Enterprise resource planning


Enterprise resource planning
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems integrate internal and external management information across an entire organization, embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management, etc. ERP systems automate this activity with an integrated software application. Their purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders.[1] ERP systems can run on a variety of hardware and network configurations, typically employing a database as a repository for information.[2]

ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning ) systems typically include the following characteristics: • An integrated system that operates in real time (or next to real time), without relying on periodic updates. • A common database, which supports all applications. • A consistent look and feel throughout each module. • Installation of the system without elaborate application/data integration by the Information Technology (IT) department.[3] Finance/Accounting General ledger, payables, cash management, fixed assets, receivables, budgeting, consolidation Human resources payroll, training, benefits, 401K, recruiting, diversity management Manufacturing Engineering, bill of materials, work orders, scheduling, capacity, workflow management, quality control, cost management, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow, activity based costing, product lifecycle management Supply chain management Order to cash, inventory, order entry, purchasing, product configurator, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, inspection of goods, claim processing, commissions Project management Costing, billing, time and expense, performance units, activity management Customer relationship management Sales and marketing, commissions, service, customer contact, call center support Data services Various "self–service" interfaces for customers, suppliers and/or employees Access control Management of user privileges for various processes

e–government. testing and training.[10] Companies that implemented industry best practices reduced time–consuming project tasks such as configuration. In addition. maintenance and human resources. best practices reduced risk by 71% when compared to other software implementations. or supplier relationship management (SRM) became integrated later.Enterprise resource planning 2 History Origin of "ERP" In 1990 Gartner Group first employed the acronym ERP[4] as an extension of material requirements planning (MRP). Many companies took this opportunity to replace such systems with ERP. It describes web–based software that allows both employees and partners (such as suppliers and customers) real–time access to the systems. This is because the procedure can be readily codified within the ERP software and replicated with confidence across multiple businesses who share that business requirement. Systems vary in the convenience with which the customer can modify these practices. Front office functions such as customer relationship management (CRM) dealt directly with customers. reflecting the evolution of application integration beyond manufacturing.[7] Not all ERP packages were developed from a manufacturing core. governments and non–profit organizations also began to employ ERP systems. e–telecom. later manufacturing resource planning[5] [6] and computer-integrated manufacturing. Without supplanting these terms. They can also help comply with de facto industry standards. or e–business systems such as e–commerce. . documentation. such as electronic funds transfer. Beyond corporations.[9] ERP systems initially focused on automating back office functions that did not directly affect customers and the general public. This means that the software reflects the vendor's interpretation of the most effective way to perform each business process.[8] Expansion ERP systems experienced rapid growth in the 1990s because of the year 2000 problem and introduction of the Euro disrupted legacy systems. and e–finance. This rapid growth in sales was followed by a slump in 1999 after these issues had been addressed. ERP came to represent a larger whole. "ERP II" was coined in the early 2000s. Components • • • • • • • • • Transactional database Management portal/dashboard Business intelligence system Customizable reporting External access via technology such as web services Search Document management Messaging/chat/wiki Workflow management Best practices Best practices are incorporated into most ERP systems. By the mid–1990s ERP systems addressed all core functions of an enterprise. or Basel II.[11] The use of best practices eases compliance with requirements such as IFRS. Sarbanes-Oxley. when the Internet simplified communicating with external parties. "Enterprise application suite" is an alternate name for such systems. Vendors variously began with accounting.

Other companies already have a system that they believe to be adequate. Modular ERP systems can be implemented in stages. This requires the vendors to offer specific support for the plant floor equipment that their customers operate. Plant floor systems deposit the necessary information into the database. EATM can employ a staging table. but also the greater the costs. the scope of process changes. Connectivity to plant floor information ERP systems connect to real–time data and transaction data in a variety of ways. Customization can substantially increase implementation times. Implementation ERP's scope usually implies significant changes to staff work processes and practices. Database integration—ERP systems connect to plant floor data sources through staging tables in a database.[14] Poor understanding of needed process changes prior to starting implementation is a main reason for project failure. are adopted by nearly all users. equipment. The benefit of staging is that ERP vendors do not need to master the complexities of equipment integration. The typical project for a large enterprise consumes about 14 months and requires around 150 consultants. customization. number of modules. risks and changes involved. Some common modules. and vendor solutions. The benefit of an EATM is that it offers an off–the–shelf solution. This analysis can identify opportunities for process modernization. others such as human resource management are not. who bring unique knowledge on process. Connectivity becomes the responsibility of the systems integrator. Generally speaking.[15] It is therefore crucial that organizations thoroughly analyze business processes before implementation. For example. and connectivity to other vendor products. Custom–integrated solutions typically run on workstation or server class computers. These systems are typically configured by systems integrators. . It also enables an assessment of the alignment of current processes with those provided by the ERP system. The ERP system reads the information in the table. customization.[12] Implementation time depends on business size. a service company probably has no need for a manufacturing module. ERP vendors must be expert in their own products. Long term costs can be minimized through careful system testing and thorough documentation. three types of services are available to help implement such changes—consulting. such as finance and accounting. including competitors. or system–specific program interfaces (APIs).[12] Generally.[13] Small projects can require months. Web Services. These systems tend to have the highest level of initial integration cost. the greater the integration benefits. and can have a higher long term maintenance and reliability costs. Custom–integration solutions—Many system integrators offer custom solutions.[13] Process preparation Implementing ERP typically requires changes in existing business processes. and support. the greater the number of modules selected. Research indicates that the risk of business process mismatch is decreased by: • linking current processes to the organization's strategy. and the readiness of the customer to take ownership for the project. • analyzing the effectiveness of each process.Enterprise resource planning 3 Modularity Most systems are modular to permit automating some functions but not others. Direct integration—ERP systems connectivity (communications to plant floor equipment) as part of their product offering. Enterprise appliance transaction modules (EATM)—These devices communicate directly with plant floor equipment and with the ERP system via methods supported by the ERP system. multinational and other large implementations can take years.

ERP vendors do offer customers configuration options that allow organizations to incorporate their own business rules but there are often functionality gaps remaining even after the configuration is complete. whether to recognize revenue by geographical unit. Key differences between customization and configuration include: • Customization is always optional. Alternatively.[19] [20] 4 Configuration Configuring an ERP system is largely a matter of balancing the way the customer wants the system to work with the way it was designed to work. is the customer's responsibility and increases testing activities. product line. possibly reducing integration (e.Enterprise resource planning • understanding existing automated solutions. A potential disadvantage is that adopting "standard" processes can lead to a loss of competitive advantage. code that uses pre–defined "hooks" that are called before/after displaying data screens) survive upgrades. For example. authorization hierarchies and decision centers.g. delaying implementation to work through the necessary changes for each unit. linking via Master data management) or customizing the system to meet specific needs. ERP systems typically build many changeable parameters that modify system operation. purchase approval rules. While this has happened.g. because they often have different processes. those involving changes to fundamental data structures) are overwritten during upgrades and must be reimplemented[24] . Customization Advantages: • Improves user acceptance[25] • Offers the potential to obtain competitive advantage vis-à-vis companies using only standard features.) • The software was designed to handle various configurations. All three of these options are varying degrees of system customization. Technical solutions include rewriting part of the delivered functionality. . and behaves predictably in any allowed configuration. business rules. Some customizations (e. setting up cost/profit center structures.g. Customization ERP systems are theoretically based on industry best practices and are intended to be deployed "as is"[21] [22] . increasing overall competitive advantage. etc. losses in one area often offset by gains in other areas. The effect of customization is less predictable.[18] This may require migrating some business units before others. Customization Disadvantages: • Increases time and resources required to both implement and maintain[26] . data semantics. with the first being the most invasive and costly to maintain[23] .. • Configuration changes survive upgrades to new software versions.g.[16] [17] ERP implementation is considerably more difficult (and politically charged) in decentralized organizations. • Inhibits seamless communication between suppliers and customers who use the same ERP system uncustomized. organisational trees. writing a homegrown bolt-on/add-on module within the ERP system. whereas the software must always be configured before use (e. Other customizations (e. though they require retesting. there are non-technical options such as changing business practices and/or organizational policies to better match the delivered ERP functionality. • The effect of configuration changes on system behavior and performance is predictable and is the responsibility of the ERP vendor. or interfacing to an external system. ERP customers have several options to reconcile functionality gaps. each with their own pros/cons. or distribution channel and whether to pay for shipping costs when a customer returns a purchase. an organization can select the type of inventory accounting—FIFO or LIFO—to employ.

• They provide a comprehensive enterprise view (no "islands of information"). ERP vendors typically provide access to data and functionality through published interfaces. tills or RFID • access to specialized data/capabilities. Tasks that benefit from this integration include: • • • • Sales forecasting. Comparison to special–purpose applications Advantages The fundamental advantage of ERP is that integrating the myriad processes by which businesses operate saves time and expense. bringing the following benefits: • They eliminate the need to synchronize changes between multiple systems—consolidation of finance. from acceptance through fulfillment Revenue tracking. using scanners. • capturing transactional data. inventory receipts (what arrived). and costing (what the vendor invoiced) ERP systems centralize business data.[28] . it often receives insufficient attention. which allows inventory optimization Order tracking.Enterprise resource planning 5 Extensions ERP systems can be extended with third–party software. e. Migration is critical to implementation success and requires significant planning.g. • They protect sensitive data by consolidating multiple security systems into a single structure. Decisions can be made more quickly and with fewer errors. Extensions offer features such as: • archiving. Data migration Data migration is the process of moving/copying and restructuring data from an existing system to the ERP system. The following steps can structure migration planning:[27] • • • • Identify the data to be migrated Determine migration timing Generate the data templates Freeze the toolset • Decide on migration-related setups • Define data archiving policies and procedures. Unfortunately. from invoice through cash receipt Matching purchase orders (what was ordered). human resource. marketing and sales. Data becomes visible across the organization. They make real–time information available to management anywhere. such as syndicated marketing data and associated trend analytics. any time to make proper decisions. and manufacturing applications • They enable standard product naming/coding. reporting and republishing. since migration is one of the final activities before the production phase.

Inc. Hossein. 12. Travis. . [18] "Requirements Engineering for Cross-organizational ERP Implementation: Undocumented Assumptions and Potential Mismatches" (http:/ / www. W." MIS Quarterly Executive. Summer 2005. Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons. shtml [13] http:/ / carl. February 2004. Atlanta: Association for Information Systems. John Wiley & Sons. maintenance and upgrade expenses. [24] Yakovlev. Mureell G. • Re–engineering business processes to fit the ERP system may damage competitiveness and/or divert focus from other critical activities • ERP can cost more than less integrated and/or less comprehensive solutions. (2008). 2003 [21] Kraemmerand. Abthorpe. Information Technology for Management. References [1] Bidgoli.. and T.B. P.. [8] Chang. http:/ / www. • Extensive training requirements take resources from daily operations. (2001) John Wiley and Sons. [3] Sheilds. (2008). Interenterprise ERP and e-Business Suites. 707. Inc. p. org/ citation. Wylie. Retrieved 2008-07-12. nz/ EnterpriseSpeak). Idea Group. A. erp. htm CRITICAL ISSUES AFFECTING AN ERP IMPLEMENTATION [14] Turban et al.). (2006). Boston: Thomson Course Technology. 300–343.. acm. • Overcoming resistance to sharing sensitive information between departments can divert management attention. Information Technology for Management. vital-project. and I. (2003). Scenario S-300-339. [9] Monk. ISBN 0619216638 [10] Monk. "Enterprise Information Systems Project Implementation: A Case Study of ERP in Rolls-Royce. (2001) John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-78712-9 [20] Dehning. "An ERP implementation and business process reengineering at a Small University". 2009. 2(1). p. 320. International Conference on Information Systems. 359793). Mehdi. org/ papers/ Daneva-Wieringa-Camera-Ready-RE-Paper. [23] Fryling. Volume 1. 9-10.Enterprise resource planning 6 Disadvantages • Customization is problematic. Greg Timbrell (2000). tech-faq. Bret (2006)." Information Systems Management. (2004). • High switching costs increase vendor negotiating power vis a vis support. pp. Retrieved September 9. html). ISBN 978-0-471-78712-9 [15] Brown. [16] King. . .ed. Mureell G.. Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy. [2] Khosrow–Puor. Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning (Second ed.2009 [11] "Enhanced Project Success Through SAP Best Practices – International Benchmarking Study". "Estimating the impact of enterprise resource planning project management decisions on post-implementation maintenance costs: a case study using simulation modelling". C. p. 9. Y. Ellen and Wagner. [17] Yusuf. "MRP/MRPII/ERP/ERM — Confusting Terms and Definitions for a Murkey Alphabet Soup" (http:/ / www." International Journal of Production Economics. "A Delphi examination of public sector ERP implementation issues" (http:/ / portal. (2002). each of which will potential address the fallbacks of the current ERP. Retrieved 2009-10-07. "A method for improving ERP implementation success by the principles and process of user-centred design". Inc. Transforming Organizations in the Digital Economy. pp. Inka Heidi (2008). "A Vision of Next Generation MRP II". 87(3). . E–Business and ERP: Rapid Implementation and Project Planning. com/ component/ content/ article/ 324-erp-archive/ 4407-erp. "ERP implementation: an integrated process of radical change and continuous learning". Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management. cfm?id=359640. 2003. Gunasekaran. pdf) (PDF).Stratopoulos. 865. com/ erp.V. p. [7] Sheilds. ISBN 1-59229-031-0. "Managing the Next Wave of Enterprise Systems: Leveraging Lessons from ERP. "Ensuring ERP implementation success. Vessey. Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons. University of Twente. and M. ISBN ICIS2000-X.Boston. The Internet Encyclopedia. Wagner. wlug. [19] Turban et al. p. Inc.. Ellen. Web-Enable ERP. 494–500. Inc. Massachusetts. [12] What is ERP?. org. edu/ gba573/ critical_issues_affecting_an_erp...' Journal of Strategic Information Systems. . SI. Enterprise Information Systems 2 (1): 47–76. E-Business and ERP: Rapid Implementation and Project Planning. • Integration of truly independent businesses can create unnecessary dependencies. Educause Quarterly 2: 52–57. 1990 [5] Anderegg. Production Planning & Control 14 (4): 228–248. Errol Smythe. sandiego. the four significant developments being made in ERP are. 'Determinants of a Sustainable Competitive Advantage Due to an IT-enabled Strategy. Enterprise Information Systems 4 (4): 391–421. et al.Course Technology Cengage Learning. Meg (2010). I. Brett. Gartner Group.. Guy Gable. April 12. Retrieved 2007-10-25 [6] "ERP" (http:/ / www. [4] L. Vol. Inc. The limitations of ERP have been recognized sparking new trends in ERP application development. [22] Vilpola."Concepts in Enterprise Resource Planning" 3rd. creating a more flexible ERP.

: 79. "The ERP Security Challenge" (http:/ / www. Katherine (January 2008). "Hierarchical examination of success factors across ERP life cycle" (http://aisel.Enterprise resource planning [25] Fryling. David. Tee Chiat. Oxford UP. Jean-Louis (2008). System Acceptance and Perceived Success of Enterprise Resource Planning Software: Simulating a Dynamic Feedback Perspective of ERP in the Higher Education Environment.1016/0378-7206(86)90010-8. Les nouvelles perspectives de la production. Total Cost of Ownership. Enterprise Information Systems 4 (4): 391–421. doi:10.. "The false promise of technological determinism: the case of enterprise resource planning systems". • Loh. . doi:10. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. ittoolbox. ISBN 9782040198206. Work and Power in the Digital Age. "Critical elements for a successful ERP implementation in SMEs". pp.00159. CXO Media Inc.1468-005X.x. Manager avec les ERP. Ian ERP From the Frontline MBE ISBN 978-1-898822-05-9 Making ERP Work (http://www. CSOonline. com/ article/ 216940/ The_ERP_Security_Challenge). • Henderson. Lenny Koh Siau Ching (September 2004). "Estimating the impact of enterprise resource planning project management decisions on post-implementation maintenance costs: a case study using simulation modelling". Nick Wailes. ISBN 9782212540949. 403.1080/00207540410001671679. Jean-Baptiste (1992). Retrieved 2008-01-17. "IS for Sustainable Competitive Advantage". MCIS 2010 Proceedings. doi:10. • Waldner. Architecture Orientée Services (SOA). Simon (2005). csoonline. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN 047193450X. Information & Management 11 (3): 131–136. Tauber Doron (September 2010). . Meg (2010).cio. • CIO Magazine's ABCs of ERP (http://www. • Lequeux. Paris: EDITIONS D'ORGANISATION. 7 Further reading • Grant. Retrieved 2008-04-08. "Data Migration Strategy in ERP" (http:/ / research. Meg (2010). Jean-Baptiste (1990).K.com/2009/02/25/erp-history/) • Clemons. uk.org/mcis2010/79/). The New Ruthless Economy. Principles of Computer Integrated Manufacturing. • Waldner. E. Christopher Wright (March 2006). • Shaul.softwareadvice.2006. New Technology. [26] Fryling.com/article/40323) • History Of ERP (http://opensourceerpguru.1111/j. Paris: DUNOD BORDAS. com/ white-papers/ backoffice/ erp/ data-migration-strategies-in-erp-4620/ ). Levi. ISBN 9781109744286.com/html/erpfrontline.aisnet. [27] Ramaswamy Nilesh V K (2007-09-27). International Journal of Production Research 42 (17): 3433–3455. Richard Hall. Work & Employment 21 (1): 2–15. [28] Walsh.htm) • Software Advice's 4-Part Series on the History of Enterprise Software (http://blog.mlg. ISBN 0195179838.com/articles/ enterprise/software-history-pt1-1082411/) . • Head. Kimborough (1986).

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