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A. B. C. D. E. F. G. MOMENT OF FORCES EQUILIBRIUM MOMENT OF INERTIA MOMENT OF FORCE AND ANGULAR ACCELERATION ANGULAR MOMENTUM ROTATIONAL SHM ROLLING DOWN AN INCLINE (Out of Syllabus)

A. MOMENT OF FORCES 1. Moment of a single force Moment (torque) measures the turning effect of a force. = Fr sin
Not the whole force has turning effect, only the component Fsin perpendicular to the line joining the point O and the point of application has turning effect. = F sin r Fsin F Fcos

F r sin O r Alternatively, the formula of moment can be understood as the product of force and the perpendicular distance of the force to the point O, where the moment is being taken about. = F r sin

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2. Resultant of two forces When two coplanar forces F1 and F2 are added together, the vector sum is simply F = F1 + F2 When these two forces are to be replaced by this single resultant force F, it should exactly match the translational effect and the turning effect of the original forces F1 and F2. Both effects should not be changed by the process of adding.
C same translational and rotational effect C

F2 F1 F=F1+F2

So, the resultant F should act through the point of intersection of the two lines of application of the original forces F1 and F2 (passing point C in the above figure). eg [p.122 eg.2 / p.125 eg.7] 3. Resultant of parallel forces
O x1 F1 x2 F2 x3 F3

The magnitude of resultant is given by F = F1 + F2 + F3 or F = Fi The line of application is at a distance from the point O F x + F2 x 2 + f Fi x i x= 1 1 = F1 + F2 + f Fi

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eg [Ch.9 eg.3 'Centre of gravity'] A boy of mass 40 kg sits on the left side of a seesaw, 2.0 m from the pivot, and a man of mass 80 kg sits on the right side, 1.2 m from the pivot. The mass of the seesaw is negligible. Find the centre of gravity of this system. ans Let xc be the distance of center of gravity from the pivot. (right as positive) xc = [(40)(2) + (80)(1.2)] / (40+80) = 0.133 m The centre of gravity is 0.133 m to the right of the pivot.

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4. Resultant of two equal and opposite force If the two equal and opposite forces act along the same line of application, they will cancel each other completely, no resultant force and no resultant moment.
F F

F = 0 = 0

If the two forces do not share the same line of application, the resultant force is / is not zero, but the resultant moment is is / is not zero. They are called a couple. Note that a couple always causes the same moment about any point. =Fd CW [Ch.9 Q.11] An object is hinged at O and subjected to a couple of 10 N as shown. (a) Find the moment of the couple. (b) The object is to be balanced by a third force F in the direction shown. Find the magnitude of F. (c) What is the magnitude and direction of the reaction at O? (d) Hence describe briefly how to balance a couple.

F = 0 0

10 N 0.5 m O 10 N 0.3 m F

Chapter 9/10 - p.4

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B. EQUILIBRIUM

1. Statics equilibrium When an object is in equilibrium, it must satisfy: i. first condition for equilibrium: translational equilibrium no net force F = 0, i.e., Fx = 0 and Fy = 0 ii. second condition for equilibrium: rotational equilibrium no net torque = 0, (about any point) i.e., clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment eg [p.124 eg.4,5 'Equilibrium'] A boy of mass 40 kg sits on the left side of a seesaw, 2.0 m from the pivot, and a man of mass 80 kg sits on the right side, 1.2 m from the pivot. The mass of the seesaw is negligible. eg 4 If the boy stays where he was, but the man shifts to a new position so that the seesaw does not tilt, find the position of the man. ans Let x be the position of the man from the pivot. clockwise moment = anti-clockwise moment (40)(10)(2) = (80)(10)(x) x = 1.0 m New position of the man is 1.0 m from the pivot. eg 5 Find the force supplied by the pivot, and the net moment about the boy. ans force supplied by the pivot, F = (40)(10) + (80)(10) = 1200 N moment about the boy = (40)(0) (80)(3) + (120)(2) =0

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eg [p.124 eg.6,7 'Equilibrium'] 0.5 m 0.3 m A weight W = 25 N is hung on one end of a horizontal beam. The other end is tied to the 30 ground by a string. T eg 6 W What is the tension in the string? eg 7 If the weight of the plank is 800 N, find the tension T and the force F supplied by the pivot. Assume the plank has not yet touched the pier.

CW [Ch.9 Q.8] A uniform ladder AB of mass 20 kg rests against a smooth wall and on rough ground. The angle made with the horizontal is 45. (a) Find the reaction at the wall and the ground. (b) Will the ladder slip if the coefficient of friction between the ladder and the ground is 0.5?

45 B

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2. Critical situations About to slide A block on a rough surface is pushed by a force F, the frictional force f is equal to F when it remains stationary. The block does not move unless the applied force becomes larger than the limiting friction. At this time, F = _____________ = ______________

About to slide down an inclined plane The plane is tilted and it becomes too steep for an object to stay. When the object begins to slide, m g sin = fmax m g sin = N m g sin = m g cos tan = About to topple - two supports A wooden plank is supported at two points, a man walks to one end from the middle. As he passes a certain point, the plank falls off. N1 N2

At the moment the plank begins to fall, N1 = 0 . About to topple - supported on a horizontal plane
N F f

mg

Refer to the diagram, when the block is about to topple, the left edge of the block is about to leave contact with the surface. The normal reaction acts through the right edge.

Condition for toppling a cube: __________________________


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Q What factor determines whether a cube will slide or topple first under the influence of external force acting on its upper surface (assume uniform density)? State the conditions for: toppling before sliding: ____________________ sliding before toppling: ____________________

CW [Ch.9 Q.5] A uniform cube rests on a rough ground of coefficient of friction 0.6. It is pushed with a horizontal force F applied to an upper edge. The magnitude of F is gradually increased. Find whether the cube will slide or topple over. Will the cube slide or topple over if the force is applied at the level of the centre of mass of the cube?
F

About to topple - on an inclined plane When the incline is steep enough, the weight of the object can cause a net moment to turn over the object. At this time, sin = d / h

h d

mg

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eg [p.126 eg.8 'Equilibrium'] The left and right wheels of a double-decker bus are 2.0 m apart. Its centre of gravity is at a height of 2.0 m. It is on a road which is slanted by an angle to the left. What is the maximum value of if the bus is not to topple?

eg [p.126 eg.9 'Equilibrium'] The centre of gravity X of a car is midway between the front and rear tyres which are a distance L apart and at a height h from the ground. The weight of the car is W = mg . The car is now parked pointing upwards on a slope making an angle with the horizontal. What is the normal reaction at each set of tyres?

Q Work out the condition for toppling a cube on the incline.

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3. Equilibrium of Moving Objects About to overturn - an accelerating car eg [p.129 eg.10] L


N2 h f = ma mg
c.g .

N1

no vertical acceleration Taking moment about c. g.

N1 + N2 = mg N1L/2 N2L/2 + mah = 0

Solving for N1 and N2, we have: N1 = m (g/2 ha/L) N2 = m (g/2 + ha/L) When the front tyres just leave the ground, N1 = 0. Condition for overturning: a ______________________ About to overturn - a car rounding a bend eg [p.130 eg.11]
L N2 h f = mv2/r mg
c.g.

N1

no vertical acceleration Taking moment about c. g.

N1 + N2 = mg N1L/2 N2L/2 + mv2/r = 0

Solving for N1 and N2, we have: N1 = m (g/2 hv2/Lr) N2 = m (g/2 + hv2/Lr) When the front tyres just leave the ground, N1 = 0. Condition for overturning: v ______________________
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eg [p.129 eg.12 'Equilibrium of moving object'] A cyclist is making a right-hand turn of radius r = 10 m s1. What angle should he tilt his bicycle?

at a speed of

v=2m

CW [Ch.9 Q.12] The four tyres of a car RF, LF, RB, LB (R = right, L = left, F = front, B = back) form a rectangle. The centre of this rectangle is O and the centre of mass of the car is directly above O. So normally each tyre supports of the total weight. (a) Name two circumstances in which RB and LB each supports more than of the total weight. (b) Name two circumstances in which RF and RB each supports more than of the total weight.

CW [Ch.9 Q.13] The separation between the left and right tyres of a racing car is 2.0 m and the centre of mass of the car and driver is 0.8 m from the ground. (a) If the car is rounding a level bend of radius 10 m without overturning, what is its maximum speed? (b) If the coefficient of friction between the tyres and the road is 0.9, can the car round the bend at this speed?

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C. MOMENT OF INERTIA

1. Kinetic energy For an rigid body in rotation, the speed is different at different points. Instead of using the expression Ek = mv2 , it is better to derive another expression for K.E. based on the angular speed . Ek = mv2 m = m(r)2 = (mr2)2 = I2
I is called the moment of inertia, for more than one point mass, I = (mr2) for continuous mass, I = r2dm

The moment of inertia does not only depend on the mass of rotating object, but also depends on the distribution of mass. So it is important to mention the axis of rotation when quoting the moment of inertia. 2. Meaning of moment of inertia The moment of inertia measures the reluctance of a body to resist change of rotational motion. It is similar to mass, which measures the inertia against the change of translational motion. =I This equation is built as the analogue of F = ma CW Suppose a small mass m moving in a circle of radius r. It is accelerated by a tangential force F. tangential acceleration = ____________________________ angular acceleration = ____________________________ moment of force about centre of revolution = ______________ Now according to the analogous equation = I , work out the expression of moment of inertia: I = / = ______________________________

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CW [Ch.10 Q.2] A toy car has a flywheel of moment of inertia 0.0015 kg m2 attached to the axle of its rear wheels. By holding the car in the hand and repeatedly rubbing the wheels on the ground, the flywheel is accelerated to rotate at 3 revolutions per second. The car is then allowed to move. If the retarding force experienced by the car is 0.04 N, find the distance travelled by the car before it stops.

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eg [Ch.10 eg.2 Finding the moment of inertia of a flywheel from an experiment] Mount a flywheel so that it can rotate about a horizontal axis. Measure the radius r of the flywheel axle. Put a mass m on the floor and attach to it a sufficient length of cord. Then wind up the mass to a height h from the floor. The mass is then released and falls. Its potential energy is transferred to rotational kinetic energy Kr of the flywheel and translational kinetic energy Kt of the falling mass. We also measure the number of revolutions N of the flywheel between the time the mass touches the ground and the time the flywheel stops, and the corresponding time interval t. In such an experiment, h = 0.67 m; m = 1.0 kg; r = 1.78 cm; n = 6; N = 48.8; t = 38.3 s Find the moment of inertia of the flywheel. ans When the mass reached the ground, the angle travelled, = 2 N = 2 48.8 = 97.6 If initial angular velocity is , and assume constant deceleration, = t 97.6 = (38.3) = 16.0 s1 Translational kinetic energy of the mass when it reaches the floor, Kt = mv2 = m(r)2 = (1)(16.0)2(0.0178)2 = 0.0406 J Potential energy of the mass before releasing, mgh = (1)(9.8)(0.67) = 6.566 J Rotational kinetic energy of flywheel when the mass reaches the floor is Kr, then energy loss due to friction per revolution = Kr / N energy loss due to friction before the mass reaches the ground = n Kr / N = 6 Kr / 48.8 By the principle of conservation of energy, initial potential energy energy loss = kinetic energy mgh nKr/N = Kr + Kt 6.566 6Kr/48.8 = Kr + 0.0406 Kr = 5.81 J Since Kr = I2 5.81 = I(16.0)2 I = 0.0454 kg m2

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(Out of Syllabus) Calculation of the moment of inertia of a thin rod, a disc and a solid sphere
[University Physics Young 8th Ed Addison-Wesley 1992 p.246]

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Some typical moments of inertia


[University Physics Young 8th Ed Addison-Wesley 1992]

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Q The moment of inertia of a ring is MR2 while that of a disc is MR2. Why does the moment of inertia of a ring seem greater?

CW [Ch.10 Q.1] A four cylinder internal combustion engine delivers an average power of 100 kW at an engine speed of 6000 revolutions per minute. (a) What is the energy delivered in each cylinder stroke? (b) It is required to design a flywheel to store the energy obtained in (a). The criteria are: Material: steel (density = 9 103 kg m3) Shape: uniform disc Thickness: 1 cm Maximum speed: 1000 revolutions per minute What should be the radius of the flywheel be?

CW [Ch.10 Q.10] A disc-shaped flywheel of mass 50 kg and radius 0.25 m is driven by a constant force of 98 N acting tangentially at the circumference. (a) What is the moment acting on the flywheel? What is the angular acceleration? (b) If the flywheel is initially at rest, find the angular displacement after the force has traveled 2 m. What is the angular velocity? (c) What is the rotational KE of the flywheel then?

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D. MOMENT OF FORCE AND ANGULAR ACCELERATION

eg [p.142 eg.8 'Moment of force and angular momentum'] A mass m is hung from a light string wound around a flywheel of mass M and radius R. It falls under the influence of gravity. Friction is negligible. Dynamic treatment - quick calculation of a falling motion of mass: mg T = ma TR = I rotation of disc: string not slipping: = a/R
(2) & (3)

(1) (2) (3)

T = Ia/R2 Substitute into (1) mg Ia/R2 = ma mg = (Ia/R2 + m) a a = g / (I/mR2 + 1)

Energy consideration - quick calculation of v conservation of energy: mgh = mv2 + I2 string not slipping: = v/R
mgh mgh v2 v

= mv2 + I(v/R)2 = (m + I/R2) v2 = 2mgh / (m + I/R2) = [2gh / (1 + I/mR2)]

CW [Ch.10 Q.9] A light string is passed over a pulley and two masses m1 and m2 are suspended from the two free ends. The pulley is a uniform circular disc of mass M. Find the linear acceleration of the two masses. Friction may be neglected.

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E. ANGULAR MOMENTUM

Angular momentum

L=I

1. Change of angular momentum dL/dt = I d/dt = I = torque = rate of change of angular momentum 2. The principle of conservation of momentum: The angular momentum of a system will remain constant, provided that there is no external torque acting on it. DEMO Changing the axis of rotation of a rotating bicycle wheel DEMO Ice-skaters on rotating platform CW [Ch.10 Q.13] An ice-skater is spinning about a vertical axis through his body at an angular velocity of 4 s1. He stretches out his arms horizontally, holding a weight of mass 1 kg in each hand. The weights are at a distance of 0.8 m from the axis of rotation and the moment of inertia of the skater alone is 1 kg m2. (a) Calculate the total moment of inertia of the system about the vertical axis. (b) The skater suddenly releases the weights. Will there be an increase in the rotational KE of the skater? Why?

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F. ROTATIONAL SHM

1. Compound pendulum Restoring moment

= I = =

mgl sin mgl mgl mgl/I

O C.M.

= _____________
T = _____________

mg

CW [Ch.10 Q.14] A uniform bar AB of length 1.0 m is freely hinged at one end A and performs small angle oscillations about the vertical. What is the period of oscillation?

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2. Torsional pendulum A wire can provide a restoring torque when being twisted. The restoring moment is given by = k k is the torsional constant of the wire I = k
I = k

solution:

= ______________________

period of oscillation T = ______________________ CW [Ch.10 Q.17] A torsional pendulum consists of a thick hollow sphere of external diameter 0.2 m suspended from a metal wire. The period of torsional oscillations is 1.02 s. When the hollow sphere is replaced by a solid sphere of the same material and the same external diameter, the period changes to 1.21 s. The density of the material of the spheres is 8 103 kg m3. (a) What is the moment of inertia of the solid sphere? (b) Find the torsional constant of the wire. (c) What is the moment of inertia of the hollow sphere? (d) Deduce the internal diameter of the hollow sphere.

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G. ROLLING DOWN AN INCLINE (Out of Syllabus)

A ball rolling down a plane can be interpreted as the combination of two motions:
vCM vCM vCM vCM vCM v v

ROLLING =

+
v

PURE TRANSLATIONAL MOTION: every point of the ball moves with the same velocity vCM.

PURE ROTATIONAL MOTION: every point of the ball moves around the centre of mass v = r.

Q Why v = vCM in the case of rolling without slipping?

1. Energy consideration gain in K.E. = loss in P.E. 1/2 mv2 +1/2 I2 = mgh since = v/r,
v=

2gh I 1+ mr 2

For a solid sphere, I = 2/5 mr2 v= 5 2gh 7


c.f. v = 2gh for sliding down the incline

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2. Dynamic treatment The ball is rotating under the action of friction. This time friction does not cause any energy loss because the point of contact is not fixed. There is no sliding between the ball and the surface. motion along the plane: motion perpendicular to the plane: taking moment about the centre: rolling without slipping: CW Show that the linear acceleration is a =
g sin 2gh . Hence show that v = I I 1+ 1+ 2 mr mr 2
mg sin f N fr a

f mg

= ma = mg cos = I =r

Q A ball and a cylinder start rolling down an incline at the same time. Which one is faster?

T.W.CHAN

Nov 2001

Chapter 9/10 - p.23