , we insert the integrator model of opamp ,i.e.

( )

from which we get :

( ( ) ) ( )

Compare this with the general Transfer function of the LP second order Filter ( )

We get , ,

SO with R1=1k,R2=500K and R3=16k We get Ho(Dc Gain) =500 And Fo =67 KHZ

In case That R3= (no feedback action) ,the Q-factor will be equal to with excessive peaking .with R3 has a finit value=16k


According to the design curves given in fig 4.13 this value result in approximately flat pass band with no peaking