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A butterfly valve is a particular type of valve that uses either a circular vane or a disc as the shut-off mechanism. Butterfly valves have a quick opening/closing quarter-turn mechanism that is used to control the flow of liquid through a piping system. They typically pivot on axes perpendicular to the direction of flow inside the flow chamber. Compared with ball valves, butterfly valves do not have pockets to trap fluids when the valve is in the closed position. Butterfly valves are frequently used as throttling devices, controlling the levels of flow in various positions: entirely closed, entirely open or partially open. They can control various substances of air, liquid or solid currents and are situated on a spindle that allows for flow in a single direction. Butterfly valves are offered in many sized diameters, resulting in different flow rates. Smaller valve assemblies may be used where space is limited. Knowing the pipe dimensions, desired flow rate and material is important when considering a valve investment. Installation time is typically low compared to some other types of valves, and additional parts are unnecessary to work and maintain the valve. Butterfly valves have a lever that allows the operator to open or close the valve to control the flow. These valves are part of a family known as rotary valves, which are defined by the quarter turn that is used to move from the open to closed position and vice versa. This results in a lower surface friction, which means that these valves can be smaller than others and still operate efficiently. Butterfly valves are available in numerous closure types and body configurations, depending on the type of flow control needed. These types of valves are commonly composed of metals, like aluminum and stainless steel, but also can be made from various plastics. One kind, flange butterfly valves, can be mounted between flanges. Another, lug butterfly valves, uses metal inserts that are attached to the valve's bolt holes. Using an independent set of bolts for each flange, this valve assembly is fixed between two flanges. Finally, wafer style butterfly valves are the cheapest and most popular type of butterfly valves because of their simplicity and ease of use. Butterfly valves are used in many food transporting and chemical plants
and generally have a longer life cycle. One of the problems with butterfly valves. because the disc can be easily eroded. these valves are not good for use with highly abrasive or corrosive materials. they are lower priced than many other types of valves. however. Other specific industries include HVAC. are lightweight and compact and are able to handle a wide range of temperatures. Also. Overall. These valves are also very reliable because of their tight shut-off. Butterfly valves are easy to maintain. is that their design makes it difficult to efficiently and thoroughly clean all residual contaminants. First of all.where controllable product flow is required. reducing the amount of leakage. butterfly valves are one of the fastest growing types of valves in the industry. butterfly valves offer many benefits. When properly used. tertiary petroleum recovery and industries that use high pressure water. .
and reduced port. but the term stop valve may refer to valves which are used to stop flow even when they have other mechanisms or designs. When a globe valve is manually operated.A full port ball valve has an oversized ball so that the hole in the ball is the same size as the pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. In plumbing. Flow through this valve is one pipe size smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in slightly restricted flow. There are three general types of ball valves: full port. . many modern globe valves do not have much of a spherical shape. valves with such a mechanism are also often called stop valves since they don't have the global appearance. These valves can be used either for on/off or flow control. the disc is connected to a stem which is operated by screw action. Flow is unrestricted. The two halves of the valve body are separated by an internal baffle which has an opening forming a seat onto which a movable disc can be screwed in to close (or shut) the valve. What are Globe Valves? Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape. but the term globe valve is still often used for valves that have such an internal mechanism. In globe valves. standard port.A standard port ball valve is usually less expensive. Although globe valves in the past had the spherical bodies which gave them their name. .In reduced port ball valves. the stem is turned by a handwheel. A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped with a positioner which transforms the control signal into actuator position and valve opening accordingly. but the valve is larger. . and welded. Some ball valves are equipped with an actuator that may be pneumatically or motor (electric) operated. but has a smaller ball and a correspondingly smaller port. For example. top entry. globe . flow through the valve is two pipe sizes smaller than the valve's pipe size resulting in restricted flow. Manually operated ball valves can be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of water hammer.What are Ball Valves? There are three general body styles of ball valves: split body.A trunnion ball valve has a mechanical means of anchoring the ball at the top and the bottom. Globe valves are used for applications requiring throttling and frequent operation. .
the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar. union. Ports are openings in the body for fluid flowing in or out.34. Globe valves are typically two-port valves. is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. Bibcocks and sillcocks are variations of globe or stop valves used in plumbing. they're not recommended where full. having been designed to be fully opened or closed. . but many are not suited for that purpose. Since the baffle restricts flow. Gate valves are characterised as having either a rising or a nonrising stem. As an example typical swing check valves could be called globe type. which are normally shut except when liquid samples are being taken. Screwin bonnet is the simplest bonnet. or oriented at an angle such as a 90° angle. offering a durable. Globe valves with ports at such an angle are called angle globe valves. Needle valves are variations of globe valves where instead of a separate attached disc piece. pressure-tight seal. The threaded section of stem goes through a hole with matching threads in the bonnet. Other different types of valve usually are called globe style valves because of the shape of the body or the way of closure of the disk. Globe valves may have a screw-in. as it is sometimes known. Rising stems provide a visual indication of valve position.valves or valves with a similar mechanism may be used as sampling valves. resulting in very low friction loss. Economical globe valves or stop valves with a similar mechanism used in plumbing often have a rubber washer at the bottom of the disc for the seating surface. What are Gate Valves? A Gate Valve. the internal end of the stem is conically tapered to act as the disc to fit into a matching seat for fine flow adjustment. so that rubber can be compressed against the seat to form a leak-tight seal when shut. Gate valves are sometimes used for regulating flow. The gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection or cleaning. or bolted bonnet. Nonrising stems are used where vertical space is limited or underground. When fully open. Many globe valves have a class rating that corresponds to the pressure specifications of ANSI 16. A bonnet attached with bolts is used for larger or higher pressure applications. It also gives the body added strength. The two ports may be oriented straight' across from each other on the body. unobstructed flow is required. A bonnet provides leakproof closure for the valve body. or Sluice Valve.
resulting in the actuation of the valve.bonnet joints seals improves as the internal pressure in the valve increases. or bolted bonnet. either opening or closing it. Cast Iron. After the coil receives a current. pressure-tight seal. There are two general types of solenoid valves: direct-acting and pilot-operated. Another type of bonnet construction in a gate valve is pressure seal bonnet. Gate valves may have a screw-in. union. Cast Carbon Steel. Bolted bonnet is used for larger valves and higher pressure applications. The pilot-operated solenoid valve works with a diaphragm rather than a . to control a particular valve. This construction is adopted for valves for high pressure service. The solenoid controls the valve during either the open or closed positions. They are used for the remote control of valves for directional control of liquids. these kinds of valves do not regulate flow. Stainless Steel. Solenoid valves are electro-mechanical devices that use a wire coil and a movable plunger. the actuating magnetic field is created. Thus. offering a durable. called a solenoid. typically in excess of 15 MPa (2250 psi). It also gives the body added strength. Solenoid valves have two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. Screw-in bonnet is the simplest. Direct-acting solenoid valves have a plunger that is in direct contact with the primary opening in the body. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection and cleaning. What are Solenoid Valves? Solenoid valves are electrically operated devices that control the flow of liquids. Alloy Steels & Forged Steels are different materials in which Gate Valves are made available.Bonnets provide leakproof closure for the valve body. The unique feature about the pressure seal bonnet is that the body . compared to other constructions where the increase in internal pressure tends to create leaks in the body-bonnet joint. Gate valves normally have flanged ends which are drilled according to pipeline compatible flange dimensional standards. Gun Metal. This plunger is used to open and close the orifice. The magnetic field acts upon the plunger.
Pressure transducers are very similar to pressure sensors and transmitters. steam valves. transducers and transmitters are nearly synonymous. the application requirements are very important. factory automation. aerospace and automotive. frequency response. chart recorders and programmable logic controllers. gas valves. power consumption. This electrical energy becomes a signal output that is linear and proportional to the applied pressure. Last Updated: Sep 2009 What are Pressure Transmitters? . These receiving devices include computers. These include. they are widely used in vastly different fields and industries. A transducer sends a signal in volts (V) or millivolt per volt (mV/V). repeatability. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. This valve uses differential pressure to control the flow of fluids. linearity. Because solenoid valves are designed to perform operations. There are a wide variety of industries that use pressure transducers and transmitters for various applications. The air-venting valve is opened to allow the pressure to equalize and permit the fluids to flow through. Their most common use is as water valves. digital panel meters. air and vapors valves. Typical environments for solenoid valves are in medical and biomedical equipment. analytical instrumentation. air flow management.Net All rights reserved. oil valves. The design of solenoid valves allows them to have many applications. record or alter the pressure in the system. The difference between them is the kind of electrical signal each sends. medical. life expectancy and cost. Important items to consider when looking at solenoid valves are proportionality.plunger. Both transmitters and transducers convert energy from one form to another and give an output signal. WHAT-IS . This signal goes to any device that interprets and uses it to display. and a transmitter sends signals in milliamps (mA). solvents valves. HVAC and refrigeration. Pressure transducers are devices that convert the mechanical force of applied pressure into electrical energy. as well as many other applications as hydraulic valves and pneumatic valves. Copyright ©2009 What-is. A unique feature that solenoid valves have is the automatic triggering from remote locations by different voltages. but are not limited to. With so many types of solenoid valves and other related valves. In fact. leakage. ranging from water valves. meter and maintain the flow of liquid and gaseous materials. compressors and hydraulics. semiconductors. cryogenics valves. air valves pneumatic valves or used in applications such as ones to restrict. making them useful in rough or hazardous locations. HVAC and other industrial OEM environments.
provide control functions. and feed-forward control. The component that alters the signal from the sensor and makes it suitable for output is called the signal conditioning circuitry. The first consideration is the kind of connector needed to physically connect the transducer to a system. There are many kinds of connectors for different uses. PID control uses an intelligent input/output (I/O) module or program instruction for automatic closed-loop operation. Other kinds of enclosures safeguard the unit in hazardous areas from explosions and other dangers. Pressure controllers use several control types. This can be made of stainless steel or a blend of composite materials and stainless steel. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. which have unique applications. Limit controls protect personnel and equipment by interrupting power through a load circuit when pressure exceeds or falls below a set point. Advanced controls use non-linear control strategies such as adaptive gain. They receive pressure sensor inputs. PD control increases the speed of controller response.There are important things to consider when deciding what kind of pressure transducer to choose. or proportional (P) control. which is the actual component that does the work of converting the physical energy to electrical energy. The various degrees of protection extend from nearly no protection (an open circuit board) to a can that is completely submersible in water. and are generally to be avoided when doing readings. but can be noisy and decrease system stability. The next thing to consider is the sensor. Another important part is the internal circuitry of the transducer unit. electromagnetic interference and electrostatic discharge.Net All rights reserved. The internal circuitry must be resistant to harmful external energy like radio frequency interference. PI control integrates error signaling for steady-state or offset errors. dead-time compensation. pressure transducers are well-performing and high-accuracy devices that make life easier for many industries. By contrast. PD control differentiates error signals to derive the rate of change. WHAT-IS . Copyright ©2009 What-is. integral and derivative (PID) control. Overall. proportional and integral (PI) control. which is housed by a "can" that provides protection and isolates the electronics. These kinds of interferences can cause incorrect readings. including bulletnose and submersible connectors. and output control signals. proportional and derivative (PD) control. Pressure controllers are used to regulate positive or negative (vacuum) pressure. Linear controls use proportional. Last Updated: Sep 2009 What are Pressure Controllers? .
signal computation or filters. in a circular pattern. Performance specifications include adjustable dead-band or hysteresis. eliminating the problems inherent in RTD signal transmission via lead resistance. Another type of thermometer that is not really used much in practice. or on a video display. and feedback loops. Hysteresis or switching differential is the range through which an input can be changed without causing an observable response. alongside the Celsius scale and the Kelvin scale. user interface options. control channels. current loops. minimum and maximum set points. Multifunction controllers and devices with multiple. convert the RTD resistance measurement to a current signal. Others are compatible with transistor-transistor logic (TTL). dials and switches. but is important from a theoretical standpoint is the gas thermometer. Others power sensors with current loops such as 0 20 mA. Many methods have been developed for measuring temperature.Net All rights reserved. when Gabriel Fahrenheit adapted a thermometer (switching to mercury) and a scale both developed by Ole Christensen Røemer. total number of outputs. Copyright ©2009 What-is. RTD. Such thermometers are usually calibrated. This consists of a glass tube filled with mercury or some other liquid. Some controllers power sensors with voltage levels such as 0 5 V or 0 10 mV. 4 20 mA. Devices differ in terms of the total number of inputs. update rate or bandwidth. Errors in RTD circuits (especially . Some pressure controllers provide alarm outputs or are designed to handle high power. simply by observing the level of the fluid in the thermometer. Digital user interfaces are set up or programmed with a digital keypad or menus. Last Updated: Sep 2009 What are Temperature Transmitters? Temperature transmitters. Control signal outputs include analog voltages. programmable set points. Hysteresis is usually set around the minimum and maximum end points. Selecting pressure controllers requires an analysis of discrete I/O specifications. and percentage accuracy.Pressure controllers differ in terms of performance specifications. which acts as the working fluid. and total number of discrete or digital channels. outputs. and special features. and sensor excitation supply. One of the most common devices for measuring temperature is the glass thermometer. control signal outputs. linked looped are commonly available. Temperature increases cause the fluid to expand. Special features for pressure controllers include self-tuning. Temperature measurement using modern scientific thermometers and temperature scales goes back at least as far as the early 18th century. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. so the temperature can be determined by measuring the volume of the fluid. Pressure controllers with a graphical or video display are commonly available. Devices that include an integral chart recorder can plot data on a strip chart. or 10 50 mA. so that one can read the temperature. Most of these rely on measuring some physical property of a working material that varies with temperature. Control channel specifications for pressure controllers include the number of inputs. Analog user interfaces provide inputs such as potentiometers. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use. and switched outputs. and built-in alarms or indicators. WHAT-IS .
Common outputs include analog current. The temperature range to be sensed and transmitted is important to consider. and 1000 ohms.the reference resistance of the RTD probe must be known. Other inputs include analog voltage. and sensed temperature. 100 ohms. digital or analog display. specifications. Linear control matches a variable input signal with a correspondingly variable control signal.two and three wire RTDs) are often caused by the added resistance of the leadwire between the sensor and the instrument. and relay or switch output. include intrinsically safe. Proportional. Tungsten has high resistivity but is usually reserved for high temperature work. when reached. include mounting and output. features. Important transmitter specifications to consider when searching for temperature transmitters. An important environmental parameter to consider when selecting temperature transmitters. Transmitter input. Sensor connections include terminal blocks. Platinum is the most common metal used for RTDs . and plug or quick connect. analog current. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. Upper temperature range typically less than 150 degrees Celsius. RTD include reference materials. RTD. Transmitter input specifications to take into consideration when selecting temperature transmitters. Nickel and nickel alloys are very commonly used metal. Good linearity and economical. other inputs. Copper is occasionally used as an RTD element. Temperature controllers use several different control techniques. Its low resistivity forces the element to be longer than a platinum element. The most standard options available include 10 ohms. Gold and Silver are other options available for RTD probes . Temperature controllers accept inputs from temperature sensors or thermometers. and adjusts the control accordingly. DIN rail mounting. and copper. Limit control establishes set points that. When matching probes with instruments . 200 ohms. and environment are all important parameters to consider when searching for temperature transmitters. sensor connections. Temperature controllers that use advanced or non-linear controls such as neural networking. analog voltage. and resistance input. and computer interface. is the operating temperature WHAT-IS . user interfaces. Fuzzy logic is a control technique in which variables can have imprecise values (as in partial truth) rather than a binary status (completely true or completely false). They are economical but not as accurate as platinum. Choices for reference material include platinum. Feedforward control does not require a sensor and provides direct control-compensation from the reference signal. RTD. integral and derivative (PID) control requires real-time system feedback.however their low resistivity and higher costs make them fairly rare. screw clamps or lugs. and output a control signal to keep the temperature at the desired level. adaptive gain. and board or cabinet mounting. and waterproof or sealed. sends a signal to stop or start a process variable. digital front panel. 500 ohms. Common features for temperature transmitters. Computer communications choices include serial and parallel interfaces. 120 ohms. User interface choices include analog front panel. nickel or nickel alloys. . RTD. 400 ohms. lead wires. Mounting styles include thermohead or thermowell mounting. PID control monitors the error between the desired variable value and the actual value. RTD. reference resistance.for measurement integrity platinum is the element of choice. or emerging algorithms are also available.
bushels per minute. and is measured by the flowmeter electronics. mechanical or magnetic floats. Copyright ©2009 What-is. differential pressure. It can be measured in a variety of ways. Level sensors can have displays that are analog. The frequency of this voltage pulse is also proportional to the fluid flow rate. and acre-feet per day. Last Updated: Sep 2009 What is a Flowmeter? The vortices trail behind the cylinder in two rolls. liters per second. The speed at which these vortices are created is proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. radio frequency. Also possible is a pulse or frequency. which produces a small. The term "standard" indicates that the given flow rate assumes a standard temperature and pressure. The SI standard would be m3/s (with any appropriate prefix. Many other similar abbreviations are also in use. and for the characteristics of the fluid. liquid or imperial) per minute. digital with menus. keypads and buttons WHAT-IS . . with temperature and pressure specified).Net All rights reserved. This vortex trail is called the Von Kármán vortex street after von Karman's 1912 mathematical description of the phenomenon. density) conditions. rotation paddle. Computer signal outputs that are possible are usually serial or parallel. ultrasonic or sonic and vibration or tuning fork technology. electrical conductivity or resistivity. such as standard cubic feet per minute or per second. Modern innovations in the measurement of flow rate incorporate electronic devices that can correct for varying pressure and temperature (i. a unit acceptable for use with SI except that the additional information attached to the unit symbol. voltage pulse every time a vortex is created. digital or video displays. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. Other units used include gallons (U. Inside the shedder bar is a piezoelectric crystal. disturbances in the flow called vortices are created. Control for the devices can be analog with switches. pressure membrane.e. radar or microwave. but measurable. Another option is to have an alarm output or a change in state of switches. alternatively from the top or the bottom of the cylinder.admittance. Another method of flow measurement involves placing an object (called a shedder bar) in the path of the fluid. optical units. Analog outputs level sensors can be current or voltage signals. Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid or gas movement. non-linearities.S. As the fluid passes this bar. Volumetric flow rate is sometimes measured in "standard cubic centimeters per minute" (abbreviation sccm). dials and potentiometers.
or in other areas such as food storage or electronic room regulation. dials and potentiometers. Proportional plus derivative control has the error signal differentiated to get the rate of change. switch and sensor. Copyright ©2009 What-is. neural networks. It may be open loop or in conjunction with PID control. WHAT-IS . This type pf control is used to increase the controller's speed of response. To choose a flow controller. loops. menus and other digital interfaces. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. but can be noisy and make the system less stable. and derivative control use an intelligent I/O module or program instruction. Digital user controls are typically keypads. They can have three main ways of controlling low: limit control. Limit control interrupts power through the load circuit when flow exceeds or falls below the limit set point. Last Updated: Sep 2009 What are Flow Controllers? Proportional. A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a common feedback loop component in industrial control systems. A limit controller can protect equipment and people when it is correctly installed with its own power supply. which provides automatic closed-loop operation of process control.Net All rights reserved. Flow controllers can have PLC and discrete control and can be compatible with TTL type I/O. Flow controllers with linear control use a classical type of control and can incorporate linear regulation. lead/lag. These controllers can have multiple controls modes or functions. User interfaces are similar. . Proportional control by itself has a control signal that is proportional to the error between the reference and feedback signals. which may or may not use different inputs and outputs. Common computer interfaces are serial and parallel. Advanced or nonlinear control uses process control strategies beyond PID loop control. and feedforward methods. power lines. adaptive gain. A remote computer can also program these controllers. This may also be called automatic reset/bias/offset control. Also. Update rate is also an important specification. Typical control signals for flow controllers are analog voltage or current or else a switch turning on or off. Some controllers are able to handle high power switching such as relays and optoisolators. NET Information and answers to all your common and special questions. With Proportional plus integral control the error signal is integrated and is for eliminating steady state or offset errors.WHAT-IS . This is the frequency with which devices take readings and adjust their output. integral and derivative (PID). but other options such as SCSI or network connections may be specified. proportional. or video terminal displays. and fuzzy logic. Displays for flow controllers can be simple analog indicators. Integral. linear control and advanced or nonlinear control. one important piece of information is the number of inputs and control outputs and control or feedback loops desired. Analog interfaces can have switches. multiple control loops may be linked to improve control performance and/or stability. such as dead-time compensation. Common functionalities for flow controllers are rate indication and control as well as batch or totalizer indication and control. numeric or alphanumeric digital readouts. Feedforward control is a direct control or compensation from the reference signal. Flow controllers monitor and maintain proper humidity levels in environmental test applications.
Unlike simpler controllers. unlike more complicated control algorithms based on optimal control theory. Sometimes this can be fixed with a more aggressive differential term. Sometimes it is helpful to filter the measurements. The PID controller algorithm itself has some limitations. In practice most problems arise from instrumentation connected to the controller. Wear of the valve or device can be a major maintenance cost. with a running average.Net All rights reserved. The calculated output must leave the deadband before the actual output will change. Last Updated: Sep 2009 What are PID Controllers? One common problem is "integral windup". Some PID loops control a valve or similar mechanical device. a new deadband will be established around the new output value. so reducing noise by instrumentation means is a much better choice. In these cases. PID controllers do not require advanced mathematics to design and can be easily adjusted (or "tuned") to the desired application.The controller takes a measured value from a process or other apparatus and compares it with a reference setpoint value. the PID can adjust process outputs based on the history and rate of change of the error signal. The difference (or "error" signal) is then used to adjust some input to the process in order to bring the process' measured value back to its desired setpoint. However. This is accomplished by designing the controller to hold its output steady if the change would be small (within the defined deadband range). the differential band can be turned off in most systems with little loss of control. low-pass filtering and derivative control cancel each other out. Another problem with the differential term is that small amounts of noise can cause large amounts of change in the output. Alternatively. Copyright ©2009 What-is. the PID loop may have a "deadband" to reduce the frequency of activation of the mechanical device. This is equivalent to using the PID controller as a PI controller. which gives more accurate and stable control. Sometimes the loop has to be "preloaded" with a starting output. Then. It might take too long for the output value to ramp up to the necessary value when the loop first starts up. or a lowpass filter. Another option is to disable the integral function until the measured variable has entered the proportional band. .
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