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Dimension 5 basic dimensions?
Dimension Dimensions Abbreviation
Most physical quantities can be expressed in terms of the combinations of five basic dimensions i.e. speed is always a length divided a time So dimensions of speed are length divided by time or L/T
Mass Length Time Electric current Temperature
M L T I Θ
Dimension What is the dimensions of the following quantities? Volume Area Density Acceleration Force L3 L2 M/L3 L/T2 ML/T2 4 .
i.e. the dimensions must be consistent The property of dimensional homogeneity can be useful for: – Checking units of equations – Converting between two sets of units – Defining dimensionless relationships 5 . 1 meter + 3 kilograms = 4 days (not true) 1 meters + 3 meters = 4 meters (true) In other words.Dimensional Homogeneity Any equation describing a physical situation will only be true if both sides have the same dimensions.
meter.e. foot.Dimension and Units Dimensions must have a standardised unit i. yard… There are 2 systems of unit being widely used: – SI (Système Internationale) or (Systè (International system) units – US (United States) units Here we are using SI units 6 .
Dimension and Units Some basic SI units Quantity Name Symbol Length Mass Time Temperature meter metre kilogram second kelvin m kg s K 7 .
Dimension and Units Between dimensions and units: – Dimensions are properties which can be measured – Unit are the standard elements we use to quantify these dimensions 8 .
dimensional analysis can form a relationship between them 9 .Dimensional Analysis Useful technique in all experimentally based areas of engineering If you know the factors involved in a physical situation.
Dimension and Units In dimensional analysis we are only concerned with the nature of the dimension.e. the quality not the quantity 10 . i.
This may involve mass. height and gravity acceleration 11 .
The man weights 50 kg.81 m/s2 gravity… 12 . standing at 60 m height and 9.
all the physical properties can be presented with L.Dimension and Units In fluid mechanics. T. M and F Force can also be presented in LTM 13 .
Dimensions of Some Common Physical Quantities: Quantity Velocity Acceleration Force Energy Power Pressure Density Specific weight viscosity SI unit m/s m/s2 N or kgm/s2 J or kgm2/s2 W or kg m2/s3 Pa or kg/m/s2 kg/m3 N/m3 or kg/m2/s2 N s/m2 or kg/ms ms-1 ms-2 kg ms-2 kg m2 s-2 kg m3 s-3 kg m-1 s-2 kg m-3 Kg m-2s-2 Kg m-1 s-1 Dimension LT-1 LT-2 MLT-2 ML2T-2 ML3T-3 ML-1T-2 ML-3 ML-2T-2 ML-1T-1 14 .
e. velocity.Result of Dimensional Analysis The results of performing dimensional analysis (on a physical problem) is a single equation This equation relates all of the physical factors (variables. time…) involved to one another 15 . i. force.
ρ – revolutions per second. N – fluid viscosity.Result of Dimensional Analysis For example: If we want to find the force on a propeller blade we must first decide what might influence this force It would be reasonable to assume that the force F depends on the following physical properties – diameter. u – fluid density. d – forward velocity of the propeller. µ 16 .
µ) Where φ and φ1 are unknown functions These can be expanded into an infinite series which can itself be reduced to F = K dm up ρq Nr µs Where K is a numerical constant And m. N. u. d. u. r. N. µ) or 0 = φ1(F.Before we do any analysis we write this equation: F = φ(d. s are unknown constant power 17 . ρ. p. q. ρ.
From dimensional analysis we – obtain these power – form the variable into several dimensionless groups The value of K and the function φ and φ1 must be determined from experiment The knowledge of the dimensionless group often helps in deciding what experimental measurements should be taken 18 .
Buckingham’s π Theorems One of the methods used to perform dimensional analysis Provides better generalised strategy in obtaining a solution (compared to indicial method) 1st π theorem: A relationship between n variables (physical properties such as velocity. density etc. where m is the number of the fundamental dimensions (such as mass.) can be expressed as a relationship between n – m non-dimensional groups of variables non(called π group). length and time) required to express the variables 19 .
Q3. …. πn – m) = 0 In fluid. this can be expressed as: φ1(π1.Buckingham’s π Theorems So if a physical problem can be expressed as: φ(Q1. π3. Q2. we can normally taken m = 3 (corresponding to M. according to the above 1st π theorem. …. L and T) 20 . π2. Qn) = 0 Then.
Qm+1) = 0 21 . Q2. ….2nd π theorem: Each π group is a function of m repeating variables plus one of the remaining variables π = φ(Q1. Qm.
T) A combination of the repeating variables will not form a dimensionless group The repeating variables do not have to appear in all π groups 22 . these repeating variables must contain all of the dimensions (M. L.Choice of Repeating Variable From the 2nd theorem there can be m (= 3) repeating variable When combined.
Choice of Repeating Variable The repeating variables should be chosen to be measurable in an experimental investigation. u and d as the three repeating variables This freedom of choice results in there being many different π group which can be formed. They should be the major interest to the designer In fluid mechanics. it is usually possible to take ρ. and all are valid (there is no really a wrong choice) 23 .
T 24 . ρ. d as the repeating variables satisfies the criteria above: – They are measurable – good design parameters and – in combination contain all the dimensions M.Example: Taking the example discussed previously. we have the equation F = φ(d. so φ(π1. µ) n = 6 and m = 3 There are n – m = 3 π groups. π3) = 0 The choice of ρ. π2. L. force F induced on a propeller blade. u. N. u.
e.Example: We can now form the three groups according to the 2nd theorem. they have dimensions M0L0T0 we use the principle of dimensional homogeneity to equate the dimensions for each π group 25 . π1 = ρa1ub1dc1F π2 = ρa2ub2dc2N π3 = ρa3ub3dc3µ As the π groups are all dimensionless i.
so For M: 0 = a1 + 1 a1 = – 1 For L: 0 = – 3a1 + b1 + c1 + 1 0 = 4 + b1 + c1 For T: 0 = – b1 – 2 b1 = – 2 ∴ c1 = – 4 – b1 = – 2 Giving π1 as π1 = ρ-1u-2d-2F π1 = F/ρu2d2 F/ρ 26 . π1 = ρa1ub1dc1F In terms of dimensions M0L0T0 = (ML-3)a1(LT-1)b1(L)c1(MLT-2) For each dimension the powers must be equal on both sides of the equation.For the first π group.
π1 is a force coefficient 27 .or: π1 = F/ρu2d2 F/ρ F = π1 ρu2d2 Where.
Example: Similar procedure is followed for the other π group. π2 = ρa2ub2dc2N M0L0T0 = (ML-3)a2(LT-1)b2(L)c2(T-1) For M: 0 = a2 For L: 0 = – 3a2 + b2 + c2 0 = b2 + c2 For T: 0 = – b2 – 1 b1 = – 1 ∴ c1 = 1 Giving π2 as π2 = ρ0u-1d1N π2 = Nd/u 28 .e. i.
Example: For the third. π3 = ρa3ub3dc3µ M0L0T0 = (ML-3)a3(LT-1)b3(L)c3(ML-1T-1) For M: 0 = a3 + 1 a3 = – 1 For L: 0 = – 3a3 + b3 + c3 – 1 b3 + c3 = – 2 For T: 0 = – b3 – 1 b3 = – 1 ∴ c3 = – 1 Giving π3 as π3 = ρ-1u-1d-1µ π3 = µ/ρud 29 .
π3) = 0 φ(F/ρu2d2.Example: Thus. µ/ρud) F/ρ or: F = ρu2d2 φ1(Nd/u. the problem may be described by the following function of the three non-dimensional nonπ group φ(π1. π2. µ/ρud) = 0 (F/ρ May also be written: F/ρu2d2 = φ1(Nd/u. µ/ρud) 30 . Nd/u.
u. ρ. ρ2.ADVANTAGE OF PERFORMING DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS To determine experimentally how F = φ(d. ρ3. N1. ρ1. µ1 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 F=? F=? F=? F=? F=? For u2. N2. µ) If number of level to be tested for each parameter is 5 For u1. N3. µ3 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 F=? F=? F=? F=? F=? 31 . N. µ2 d1 d2 d3 d4 d5 F=? F=? F=? F=? F=? For u3.
N. ρ. π3) Total run = 52 = 25 experiments! 32 .ADVANTAGE OF PERFORMING DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS F = φ(d. µ) Number of independent parameters. n = 5 For number of level = 5. u. Total run = 5n = 55 = 3125 experiments Through dimensional analysis: number of π group = n – m = 3 π1 = φ(π2.
25 months = ½ YEAR +! 33 .If 1 day you can perform 25 experiments For 3125 experiments = 125 days if you work 5 days per week = 25 weeks = 6.
Wrong Choice of Physical Properties If important / influential variable was missed. the choice of variables is very important 34 . then the important π group will be missing Experimental analysis based on these results may miss the significant behavioural changes Therefore.
then the extra/unimportant π groups will be form They will play very little role influencing the physical behaviour of the problem And should be identify during the experimental work 35 .Wrong Choice of Physical Properties If extra/unimportant variable are introduced.
but May change their appearance 36 .Manipulation of The π Group Manipulation of the π group is permitted These manipulation did not change the number of groups involved.
…. π3.e. …. πn – m) = 0 37 . πn – m) = 0 Then. π2.Manipulation of The π Group Taking the defining equation as: φ(π1. i. π1 and π2 is combined to form π1a = π1/π2 so that φ(π1a. Any number of groups can be combined by multiplication or division to form a new group which replace one of the existing. π2. π3.
φ(π1. The reciprocal of any group is valid. …. i.e. …. π3.Manipulation of The π Group Taking the defining equation as: φ(π1. 1/πn – m) = 0 1/π 1/π 38 . πn – m) = 0 Then. π3. 1/π2. π2.
π21/2. π2. i. φ(π12. π34. Any group may be raised to any power.e. π3.Manipulation of The π Group Taking the defining equation as: φ(π1. πn – m) = 0 Then. πn – m) = 0 39 . …. ….
…. πn – m) = 0 40 . i. π3.Manipulation of The π Group Taking the defining equation as: φ(π1.e. …. π2. k2π3. π2. πn – m) = 0 Then. Any group may be multiplied by a constant. φ(k1π1.
…. π2. πn – m) 41 . πn – m) = 0 Then. i. π3. Any group may be expressed as a function of the other groups.e.Manipulation of The π Group Taking the defining equation as: φ(π1. π3. …. π2 = φ1(π1.
kπn – m) = 0 1/π kπ 42 . π3i. the defining equation may look like: φ(π1.Manipulation of The π Group In general. …. 1/π2.
several groups will appear again and again for different problem These groups often have their names 43 .Common π Groups During dimensional analysis.
gravitational force ratio Inertial. local velocity of sound ratio 44 . inertial force ratio Inertial. viscous force ratio Pressure. surface tension force ratio Local velocity.Common π Groups Some common dimensionless groups are: Reynolds number Euler number Froude number Weber number Mach number ρud Re = µ p En = 2 ρu u2 Fn = gd ρud We = σ u Mn = c Inertial.
µ) n=5 45 .Example: Determine the drag force exerted on a submerged sphere as it moves through a viscous fluid Step 1: Consider which physical factors influence the drag force – Diameter of the sphere. u – Density of the fluid. ρ – Viscosity of the fluid. ρ. µ Thus we can write: Drag force. F = φ(d. u. d – Velocity of the sphere.
M.Example: Step 2: List the dimensions of each variable d–L u – LT-1 ρ – ML-3 µ – ML-1T-1 F – MLT-2 So. m=3 (L. T) 46 .
Example: Step 3: Determine the number of dimensionless group (π group) (π n–m=5–3=2 So we write: φ(π1. where m is the number of the fundamental dimensions required to express the variables 47 . π2) = 0 1st p theorem: A relationship between n variables can be expressed as a relationship between n – m dimensionless groups.
Example: Step 4: Select m (= 3) repeating variables Generally it helps to choose variables that relates to: – Geometry – d? – Fluid Property – ρ? – Kinematics – u
Example: Step 5: Write the π groups according to 2st theorem: – Each π group is a function of m (= 3) repeating variables plus one of the remaining variables remaining variables From the problem F = φ(d, u, ρ, µ) So we write, repeating variables a1ub1dc1µ π1 = ρ ? π2 = ρa2ub2dc2F
Example: Step 6: Solve for the exponents and the forms of the dimensionless groups
π1 = ρa1ub1dc1µ M0L0T0 = (ML-3)a1(LT-1)b1(L)c1(ML-1T-1) For M: 0 = a1 + 1 a1 = – 1 For L: 0 = – 3a1 + b1 + c1 – 1 b1 + c1 = – 2 For T: 0 = – b1 – 1 b1 = – 1 ∴ c1 = – 1 Giving π1 as π1 = ρ-1u-1d-1µ π1 = µ/ρud or ρud/µ = Re ud/µ 51 .Example: For the first π group.
π2 = ρa2ub2dc2F In terms of dimensions M0L0T0 = (ML-3)a2(LT-1)b2(L)c2(MLT-2) For each dimension the powers must be equal on both sides of the equation.For the second π group. so For M: 0 = a2 + 1 a2 = – 1 For L: 0 = – 3a2 + b2 + c2 + 1 0 = 4 + b2 + c2 For T: 0 = – b2 – 2 b2 = – 2 ∴ c2 = – 4 – b2 = – 2 Giving π2 as π2 = ρ-1u-2d-2F π2 = F/ρu2d2 F/ρ 52 .
Example: Step 7: Rearrange the π group as desired Thus. F/ρu2d2) = 0 F/ρ That is: F/ρu2d2 = φ1(Re) F/ρ or: F = ρu2d2 φ1(Re) 53 . π2) = 0 φ(Re. the problem may be described by the following function of the 2 dimensionless π group φ(π1.
and also depends on the Re 54 .Example: F = ρu2d2 φ1(Re) Thus dimensional analysis indicates that the drag force is proportional to ρ. u2 and d2.
WHAT IF n–m=0? Do the following: – Check your list of parameters – Check your algebra – Reduce m by one 55 .
also Surface tension must be important 56 . 290 You are curious as to the relationship between soap bubble radius and the pressure inside the soap bubble You reason that pressure inside the bubble must be greater than atmospheric pressure.Cengel pg. and Shell of the bubble is under tension.
R – Surface tension. σs Assumptions: Bubble is neutrally buoyant. you decide to approach the problem using dimensional analysis Establish a relationship between: – Pressure different. and so gravity is not important No other variables are important 57 . ∆p = pinside – patm – Soap bubble radius.Not knowing other physic.
List variables and its dimensions – ∆p (ML-1T-2) –R (L) – σs (MT-2) n=3 m=3 n–m=0 58 .
List variables and its dimensions – ∆p (ML-1T-2) –R (L) – σs (MT-2) Do the following: n=3 m=3 – Check your list of parameters n–m=0 – Check your algebra – Reduce m by one So m–1=3–1=2 59 .
Now n=3 m=2 n–m=1 This means we are expecting: – 1 π group – 2 repeating variables 60 .
Now write: π1 = Ra σsb∆p In terms of dimensions M0L0T0 = (L)a(MT-2)b(ML-1T-2) Solve for the exponents For M: 0=b+1 b=–1 For L: 0=a–1 a=1 For T: 0 = – 2b – 2 b=–1 Giving π1 as π1 = R σs-1∆p = R ∆p/σs p/σ 61 .
Rearrange the π group as desired φ(π1) = 0 φ(R ∆p/σs) = 0 p/σ That is: R ∆p/σs = φ1(Nothing) p/σ This is possible only when R ∆p/σs = constant p/σ Therefore ∆p = constant σs/R 62 .
∆p = constant σs/R Note: Dimensional analysis cannot predict the value of the constant Further experimental works reveals that the constant is equal to 4 63 .
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