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INTRODUCTION
The huge growth in the number of Internet users every year has resulted in the traffic congestion on the net, resulting in slower and expensive Internet access. As cable TV has a strong reach to homes, it is the best medium for providing the Internet to house - holds with faster access at feasible rates. We are witnessing an unprecedented demand from residential and business customers, especially in the last few years, for access to the Internet, corporate intranets and various online information services. The Internet revolution is sweeping the country with a burgeoning number of the Internet users. As more and more people are being attracted towards the Internet, traffic congestion on the Net is continuously increasing due to limited bandwidths resulting in slower and expensive Internet access. The number of household getting on the Internet has increased exponentially in the recent past. First time internet users are amazed at the internet‟s richness of content and personalization, never before offered by any other medium. But this initial awe last only till they experienced the slow speed of internet content deliver. Hence the popular reference “World Wide Wait” (not World Wide Web). There is a pent-up demand for the high-speed (or broad band) internet access for fast web browsing and more effective telecommuting. India has a cable penetration of 80 million homes, offering a vast network for leveraging the internet access. Cable TV has a strong reach to the homes and therefore offering the Internet through cable could be a scope for furthering the growth of internet usage in the homes. The cable is an alternative medium for delivering the Internet services in the US, there are already a million homes with cable modems, enabling the high-speed internet access over cable. In India, we are in the initial stages. We are experiencing innumerable local problems in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi, along with an acute shortage of international Internet connectivity. Accessing the Internet on the public switched telephone networks (PSTN) still has a lot of problems. Such as drops outs. Its takes a long time to download or upload large files. One has to pay both for the Internet connectivity as well as for telephone usages during that period. Since it is technically possible to offer higher bandwidth by their cable, home as well as corporate users may make like it. Many people cannot afford a PC at their premises. Hardware obsolescence in the main problem to the home user. Who cannot afford to upgrade his PC every year? Cable TV based ISP solutions offer an economic alternative. Future residential cable data services are expected to deliver internet access, work-at-home applications, small business access, LAN-to-LAN interconnected, and LAN emulsion services over cable TV (CATV) innovation, improvements, and modification over the existing networks and their constituents such as modems, Modern termination system, routes, and network systems. Services like the fast Internet access. Broadband enhances cable technologies and coaxial cable modems, etc are enabling profitability entries. Not only the exiting cables early birds. 2. INTERNET- AN INFORMATION COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Internet is the network of all networks, which connect various computers to one another throughout the world. The fascination of internet is not only in its connectivity of computers, but also in the fact that everyone can be the user„s on that networks, regardless of whether or not they can come from a business or home environment. With regard to the fact that internet was first indented for development and research work, it quickly surpassed that initial role, especially when the first big commercial computer companies like Microsoft, Hewlett packed, IBM and later, many other companies in fields other than computer science, began to connect to Internet practically speaking, today there is not a form of media which did not mention the word the Internet at least once, whether the local newspaper or Television program. The reason for the unbelievable speed of development and use of Internet lies in the fact that the January 1993, multimedia application MOSAIC was developed by experts at the NCSA (National Center for Super Computing application). At the University of Illinois in the USA became widespread. That application was designed for browsing the global information system known as Word Wide Web (WWW). Its ease of use, latency of demanding Internet network protocols and a very simple installation of different computers and platforms caused actual explosion of new www servers. By the end of the year 2000, experts predicted that there will be 40 million people connected to Internet. The large majority of those users will connect from home. TV (CATV) operators, but also al so these ISPs can enter this new marker sector, Can benefit from the boom offered to the

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Fig. 3. These figures also illustrate use of corporate intranet to the service provider‟s network.3. CMs of a number of subscriber‟s devices are connected on the cable to a cable modem data termination systems (CMTS) at the head end (HE). The service provider‟s access the Internet at the network access point (NAP). to the CATV networks. A public switched transport network (PSTN) transmits upstream data from the subscribers to the service provider. CMTS is equipped with traffic filtering capabilities to eliminate broadcasting messages over the cable to avoid significant throughout degradation. A two way cable data network (CDN) is illustrated in fig. such as PC or Internet-cabled TV.3.1 depicts a system where the CATV network only delivers down-stream data services from the HE to the subscriber‟s device. through the network access server (NAS) and point of presence of server (PoP) router. DATA TRANSFER THROUGH A CABLE NETWORK The basic architecture of networks delivering Internet access via cable TV (CATV) is shown in fig. . 3.1 the networks delivers both downstream and upstream data on the same cable link. with an Ethernet or pc interface. 2 . serves as an access interface between the customer premises and the CATV network. The internet services over CATV networks are an ideal substitute and improvement over conventional dial-up services Upstream. A cable data modem (CM). A number of CM sub networks are connected to the CMTS.and downstream-data from the consumer premises to the internet are transported through the same cable pair from the CMTS to CM as shown in fig. CM connects the customer presses equipment. There are two modes of linkage to the IP service provider network.2 How Cable Internet Works.

Cable TV that is known to us today can be imagined as a one-way street. from the direction of the Head end to the television set.2 illustrates the architecture of a cable TV system that is characteristic for Slovenia and for other countries also. the user will have to have a special Cable Modem. which will enable high-speed data connection. Programs that are on certain channels are transmitted to TV sets unfortunately. A cable television system typically has 60 or more channels and most of them are used for programming services like CNN. 4. that is. Cable modem will make life much easier. available through telephone lines. Where there is no optical cable. If you frequently down load large files such as video clip. Simply click on your browser and you‟re on the Internet no more waiting. through that Cable Modem Modulates and Demodulates signals in reality. The cable Modem will have two connectors. 4. Cable modems can offer down load speed from the internet in excess of 1 Mbps at least 20 times as fast as traditional telephone modem. 3 . the other will be used for the computer. Many people get their TV signal from cable television (CATV) because cable TV provides a clearer picture and more channels. bridge. coder and other elements. The expression “cable Modem” reminds us of “Telephone Modem” however. They have properties of a modem. external device that hooks to your computer and is used for providing data over a cable TV network a cable modem is connected to the TV out let for your cable TV and the cable TV operator connects a cable modem termination system (CMTS) at the cable systems end (HE) the installation also requires an Ethernet card in your computer instead of getting an internet connection through your telephone wire you get a connection through the same place your cable TV connection cones from cable modems translate radio frequency (RF) signals to and from the cable plant into internet protocol (IP) the communications protocol spoken by all computers connected to the internet. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network). two-way. Because the users of cable systems are mainly connected one-way. Web pages that take minutes to paint in with a dial-up connection pop up instantly with a cable modem. Cable Modems are a lot more complex than telephone modems. radio. they do not have much in common it is true. television brings news. offers a maximum speed of 128Kbps a fraction of the bandwidth available through a cable modem connection. In short the term “cable modem” refer to a toaster-size. It provide “always-on: connectivity with a cable modem. there is no need to dial in to an Internet service provider (ISP). which insure that the signal level does not fall under a certain level. we have to assign a spectrum of signal frequencies to the cable TV system that will be used for the signal that moves from the Head end towards the user. One of the connectors will be used for the TV set outlet. In order to achieve that. audio clips or software. it is necessary to enable communication in the opposite direction. The connection between the Head end and individual connections is done through fiber optics. router. ESPN and HBO these channels also can be used to offer high speed Internet access service cable modems connect to the cable network with a standard Ethernet interface. no more busy signal. it is necessary to have additional amplifiers. Figure 3.1 Introduction to How Cable Modems Work For millions of people. and a spectrum of signal frequencies from the user towards the Head end. entertainment and educational programs into their homes. CABLE MODEM In order for the user to be able to connect to Internet through the aforementioned cable architecture.

Upstream data . coaxial cable is the only medium used for distributing signals. Streams When a cable company offers Internet access over the cable. Extra Space You might think that a television channel would take up quite a bit of electrical "space. In some cases. security and management of Internet access over cable television is put into place." or bandwidth. Cable modems can be either internal or external to the computer. Internet information can use the same cables because the cable modem system puts downstream data -.2 Inside the Cable Modem. In some systems. just 2 MHz. the data looks just like a TV channel. Between these two types of equipment. all cable modems contain certain key components:      A tuner A demodulator A modulator A media access control (MAC) device A microprocessor 4 . On the cable.requires even less of the cable's bandwidth. The coaxial cable used to carry cable television can carry hundreds of megahertz of signals -. In reality. the cable modem can be part of a set-top cable box. So Internet downstream data takes up the same amount of cable space as any single channel of programming.information sent from an individual back to the Internet -. signals from the various channels are each given a 6-MHz slice of the cable's available bandwidth and then sent down the cable to your house. 4. each television signal is given a 6-megahertz (MHz. since the assumption is that most people download far more information than they upload. Regardless of their outward appearance.People who have cable TV can now get a high-speed connection to the Internet from their cable provider.into a 6-MHz channel. requiring that only a keyboard and mouse be added for Internet access.Putting both upstream and downstream data on the cable television system requires two types of equipment: a cable modem on the customer end and a cable modem termination system (CMTS) at the cable provider's end. on a cable.data sent from the Internet to an individual computer -. In a cable TV system. millions of cycles per second) channel on the cable. all the computer networking.all the channels you could want to watch and more. Cable modems compete with technologies like asymmetrical digital subscriber lines (ADSL).

and acts as the interface between the hardware and software portions of the various network protocols. which varies in voltage. 5 . the tuner will contain a diplexer. most often those with more limited capacity for channels.Inside the Cable Modem: Tuner The tuner connects to the cable outlet. or groups of data. it is passed to the demodulator. A quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) demodulator takes a radiofrequency signal that has had information encoded in it by varying both the amplitude and phase of the wave. so an MPEG synchronizer is used to make sure the data groups stay in line and in order. Microprocessor The microprocessor's job depends somewhat on whether the cable modem is designed to be part of a larger computer system or to provide Internet access with no additional computer support. will use the cable modem tuner for downstream data and a dial-up telephone modem for upstream traffic. so that problems in transmission can be found and fixed. This component is sometimes called a burst modulator. Inside the Cable Modem: Demodulator The most common demodulators have four functions. the network frames. the tuner simply receives the modulated digital signal and passes it to the demodulator. because of the irregular nature of most traffic between a user and the Internet. which allows the tuner to make use of one set of frequencies (generally between 42 and 850 MHz) for downstream traffic.either the CPU in the cable modem or the CPU of the user's system. Other systems. some of the MAC functions will be assigned to a central processing unit (CPU) -. In some cases. In either case. and turns it into a simple signal that can be processed by the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. For this reason. and turns it into a series of digital 1s and 0s. and consists of three parts:    A section to insert information used for error correction on the receiving end A QAM modulator A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter Inside the Cable Modem: MAC The MAC sits between the upstream and downstream portions of the cable modem. but in the case of a cable modem the tasks are more complex than those of a normal network interface card. An error correction module then checks the received information against a known standard. In either case. after the tuner receives a signal. and another set of frequencies (between 5 and 42 MHz) for the upstream data. the internal microprocessor still picks up much of the MAC function from the dedicated MAC module. Motorola's PowerPC processor is one of the common choices for system designers. All computer network devices have MACs. Since the Internet data comes through an otherwise unused cable channel. In most cases. are in MPEG format. in most cases. In systems where the cable modem is the sole unit required for Internet access. In situations calling for an attached computer. sometimes with the addition of a splitter that separates the Internet data channel from normal CATV programming. a modulator is used to convert the digital computer network data into radiofrequency signals for transmission. the microprocessor picks up MAC slack and much more. The A/D converter takes the signal. Inside the Cable Modem: Modulator In cable modems that use the cable system for upstream traffic.

measured in milliseconds. its performance doesn't depend on distance from the central cable office. and may see your performance degrade as a result. 5. The downstream information flows to all connected users.it's up to the individual network connection to decide whether a particular block of data is intended for it or not. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) for assigning and administering the IP addresses of all the cable system's users. A digital CATV system is designed to provide digital signals at a particular quality to customer households. just like in an Ethernet network -. The narrower upstream bandwidth is divided into slices of time. especially heavy-access users. you will have to share that bandwidth. The good news is that this particular performance issue can be resolved by the cable company adding a new channel and splitting the base of users. 6 . DIGITAL CABLE MODEMS Along with ADSL. information is sent from the user to the CMTS -other users don't see that data at all. At the head-end. It is possible that. As new users.S.3 Pros and Cons to Cable Modems If you are one of the first users to connect to the Internet through a particular cable channel. and provides the proper signal strength for accurate transmission. Another benefit of the cable modem for Internet access is that. then you may have nearly the entire bandwidth of the channel available for your use. The CMTS takes the traffic coming in from a group of customers on a single channel and routes it to an Internet service provider (ISP) for connection to the Internet. in times of heavy usage with many connected users. the cable providers will have. and control servers for a protocol called Cable Labs Certified Cable Modems -. 4. queries and addresses that form the bulk of most users' traffic back to the Internet.Cable Modem Termination System At the cable provider's head-end. or lease space for a third-party ISP to have. servers for accounting and logging. cable systems in providing Internet access to users. unlike ADSL. cable modems (CM) are emerging as the new-generation access technology for the Internet and related services backed by Cable TV industry cable modems offer high-speed broadband access service over hybrid coaxial cable providing up to 27 Mbps of bandwidth along with XDSL services. the major standard used by U. The division by time works well for the very short commands. the burst modulator in cable modems is programmed with the distance from the head-end.formerly Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS). cable modems offer the best prospects for the Internet users hoping faster and more reliable connection speeds. in which users can transmit one "burst" at a time to the Internet. On the upstream side. On the upstream side. performance will be far below the theoretical maximums. the CMTS provides many of the same functions provided by the DSLAM in a DSL system. are connected to the channel.

therefore a more realistic estimate of the speed is somewhere between 3 to 10 Mbps. A few vendors are now offering two-way cable modem products 3Com. In the first few years of development of the cable TV network asymmetric connections will be more useful than the symmetric that we are used to as in telephones and ISDN connections. Zenith etc to provide digital data services such as the Internet services CATV companies are upgrading the capacity of their existing networks to 750-1000 MHz and adding two way capabilities new hybrid fiber/coaxial cable and upstream electronics are being developed for subsequent installation. In this technology a subscriber PC is always online with the network. To deliver data services over a cable network CATV allocation of 6-MHz TV channel  In the 50 to 750 MHz range is capable of supporting 27 to 36 Mbps of traffic for downstream transmission from the Internet to the subscriber‟s premises. When transmitting a transfer speed up to 10 Mbps is possible. In the asymmetric scheme. Most cable modems are external modem that connects to a personal computer through a standard 10Base-T Ethernet card twisted-pair wiring. Cisco systems. and to the TV or to the PC. 5. The CATV operator‟s physical network. However. Development of universal service bus modems (USB) modems internal PCI modem cards is likely to be fielded in the future. Nonetheless they will appear in the middle of 1996. cable. This creates a virtual local area network (LAN) connection. the majority of present-day modems provide optimal results between 299 kbps and 2 Mbps. Fig. which is very similar to LAN TECHNOLOGY. There is no need to dial in to the Internet. Individual cable modems subscribers may experience access speeds from 500 kbps to 1.1 How fast are Those Connections? The first thing that is important to understand in regard to cable access to Internet is the fact that. The cable modems contain a radio frequency demodulator that converts the signals to a digit standard ad then interfaces with the PC via an Ethernet card or USB port. This requires the use of 64QAM (quadrate amplitude modulation) technology speeds can be boosted up to 36 Mbps using 256QAM upstream 9from the home to the cable head-end) channels may deliver 500 kbps to 10 Mbps. This allows protocols to be seamlessly delivered over the cable modem platform to the end users. Both upstream and downstream bandwidth are shared by the active data subscribers that are connected to a given cable network. Using 16QAM or QPSK (QUADRATURE PHASE SHIFT KEY) modulation techniques. for the example above data is transferred through an asymmetric channel. Modems that would support that speed are currently not on the market. Nortel Networks.5 Mbps.5. the receiving channel will have a much higher band width and consequently much higher transfer speeds than the transmitting channel which will have a lower band width and thus lower transfer speeds like main reason for using an asymmetric channel is that various activities like browsing World Wide Web navigation and reading Usenet News require the transfer of much more data to the user than back into the network. Input TV signals at the user‟s premises are received on a cable splitter. possibly more depending on the network architecture and traffic load there is one potential problem with cable modems the amount of traffic on the network determines the speed and therefore the performance may be slowed down at peak operating times if the cable network is not given adequate capacity one pair of 6Mhz channel is needed to support every 100 customers at adequate level of service. Cable modems use connectionless technology. In addition to the faster speed cable modem offer constant connectivity. Sony. The cable modem access network operates at the physical and link-layers of the open systems interconnect (OSI) model. A single downstream 6-MHz TV channel supports up to 27 Mbps of downstream data from the cable head-end. reception speed can go up to 36 Mbps. Samsung Motorola. That means that the data transfer speed from the sender to the user can be a lot higher than in the opposite direction. A head-end (HE) cable modem termination system (CATS) communicates through these channels with these cable modems located in subscriber homes. Only a few computers will be capable of receiving at such a high transfer speed. 7 . Another channel in the 5 to 42 MHz bands carries upstream signals from the customer‟s premises to the Internet. the head-ends and other components can also transmit digital data.1 highlights the network for broadband cable services CATV companies currently provide video services using analogue services.Like XDCL the advantages of cable modems over regular telephone connections include faster transmission speeds and the ability to handle them multiple users (including full cable TV) on a single coaxial connection such as IP traffic. Presently.

At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA. Sega and 3DO already offered a fast two-way transfer of compressed video. it can be questioned whether or not it will be possible to reach such a high level to use. the user also has to but a Remote Link Adapter (RLA) which costs about USD 1. as well as for Internet providers. to start offering Internet access through a cable TV network rather than through ISDN. as well as Microsoft and many other producers. which offers even higher transfer speeds.Due to many advantages in the price. such as Zenith. 6. It also means that users who would transfer data from the server using FTP for Example from FTP Aranes. some people in the USA expect this to be a potential 1 billion-dollar market. The answer to that lies in the fact that the channels would be used and divided. That is equivalent to more than 800. The economical aspects of a connection through a cable TV network become even more important if we compare the total cost per bit transferred information and transfer speed. THE BATTLE FOR AVAILABLE TV CHANNELS Internet access through cable TV network is definitely a lot cheaper because it uses existing cables that were laid in the 70‟s and 80‟s. 500 kbps Internet access through a cable TV network is four times faster and 50% cheaper than through ISDN. 7. Even if the cable system will have a lot of channels available. which is the maximum data transfer speed in a cable system and 2 Mbps is even bigger. Because all of these companies compete for the channels. according to that lies in the fact that the channels would be used and divided. For example.00. In addition to the access of cable TV networks to Internet. similar to what was done with mobile telephones. IT would be used for connecting bigger servers. With 200-300 users on one channel. where out of a total of 670. Hybrid Networks charges USD 100/month for their services that include a special calling input for a modem. The results of the study show that it is much more economical to connect to Internet through a cable TV network than to connect using ISDN. into small cells. The bottleneck between the servers and the rest of the world creates still other important complications. in most cases the average speed will not exceed 400-500 kbps. Because in some areas the TV channels are already maxillary loaded. as well as data transfer capabilities that cable TV access to Internet offers in comparison to conventional Internet access. Even if we assume that the maximum transfer speeds will range between 400 and 500 kbps. healthy competition could turn into a real battle. it is still much better than a 14.2 How fast is the Data Transfer in Reality? Because a bandwidth of 10 Mbps is divided amongst 200-300 users practically we would not be able to maintain a speed of 10 Mbps for a long time. In 1995. COMPARISON BETWEEN ISDN AND CABLE TV CONNECTIONS Based on the present situation in Clovenia.00 USD for 500 kbps (Cable TV) 16.5.000 are connected to a cable TV network. That means that the maximum speed of data transfer at 10 Mbps is adequate only for data transfer between the server in a cable network and the end users. up to 200 or more. In addition to monthly fees.00 USD for 128 kbps (ISDN) 8 . a very well known institute a study was done that compared an Internet connection through ISDN to an Internet connection through a cable TV network.4 kbps modem connection especially if we consider the price.000 users. is also an alternative that is being studied. However it is highly possible that a cable service provider would have at least a 1 to 2 Mbps (for example MariborLjubljana) connection to Internet. although Hybrid also offers link for networks that enable the user to connect the whole office or laboratory in the school. The different is obvious:    0. but its actual economic strength for development depends on demand. it is financially and commercially more reasonable for end users. The price of USD 100/month is valid only for users who need one IP address. When transferring multimedia the difference between 10Mbps. companies like Nintendo.000 households 210. would have a transfer speed that would be equal to or less than the data transfer speed between Maribor and Ljubijana links. ATM links between servers could be used for game players. For example. we would need many available channels in highly populated areas.30 USD for 4 Mbps (Cable TV) 2. who could consequently communicate with users in other cities.500. it does not seem to be impossible that all of these channels could be connected to Internet. Because of the rest of the network traffic. Consequently those who offer multimedia services will prefer having their businesses close to those connections. according to the demand. Asynchronous Transfer Mode-ATM.

incable.cable_mordem. But in the foreseeable future all cable TV provider will also provide this service. cheap.html.asianetindia. thereby providing analog and digital TV to the subscriber.html. By Uyless Black.com/incable. 3. The question is. the cost of such an Internet connection is extraordinary cheap. This upgrade technology is the easiest and effective way of providing broadband network other than cable TV to the mess population of India.com. Practical Networking. . Only sharing x DSL connection can reach the price level. www.  High speed data access 1MB/second (Mbps) at least 20 times as fast as Cable modem can offer the download speeds from the Internet in excess of traditional telephone modem. and immunity to the electrical disturbances that has superseded all means of transmission systems. Local Area Networks.seminarsonly. India has a cable penetration of about 50 Million homes and these household holes could theoretically be connected to Internet via such a cable TV connection. Using HFC technology the cable TV system cannot only provide Internet services but also increase the number of video channels to 100. CONCLUSION Internet access via cable TV network is interesting in many points of view: it is fast. REFERENCES 10. 4. ADVANTAGES  High availability Many house holes in the world are equipped with cable TV. By Frank J Derfler.net/gc/modem_basics.  Phone line is not busy You are able to work and surf in Internet and making a phone call at the same time.8. In the future. thus saving a considerable amount of money by way of adopting optic-fiber cable as means of transmission system.  Web pages that take minutes to paint in with a dialup connection popup instantly with a dialup modem. 2.1 ReferenceBooks 1. 9 . easy to install and you have the advantage of permanent Internet connection. Today only in a few regions one can use this technology. www.com. www. For teleworkers this is a very attractive alternative to get Internet connectivity. 10. High band-width to low cost Although a specific bandwidth cannot be guaranteed. 1. The phone line is never needed. The optical-fiber has such inherent qualities as low loss to the signal large bandwidth. it will be possible to make the phone calls directly over the cable network. www. 9. It is too early to make any statement about the performances. how fast will be when everybody is using it?  Permanent connection to low cost No other technology gives you the advantage of permanent connection to Internet to such a low costs. Coaxial cable can be upgraded to handle frequency bandwidth up to 870MHz. The HFC network dispenses the mess of a large no of head-ends in a city. 2.