Contents List of illustrations Acknowledgements PART i Introduction: what is pain? vii viii 1 3 9 1 Introduction 2 Some experiences of pain PART II Factors influencing the pain experience 23 25 40 60 84 3 Nociception: sensory-discriminative aspects 4 Emotional and motivational aspects of pain 5 Cognitive and evaluative aspects of pain 6 Social and cultural aspects of pain PART III Interventions to help the person in pain 109 .

research and education Appendix: useful organisations References Index .vi Contents 7 Pharmacological and physical interventions 8 Psychological interventions PART IV T h e m a n a g e m e n t of pain 111 145 157 159 183 200 209 210 249 9 The assessment and monitoring of pain 10 Administration of interventions 11 Conclusion: the future .

5 5.4 9.2 9.3 9.1 9.2 Types of pain Aspects of power The bio-psycho-social aspects of disease 11 95 103 Socio-cultural extension of the gate control model of pain Sensory neurone indicating the link between the periphery and the spinal cord A synapse Diagram of a section of the spinal cord The ascending and descending pain pathways A comparison of models of cognitive development Children's explanations of illness and pain The analgesic ladder Diagram showing a TENS stimulator Signs and symptoms for pain assessment Pain rating scale The McGill Pain Questionnaire The infant 'pain' face Bieri's 'faces' pain rating scale 28 29 32 33 37 80 82 130 142 162 166 170 178 181 .1 Box 6.2 3.4 3.1 5.1 7.3 3.2 7.5 Boxes Box 2.2 9.1 3.1 Box 6.Ilustrations Figures 3.