Karachi.Letter of Transmittal December 22.2 Institute Of Business Management. However this report does not include the affects of global warming beyond south Asia as it was beyond the scope and boundary of this report. This report should be shared with as many people as possible so that they to may become aware of the threat of global warming. It details the different types of affects that global warming has and the various factors that cause it. . 2011 Sir Asif Khan Business Communication . Subject: Report on Global Warming and it’s effect on South Asia This report is in context to the prevailing threat of global warming that is affecting south Asia. This report should be considered by you as it directly relates to a problem that is threatening your country and the countries which are your neighbors. Dear Sir.

Asif Khan who gave us the opportunity to choose which ever topic we pleased and also gave us full autonomy over it. In addition we all would also like to thank our parents for providing us with opportunity of studying in a prestigious institute like IOBM. . the most Beneficent and the most Merciful who gave us strength and knowledge to complete this report. We would like to appreciate the work of every member of this group who worked tirelessly to search for data regarding the topic also we like to thank our teacher MR.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the name of Allah.

...10 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….................. ........ Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………...TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ………………………………………………………………..7 Pakistan………………………………………………………………………………………………………9 Economies cannot adapt to climate change quickly………………….10 To solve this the following measures can be taken……………………........ 1 Main body………………………………………………………………………………………3 Bangladesh…………………………………………………………………………………..

3. In case of south Asia the melting of the ice in the Himalaya Mountains causes flash flooding in various parts of India and Pakistan. 6. This is causing economical damage as well in terms of . In this report we have also discussed various findings of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and IPCC Assessment Report. The main topics that we have discussed through this report are: 1. 7. and since Pakistan’s economy depends upon agriculture therefore the economy of Pakistan is also in danger. Global Warming Observed Effects of Global Warming Countries at risk Effects on South Asia How will Pakistan be affected by this? Dangers to Pakistan Agriculture How to proceed Recommendations. 4.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Nowadays the term 'Global Warming' is a household phrase. We think that it is the high time to take notice of this current situation by Pakistani authorities in order to give a healthy environment to our future generations. 5. 2. Due to these gases the whole world is threatened because the sea level is rising day in and day out. Beside all this South Asia is also a threatened part of the world due to Global Warming. in the atmosphere. such as carbon dioxide and methane. Global warming is the result of the build-up of greenhouse gases. 8. Karachi which is much below the sea level is among the most threatened city in the South Asia also Pakistan’s agriculture is also threatened due to Global Warming.

. levels and sectors  Reducing the vulnerability to livelihoods to climate change through infrastructural changes These measures and others if implemented can reduce the harmful effects of climate change substantially and can save an economy millions of dollars in damages that global warming and its effects cause each year.lost crops due to flooding and the damage done by floods to infra structure. There are various ways in which this can be countered which are as follows:  Increasing access to high quality information about the impacts of climate change  Practicing energy efficiency through changes in individual lifestyles and businesses  Reducing the vulnerability to livelihoods to climate change through infrastructural changes  Promoting good governance and responsible policy by integrating risk management and adaptation  Improving forest management and biodiversity conservation  Empowering communities and local stakeholders so that they participate actively in vulnerability assessment and implementation of adaptation  Mainstreaming climate change into development planning at all scales.


INTRODUCTION Plan of Presentation: This is an information report in which we have discussed about global warming and how the South Asia has been affected by Global Warming. effects of global warming on agriculture sector. Problem: The problem that we have addressed in this term report is Global Warming and its devastating effects on the region of South Asia. in this term report we have also included the steps that are necessary to counter this devastating problem of Global Warming. In this report we have also discussed about the catastrophes that have affected South Asia and what are the anticipated incidents that could occur. how mountain regions would be affected by global warming and how tourism will be affected. . also we have included the community action that have been taken.

Secondary research (also known as desk research) involves the summary.Purpose: The purpose of this report is to inform our readers about the effects of Global Warming on South Asia so that they could gain the knowledge about the recent activity taking place in our region. SCOPE: This report includes Global Warming issues only in South Asia and specifically in Pakistan. We chose Secondary Research to collect data because to gather facts and figures through Primary Research was extremely difficult. collation and/or synthesis of existing research. It covers issues such as Affects of Global Warming on our industries. Newspapers and Internet Sources. Report will also cover recommendations on how to improve on Global warming crisis. Forests. Articles. It does not cover affects on rest of the world countries such as Europe or America. Methodology: During study on Global warming. Glaciers and on our daily life. data was collected from Secondary research/sources such as Journals. .

the dams often burst. how does it stand to affect us in the near future Global warming is the result of the build up of greenhouse gases. such as carbon dioxide and methane. A study by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) reveals that the temperature in the Himalayan region has risen by almost 1 degree Celsius (1. In addition to life and property – including bridges. Mountain regions are more sensitive to climate change than their rugged topography might suggest. the frequency of these accidents will . experts argue. This trend. sending muddy streams down the narrow valleys. ultimately causing ice caps to melt and barren wastelands to form where there would have once been habitable terrain. Experts warn that unless urgent action is taken. It is something we are reminded of occasionally in news bulletins reporting on the decline of a habitat. will accelerate in the next half decade. a glacier-lake outburst in the Lunana region of Bhutan flooded a number of villages. in the atmosphere. also devastates agricultural lands and irrigation systems in the valleys below. and more importantly. triggering flash-flooding in the narrow valleys below.Main body What is Global Warming: Nowadays the term 'Global Warming' is a household phrase. hydro-electric plants and tourist facilities – the flood. creating social and economic problems not only for the villages in the Himalayan foothills but also for the entire South Asian region. The burst of the Dudh Koshi Lake in Nepal in 1997 had similar repercussions. We need to have a certain quantity of these gases in the atmosphere otherwise our planet would become a frozen dessert. This shift in climate causes meltdown of snowfalls and glaciers . These gases reflect the suns rays back down to Earth's surface rather than letting them escape back into space as they would normally. endangering the lives of thousands of people. But what can we actually understand about the phenomenon. heating the planet as a consequence. As the lakes swell. Effects on South Asia: People in the South Asian part of Himalayas are effected by melting glaciers in the world’s highest mountain range which are swelling local lakes. causing icy water to accumulate in lakes hedged by unstable dams of sediment and stone. laden with massive boulders and sediment. However. In 1994. too high a volume and the planet keeps heating up.even in winter.at the fastest rate in the world (50 feet/15 m per year in northern India) . or freak weather conditions.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since the 1970's.

But flooding is not the only problem. In order to make a comprehensive report. As the earth’s surface absorbs the sun's rays. triggering a crisis among those countries for whom this is the main source of energy. Thus the meltdown of glaciers represents a danger not only to the immediate surroundings. the authorities in the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab evacuated thousands of people from high risk areas. mainly carbon dioxide and methane. especially in India (where most of the Himalayas lie). fearing that water from a melting glacier in China could spill over into northern Indian territory. and the Brahmaputra. Karachi and Calcutta.International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development) study will expand to all South Asian countries. On its way through the atmosphere the heat is absorbed by carbon dioxide and methane molecules. a growing number of scientists concur that it is an outcome of raised levels of greenhouse gases. This phenomenon is called the “greenhouse effect. . Needless to say. the more heat is entrapped. as well neighboring countries in central Asia. a sudden release of floodwater from a hydroelectric project in Bhutan caused floods that endangered the lives of people in Assam and West Bengal. Fisheries. the Indus. the heat bounces back.000 glaciers in Nepal and Bhutan and concluded that 20 glacial lakes in the Bhutanese Himalayas and 24 glacial lakes in Nepal pose a potential hazard. The Himalayan mountain range has the highest number of glaciers beyond the polar regions. Although some people believe the worldwide rise in temperature to be a naturally occurring climate variation.” named for the way the glass panes of a greenhouse capture heat and warm the space inside. The more carbon dioxide there is in the atmosphere. On one hand. Disturbances to glacial lakes located in the sensitive border regions such as Kashmir. this issue will become not only the focus of environmental and public health debates. between India and Pakistan. may also have serious military consequences. and a part of it ultimately escapes into space. Evaluating the possible consequences of global warming implies a parallel study of its origins as well of strategies to cope with it. Himalayan glacial lakes are the source of the major rivers in Asia that support about 2 billion people. in the atmosphere. Pakistan. as the population in the region grows. A month earlier. On the other. The meltdown of Himalayan glaciers will ultimately reduce the amount of water in the glacier-fed rivers such as the Ganges. this will result in the decline of hydroelectric production across South Asia. and Afghanistan. with catastrophic consequences for people and property in this part of the Himalayas. but also the cause of serious political conflict among the countries of the subcontinent. including those in New Delhi. UNEP-ICIMOD’s (United Nations Environment Programme . this process raises the temperature on the earth's surface. They warn that a number of lakes are still unexplored. decreasing reserves of drinking water in the region will affect hundreds of millions of people.increase dramatically in five to ten years time. and as improving living standards and growing industrialization demand more water. and agriculture will also suffer. but to neighboring countries as well. This August. including China. UNEP scientists have surveyed more than 4. wildlife.

the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was 265 ppm (particles per million). Modern information tools such as Remote Sensing. Ultimately. Others have engaged in the construction of drainage works to prevent lake outbursts. However in the Himalayan region there is a local and regional governments actively promote tourism to boost the economy.5. The economically depressed Himalayan communities are minor contributors to global warming and have no recourse to influence the developed countries responsible. Today. in the mid 19th century. such as a system of horns. Real-estate developers in many coastal vacation areas. As a result. Some Himalayan villages have already installed primitive warning systems. for the people living in the foothills of the Himalayas.4 . designed to alert local residents in the case of flooding. the meltdown of glacier lakes represents a problem that demands immediate attention. These efforts by local authorities have been supported by a number of projects initiated by the United Nations to provide advice on recognizing potential dangers and immediate threats. topographic maps. that level is 340 ppm. However.The increasing amount of greenhouse gases is a result of the industrial nations’ incremental use of fossil fuels over the past two centuries. During the industrial revolution. as well as to begin employing environmentally sound sources of energy. while the business community as a whole is overwhelmingly opposed to international climate agreements. though a few are concerned about managing the environmental problems. average global temperatures are expected to rise 1. Tourism affected Interestingly. a number of business sectors are calling for more attention to global warming. such as increased wood-burning (and hence pollution). aerial photographs and satellite images could play a crucial role in identifying potential risk areas . scientists warn. are finding their properties less appealing to potential buyers as the rising sea level leads to fears of erosion and coastal storms. Community action Increasing awareness may reduce the effects of global warming over time. associated with rising tourist numbers.8 degrees Celsius by the end of the 21st century. A number of communities have started reforestation projects aimed at balancing the needs for fuel-wood on one hand and maintaining healthy forests on the other. the level could reach 600 ppm by 2050. as far apart as the Florida Keys and Cape Cod in the USA. The only way to prevent this relentless warming would be to limit deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. If the situation goes unchecked. the geographical grandeur that the tourists travel to experience will be threatened.

and rampant large-scale deforestation. Philippines. are due to deforestation and conversion of peat lands. and better research by all countries. according to a new study from the Asian Development Bank. Rice yields. for example. will be hit particularly hard with the region suffering a 50 percent decline in rice yields by 2100. The study states that Southeast Asia is particularly susceptible to extreme weather. more than double the global average which is estimated at a loss of 2. economies dependent on agriculture. Thailand. if greenhouse gas emissions are not regulated. channeling material and financial aid from foreign donors. The United Nations agencies also promote the work of South Asian communities throughout the world. and rising sea levels due to it extensive coastlines. If the action is delayed then south-east Asia will suffer much more than most other regions of the world. . Eighty percent of Indonesia’s emissions." Most of Southeast Asia’s carbon emissions are due to deforestation instead of the burning of fossil fuels. Annual mean temperatures are expected Slash-and-burn agriculture in Indonesia.7 percent ($230 billion dollars) in combined gross domestic product by 2100. and Vietnam the study found that they could suffer an annual loss of 6. These countries need regional-level activity and it is needed now. largely for palm oil plantations.and monitoring the behavior of hazardous lakes. higher temperatures. What's needed is better government policy.6 percent. Economical By the end of the century nations in Southeast Asia will face debilitating economic loss due to global warming. to rise an average of 4. Analyzing Indonesia. Worldwide deforestation accounts for nearly 20 percent of emissions. better co-ordination between agencies and between central and local government.8 degrees Celsius in the region by century’s end. the agricultural staple of Southeast Asia.

India. energy. Situated across a vast delta where three great rivers join. also means higher tides in the Bay of Bengal. To avert potential tragedy. For instance. Bangladesh: As a nation. A system for the collective monitoring of glaciated regions and for maintaining a reliable alert system embracing all countries affected does not currently exist and must be created. Experts say a third of Bangladesh's coastline could be flooded if . It must start with closer collaboration between scientific and academic institutions who are studying the impact of changing climate on the behavior of glacial lakes in the Himalayan range. Bhutan.Regional cooperation is vital The Himalayas range over six South Asian countries (Afghanistan. Bangladesh. Climate change. foreign affairs. The South Asian countries concerned must also establish a coordination that is lacking among them as well as with neighbouring regions in order to handle the crisis more effectively. In Pakistan's financial capital Karachi shows up on the list of world's mega-cities threatened by global warming. These efforts should be followed by long term intra. water. Bangladesh is known to be flood-prone. earlier this year. The section lying in Indian territory covers fully or partly eleven states of India on the northern frontier. Bangladesh has the most to worry about the effects of climate change in South Asia. Kolkata and Dhaka. They must be directed toward environmentally sound economic growth policies such as renewable energy technologies. Pakistan) as well as extending into China and Myanmar. say scientists. A recent story in the Guardian talks about Bangladesh as "flood-prone" because of its geography. and tourism. construction. The result is trillions more liters of water sloshing over the country. Therefore. Nepal.and inter-governmental planning involving diverse agencies responsible for conservation. but the slow warming of the earth's atmosphere is releasing more water from Himalayan glaciers above the flatlands of Bangladesh. depositing billions of tons of sediment. enhanced cooperation with the United Nations is important but insufficient. the reality of Himalayan deglaciation points to the necessity of direct action in order for the South Asian countries to avert catastrophe in the years to come. Other South Asian cities likely to come under rising sea water in the next 100 years include Mumbai. the response mechanism needs to be much more immediate and efficient across national borders. when it was learned that a glacial lake in Tibet could burst and flood villages in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Chinese scientists had to use diplomatic channels to warn India about the danger. Despite the enormity of the task ahead. Not only does it have monsoon rain to deal with.

particularly India and Pakistan. the experts said. Across the region. along with population growth and increasing demand arising from higher standards of living. While Bangladesh is admirably leading the charge to address the impact of climate change. Bangladesh has taken the initiative by proposing a SAARC fund for climate change and allocated US$44 million for this purpose in its current fiscal year budget.not loans -. warmer weather could cause more intense and more frequent cyclones and storm surges. "We want to find a common stand among the South Asian countries and will raise our voice together against the perils of climate changes. join it to protect the planet in this noble effort. and affect water resources within the next two to three decades. Corp yields in South Asia could decrease up to 30 percent by the mid-21st century.the Bay of Bengal rises three feet in the next 50 years. Coastal areas. the risk of . Glacier melt in the Himalayas is projected to increase flooding. especially heavily-populated mega-delta regions in South. East and Southeast Asia. after opening the experts' meeting in Dhaka today. As part of this challenge. Freshwater availability in Central. Devasish said industrialized countries were the most to blame for global warming and should compensate poorer nations by providing them grants -. East and Southeast Asia particularly in large river basins is projected to decrease due to climate change which. Climate change is projected to impinge on sustainable development of most developing countries of Asia as it compounds the pressures on natural resources and the environment associated with rapid urbanization and industrialization. This will be followed by decreased river flows as the glaciers recede. Taken together and considering the influence of rapid population growth and urbanization.to fight the effects of climate change. It is projected that crop yields could increase up to 20% in East and Southeast Asia while it could decrease up to 30% in Central and South Asia by the mid-21st century. it is time for SAARC leaders to think of structural changes needed for a world without oil." said Raja Devasish Roy. leading to more salt water fouling waterways and farmlands. according to Reuters. head of the Environment and Forest Ministry of Bangladesh. displacing 20 million Bangladeshis from their homes and farms. will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea and in some mega-deltas flooding from the rivers. they added. South. rock avalanches from destabilized slopes. could adversely affect more than a billion people by the 2050s. The SAARC nations owe it to their future generations and the rest of the planet. it is important that the rest of South Asians.

Pakistan: Pakistan contributes very little to the overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Increases in coastal water temperatures would exacerbate the abundance of cholera. conflicts. The impact of climate change will also aggravate the existing social inequalities of resource use and intensify social factors leading to instability. Increases in coastal water temperature would exacerbate the abundance and/or toxicity of cholera in South Asia. climate change is estimated to decrease crop yields in Pakistan which in turn will affect livelihoods and food production. . displacement of people and changes in migration patterns. but remains severely impacted by the negative effects of climate change by the following ways: Glacier melt in the Himalayas is projected to increase flooding will affect water resources within the next two to three decades. Combining the decreased yields with the current rapid population growth and urbanization in the country. Freshwater availability is also projected to decrease which will lead to biodiversity loss and reduce availability of freshwater for the population. Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diseases primarily associated with floods and droughts are expected to rise. the risk of hunger and food security will remain high. the rivers. Being a predominantly agriculture economy. Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal disease primarily associated with floods and droughts are expected to rise in East. Coastal areas bordering the Arabian Sea in the south of Pakistan will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea and in some cases.hunger is projected to remain very high in several developing countries. South and Southeast Asia due to projected changes in hydrological cycle associated with global warming. This will be followed by decreased river flows over time as glaciers recede.

pollution. as well as other indirect effects of the utilization of natural resources. introduced non-native species to many regions and intensively fished lakes. plowed soils. These relatively changes in the structure of the world's ecosystems have made them less resilient to automatically adapt to climate change. Reducing the vulnerability to livelihoods to climate change through infra-structural changes 5. Improving technological responses by setting in place early warning systems and information systems to enhance disaster preparedness 3. including new crop varieties and irrigation techniques 7. humans have altered the structure of many of the world's ecosystems.Economies cannot adapt to climate change quickly as:   First. has also increased since the beginning of the industrial revolution. used rangelands to graze their domesticated animals. the rate of global climate change is projected to be more rapid than any to have occurred in the last 10. Third. levels and sectors . Developing new and innovative farm production practices. Second. Increasing access to high quality information about the impacts of climate change 2. Empowering communities and local stakeholders so that they participate actively in vulnerability assessment and implementation of adaptation 9. Promoting good governance and responsible policy by integrating risk management and adaptation 6. They have cut down forests.000 years.  To solve this the following measures can be taken: 1. Improving forest management and biodiversity conservation 8. Practicing energy efficiency through changes in individual lifestyles and businesses 4. Mainstreaming climate change into development planning at all scales. rivers and oceans.

Developing new and innovative farm production practices. including new crop varieties and irrigation techniques 16. Reducing the vulnerability to livelihoods to climate change through infra-structural changes 14. Reuse. Improving technological responses by setting in place early warning systems and information systems to enhance disaster preparedness 12. on a large scale: 10. Increasing access to high quality information about the impacts of climate change 11. Recycle Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. levels and sectors • Individual steps that can be taken to reduce global warming to some extent: If we all play our part. we can save our planet! 1. Empowering communities and local stakeholders so that they participate actively in vulnerability assessment and implementation of adaptation 18. Mainstreaming climate change into development planning at all scales. Buying products with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) .RECOMMENDATIONS : To solve this problem the following measures can be taken:  Firstly. Practicing energy efficiency through changes in individual lifestyles and businesses 13. Reduce. Improving forest management and biodiversity conservation 17. Promoting good governance and responsible policy by integrating risk management and adaptation 15.

the same as taking 7. keeping your tires properly inflated can improve your gas mileage by more than 3 percent. Replacing just one 60-watt incandescent light bulb with a CFL will save you Rs. When you do drive.will help to reduce waste. and give off 70 percent less heat. walking and biking are great forms of exercise. 3. replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs. By recycling half of your household waste. Explore your community mass transit system. glass and aluminum cans. plastic. 2. newspaper. For example. Drive Less and Drive Smart Less driving means fewer emissions. If every South Asian family replaces one regular light bulb with a CFL. .000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year. and check out options for carpooling to work or school. ask about starting one. CFLs also last 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs. Besides saving gasoline. If there isn't a recycling program at your workplace. it also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Every gallon of gas you save not only helps your budget. use two-thirds less energy. 4. make sure your car is running efficiently. school. by reducing the amount of energy you need to heat and cool your home. and installing weather stripping or caulking around doors and windows can lower your heating costs more than 25 percent. And whenever you can. and keep temperatures moderate at all times. you can save 2. 2600 over the life of the bulb. or in your community. Turn down the heat while you're sleeping at night or away during the day. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning Adding insulation to your walls and attic.400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.5 million cars off the road. Change a Light Bulb Wherever practical. it would eliminate 90 billion pounds of greenhouse gases. recycle paper. Setting your thermostat just 2 degrees lower in winter and higher in summer could save about 2.

5.200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually. and using only as much light as you need. Wash your clothes in warm or cold water to reduce your use of hot water and the energy required to produce it. And remember to turn off your television. Use Less Hot Water Set your water heater at 120 degrees to save energy. Avoid products that come with excess packaging. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime. During photosynthesis. 7. Use the "Off" Switch Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room. choose one that offers good gas mileage. That change alone can save at least 500 pounds of carbon dioxide annually in most households. shampooing the dog or washing your car. turn off the water until you actually need it for rinsing. If you reduce your household garbage by 10 percent. trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. and wrap it in an insulating blanket if it is more than 5 years old. Plant a Tree If you have the means to plant a tree. especially molded plastic and other packaging that can't be recycled. Home appliances now come in a range of energy-efficient models. start digging. stereo and computer when you're not using them. 6. 8. and compact florescent bulbs are designed to provide more natural-looking light while using far less energy than standard light bulbs. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth. While brushing your teeth. Buy Energy-Efficient Products When it's time to buy a new car. You'll reduce your water bill and help to conserve a vital resource. video player. manufacturing and other human activities. . but there are too few of them to fully counter the increases in carbon dioxide caused by automobile traffic. Buy low-flow showerheads to save hot water and about 350 pounds of carbon dioxide yearly. Use the energy-saving settings on your dishwasher and let the dishes air-dry. It's also a good idea to turn off the water when you're not using it. you can save 1.

These 10 steps will take you a long way toward reducing your energy use and your monthly budget. And less energy use means less dependence on the fossil fuels that create greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming. . Encourage Others to Conserve Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends.9. neighbors and coworkers. and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment.