Q. What do you mean by Skimming and Scanning?

By skimming we mean skimming over the surface of a piece of writing or glancing the rapidly through a text, to find out its general content , central idea or gist . We do this , for example when we want to find out whether a certain article is relevant to our own area of study of research , or when we glance over a page of study of a newspaper to see if there is anything word reading in detail, or when we leaf through a book to find out its subject matter. By Scanning we mean darting over much of a text to search for a specific item or piece of information that we wish to discover . This skill there fore also involbes the ability to reject on pass over irrelevant information . It is the kind of reading we do when , for example , we read through a biographical account to find out the date on which certain event happened or when we go through the table of contents in a book to see whether a certain aspect of a problem has been dealt with in the book or when we glance through the telephone directory looking for a person’s telephone number , that’s all about Scanning.

Q. Reading for Information structure:Every thing has a structure – the chair the pen , the building even we , our selves in the same way written language ( a text ) has a structured , the way in which the writer has structured the information that he wants to pass on to us .

Q. Read the text below and prepare its information structure:In the twentieth ( 20th ) century one of our greatest problems is pollution in our cities . The air constantly being polluted from smoke , from factories and rural areas – is polluted by uncollected garbage . Water is also polluted particularly as a result of unrated sweage. Also oil trankers often clean their tranks at sea and power station release hot water into rivers , which kills fish and plants .

Ans.
Pollution

Air

Water

Land

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I wrote a letter . Oil from tranks . Unrated sewaye . 2. Water Land Q. Emitted from motorvechiles . 1. I write a letter . --> Verb ‘shall write’ refers to Future tense . I shall write a letter . Get yours now! . Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Hot water from power station . --> Verb ‘wrote’ refers to Past tense . 3. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Uncollected garbage . Time and Tense : Tense > Latin ‘tempus’ > Time.A more details information structure of the text is what ? Pollution Air Where : Smoke from factory . Tense Present :  Simple “”  Continuous “”  Perfect “”  Perfect Continuous “” “” “” “” “” Past : Future : pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. --> Verb ‘write’ refers to Present tense .

You are writting a letter . Sub .obj Formation : Present Perfect : I have written a letter . if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.obj Formation : pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.obj Formation : Present Perfect Continuous : I have been writting a letter .obj Formation : Present Continuous : I am writting a letter .+ing . He has written a letter . He writes a letter . You have written a letter .pre V.V.pre V. Sub . He has been writting a letter .+ ing . Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. . Get yours now! . . He is writing a letter . Sub – have/has – past part.Present Tense : Simple Present : I write a letter . You have been writting a letter .beV. . Sub – have/has + been – pre. You write a letter .V.

. . .pre V. Sub – had – past part. You had been writting a letter . You wrote a letter . He wrote a letter .obj Formation : Past Perfect Continuous : I had been writting a letter . He had written a letter .V. You were writting a letter . if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine.past V.obj Formation : pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. of beV. Sub –past pert. He had been writting a letter .+ing . Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms..obj Formation : Past Perfect : I had written a letter .obj Formation : Past Continuous : I was writting a letter . Get yours now! .+ ing .V.Past Tense : Simple Past : I wrote a letter . You had written a letter . Sub – had + been – pre. He was writing a letter . Sub .

You will write a letter . Sub –sall/will-pre. You will have been writting a letter .. He will write a letter . Get yours now! .obj Formation : pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents.+ ing . Sub – shall/will+have + been – pre.obj Formation : Future Continuous : I sall be writting a letter .obj Formation : Future Perfect : I sall have written a letter . V. You will be writting a letter .V. .Future Tense : Simple Future : I shall write a letter . He will have written a letter .V. He will be writing a letter .obj Formation : Future Perfect Continuous : I shall have been writting a letter . if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. You will have written a letter . .pre V. Sub –shall/will+be. He will have been writting a letter . Sub – shall/will+have – past part.+ing .

Fish is being caught by me. Passive Voice : A verb in the passive voice when its form shows that something is done to the person or things denoted by subject . Fish is caught by me . Get yours now! . Fish is being caught by you. Voice is that form of a verb we shows whether what is denoted by the subject does something or has something done to it.  ‘ Catch ‘ verb : Simple Present: Active Voice I catch fish. Passive Voice pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. He catches fish. You are catching fish. He is catching fish. Passive Voice Present continuous: Active Voice I am catching fish. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Fish is caught by you.Transformation of Sentences: Voice: Mainly two kinds of voice that is – a) Active Voice b) Passive Voice Active Voice : A verb is in the active voice when its form shows that something is done to the person or thing denoted by the subject does some things . You catch fish. Fish is caught by him. Fish is being caught by him. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms.

if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. He caught fish. Passive Voice Simple Past: Active Voice I caught fish. He had caught fish. Passive Voice Past Perfect: Active Voice I had caught fish. You were caught fish. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Fish has caught by you. You had caught fish. Passive Voice Past Continuous: Active Voice I was caught fish. Fish had been caught by you. He was caught fish. Fish was being caught by me. Fish has caught by him. He has caught fish. Fish was being caught by him. Fish was caught by you. Fish was caught by me. Get yours now! . You caught fish. Passive Voice pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Fish has caught by me. Fish was being caught by you. Fish was caught by him.. Fish had been caught by him.Present Parfect: Active Voice I have caught fish. You have caught fish. Fish had been caught by me.

Passive Voice Retained Object: I shall tell him these words. Put up a tent. Let the door be shut. Have a tent put up.  (Passive Voice) From first Sentence ‘him’ is Indirect Object and ‘these words’ is Direct Object. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Passive Voice pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Fish will have been caught by me. You will have caught fish. Fish will be caught by you. Let a tent be put up. Get yours now! .Simple Future: Active Voice I shall catch fish. He will catch fish. Passive Voice Future Perfect: Active Voice I shall have caught fish. Fish will be caught by him. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Voice change of Inparative Sentence: Active Voice Shut the door. He will have caught fish. You will catch fish. The girl should be helped. Fish will be caught by me. Help to the girl. Fish will have been caught by you. From second sentence ‘him’ is Retained Object.  (Active Voice) These words will be told him by me. Fish will have been caught by him.

What cannot be cured must be endured. Rice is cheep when it is sold. Honey is sweet when it is tested. Police arrested the thief. if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Active Voice pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. We must endure what we cannot cure. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms. Trespasser will be prosecuted. Rice sells cheep. Passive Voice Example: Passive Voice The thief was arrested. Someone will prosecute trespasser. Get yours now! .Quasi-passive Verb: Active Voice Honey tastes sweet.

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