Campus of the Future
RIBA, London Friday, 25 March 2011
Report author: Marcus Morrell Arup Foresight + Innovation
Introduction Executive Summary page 1 page 2
Drivers of Change Impact Assessment Brainfood II
page 4 page 7 page 8
Future Campus x4
Character Profiles Voting Results Further Discussion
page 14 page 23 page 24
Following a workshop that Arup held in Washington DC in December 2009, Arup‟s Foresight + Innovation group ran a second Campus of the Future event at RIBA in London on 25 March 2011. In the months leading up to the workshop, we had been mentoring students doing an MA at Central Saint Martins in Creative Practice for Narrative Environments (CPfNE). We were very pleased that they were able to participate and present their work. Agenda
Brainfood I Drivers of Change Coffee Break Brainfood II
The workshop at RIBA was designed to progress strategic ideas and design concepts, and to generate shared thought leadership. We brought together representatives from a range of higher education institutions and other educational bodies, architects, designers, behavioural psychologists and technology experts to examine and explore the drivers influencing the future of the Campus in the UK to the year 2031. We defined the scope to include the design and operations of campuses – also pedagogy and curricula, staffing, students and alumni and R&D activities.
Afternoon Brainfood II (cont‟d) Future Scenarios Future Campus x 4 Break Character Profiles Experience Maps
The workshop event was designed to encourage participants to consider the different ways in which education might evolve given the many challenges and opportunities that the sector will likely face over the next two decades. The day started with four short presentations to focus thinking around some key ideas relating to the future direction of higher education and the design of campuses. Themes addressed by our guest speakers included the ongoing role of technology in the delivery of education, user-led design and the future of work spaces and places. We then asked participants to consider all trends, issues and drivers perceived to be shaping the future for the sector. Looking across the five STEEP categories (covering social, technological, economic, environmental and political issues), delegates voted on the most important drivers. After a series of presentations from Central Saint Martins students, four different future campus typologies were presented. These were explored in four self-selected break out groups. As the afternoon progressed, several fictional future characters were introduced. Each group was asked to choose one. They then answered questions designed to enable delegates to get to know their character‟s needs and motivations. The final session of the day involved tracking the interactions that their chosen character might have with each future campus. This objective of this session was to inspire new ideas and concepts that may prove prescient in considering the future of the higher educational campus.
The morning started with four short presentations to focus thinking around some key ideas relating to the future direction of higher education and the design of campuses.
Annette Smith Association for Science Education, Chief Executive Topic: the future of tertiary education in the UK with a focus on Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths Andy Black (formerly Becta) Topic: the role of technology in the future delivery of tertiary education. Sean McDougall Stakeholder Design, Managing Director Topic: user-centric design for stakeholders. Nicolas de Benoist Steelcase, Senior Design Researcher Topic: the future evolution of work spaces and places.
Drivers of Change
Five breakout groups were then formed, each group representing a mix of backgrounds and areas of expertise. A set of Drivers of Change cards was distributed according to the STEEP framework upon which they are underpinned – covering Social, Technological, Environmental, Economic and Political drivers. The five STEEP groups were each given 25 Drivers cards. Additionally, they were given an unlimited number of blank cards that they could fill out with new, more pertinent drivers. They worked together to decide which 5 drivers are most influential, relatively speaking, in shaping the future of tertiary education in the UK to the year 2031. The 5 drivers for each STEEP category were then summarised by the facilitator, before the group was asked to vote as to what they believed as individuals to be the 7 most important drivers (they had to vote at least once per STEEP category).
Drivers of Change Results
Listed below are the top five most-voted-for Drivers of Change for the future of higher education in the UK, arranged under the five STEEP categories. The drivers in red received the most votes in each category (with total number of votes shown in parentheses). The most votes of all issues went to the political driver “Infrastructure”, and related to the high costs of improving or maintaining urban infrastructure (and which acknowledged the need to identify future sources of funding). The second most popular driver was “Changing Purpose”, addressing the broadening purpose of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) beyond dispensing qualifications to improve employment prospects (eg. as incubator, to promote culture and voluntary activities). Social 1. Changing purpose (22 votes) 2. Changing demographic Makeup of student body (11) 3. Belonging (8) 4. Interaction (3) 5. Sustainability (1)
Technological 1. Increasing global collaboration for research (16) 2= Security (8) 2= Quality assurance and validation (8) 4. Integration (6) 5. Scarcity of resources (4)
Economic 1. Student as customers (21) 2. Employment (7) 3. Outsourcing (6) 4. Corporatization of curricula (5) 5. Economic cost of congestion (1)
Environmental 1. Mobility (16) 2. Resource use (10) 3. Urbanisation (9) 4. National and personal selfinterest (5) 5. Globalisation (2)
Political 1. Infrastructure (29) 2. International relations (8) 3. Standard of effectiveness of teaching and leadership (7) 4. Transparency and fairness (6) 5. Resource resilience (2)
Drivers of Change Results
The voting across the STEEP categories was tight. However, it is interesting to note that the most-voted-for category was Social, with 45 votes. This reflects the fact that the business of delivering higher education is primarily about people. It‟s worth pointing out that two of the social drivers are highly inter-linked: the shifting demographic make-up of the student population (11 votes) and the sense of identity and belonging (to a community, institution, culture), which received 8 votes. Top STEEP categories by vote: Social (45 votes) Technological (42) Political (42) Environmental (42) Economic (40) Top drivers across all categories by vote: Infrastructure (29 votes) Changing purpose (22) Student as customers (21) Increasing research (16) Mobility (16) Decarbonisation (13) Changing demographic make-up of student body (11) Resource use (10) Urbanisation (9) Quality assurance and validation (8) Belonging (8) International relations (8) Security (8) Standard of effectiveness of teaching and leadership (7) Employment (7) Transparency and fairness (6) Outsourcing (6) Integration (6) Self-interest (5) Corporatization of curricula (5) Global collaboration for scarcity of resources (4) Interaction (3) Globalisation (2) Resource resilience (2) Sustainability (1) Congestion (1)
Mobility Resource use Global collaboration Infrastructure Student body demographics Security Changing purpose Students as custumers International relations
Technological Economic Five of the most popular drivers were identified as being critically impactful for the future of the campus in the UK. Several others were seen as being fairly certain, but less impactful.
Brainfood II – Central Saint Martins
EXPORT YOURSELF UNIVERSITY (virtual, integrated) BEYOND WALLS (physical, integrated)
Group 2: Alex Goller, Eva Xie
Group 1: Victor Heynemann Seabra and Katie Russell
DIGITAL GOWN (virtual, segregated)
BIOFLAME (physical, segregated)
Group 4: Gijs Leijdekkers, Phil Nicholson and Yiquan Wang
Group 3: Rachel Mikulsky, Veronika Schurr and Sumedha Garg
Future Campuses x4
We used four future campus typologies to frame break out group discussions about the ways in which tertiary education may be delivered in future. Using a two by two matrix, the four quadrants explore the contextual differences and tensions between the virtual and physical campus (horizontal axis). The vertical axis reflects the attitude and philosophy of the educational institution itself in terms of the level of engagement with the business and local community.
The core focus of Open Education is to create skills and qualifications for the knowledge economy. The majority of education is delivered virtually. There are a certain amount of physical meet-ups as there is still a need for face to face communication. It terms of design and operations, the campus is scalable and flexible in order to accommodate different needs and to respond to rapid change. The teaching style is predominantly collaborative with some prescriptive learning. Drivers: knowledge economy, changing student demographics, technological advance, need for physical interaction. Campus news: “Hacker Found, Politician Sacked” - the elusive a la carte hacktivist student steels data from online group. “Musicians Meet In Person” - to sing against cyber crime and terrorism and to raise money to pay off fees.
Curriculum news: “Oldest Student Develops Revolutionary Mobility Software” - for people with physical disability.
Community news: “Indonesian Bio-Organic Chemistry Prodigy Develops New Virtual Candy” – with holographic taste for Cadbury‟s.
The Village Campus is a large urban distributed campus with a physical hub. It provides a cross-disciplinary academic environment focused on incubating new start up businesses. The university has embraced new learning styles and methods which are more interactive and collaborative (eg. prototyping). There are open, accessible physical spaces for non-student access. Drivers: collaborative research Campus news: “Our City Wins Nobel Prize” – collaborative approach leads to unprecedented advance in well-being.
Curriculum news: “New Course in Collaborology”.
Community news: “Competition Winner for New InterDisciplinary Centre”.
Faculty Islands (aka The Pythagoras Institute)
The Pythagoras Institute is extremely well-funded and is segregated from the surrounding community by choice. It is an elite, high-tech organisation with a strong internal culture. Its exigent selection criteria finds the best and brightest and its outputs are best in class. It is highly focussed on research and does have some links to specialised industry. University public spaces are secure and highly controlled. Its teaching models are both prescriptive and collaborative. Individuals need unique electronic passes for access to faculty buildings. Drivers: resource scarcity, technological advance Campus news: “Quantum Engagement Transport Problem Solved!” – however, Prof Black now in white hole. “200 Bursaries for Impoverished Gentry!”. “5 New Pet Scanners Funded by Murdoch Junior”. “500 Palms Planted on Campus to Replace Diseased Oaks”. Curriculum news: “Alumni Fund Raising Boosts Endowment to 1 Billion Euros”. Community news: “Sustainability Versus Health Faculty Cricket Match”. “Nobel Laureates Re-Union”.
À la Carte E-Learning
À la Carte is a large global, accessible knowledge resource with a focus on life-long e-learning. Qualifications and degrees are created and tailored to individual preference and the majority of students study off-campus. The physical campus, perhaps co-located with another university, is populated mostly by full-time post-grad research students, academic and research staff, and administrative staff. Drivers: Increase in lifelong-learning, shift in employment patterns, vocational learning, costs, technological advancements, sustainability Campus news: “First Martian Graduate” - Frank Xu has completed his Masters in Theory of Gardening in application to low gravity environments from the Apollo 56 mission. Congratulations Frank! Curriculum news: “New Historical Geographic Course Announced” - When There Was Ice at the Poles” is a new course looking back at 20thC environmental and socio-political influences. Community news: “Party Online or Physical on the 31st”.
Each team was then given a choice of two fictional characters that will be interacting with each future campus in the year 2031. The four teams were asked choose one and answer questions relating to that person‟s needs, expectations and preferences. The idea here was to have each team understand and develop their chosen person, their needs and motivations. Participants were then asked to chart a typical day in the life of that person on their campus. This resulted in a map of their interactions with their campus environment. Each map was unique and different, yet they described similar actions and interactions. Both outputs from these two exercises are shown in the following pages. Victoria Kingley Post-grad student A La Carte E-Learning
Ming Lai Under-grad Open Education
Roger Cook Pro Vice Chancellor Village Campus
Sandra Hines Post-doc Researcher Faculty Islands (aka The Pythagoras Institute
Ming Lai is 19 and studies computer science. Her parents came to the UK for work reasons primarily, and decided to give their only daughter a European education. Ming works part-time as an educational game developer. Top priorities: Income Connectivity and communication Parental expectation To make a difference Ming Lai Under-grad Open Education Sources of inspiration: Cultural crosspollination How technology can promote opportunities for all Her parents Part of campus experience finds most appealing: Flexibility Human interaction and real-time engagement Freedom and anonymity Access to wisdom Technologies can’t live without: The 2010 construct of „technology‟ Her digital giving account (mentoring in her spare time) Her avatar
Ming Lai Under-grad Open Education
Professor Roger Cook, 48, oversees a medium sized university in the north east. His vision for the university is One Campus which leverages the synergy of the entire university network so that every individual can access the same level of excellence. Top priorities: Generation of sustainable funding Attracting diverse student body from local community Maximising quality of student experience Ethics Roger Cook Pro Vice Chancellor Village Campus Sources of inspiration: His family Tackling climate change His city Collective success in research and innovation
Part of campus experience finds most appealing: Buzz of the hubs and social learning spaces Creation and incubation of new enterprises/start-ups Being part of re-vitalising his city Safe walking / cycling / rocket rack environment
Technologies can’t live without: Bicycle Connectivity (of whatever kind) and interactivity Augmented reality dashboard – connecting him to his university Moral compass
Roger Cook Pro Vice Chancellor Village Campus
Sandra is 32 years-old. She has a good, secure job working as a post doc scientist currently focusing on mitigating particulate pollution in the built environment. Sandra is happily married with a three year old daughter. Top priorities: Accommodating and supporting children Money / security Job security / tenure / stay put Influencing the world Sandra Hines Post-doc Researcher Faculty Islands Sources of inspiration: Her subject / field Ethos of the campus? Colleagues Professional development and career Part of campus experience finds most appealing: Status Satisfaction Good funding for projects Her field is increasing inn significance and interest Technologies can’t live without: Tags for children and Senior Professors Data scavenging tool Research tools / collaborative tools Daily life logistics app Clearing system for home
Sandra Hines Post-doc Researcher Faculty Islands
At 52 years-old, Victoria runs a home business offering support services and consulting advice to female entrepreneurs. Many of her services are provided via web-based video. She has decided to brush up on some of her skills by taking a post-graduate diploma on social entrepreneurship. Top priorities: Strengthen/improve career prospects (mid-career) Networking with like-minded people Growing/sustaining the business Victoria Kingley Post-grad student À La Carte E-Learning Sources of inspiration: Portfolio career Giving better services to clients (e.g. extending her offer) Strong social values Part of campus experience finds most appealing: Intellectual challenge Self-directed / choice Interacting in peers – sharing experience Technologies can’t live without: Smart diary planner Customer support hologram Mood adapter for lighting etc to suit activity (e.g. work, leisure, family) Instantaneous e-translator for global clients „Time +‟ pill allows her to function in other time zones to meet with clients
Victoria Kingley Post-grad student À La Carte E-Learning
The Village Campus was voted on overwhelmingly by the group as being the most desirable campus of the future.
As one participant observed, the quadrant had all the most appealing aspects of any aspirational campus: a physical footprint, a sense of community and a layer of technology that can unlock and enable all the many benefits that ICT can, and will continue to, provide.
Insights from the day..
Here are a few insights and other threads that the Foresight team picked up from the day‟s discussion:
• If we are not careful the future of education will be more of the same – essentially Victorian, but with more technology. • We need to think beyond the 2010 construct of technology (eg. we need to anticipate next generation technologies such as augmented reality). • Does the campus of the future need to be physical at all? • The student/teacher relationship can be two way and fluid – in the future the teacher may learn more from the students than they have done in the past. • How do we navigate digital chaos? • Collaborology may become a new specialism, looking at how multi-disciplinary, multi-party collaboration can be supported and nurtured. • In the future the physical may be seen as luxury. Until now the physical has been a need, while digital a desire. In the future the digital may reflect the need – and the physical the desire. • Technology shouldn‟t be banned in HEIs but embraced. • Soft, inter-personal skills will carry a premium in the future.
We‟ve created a discussion forum on the professional networking site Linked In. We hope you sign up and take part: http://linkd.in/dXmCc4
Architects, planners and engineers
Architype, Arup Associates, Edward Cullinan Architects, Hopkins Architects, Land Design, Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, Make, MJP
Tertiary education and estate management
Association of Science in Education, the Bartlett, Central Saint Martins, Imperial College London, the Royal College of Arts and the University of Sheffield
AMA Alexi Marmot Associates, Sciencescope, Stakeholder Design, Steelcase
Arup, Infolab21 Lancaster University
Brunel University, Leeds University, Holmes Wood
Research The development of our knowledge-base in order to identify opportunities for change in the built environment and for businesses. Publications Delivering detailed research results, such as the uniquely designed Drivers of Change card sets, that offer provocative insights on major issues and their implications. Exhibitions Designing innovative displays related to our work and that of Arup as a whole. Lectures Communicating future challenges and the evolving global business context to a variety of industry sectors and government heads. Workshops Co-developing thought leadership through designing and leading intense engagements with broad range of key stakeholders and industry experts. http://www.driversofchange.com http://linkd.in/dXmCc4