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manufacturers. The benefits depend on the treatment used. Certainly the most important benefit is improved microbiological quality of food. Additional benefits include the replacement of chemical treatments and extended shelf life (9,11,12,19). The following benefits are specified: Most spices and herbs are fumigated with ethylene oxide to improve microbiological quality. Irradiation replaces this chemical, which is being phased out for environmental and worker safety reasons. Because pathogens in raw poultry or meat can be reduced by 99.9% or more by a low "pasteurization" treatment (14), irradiation can help reduce the potential for crosscontamination in homes and foodservice kitchens (eg, schools, industry, groceries, hospitals, restaurants). Irradiation also provides an additional level of safety if food is not fully cooked. Transport of some fruits and vegetables is restricted or prohibited to prevent the spread of harmful insects such as the Mediterranean fruit fly. Current insect quarantine procedures require harvest and heat treatment of fruit that is not fully ripe. Irradiation is an approved quarantine treatment that results in a higher-quality fruit because it can be used on ripe fruit, does not cause hard spots, and does not increase susceptibility to mold. Additionally, irradiation can be used on fruits that do not tolerate heat treatments. Use of this quarantine method will increase availability of a wider variety and higher quality of tropical and semitropical fruits. Irradiation can replace chemical fumigants used to protect rice and grain from insect infestation. Irradiation retards the natural decay of fruit and vegetables, thus extending shelf life. Irradiation contributes to keeping down food costs as a result of less wastage and extended shelf life. Because irradiated food is virtually indistinguishable from fresh items (9,13), food can be prepared in the traditional manner. The process can be considered a "win-win" situation for consumers, retailers, and food manufacturers. Effect of Irradiation on Nutritive Value of Food Irradiation has been compared to pasteurization because it destroys harmful bacteria. Since irradiation does not substantially raise the temperature of the food being processed, nutrient losses are small and often substantially less than other methods of preservation such as canning, drying, and heat pasteurization and sterilization (8,9,11,12,19). The relative sensitivity of the different vitamins to irradiation depends on the food source, and the combination of irradiation and cooking is not considered to produce losses of notable concern (9). Proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are not notably altered by irradiation (8,9,13,19). In general, nutrients most sensitive to heat treatment, such as the B vitamins and ascorbic acid, are sensitive to irradiation. Diehl (9) and Thorne (13) compared nutrient retention losses from irradiation with those associated with other traditional methods of preparation. Vitamin losses from pure solutions are larger than losses when the vitamin is in a food material (9). Nutrient losses can be further minimized by irradiating food in an oxygen-free environment or a cold
However. and fresh produce . texture. Another study by Fox et al (25) compared radiation reductions in B-vitamin levels in beef. Thiamin losses were detectable. In a study of the ascorbic acid content of oranges. Food Safety Food safety encompasses enhanced safety as a result of destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. When meat is irradiated at low doses under specific conditions--such as low oxygen or no oxygen--with specific packaging such as vacuum sealed or in the frozen state. Even in these extreme and unlikely circumstances. temperature. depending on the irradiation dose. Irradiation of chicken breast and thigh up to 10 kGy had little effect on sensory acceptability of appearance. by comparison. E coli. ranged from 0. and taste (16. odor. as reported in a study based on the USDA's 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (21). Earlier reports regarding losses of ascorbic acid in potatoes--as a result of a shift to dehydroascorbic acid--are no longer considered valid because the researchers failed to consider that dehydroascorbic acid also has vitamin activity (9). and atmosphere during irradiation (29). from a low of 8% loss to a high of 16% loss. Sensory qualities such as appearance and flavor have been evaluated in the laboratory (9.01% to 1. and overall acceptance (30-32). These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of ionizing energy. as well as chemical and toxicological safety of foods that have been irradiated. poultry. and taste (33).5%. Consumers consistently rated irradiated fruit as equal to or better than nonirradiated fruits in appearance. poultry. and fish were irradiated at the maximum permissible dose under conditions that led to maximum destruction of thiamin (22).18. Grain products. and of thiamin in both pork and chicken. and Staphylococcus aureus associated with meat. and the losses varied among the meats tested. juiciness. Listeria monocytogenes. pork. the FDA concluded there would be no deleterious effect on the total dietary intake of thiamin as a result of irradiating foods. tenderness. dose rate. Predicted losses of riboflavin and niacin in pork. freshness. freshness. packaging. Fox and coworkers (20) derived a formula to calculate predicted losses in cooked pork and chicken on the basis of data--derived from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey--on quantities of these items in the US diet and irradiation doses allowed by the FDA. provides approximately 4% of the thiamin in a typical US diet. Before approving irradiation of meat. there is no notable development of off-odors or flavors. lamb. contribute 46. Fresh pork.28). irradiation may affect the color and odor of meat. and turkey. Nagai and Moy (26) found no significant differences between irradiated and control fruit at dose levels up to 1 kGy throughout a 6-week storage period. the FDA evaluated an "extreme case" in which all meat. The researchers reported losses of riboflavin that were virtually undetectable in all the tested meats at doses up to 3 kGy.13). Irradiated beef becomes a deeper red and pork and poultry become more pink. various Salmonella spp. but the range was narrow.or frozen state (9.8% of thiamin in the US diet. The scientific literature clearly demonstrates that irradiation destroys common enteric pathogens including Campylobacter jejuni.27.26. whereas poultry provides approximately 1%.27). Thus. Studies have found that flavor in vacuum-packed raw or cured pork is not negatively affected by irradiation and that cooked pork ranks equally with nonirradiated samples for meatiness.27) as well as in market studies with consumers (16. the average thiamin intake would still be above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) (23) and now the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) (24).
Irradiation produces such a minimal chemical change in food that it is difficult to design a test to determine whether a food has been irradiated (44). Vibrio infections associated with the consumption of raw molluscans shellfish can be prevented with irradiation pasteurization. and other forms of food preparation (9.4 kGy destroys Toxoplasma gondi and Cyclospora. and potential microbiological risks.11. AMA's Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs on Food Irradiation (11) agreed with a FAO/WHO policy statement (4. Furthermore. As with any food.29). Some people have also inquired about the safety of irradiated food if postirradiation contamination were to occur. proper handling and preparation--not taste or smell--ensures food safety. The FDA review addresses potential toxicity. Irradiation does not protect against bovine spongiform encephalopathy. freezing. steaming. Irradiated food produced under . just as new compounds are formed when food is exposed to heat in other processing or cooking methods. More than 40 years of multispecies. being of tropical origin. Early research described these new compounds as "unique radiolytic products" because they were identified after food was irradiated (9).22. Some people are concerned that irradiated food will not show signs of spoilage and people will inadvertently consume a harmful product.39). All reliable scientific evidence based on animal feeding tests and consumption by human volunteers indicates these products pose no unique risk to human beings.41). and herbs (36). Meat or poultry contaminated after irradiation does not spoil more rapidly than a nonirradiated product (38. The bacteria that survive irradiation are destroyed at a lower cooking temperature than the bacteria that have not been irradiated (42). multigenerational animal studies have shown no toxic effects from eating irradiated foods (22. because spices. the latter of which has been associated with gastroenteritis linked to the ingestion of fresh raspberries. The agency must identify various effects that can result from irradiating food and assess whether these may pose a human health risk. As with pasteurization. When evaluating the safety of irradiation.43).(29. canning. but Norwalk-like viruses associated with raw shellfish and hepatitis A virus require higher doses than are approved for meat and poultry pasteurization (37). In fact. irradiated spices are preferred for routine use in hospital foodservice for patients. lettuce. Free radicals are even produced during the natural ripening of fruits and vegetables (43). are often microbe-laden. roasting.45) released in 1992. Additionally.13. people requiring the safest food--hospital patients receiving bone marrow transplants--are often served irradiated and/or pasteurized foods. Irradiated and nonirradiated meats challenged with postirradiation application of pathogenic bacteria exhibited spoilage at virtually the same time when held at refrigerator temperatures or temperatures that would normally allow for bacterial growth (40. An irradiation dose of 0. A small number of new compounds are formed when food is irradiated. Some people have inquired about the viability of microorganisms that may survive low-dose or medium-dose treatment. Irradiation does cause chemical changes in food. all of which have been found to be benign. nutritional adequacy. pasteurization. Subsequent investigations have determined that free radicals and other compounds produced during irradiation are identical to those formed during cooking. evidence suggests that food irradiation can make better a quality food supply. the FDA did not consider possible benefits to consumers or food processors (22).35). human volunteers consuming up to 100% of their diets as irradiated food have shown no ill effect (9).34.
from a toxicological point of view. Worker safety is protected by a multifaceted protection system within the plant (12). Disposal of 60Co is carefully arranged by the producer. Department of Transportation. the WHO and allied organizations concluded on the basis of knowledge derived from over 50 years of research that irradiated foods are safe and wholesome at any radiation dose (46). Occupational and Safety Health Administration. worker safety. using irradiation as an insect quarantine treatment in fresh produce) (48). not food safety. p 1). Electron beam radiators are operated by electricity and use no radioactive isotopes. USDA-proposed regulations mandate that workers be trained in the safe operation of irradiation equipment (47).10). and state and local government requirements regulating the operation of irradiation facilities. The 60Co used by US commercial facilities is specifically produced for use in irradiation of medical supplies and other materials. Drug. a streamlined approval process for food additives . iii) the process of irradiation will not introduce nutrient losses in the composition of the food. which. Radioactive material is transported in canisters tested to withstand collisions. Additionally. and public health protection (47). and Cosmetic Act of 1958 (48. All the spent 60Co to date--in such a small amount-could fit in an office desk (9. but it was not until December 1999 that the joint process of writing the rules was completed (50). coordination between USDA and FDA for writing the rules lengthened the time for irradiated meat and meat products to be available in the marketplace. ii) the process of irradiation will not introduce changes in the microflora of the food which would increase the microbiological risk to the consumer. would impose an adverse effect on the nutritional status of individuals or populations (11. which develops standards for the safe use of irradiation on meat and poultry products.49). 2 agencies within the USDA are involved in the process: the FSIS. and pressure. In the future. In a 1999 report. For example. Environmental Safety of Food Irradiation Strict regulations govern the transportation and handling of radioactive material. fires. from a nutritional point of view. These regulations include maintenance of appropriate environmental. Establishments choosing to irradiate meat or meat products will be required to comply not only with USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and FDA requirements regarding the safety of irradiated products. thus delegating the main regulatory responsibility to the FDA. It is not a waste product of any other activity. FDA approved red meat in December 1997. The limitation at very high doses is palatability.established good manufacturing practices is to be considered safe and nutritionally adequate because: i) the process of irradiation will not introduce changes in the composition of the food which. and it cannot be used to make nuclear weapons. and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Before December 1999. which monitors programs that are designed to enhance animal and plant health (eg. would impose an adverse effect on human health. but also with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Regulation of Food Irradiation Congress defined the sources of ionizing energy as food additives and included them in the Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food. Environmental Protection Agency. Irradiation facilities using radioactive material are constructed to withstand earthquakes and other natural disasters without endangering the community or workers.
A nationwide survey conducted in March 1998 found that almost 80% of the population sample said they would buy products labeled "irradiated to destroy harmful bacteria" (55). pork. and almost 50% considering it appropriate at the grocery store delicatessen or sit-down restaurant." because food irradiation does not prevent recontamination of the irradiated food (53). mushrooms. potatoes. However. and poultry. strawberries. slightly fewer consumers deemed it "appropriate" to irradiate pork and ground beef. ready-to-eat products. including spices. ready-to-eat meat. In another nationwide survey. irradiated foods are not widely available in the United States. produce. are not required to be labeled as such. however. the ADA is concerned about statements that imply the irradiated food is free of pathogens. A petition is being developed to permit irradiation of cooked. Any new application of irradiation must undergo food additive approval. and a range of additional ready-to-eat foods is expected." Products that contain irradiated ingredients. The opportunity to control Salmonellae and E coli in bean sprouts is particularly important as these foods. More than 60% thought irradiation was appropriate at a fastfood restaurant. eggs. consumers indicated they would pay a premium for irradiated . Although consumers are familiar with food irradiation. All irradiated foods sold at the retail level in the United States must be labeled with a Radura. onions. The standards are based on the findings of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation convened by FAO. WHO. tomatoes. The ADA supports continued expansion of categories to include such products as fish. many have little knowledge of the process and its advantages (54). citrus fruits. an international symbol for irradiation. In 1999. Sixty-seven percent of consumers said it was "appropriate" to irradiate poultry. including use of the Radura and current wording on irradiated foods. beef. Food categories currently approved for irradiation in the United States are listed in. and mixed foods (53). tropical fruits. When consumers receive science-based information on food irradiation. shell eggs. a joint body of WHO and FAO. such as "treated by irradiation to reduce Salmonella and other pathogens" (52). such as "free of Salmonella. FDA response to petitions for shellfish. The ADA also supports incentive labeling in which a specific pathogen is listed on the label as being reduced. poultry. and seafood (25).that does not require separate approval of both FDA and USDA for meat and poultry products will be used (51). the operating US irradiation facilities process spices. shellfish. are not usually cooked before consumption. Concern about foodborne illness has increased consumer interest in irradiated food. with control of Listeria being the principal benefit. and the International Atomic Energy Agency (11). An international general standard covering irradiated foods was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The ADA supports the present labeling rules. Incentive labeling as specified by USDA regulations stipulates that elimination of a pathogen must be scientifically documented (50). and the words "treated by irradiation" or "treated with radiation. Consumer/Producer Issues Despite repeated endorsements and regulatory approval. most prefer irradiated to nonirradiated spices. A continuing area of research is identification of scientific detection methods to verify that unlabeled foods have not been irradiated and that foods have received the intended dose (49). This process is expected to pave the way for irradiation of processed meat and poultry products for which the petition was submitted in August 1999 (47). along with many fruits and vegetables.
The irradiated poultry captured 63% of the market share when priced 10% less than store brand. In 1997.55). and starfruit--have sold in Midwest and California markets.56). Consumers prefer to receive information in newspapers and government flyers. 80% of consumers selected irradiated poultry when it was priced the same as the nonirradiated house brand (58). A working knowledge of food technologies is expected of students in entry-level dietetics education programs.000 lb irradiated fruits from Hawaii--including papaya. Dietetics professionals should be advocates for the availability of irradiated foods in the marketplace. An endorsement by health professionals is desirable. As advocates for the public on food and nutrition issues. Pregnant women and their fetuses would benefit from food irradiation because of their specific risk for Listeria monocytogenes. March 2. dietetics professionals are in a unique position to monitor the advancement and further implementation of food irradiation technology. and 47% when priced equally. irradiated Hawaiian papayas. more expensive meat trays must be used. rambutan. In March 1987. which is available in select markets. Currently only a limited number of materials are available and special. Record amounts of irradiated strawberries were sold in Florida in 1992 and irradiated strawberries. atemoya. Mangoes labeled as irradiated sold successfully in Florida in 1986. Produce has been marketed without a price premium as a result of decreased losses and increased shelf life. outsold the identically priced nonirradiated counterpart by greater than 10 to 1. According to G. Consumers indicate that information about irradiation should include a discussion of the safety and benefits of the process and the effect on nutritional value (28. A University of Georgia shopping simulation test (57) showed a significant increase in the proportion of consumers purchasing irradiated ground beef after they participated in an educational program on the benefits of food irradiation. The Role of Dietetics and Other Health Professionals ADA and qualified dietetics professionals have the responsibility to educate consumers about food and nutrition issues. and other products continue to outsell their nonirradiated counterparts in a specialty produce store in Chicago.ground beef (54).08 cents per pound for meat products (16. thus. 71% purchased irradiated beef. in 1998. lychee. more than 20. after reading a brief description of irradiation. juice oranges. grapefruit. NJ (oral communication. Consumers in Kansas have purchased labeled irradiated poultry in market tests in 1995 and 1996. . Consumer performance in the marketplace supports the results of attitudinal surveys (27). particularly susceptible to foodborne pathogens. available in a 1-day trial in Southern California. Dietz of Isomedics in Whippany. 1998). Additionally. including 62% of the consumers who originally stated they would not purchase irradiated food. including technologies such as food irradiation. This includes individuals across the lifespan from the very young (infants and children in day care) to older Americans with stressed immune systems. Part of the cost for meat and poultry irradiation relates to packaging material. Ill. Irradiated poultry.47). Irradiated apples marketed in Missouri were also favorably received.03 cents per pound for fruits and vegetables and $0.03 to $0. The increase in cost for irradiated foods is estimated at $0.17. has experienced brisk sales (27). After receiving information. especially for consumers considered at high risk for infectious disease and.02 to $0. It has been estimated that the savings from the reduction of foodborne illness are substantially greater than the modest increase in food cost (14.
Tauxe RV. Accessed September 17. With today's demand for high-quality convenience foods. consumers must understand that irradiation is a method to enhance food safety. Roberts T. This could be accomplished through writing articles for local newspapers. 1994. or using irradiated foods as a topic for consumer-specific educational or community programs. 1993. 3. the FDA. APPLICATIONS ADA members and dietetics professionals at the local level can assist the Association in promoting the value of irradiated foods by providing consumer education on this issue. should be offered. Purdue University. Busby JC. West Lafayette. chemotherapy) would benefit from food free of harmful bacteria. Mead PS.5(5):607-625. and marketing agencies (19). Educational materials about food irradiation are available from a variety of resources including colleges and universities.cdc.19(Sept-Dec):20-25.htm. In an era of increasing concern about food safety. The position can also be used to respond to debates about the use of food irradiation. expanded education for the public and food retailers about food irradiation is needed. Gastroenterology. in which health professionals work with food industry representatives to present accurate information about irradiation to the public. Shapiro C. consider collaborating with local grocery stores to provide educational materials for consumers that address the various issues of food irradiation and food safety. continued research on the ability of irradiation to destroy new and emerging microbial pathogens is appropriate. American Gastroenterology Association Consensus conference statement: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 infection--an emerging national health crisis. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Geneva. 1996. Educational programs. public health agencies. McCaig LF. . Available at: http://www. A current and validated educational packet (28) including a consumer audiovisual is available through the Agricultural Communication Service.clients of all ages with immune-suppressing diseases (such as human immunodeficiency virus) and those undergoing immune-suppressing therapies (eg.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/mead. Griffin PM. researchers should evaluate the effectiveness of irradiation in combination with other processing methods to enhance the safety of minimally processed foods or extend the quality and shelf life of fresh-cut produce. Also. ERS updates US food borne disease costs for seven pathogens. Switzerland: World Health Organization. Slutsker L. July 11-13. Dietz V.108(6):1923-1934. Ind. Health professionals can help allay the fears of consumers and food industry workers through education. 1999. 4. At the present time. Dietetics professionals who manage large-scale foodservice operations can use irradiated foods in the implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. Emerging Infectious Diseases [serial online]. 2. participating in interviews with the media. 1995. A generic model developed by the International Meat and Poultry HACCP Alliance is available from the FSIS (59) or on the World Wide Web from Texas A&M University. Bresee JS. 1999. Food Rev. Although the safety and efficacy of irradiation are well established. Review of the Safety and Nutritional Adequacy of Irradiated Food. References 1.
Richardson R. J Food Sci. NY: Elsevier Science Publishers. Bye. 24. bye bacteria.3rd quarter:9-12. Phillips JG. Riboflavin.15(3):16-21. . The future of irradiation applications on earth and in space. Roberts T. Ill: American Medical Association. 6. Beecher GR. Ames. 26. Irradiation of Food. Food Technol.or. Proceedings of the North American Plant Protection Organization Annual Meeting Colloquium on the Application of Irradiation Technology as a Quarantine Treatment. DC: US Dept of Agriculture. Council on Scientific Affairs Report 4. 1989. Cook A. Special publication No. 9. Accessed July 8. Chicago. Nuclear Energy. 18. 7. DC: National Academy Press. Holden JM. Pantothenic Acid. Hampson J. Irradiation in the production. Biotin. 1995:62-65. Ontario. 1991:11-31. 10th ed. Safety of Irradiated Foods. Int J Radiat Biol. 12. and Choline. 22. 13. NAPPO bulletin No. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. Diehl JF. Food irradiation--promising technology for public health. Niacin.55:689-703. Swallow AJ. 1989. 1993. Vienna. Ackerman SA. Nagai NY. ed. Status and prospects of food irradiation. processing and handling of food. Iowa: Council for Agriculture Science and Technology. 22. Gamma irradiation effects on thiamin and riboflavin in beef. 1995.5.107:489-490. 1989-1991. NY: Plenum Press. Subar AF. Nutritional and Toxicological Consequences of Food Processing. 19.98:537-547. Ames. Task Force Report No. 8. Quality of gamma irradiated California valencia oranges. 20. Quirbach DM. Washington. Public Health Rep. J Am Diet Assoc. Food Rev. International Atomic Energy Agency. 1991. Ionizing Energy in Food Processing and Pest Control: II. 1991. Thayer DW. costs. In: Friedman M. Effect of gamma irradiation on the B vitamins of pork chops and chicken breasts. Loaharanu P. 1989:72-76. Facts about food irradiation. 1998. FSIS Backgrounder. 1992. Neapean. Washington. Krebs-Smith SM. Morrows FD. 15. Food Technol.iaea. Chapple A. 1995. Poultry Irradiation and Preventing Foodborne Illness. Lakritz L. Available at: http://www. 11. Morrison RM.48(5):124-130. Food Safety and Inspection Service. Karel M. Food and Nutrition Board. 62 Federal Register 232 (1997) (§ 64107-64121). New York. Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. 1998. Dietary sources of nutrients among US adults. Kahle L. Thorne S. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 23. pork. Irradiation of US poultry--benefits. Vitamin B-6. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin. ed. Vitamin B-12. Witucki L.41(7):95-97. and turkey. 1989. Folate. Foodborne pathogens: review of recommendations. J Food Sci. Jenkins RK. 1992:1-6. Washington. NY: Marcel Dekker. New York. Food and Drug Administration. 1993. Facts About Food Irradiation. Food Irradiation. Institute of Medicine.60:596598. 1998. 1992. Thayer W. Canada: NAPPO. 115. 10. Fox JB. 21. 14. DC: National Academy Press. New York. 16. Fox JB. Ward K. 13. 1999. lamb. Moy JH. and export potential. 25. 1994. Food and Nutrition Board.at/worldatom/inforesource/other/food. Iowa: Council for Agriculture Science and Technology. Applications. Mason J. 17.
Al-Kahtani HA. J Food Safety.3 Mrad) chicken skins. Olson DG. 1994. Int J Food Microbiol.1985. and irradiation on lipid oxidation. Irradiation as a method for decontaminating food. J Food Sci. 48(5):132-135.15:181-192. Szczawiska ME. Changes in microflora and other characteristics of vacuum-packaged pork loins irradiated at 3. Pohlman A.36:186-197. 1998. J Food Sci. 1982. packaging. 60:761-770. Int J Food Sci Technol. Int J Food Microbiol.49:27-39. Thayer DW. Use of irradiation to kill enteric pathogens on meat and poultry. 1991. Brynjolfsson A.26:521-533. Irradiated ground beef: Sensory and quality changes during storage under various packaging conditions.28:1-6. Murano E. volatile production. Irradiation of Food. 1998. Consumer attitudes and market responses to irradiated food. Abu-Tarboush HM. El-Mojaddidi MA. Iv HF. 63:548-551. Lee JI. High-dose Irradiation: Wholesomeness of Food Irradiated with Doses Above 10 kGy. 28. Abou-Arab AA. 1997. 1990. Shen SK. 40. Dubey JP. Showronski RP. 32. Effect of muscle type. Grant IR. 1991. Meat Sci.3(4):1-3. Vienna. 1994. Kaferstein FK. J Food Sci. 35. Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency. Chen X.0 kGy.0°C. Factors affecting growth and tonix production by Clostridium botulinum type E on irradiated (0. Shattuck GE. MH. Radiation Pasteurization of Food. Molin RA. Olson DG.44:189-204. Lebepe N. Jo C. 43. Chen X. 36. 29. Jo C. Emerg Infectious Dis. Atia M. Stevenson. Thayer DW. Sensory and microbial quality of chicken as affected by irradiation and postirradiation storage at 4. 30. J Food Protect. Iowa: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. 1992. Thayer DW. Potter ME. 34. Bruhn CM. Giddings GG. Ahn DU. 41. Int J Parasitology. Food Technol. Wu C. Firstenberg-Eden R. 7. Food Irradiation: The Position of the World Health Organization. 39. A Publication of the IFT Expert Panel on Food Safety and Irradiation. 45. a review. 44. Thayer DW. Wu C. Identification of irradiated Foods. Ahn DU. Fate of unirradiated Salmonella in irradiated mechanically deboned chicken meat. J Food Sci. 37. Irradiation pasteurization of solid foods: taking food safety to the next level. and color in raw pork patties. Food Technol. Osterholm MT. 1994. 42.50:215-219. 48(12):46-49. 1995. Bajaber AS. 1998. 1998. 1996. Olson DG. Wholesomeness of irradiated foods. Charoen SP.55:918-924. J Food Protection. 27. Ames. 1998:52(1):56-62. 31. Murano P. 58:157-181. Patterson MF. Phillips JG. Speer CA.63:15-19. Farkas J. Packaging and irradiation effects on lipid oxidation and volatiles in pork patties. 1997. 1995. 48(5):141-144. Mason AC. Thayer DW. 1998. Influence of audiovisuals and food samples on consumer acceptance of food irradiation. Food Technol. Food Technol. Rowley DB. Lee JI. Josepson ES. Wood OB. Olson D. Scientific Status Summary. Effect of gamma irradiation on unsporulated and sporulated Toxoplasma gondii oocycts. . 38. Issue paper no.14:313-324. Effect of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging on the microbiological safety of minced pork under temperature abuse conditions. 46. 33.
This position will be in effect until December 31. USDA/FSIS: ADA's comments on irradiation of meat and meat products.html.52:63-66. Ind) and Christine M. Accessed on July 15. Available at: http://www. USDA approves irradiation of meat to help improve food safety.edu/alliance/haccpmodels. ext. Washington. Misra SK. Fletcher SM. Stevens S. Presented at: American Meat Institute Foundation and National Center for Food Safety Technology Seminar on Irradiation "Fact and Fiction". FDA regulatory aspects of food irradiation. 1998. 0486. J Food Protection.html. Requests to use portions of this position must be directed to ADA Headquarters at 800/8771600. Food Irradiation. 1999. Available at: http://ifse. ADA authorizes the republication of the position.tamu. 56. in its entirety. The American Dietetic Association Web site. The American Dietetic Association Web site. 48. 36 Federal Register 64 (1999) (§ 9089-9105). Olson D. 1995. Accessed on July 15. ADA Position adopted by the House of Delegates on October 29. RD (Purdue University. Consumer Awareness. 1993. results of a new study. ed. Radiat Phys Chem. 1999. 53.eatright. Chicago. Available at: http://www.org/gov/comments.org/gov/comments. 1995. In: Thorne S. final rule. Tarantino LM. Resurreccion AVA. 1991:235-259. Irradiation of meat food products. 52. Consumer attitudes toward irradiated food. processing. Generic HACCP Model for Irradiation. Available at: http://www. Dietz G.Geneva. 2003. 47.gov/news/releases/1999/12/0486. and reaffirmed on September 28. J Food Protection. US Dept of Agriculture Web site. 49.html. Galvez FCF. Bruhn. 1998. Irradiation of meat and meat products. Accessed December 16. Knowledge and Acceptance of Food Irradiation. Pauli GH. New York. 51. 1999. February 11. Current state of irradiation technologies. 4896.58:209-212. 1999. 1999. Arlington.99. 1995. Accessed on July 14. 57.1998. 1998. and handling of food. 59. Pauli GH. West Lafayette. Va: Prepared for the American Meat Institute by the Gallup Organization. 55. Market trials of irradiated chicken.usda. NY: Elsevier Science Publishers. or Recognition is given to the following for their contributions: Authors: Olivia Bennett Wood. 9 CFR Parts 381 and 424 (1999). 54.58:193-196. Food Irradiation in the United States. WHO Technical Report Series 890. MPH.eatright. Fox JA. Ill. Response to FDA on advance notice of proposed rulemaking for irradiation in the production. DC: Food Marketing Institute. 50. Press Release No. Consumers' Views on Food Irradiation. PhD (University of California-Davis) . International Meat and Poultry Alliance Web site. 58. Switzerland: World Health Organization. provided full and proper credit is given. proposed rule.
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