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**Lecture Set 4: Mass Balance without reactions
**

Professor Dr. Saibal Ganguly

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS September 2011

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CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly

**Lecture Set 4: OBJECTIVES
**

At the end of the lecture, students should be able to:

Understand what is mass balance Analyze problems for mass balance without reactions Understand mass balance for multiple processes Formulation of mass balances with recycle and purge

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3. Semi batch process: Any process that is neither batch nor continuous.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Classification of Chemical Processes Chemical process may be classified as: 1. 3 . Batch process: The feed is charged into a process unit at the beginning of the process and the output is removed from the process unit at the end of the process. 2. Continuous process: The inputs and outputs flow continuously throughout the duration of the process.

On the other hand. the process is said at STEADY STATE. the process is said at UNSTEDY STATE or TRANSIENT. volume etc do not change with time. By nature.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Steady state and Unsteady state processes If the process variables such as flow rates. 4 . pressures. if the process variables do change with time. while continuous process is steady state operation. temperatures. batch and semi-batch process are unsteady state operation.

P change with time. transient Semi-batch. T & P change with time. Semi-batch. transient Remark Volume. Volume change with time All process variables do not change with time. T. transient Continuous. steady state . Volume. T.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Example 1: Process A balloon is filled with air at a steady state rate of 2 g/min Water is boiled in an open flask Water is boiled in an closed flask Gasoline from car tank Carbon dioxide and steam are fed into reactor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen Classification Semi-batch. P change with time. transient Batch.

The law concludes that: Total mass INPUT = Total mass OUTPUT [1] OVERALL MASS BALANCE 6 . mass can neither be created nor destroyed but it can change from one phase to another phase or converted into other forms through reaction process.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly CONSERVATION OF MASS The law of conservation of mass states that for any process unit(s).

the mass balance equation for any process unit is given as: Input + Generation .Output .CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly COMPONENT MASS BALANCE Generally.Consumption = Accumulation Input :: Enters through system boundaries Generation:: Produced within system only for reactive system [2] Output:: Leaves through system boundaries Consumption:: Consumed within system only for reactive system Accumulation:: Buildup within system only for transient operation 7 .

Input + Generation . Input = Output [4] 8 .Output . EQ [2] becomes.Consumption = 0 [3] For continuous steady-state operation for non reactive system.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Balance on Continuous Steady-State Processes For continuous steady-state operation for reactive system. EQ [3] is simplified as. the accumulation team is equal to zero. Hence.

Initial Input = Accumulation [6] Hence by equating Eq [5] and [6]. Initial Input + Generation = Final Output + Consumption [7] 9 . [5] Final Output .Consumption = Accumulation For batch processes. accumulation is defined as. the mass balance equation is given as. Generation . and the equation is simplified as. for batch processes. the input and output in Eq [2] is zero.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Balances on Batch Processes For batch processes.

8.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Steps in Solving Material Balance 1. 5. You must have equal number of equations related to unknown process variables (zero degree of freedom). 2.Perform mass balance for the process description.e.Write mass balance equation for the overall system and for specific component using selected Eq [1] to [7]. Always check the overall mass balance Total Inputs = Total Outputs . 7. on the flowchart.type of process unit used and the type of process operation. Perform degree of freedom analysis.Write all known stream variables i. 6. 3.Take basis of calculation. 4. inputs & outputs.Assign algebraic symbols to unknown stream variables.Draw a flowchart for the process description to represent process unit and to represent inputs and outputs.Read and understand the process description ---.

CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly SEPARATION BY DISTILLATION 11 .

CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly One distillation tray in the column 12 .

CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly The distillation process: In a distillation column. and components are transferred from one phase to the other. As you proceed up the column the temperature decreases. so that the vapor phase contacts the liquid phase. Vapor is withdrawn from the top of the column and liquid from the bottom. A number of trays are placed in the column. and the net effect is an increase in the more volatile component(s) in the vapor and a decrease in the less volatile components in the liquid. vapor and liquid flow in countercurrent directions to each other. or the column is packed with open material. Liquid is vaporized at the bottom. 13 . Feed to the column usually enters part way up the column. and vapor is condensed from the top product and withdrawn from the column.

c. b. Draw and label a flowchart of the process and do the degree of freedom analysis. Product streams leave the top and the bottom of the distillation column. The flow rate of the bottom stream is measured and found to be 673 kg/hr and the overhead stream is analyzed and found to contain 96.0 wt% methanol. a. Calculate the mass and mole fractions of methanol and the molar flow rates of methanol and water in the bottom product stream. list as many possible reasons for the discrepancy as you can think of.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Example 5: 1000 kg/hr of mixture containing equal parts by mass of methanol and water is distilled. .Suppose the bottom product stream is analyzed and the mole fraction of methanol is found to be significantly higher than the value calculated in part (b).

. (b) calculate (i) the percentage of the benzene in the process feed (the feed to the first column) that emerges in the overhead product from the second column and (ii) the percentage of toluene in the process feed that emerges in the bottom product from the second column. The overhead product from the second column contains 97. Do the degree-of-freedom analysis to prove that for an assumed basis of calculation.0 mole% of B and the balance T. (a) Draw and label flowchart.0% toluene (T) and the balance xylene (X) is fed to a distillation column. and 96. The composition of this stream is 94.0 mole% benzene (B).0 % of the B in the feed to this column.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Example 6: A liquid mixture containing 30.0 mole% X and no B. The overhead product is fed to a second column.0% of the X in the feed is recovered in this stream. 25. The bottoms product containing 98. molar flowrate and compositions of all process streams can be calculated from the given information.

CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Solution: (a) Draw and label flowchart. molar flowrate and compositions of all process streams can be calculated from the given information. 16 . Do the degree-of-freedom analysis to prove that for an assumed basis of calculation.

02 mol T/mol 0.940 mol B/mol 0.XB2 -XT2 (mol X/mol) n5 (mol/h) n3 (mol/h) 0.060 mol T/mol XB2 (mol B/mol) 0.450 mol X/mol 0.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly n2 (mol/h) 100 mol/h n4 (mol/h) 0.980 mol X/mol XB5 (mol B/mol) XT5 (mol T/mol) 1 .250 mol T/mol XT2 (mol T/mol) 1 .300 mol B/mol 0.XB5 -XT5 (mol X/mol) .

300(100) 0.020 3 xT 2 n2 n DoF Column 1: 4 unknowns.450)(100) 100 0.940 4 n n2 n4 n5 0.060 4 n xT 5 n5 0 DoF DoF Column 2: 4 unknowns.980 3 n n2 n3 0.250(100) xB 2 n2 0.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Column 1 Eqn 1: Eqn 2: Eqn 3: Eqn 4: 96% X Recovery: Total mole balance: B Balance: T Balance: 0. 3 Independent eqn 1 Recovery of X . 3 Independent eqn 1 Recovery of X Column 2 Eqn 5: Eqn 6: Eqn 7: Eqn 8: 0 DoF 97% B Recovery: Total mole balance: B Balance: T Balance: 0.970 B 2 2 x n 0.960( 0.940 2 xB 2 n2 n xB 5 n5 xT 2 n2 0.

940(30.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly (b) Calculate (i) the percentage of the benzene in the process feed (the feed to the first column) that emerges in the overhead product from the second column and (ii) the percentage of toluene in the process feed that emerges in the bottom product from the second column.300(100) Overall Toluene Recovery: 0. Overall Benzene Recovery: 0.95) x 100% 97% 0.96) x 100% 89% 0.250(100) 19 .892(24.

CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly EVAPORATOR .

The steam condenses causing some of the liquid outside of the tubes to vaporize. usually steam. and so on. The heating medium. is introduced in the steam chest connected to a set of tubes inside the evaporator body.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Evaporation as a process operation involves the concentration of one more or solutes by transfer of the solvent from the liquid into the vapor phase. As a matter of economy. Evaporation also may be simply formation of vapor from a liquid. Dissolved solids can be deposited on the exterior of the heating tubes (scaling) so that different interior evaporator designs are used to reduce scaling. often a multiple series of evaporators are connected so that the vapor from one evaporator is introduced (at a lower pressure) into the steam chest of the next evaporator where it condenses. 21 .

Draw the flowchart and analyze Step 5: It is best to choose 1 hr of operation or an arbitrary amount of dry salt produced per hour as the basis. the feed rate of brine in lb/hr. determine: a.670 lb = 1 hr . 3 and 4 This is a steady state problem. the water removed from the brine in each evaporator.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Example 7: A triple effect evaporator is designed to reduce water from an incoming brine (NaCl + H2O) stream from 25 wt % to 3 wt %. 2. We will select Basis: 14. b.670 lb/hr of NaCl (along with 3 wt % H2O). Solution Steps 1. If the evaporator unit is to produce 14.

and P2. Step 7 and 8 Balances for salt and water and total balance can be written for each unit as a system as well as overall balances (not all of these balances would be independent). V3.670 (1) Salt balance : 0. V1.670) (2) Evaporator I Total balance : F = V1 + P1 (3) Salt balance : 0. We will use the salt and total balances as the simplest ones.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Step 6: There are 6 unknown stream flows: F. P1.25 F = 0.33 P1 (4) Evaporator II Total balance : P1 = V2 + P2 (5) . Overall balances Total balance : F = V1 + V2 + V3 + 14.25 F = 0. V2.97 (14.

the equations become uncoupled.33 P1 = 0.670) (8) Any set of 6 independent equations can be used to determine the 6 unknowns.50 P2 (6) Evaporator III Total balance : P2 = V3 + 14.97 (14.25 (56.50 P2 = 0.670 (7) Salt balance : 0.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Salt balance : 0.900) = 0.800 lb/hr .100 lb/hr Sec. We will use equations (1) to (6) to solve for all of the unknowns.33 P1 P1 = 43.900 lb/hr From equation (4) 0.5 Material Balances for Multiple Units 5 1 From equation (3) V1 = 13. 3. F = 56. Step 9 By starting the solution with equation (2).

460) = 0.470 Equation (8) 0. Equation (7) P2 = V3 + P3 28.230 lb 25 .230 lb = 14.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly From equations (5) and (6) P2 = 28.670) 14.670 V3 = 13.670 = 28.800 + 14.700 lb/hr From equation (1) 56.460 13.5 (28.97 (14.97 P3 0.700 + V3 + 14.900 = 13.800 + 14.5 P2 = 0.460 lb/hr . V2 = 14.800 lb/hr Step 10 Equations (7) and (8) can be used to check the results.

6 wt %) at 104 C. The solution is cooled to 20 to crystallize out the C desired Na2SO4. 10 H2O. 26 . What is the weight of this mother liquor. The remaining solution ( the mother liquor) is found to contain 16.CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly Example 8: A crystallizer contains 6420 lb of aqueous solution of anhydrous sodium sulfate (concentration 29.1 % anhydrous sodium sulfate.

CCB 1064: Professor Saibal Ganguly End of Lecture Set 4 THANK YOU 27 .

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