Bosnia and

rush.
MRS.
B. R.

WHITWELL.

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THROUGH BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
WITH A PAINT BRUSH.

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY
WILLIAM DRESSER AND SONS, DARLINGTON.

Thrc

h

Bosnia and Herzegovina

A

Street in Sarajevo,

Bosnia.

Through
Bosnia and Herzegovina
With
a Paint Brush.

BY

MRS.

E.

R.

WHITWELL,
it,"

Author of "Spain as

we found

and

"Through Corsica with

a Paint Brush."

WILLIAM

DARLINGTON DRESSER AND SONS,
:

LONDON

I

SIMPKIN MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT AND

CO,,

LD.

Preface.

The

following

sketches

and notes were

originally intended as personal reminiscences
of a very interesting

spent in

a country

and enjoyable holiday somewhat out of the

But changes forecasted by the authoress having become actual fact,
beaten track.

and

the

countries

described
recent

assuming

a

prominent feature of
concern,
of this
it

international

is

little

hoped that the production volume will prove of such
its

interest as warrants

publication

beyond

the circle

originally intended.

The Friarage,
Yarm-on-Tees,
January, 1909.

List

of

Illustrations.

Through

BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA
with a Paint Brush.

TIRRING times are these
when
the

whole

of

Europe has to give its opinion, and I may say
decision, as to

whether

Austria

may
and

snap

up

Bosnia
govina,

Herze-

and Bulgaria may assert her independence and style her princeling a Tzar,

which seems crowing rather loud and savours

bantam in the poultry yard However, we shall see what happens in the near future
of the
!

;

meanwhile
ing tour
I

I

am

thinking that a very interestthese provinces with

made through

my
who

paint brush,

may

be attractive to those

take an interest in other nations and

2
other countries.

THROUGH BOSNIA
Several books have already
I

been written on Dalmatia, but

do not think

any have been illustrated by the brush, and I have seen no books on Bosnia and Herzegovina, or that barren, wild country Montenegro, with its range after range of rocky,

jagged mountains.
I

have been twice

in Dalmatia, the first

time

we

sailed

on

our

yacht

Vanadis

from Venice, touching at Pola
passage of eight hours.

—a

stormy
there

At Pola
to see

itself

was not much

beyond a fine Roman amphitheatre, two gates and two
for
It
is

me

temples.

the centre of the Austrian
bristling

naval
clads
in
;

base,

and was

with iron-

our Captain elected to steam calmly
to

among them, but we had soon
piloted
to

make a
of

retreat,

the

other

side

the

harbour by some Jack Tars, who were each
presented with a cigar for
cordiale
' '

the

" entente

of the nations

From Pola we went on

to Abbazia, which

AND HERZEGOVINA
is

3

an Austrian invalid watering place and, sad

to say,

was

full of

consumptives.

It is quite a

pretty place, with a Casino, public gardens,

and a wonderful

artificial

walk, a veritable

sun trap for miles by the

sea.

On

our arrival

we found another yacht moored
buoy

— there

to the only

is

no harbour, so we had to
fine night,

drop our anchor hoping for a
it

which

was.

The next morning I went ashore to sketch, and the rest of the party went in the launch
to Fiume, which

had no attraction

for

me.

A

heavy thunderstorm that afternoon made

the streets very wet, but
to a cafe

we bravely

struggled

and listened to the Hungarian band, at the same time drinking some excellent
coffee with the milk nicely frothed
jug,

up

in a

and each person had his own little tray. The yacht which had secured the buoy the
evening before, had taken
in the morning, so
it,

its

departure early
ourselves to
'

we attached
remarked

and

as the Captain

'

possession

4

THROUGH BOSNIA
of the law," the other yacht

was nine tenths had the

privilege of taking turn in dropping

her anchor for the night.

Some

of

the peasant

women were

very

picturesque in costume, and wore a kind of
ballet skirt, Hessian boots,

and a red handand
floating at

kerchief tied round the head

one

side.

Though

as I said before, I have twice been
I

along the Dalmatian coast,

have not visited
islands,

any

of the

most interesting

and

my

stay at the various towns has been far too
short to please me, but
I
it

could not be avoided,

was

at the

mercy

of a yacht,

and

in order

to visit the principal towns in a country which

possesses one small railway connecting

two

coast towns

and one inland town,

it

was

necessary to allow myself to be whirled along
at the pleasure of others,
linger brush in hand.

who wanted not

to

The

historv of Dalmatia dates,

I

think,

from

the year 180 B.C.,

when

the tribe from which

Evening

— Abbazia

ddA — gnin

AND HERZEGOVINA
it

5

takes

its

name
In

declared their independence
of Illyria,
B.C.

from Gentius, King
a
republic.

and established
Dalmatians

156

the

were attacked by the Romans and compelled
to

pay

tribute,

but

it

was not

till

the reign of

Augustus that their country became a Roman province. Under Tiberius, Dalmatia was
thoroughly Romanised,
the
it

gave to the world

Emperor

Diocletian,

who

eventually
capital,

retired to Salona, the

new Dalmatian

where are

still

to be found the remains of
It

his magnificence.

then

fell

into several

successive hands,
it

and

in the seventh century

received

the

dominant

element

of

its

present population

by the immigration
Heraclius.

of

the Slavs invited

by

In the ninth
fluence

century

the

Croatian

in-

was high, and Croatian princes were
as

recognised

kings

of

Dalmatia.

In

the

tenth century Venice extended her power,

which

is

still

visible in the
all

many

beautiful

buildings seen

along this coast.

About

O
the year 1018 the
of

THROUGH BOSNIA
Doge took the title of Duke Venice and Croatia struggled

Dalmatia.
for

supremacy during the eleventh century, and in 1091 the Hungarians ousted
the Croatians.

hard

The maritime

cities of Zara,

Trau, Spalato and Ragusa, had each their

separate history, and attained
perity by commerce and

much

pros-

industry.

These

towns sided with Venice and were at times
under her control, until the treatment by
that great republic disgusted

them and they
Venetian

welcomed

Louis

of

Hungary.

authority was, however, once more asserted,

but in 1797, Dalmatia became part of the Austrian dominions to which she has belonged
ever since, with the exception of a Napoleonic period from 1805- 1814.

The Austrians were

not popular, the feeling of the country being

extremely

hostile,

and

in 1869

an insurrection

was put down by force of arms. Water in Dalmatia is scarce, and the only rivers are the Krka and the Cettina. Outside

AND HERZEGOVINA.
the towns
is

7
little

very

vegetation
millet,

;

barley,

wheat,

maize,

oats,

rye,
all

beetroot,
;

hemp and

potatoes are

grown somewhere
is

coasting for miles and miles nothing

seen

but pinky grey rock, and now and then a
bush, though as you go further south vege-

becomes evident and vines are grown, the grapes producing a full, red wine which
tation
is

much exported
oil of

to

Bordeaux

;

and

olives,

the

which

is

also exported.
cent, of the natives

About eighty-nine per
onic

belong to the Servian race and speak a Slavdialect,
;

but there are a good
of

many
is

Italians

most
found.

the

natives

understand

Italian

I

The

principal religion

Roman
olic

Catholic,

there are also those

who

follow the Greek Church.

The Roman Cath-

Archbishop

has his seat at Zara, and
Lesina and Cattaro are

Spalato,

Sebenico,

Donkeys and goats abound, and there are some sheep. The peasant
Bishoprics.

grinds his corn and weaves his clothes at

home

8

THROUGH BOSNIA
Lace making
is

a great industry amongst
there
is

Dalmatian women, and

a special

school at Spalato where the most beautiful

patterns taken from the Churches are copied.

Sponges

also

are

found

near

Sebenico.

Anchovies and tumny
quantities

fish are

caught in large

and many other kinds of fish. Zara we reached on April 14th, but here
this

on

our

first

visit,

we discovered no

harbour,

though next time we found the

harbour was quite on the other side of the
town.

As we did not
all

relish the idea of tossing

about

night on the open sea,

we decided
visit

only to stay a very short time just to

the

town and then push on
for the night.

to Zara Vecchia

The town looks very new from the sea, and appears to be composed of large white
modern buildings with red roofs, one hotel, " The Bristol, looked most imposing and new,
'

'

but you must penetrate behind

all this,

where
its

you

will find the old

town

of

Zara with

After a Storm

— Abbazia.

i.

AND HERZEGOVINA.
narrow
streets,

9

with

many Roman and Venetwo large Corinstand, one they say is
erected.

tian remains, of the former

thian columns

still

where

it

was

first

A

plaque

of

stone or marble let into a wall, on which a

most graceful

figure of a dancing girl

was

carved, and there was also quite a
of

museum

statues
its

and other
beautiful

relics.

The Duomo,
is

with

facade,

distinctly

Venetian, and the Lion of St. Marc watches
at the gates of the town.

Zara, now,

is

specially celebrated for its

mareschino,

where are two manufacturies.
a

Our
flutter

large party landing caused quite

whom

amongst the inhabitants, some of were most picturesque, the women

with bright red and yellow aprons, white

head shawls embroidered
blue skirts and red

many colours, Some of the stockings.
rucked up the
leg,

in

men
red,

in blue trousers, all

gold-embroidered jackets were thrown

over

one

shoulder,

sashes

were

gleaming

10

THROUGH BOSNIA
in,

with knives, &c, tucked

and a curious

tiny red cap with a black tassel crowned
all.

This cap looks ridiculously small perched

on the top of the head.

The country here

is

bare sandy rock, with
all

a few shrubs dotted about, very barren

along the shore, and on a dull day would
look very dreary no doubt, but with bright

sunshine the sea

is

lovely,

and the range
behind

of

snow-capped

mountains

make

a

charming background. We did not land at Zara Vecchia, and were off at sunrise to
Sebenico.

A

lovely

little

spot

is

Sebenico,

at

the

foot of those curious grey barren

hills.

We

and passed through a quaint doorway, with picturesque figures going to and fro, then went up a few steps to narrow
landed,
streets

—very narrow indeed,
me — only an

but clean, with
!

many
is

subjects for an artist, but alas

no

time for
that
!

hour or two, and what
streets

We

wandered about the

AND HERZEGOVINA.

11

and many appeals were made as to why I did not paint this and that the ques-

tioners quite forgetting architectural subjects

cannot be done in a minute,
of a

like the

snapshot
fascin-

camera
I

!

After gazing at

many

ating bits,

decided to attempt an old carved
street,

and forthwith began, to be distracted very shortly by two funerals passing and re-passing, the mourners carrying
door in a narrow
each a guttering candle held at any angle and

walking three abreast in the street
wide.

five feet

My

easel

boy, who, like

was once swept away by a most boys, did not look where
work
I

he was going, luckily no damage was done

and

I

settled

to

again,

to

be three

times disturbed,

having to flatten myself

against the wall to let the mourners pass.
I

worked hard

till

dusk, then returned to the

yacht.
I

thought

it

a great pity

we could not

stay

a few days at Sebenico, but on we rushed,

and

I

must go too

this time.

I

longed to

12

THROUGH BOSNIA
saw on paper, curious scenery, and
all I

stay and put
beautiful

of all this

at

some
dawdle

future date,

I

hoped

to be able to

along this coast at

my own

sweet

will.

One
knife

of our party

bought a most curious

from a very handsome native, who

showed the purchaser its various uses the knife was used to eat with, and shave with,

&c, &c, the double pronged stiletto, which occupied the same sheath, was to dig into an
enemy.
This was about a foot long.

These

the natives carry tucked into their belts.

The Cathedral

is

very

fine,

Old Venetian,

and had many fascinating corners for the artist.

we went up a serpentine gorge, so narrow, that every moment it seemed to come to an end. The sides were pinky-grey
After lunch
hills,

barren except for a few shrubs, the

whole colouring was most curious, the sea
bright blue-green, contrasting with the rocky
sides.

A

special pilot

came on board
into

for

this cruise,

and he nearly ran us

some

AND HERZEGOVINA
rocks,

13

not calculating

how much room we

took to turn the corners.

When we

arrived

at the furthest limit that the yacht could
go,

we took

to the launch,

the Falls of

and approached Krka, where the water comes
Here
electric light

down
is

in tiers, very fine.

being made.

for

walked up to a height a view looking back, which was most
hills,

We

extraordinary, the pinky-grey

with one

long strip of winding emerald green water

between.

My

second

visit

to

Sebenico was under
I

more favourable circumstances, as
to leave the yacht

decided

and put up

at the Hotel

Krka with
La,

my
am

courier.

La

!

the cold on this
I

my

second

visit,

but charmed

to be here once
little

more

at this

most fascinating

place,

Sebenico, this
!

time to stay a few days, but oh
I

the cold

!

!

have never

felt

anything
wind,
the

like it in

England,

the

north-east
is

Bora

(the
it

wind
comes

of the dead)

blowing.

I

imagine

14
off

THROUGH BOSNIA
the steppes of Russia, from
coldness.
its

intense

piercing

The

sun

is

nice

and

warm,
rises

if

you can get out
decidedly
the

of the

wind which
I

very

every
in

afternoon.

landed
escorted

from

yacht

the

morning,

by my guide. gramme was made out, and it was intended we should travel through Herzegovina and
elaborate pro-

An

Bosnia,

visiting

Jajce,

Bajnaluka,

Bihac

(pronounced Beehatch), Novi, and Plitvice,

where are wonderful lakes and cascades
continuation from one to the other.
of

in

Part
all,

the journey

we

carried out, but not

as will be seen later on.

At Sebenico, they talk
Italian

Italian

and Slav;
it

made me
converse

quite

happy
the

as

enabled

me

to

with

natives.

The

national costumes here are most fascinating,
lovely
brilliant

colouring

mixed

in

the

women's head-gear and shawls, and some of the contadine that come in, with dark
blue dresses
striped

with red,

green

and

AND HERZEGOVINA
orange,

15
of every hue, are
too,

and embroideries

most

striking.

The men,

dress

very

smartly, and finish off their costumes with

very large silver buttons.
I

took a room at the Hotel Krka; the
nice,

rooms are quite
rather dirty.

but the Restaurant
to ask
lot

The landlady wanted

me
off

fourteen krones as pension

—rather a
but as
I

for this out of the

way

place,

came

a yacht,
;

I

am, no doubt, expected to pay
however,
I

accordingly

decided

to

take
la

my

room, and then have

my
I

meals a

carte,

and by

this

means

exactly halved

the pension terms.

My
to

first

meal was comI
I

posed of soup, veal, salad and cheese.

had

not

intended

have
I

soup,

as

ordered spagetti, which

naturally thought

would be macaroni and tomato sauce, and

was disgusted to find it the name of a soup. Wine was given free, and all the other
customers seemed to drink
it
it,

but

I

found

horribly bitter, and to take off the taste

16
I

THROUGH BOSNIA
allowed myself a mareschino

—the

only
I

part of

my

lunch
in

I

enjoyed

!

At night

had macaroni

pieces
I I

three-quarters

of

a yard long, these
negotiate,
fork,

found most
twirled
it

difficult to

as

when

it

round

my
I

and was about to put
took

in

my

mouth,

the whole thing flew off like a spring.

think

it

me twenty

minutes to tackle

this dish.

The
town
great

streets here are very quaint, as the
is

built

on the

hill

side,

there are a

many

steps,

At the entrance to the
is

town, near the Qua}',

a beautiful gate-

way which
cold

I tried

to draw, but the intense

and wind soon sent me away. The Cathedral has fine doors east and north.

My
are
is

guide and

I

wandered about the town

looking for paintable spots of which there

many, we went into the gardens where a statue to Tommaseo (the author), and saw a
fat goldfish

in a fountain I

who seemed

to look at

me

out of the corner of his eye,

The

Porta Marina, Sebenico.

•SNIA

ily

outh,

a spring.

I

o tackle

.ooin-jdyS .sniifiM

(

1 \

e,iio

aril

Lie-

;ed

AND HERZEGOVINA.
in surprise at a stranger.

17

There are

many
came

remains of old Venetian days, in old door-

ways and on beautiful
wall of a building

carvings,

and
let

I

across a fine lion of St.
:

Mark

into the

very old columns, Roman,

are used as corner stones to
houses.

many

of the

The

streets

are

very narrow and
here

the

houses high.

May

would be a
is

charming month, but the end of March
far too early.

My
it

guide and

I

sat in the

gardens for awhile in the sun, but the wind
sent us indoors,
rose so high

and the dust

blew in clouds.
I

told

my
if it

guide

to

come

early

next

morning
piercing
till

was
still

fine

ana warmer, but the

wind

prevailed, so

we waited

nine,

and

I
I

my

window.
I

drew the pretty view from was longing to draw the
in

gate which
earlier trip

had kept

view from

my

down

this coast
I

and

for

which

particular reason

came

to Sebenico,
I

how-

ever

we had no

luck,

and again

could do

18

THROUGH BOSNIA
streets.
I

nothing but wander in the

saw

some wonderful Easter

offerings,

chickens

made
paste

of a sort of yellow bread, with

two red
one

eggs

reposing

in
tail

their

breasts,

cock's feather in the head.
I

and another

in the

took a few photographs of the

fruit

market,

but

the

non-picturesque

people

were very tiresome, coming immediately in
front
of

my

camera at the most

critical

moment.

One man's waistcoat was covered

with embroidery and masses of silver buttons
in clusters

down
and
I

the front and others at the

sides

;

they were very handsome buttons,
filagreed,

large, round,
flat.

and others were

Those

have on

my
as

coat were a source
the natives talk

of

great interest,

and

Italian,

they were a subject of

much

con-

versation between

them and
is

myself.

The bread market
and rows

very quaint, rows

of long loaves of bread,
is

which

my

guide says

sold very cheap to the poor

AND HERZEGOVINA
people.

19
is

The vegetable market

close

to

the bread market,
just
I

but vegetables are few

now; where anything green came from was at a loss to know, as a fresh blade of
was nowhere
to be seen, all
is

grass even

bare

rock and thoroughly winterly in appearance.

On

the second

day

I sallied

forth to paint

my

gate at 12-30, so as to

sit in

the sun and

avoid the crowd of natives
to their mid-day meal,

who had gone
luckily did not
after
it.

and

seem

in

any hurry

to

come out
I

On

account of the cold
instead of

left

early next day,
train.

by the evening
I

There are

only two trains, so
7-20 a.m.
I

decided to leave by the
to be able to go to

had hoped
it

Knin, but

we found

took too long for

me

to reach the yacht in time.
usual,

Of course, as

we

arrived ages too soon at the station.

A

small boy carried most of

my

luggage and

my

guide the

rest.

The

station

was about

a mile from the hotel, there are no carriages
in the town, so walking
is

compulsory.

The

20
train
ally

THROUGH BOSNIA
was already in the wanted to get into
official,

station,
it,

and
I

I

natur-

but

was waved
I

back by an
wait
till

and was told

must

the appointed time.
trains,

At Petrovic
to sketch

we changed

and

I

had time

one or two natives, the
thick dark blue
applique,
cloth

woman wore

very

with stripes of red

and

green

and

orange

pipings

and strappings, with patches of wool embroidery at intervals, and an apron of many
colours,

edged with a hair fringe

;

her head

was covered by a white embroidered cotton
kerchief.

Also

a

fine

old

man made an

imposing figure with his long brown coat,
blue trousers hooked tightly at the ankle,
his

many

coloured

embroidered waistcoat

and
in

his silver buttons,

and wide leather

belt,

which were tucked weapons and
a long

pipes.

He was smoking
I

wooden

pipe, holding

the bowl in his hand, chatting to

me

while

was sketching him.

We

came along the most

arid

country,

AND HERZEGOVINA
all

21

stones,

but

lots of vines

were growing
I

apparently out of the stones, as
hardly any
there
soil

could see

about them
soil,

;

in

some parts
hillsides

was more

and on the

patches of earth for vineyards.

The railway

winds in and out of the

and the only

bit of

which are grey, colour to be seen was in
hills

the costumes of the peasants, which

was an

agreeable
of stone.

relief

from the great monotony

Men and women were very busy

and attending to the vines. We passed Trau and Salona at some distance,
digging
at

the

latter

are

many Roman
the
capital
of

remains,

which are beautifully situated over the bay.
Salona

was once

Roman
its

Dalmatia and had a

naval

harbour,

massive walls were washed by the sea in
those days, but
the ruins.

now

it

has receded far from
Civil

In the
to

Roman

War, Salona

adhered
Octavius,

Caesar,

and was beseiged by
general.

Pompey's

Much

excarelics

vation

is still

going on, and the chief

22
are

THROUGH BOSNIA
removed to the Museum
at

Spalato.

Diocletian
this

had a beautiful palace overlooking bay, which covered nine and a half
Diocletian was born near

acres in extent.

Ragusa.
This
little

railway ends at Spalato, where
joined the yacht.

we once more
Spalato
hills
is

picturesquely encircled

by

lofty

and

lies in

a

fertile
its

region on a peninsula.
to a great palace

The town owes

name

(palatium) of Diocletian, within the precints
of

which a great part of the old town
little

is built.

The palace formed a

world of

its

own,

with temples, baths, &c., of which the principal

remains are more or

less built over, as

for instance the Cathedral piazza,
peristyle,

once the
columns,

has

twelve

Corinthian

some

of

which are built into the houses,
is

while the south end

occupied by an im-

posing vestibule with four columns of red
granite.

This

vestibule

once

led

to
it

the

private state apartments

and from

opens

a Rotunda.

AND HERZEGOVINA.
The
Cathedral,

23
a
fine
edifice,

enclosed

by a dilapidated colonnade (originally the Mausoleum of Diocletian) is now dedicated
to the Virgin

and

St.

Diomo.

In the interior

are eight columns,

twenty-three feet high,

bearing an ambulatory, on which stand eight

columns which were once crowned by statues.

Between these columns at the top is a frieze with hunting scenes, portraits, and various
other
figures.

The

pulpit
:

and

choir-stalls

are also

Romanesque

the columns of the

former

with their capitols are
to

very

fine.

The Baptistery was supposed
to Jupiter.

have been

the private temple of Diocletian, dedicated

The Porta Aurea

is

on the north and

is

the palace gate facing the land.
is

This gate

most imposing and impressive, no doubt because it has not been mixed up with modern
you get a
clear

buildings, so

view of

it.

Happily

for

me

while at Spalato something
boiler, this

went wrong with the yacht's

much

24
refreshed

THROUGH BOSNIA

me by

its

kindness,

and

I

decided

to take a little jaunt of

my own

to Trau, a

town we had passed on our way, so to Trau
I

went,

accompanied by the old courier

Angelos.

We

chartered
little

a

carriage

and

drove to this dear
old

place with a lovely

Venetian

Cathedral.

At

Spalato

we
still

had a thunderstorm, and the weather

looked threatening, so after seeing the sights
of Trau, I settled

down

to

work on the old
I

Venetian gate of the town.
to

had only time

draw

it

that evening and hoped to return

next day, as we had to stay the night at
Trau, but alas
I
!

it

rained hard

all

night,

and

was wondering

if I

should

rise at

day-break

or not,

when

I

suddenly remembered the

door and covered-in porch of the Cathedral.

To

this
I

I

started off in a downpour,
sit

but

found

could

comfortably inside the porch,

and there old Angelos found me in due course, hard at work, and there I sat till lunch time.
In the afternoon
it

cleared,

and

I

went

iA

oided

md

lovely

alato
her

we
still

its

of

o old

time
.turn
it at

and
>reak
I

the
Iral,

>ur,

but
orch,

I

w<

AND HERZEGOVINA
on
painting the gate,

25

but the wind blew
I

my
give

sketch twice
it

off

the easel, so

had

to

up and ordered the carriage to return

to Spalato.
in

Two ruffianly looking

youths clad
as

brown coats with hoods acted

coachman
octroi,

and footman.

When we
as

reached the

they had to throw back their coats for inspection underneath
;

it

was raining and and

the hood was up, the douanier proceeded to

examine

the

inside

of

the

carriage,

found old Angelos and myself, at which he
saluted respectfully and
I

waved us

on.
visit

found the family also anxious to

Trau, and next morning
sea, so

we

all

returned by
gate
!

much

the better for
it

my

The

drive

is

quite pretty, and

was a

treat to
I

see green once more.

On

the

way

passed

seven villages
as

all

called Castello something,

Castelvecchio,

Castelnuovo,

&c,

relics

of old feudal times, there being a castle in

the centre of

each village with houses
visit

all

round

it.

I

longed to

each, but

had

no time.

26

THROUGH BOSNIA
are very striking, blue

The men's costumes

trousers open at the back of the ankle to

ten inches from the shoe
little

—a

string sandal

brass hooks
required,

and eyes
red

to fasten

them

when
the

sashes

and tabs at
the

waist,

the

sash in

which

usual

weapon
velvet

reposes,

slashes

brown jacket with crimson and fringe ornamenting
all

the front, piped with crimson

round,

a

waistcoat of red velvet with silver buttons,

and

the

scarlet

cap
in

crowns
dark

all.

The
with
a

women

look

well

blue,

red band round the bottom of the skirt,

coloured handkerchiefs on their heads

;

some

wore long blue coats piped with red and red bands embroidered down the sides, a sort
of stocking-shoe embroidered in

many colours

and an apron of red and yellow. The landlord at Trau was surprised and
pleased to see
of fried eggs,

me

again for

my

frugal lunch
;

Parmesan cheese and radishes
I

the yacht had anchored so far out,

could

AND HERZEGOVINA
not go back to
it.

27
I

finished

my

work

in

hand, and then tried to draw the attention

someone on the yacht, but it was no so I had to hire a boat from shore.
of
It

use,

was twelve hours run from Spalato to Gravosa (the harbour of Ragusa). We came
past the islands of Lesina, Lissa, Curzola,

and Sabioncello, and down the Canale
Melita.

di

We

thought of calling at the town
is

of Curzola,

which

well worth a visit, but
it

as to

it

was blowing hard, we deemed

wiser

push on.

We
town
;

reached Ragusa next morning after

a rolling night,

and anchored opposite the but there was such a roll on, I was
would

sure that none but the best sailors

come

to

breakfast,

so

we moved

into the

port of Gravosa, two miles away.

Mr. T. and

I

walked to the town,

he,

poor
the

man,

politely carrying

my

satchel.

On

way we passed many
is

villas.

The old town

entered by a charming old gate, called

28
Porta
Pille
is

THROUGH BOSNIA
;

old walls surround the town,

which

also a fortress.

Directly you enter

the gate a quaint fountain meets your gaze,

and many
about
it.

figures in

costumes are grouped
prin-

We

wandered on down the

cipal street of shops, in

many

of

which were

collections of curiosities, embroideries, bags,
belts,

swords,

old

inlaid

mother-of-pearl
of

stocked guns,

&c, the

belts

enormous

weight were studded with agates, and were
said
to

have been worn by the women.
streets,
off

Narrow
branched

with

innumerable
;

steps,

from the main street

several

churches and two monasteries, the Franciscan

with a charming old courtyard.

The Rector's Palace had a
these were

fine portico

;

among

the things

we

saw, but

I

have no doubt that there were many others

we

did not see of equal interest, as

my

atten-

tion

was rivetted on one
bright

of the steep side

streets,

with

all

kinds
it.

of

coloured

clothing

strung

across

I

had hardly

A

Street in

Ragusa

I

BOSNIA

ur gar

Touped
print

which w<
is,

ba<

-of-pearl

rmous
'd

wc

e
"
!

wome
stej

ft!

ble

.

saw, bu
i

y otL

Of

CO:

AND HERZEGOVINA.
started work,
torrents.
I

29
the rain in

when down came

sent old Angelos off for a carriage
I

while

I

took refuge in a doorway, and

gener-

ously gave the old courier

my

umbrella as

he had none.

After waiting a long time and
I

getting in despair of his ever returning,

suddenly heard his voice round a corner, so
I

ran.

Why

he took so long was, that he
left

had quite forgotten where he had

me

!

Some down

of the others reached the
I

quay

at

the same time as
in sheets

did
it

;

the rain coming
difficult to get

made

very

on board, and the dingey was simply a large
pool of water.

In the afternoon

we wen!

,

in the launch

up

the river of the Val d' Ombra, as
told
it

we were
;

was a very nice excursion the country was very ugly, but the water at the fall seemed to bubble up from the ground,
coming through, not down the mountain, when it had disappeared entirely for nineteen miles.

30

THROUGH BOSNIA

On
There

April 20th
is

we

left

Gravosa

for Cattaro.

not

much

to see in the

town

there,

but the market was most fascinating, peasants
in

costume from

all parts,

Brda, or Monte-

negro,

The Montenegrins are a very good looking fine race. The women part the hair in the middle, and wear enor&c, &c.
mously thick
plaits of hair

round the head,

a black shawl in cold weather for the married

women and

a

little

cap for the

girls,

embroiI.),

dered on the crown with I.H. (Nichola

a long white sleeveless coat, a blue or red

zouave of velvet,

beautifully

embroidered

in gold, ordinary skirt of calf

and apron, and shoes skin with string tops and straps, a
is

sock with a border of red and blue
over the stocking.

worn
little

The men wear the

round cap, the
red
waistcoat

sleeveless

white coat, and
black

embroidered in

and

silver buttons, wide, bright blue pantaloons,

and a sash and leathern pocket
the revolver rests

in

which

—these

latter

they always

AND HERZEGOVINA.
wear,

31

except
all

where

market days at Cattaro, firearms have to be left behind.
on

They (men and women) are splendid specimens of humanity, every man a soldier and
a gentleman, with a fine carriage and a most
dignified

manner

;

they salute or bow, often

both.

In the afternoon, Angelos and
off

I

started

in a carriage
of

to drive to Cettinje,
I

the

capital

Montenegro, where

stayed the

night.

The road
all

zig-zags

up the mountain

side

the

zags

way from Cattaro to a Col, then zigdown on the other side to Cettinje,
lies

which

nestling at the foot of steep hills
of a cultivated valley.

and at the end

The

road was in a state of repair, and was a mass
of stones all the

way, which made the drive

of seven hours very tiring.

The scenery

is

very grand and rugged, the mountains pinky
grey in colour, with very
little

green at the
even,

commencement

of

the

ascent

and

32
these are chiefly shrubs

THROUGH BOSNIA
;

then this green ends,

and

is

entirely left behind,
all

and the mountains
with an

stand out in

their ruggedness,

occasional patch of

snow

still

left

by the

road side at the end of April.

There

is

very

little soil

except in the valleys,
basins.

and these are old lake
of soil
is

Every

bit

used in cultivation.
is

For miles and

miles there

nothing to be seen but rugged,

jagged rock.

On

our

way we

passed a few thatched
to bait the horses at

cottages,

and stopped

the only village on the road, called Njegus,

which

is

a short distance over the frontier.
is

In this village the house
Prince
here, I

shown where

Nichola

was born.

had a
I

frugal meal of

While waiting eggs, bread and
of a very fine

wine,

and

made a sketch

looking young man,

much

to his

amusement

and

gratification, as

he seemed quite pleased
Several other
criticise,

with his appearance on paper.

good looking young men came to

Montenegro.

BOSNIA
ends,
rely left

tains

an
'

the

pt in the valleys,

Every

bit

For miles and
rugged,
ja
;

n"

moU

matched
orses at

Njegus,

w
Ir.

frontier.

wn where
liting
I

he
wine,

and

and

I

m
ion, as

of a very fine
his

amusement
pit

and gra

he

d quite

Several oth

me

to crit

AND HERZEGOVINA.
some spoke a
little

33
Italian but

most

of

them

Slav, I suppose, as they are the descendants
of the old nobility of the Servian Empire,

who

fled to the

Black Mountains to escape

Turkish
their

oppression,

and who

maintained
all

liberty
for

comers

and independence against more than five centuries.

A

blind musician

came

to play while I

was

lunching, his instrument had one string only,

which

is

usual in this country

;

but

it
it

was

as sweet

and melodious as though

had

many

strings.

The aspect of the scenery was much the same until we reached the Col, but when
there the view was grand in the extreme.

Range

after range of rocky, jagged

moun-

tains, the lake of Scutari in the

dim distance
snow behind,

and the Albanian mountains

in

and a pinky glow from the setting sun enhanced the view. Here we paused a few
moments, then began to descend to Cettinje, which we reached after driving for some hours.

34
Before going further,
I

THROUGH BOSNIA
will

say a
is

little

about Montenegro, which in extent
half the size of Wales.

about

There are a few small
is

towns dotted about, the capital

Cettinje,

and the only town I visited. The seaport town is Dulcigno, on the Adriatic the
;

whole

country

is

very

mountainous

and

there are several small lakes, the principal

one

is

Scutari,

of

which half belongs to

Montenegro and the other half to Albania. If I had had time, I should have much
liked to

have driven to Lake Scutari, but

it

would have taken a whole day to go there and back from Cettinje, so I had to give it up.

The Montenegrins
country and

are such delightful people

that I believe you can go anywhere in their
feel

perfectly

safe,

they are
In the

particularly hospitable to strangers.

time of war with Turkey, the Turkish

women

and children

fled into

Montenegro, knowing

they would be perfectly safe from insult of

any kind

in the

enemy's

territory.

AND HERZEGOVINA.
There
negro,
tiniest
is

35
farming land in Monteis

but

little

the peasant

glad to enclose the
retained

patch of

fertile soil

by the

hollows in the mountain sides.

The
of

largest land proprietor
acres,

is

the owner
estates
it
is

sixty

and other freehold
acres,

vary from two to twenty

and

usually not to the individual,

but to the

family that this ownership belongs.

The
earliest
is

history

of

Montenegro

from

the

times to the Turkish

War

of 1877,

one of incessant wars and

raids,

throughout

the whole of which the country has preserved
its

independence, even

when Turkish power
of south-eastern
of

was spread over the whole The accession Europe.
dynasty dates from
(the reigning Prince
of Italy)

the

present

1687.

Prince Nichola
of the

and father

Queen

conducted a successful war against Turkey; he is a dramatist, and also intro-

duced a new code of laws.
Bears and wolves are
still

to be found in

36
the highest forests.

THROUGH BOSNIA

Cettinje has a population of about 1,300
people,

the

houses

are whitewashed,
is

with

red roofs.
in

The whole town

very clean

appearance.
It

has a broad main
streets.

street,

crossed
street

by
are

smaller

In
the
is

the

main

the houses of

foreign

representatives.

In the square
Nichola,

the palace of the Prince

unpretentious in

appearance and

only distinguishable by the guard in front
of
air
it.

The Prince

still

administers open-

justice

before his palace,

though lately

the large tree under which he sat has fallen,
I believe.

Not

far off is the palace of Prince Danilo,

his son, the hall of the senate being

on the

ground
Justice,

floor.

The

Ministry,

the Court of

and the prison are adjacent, and
is

opposite the Ministry

the Monastery, in
of the reigning

whose church the ancestors
house
are
buried.

Above the

Monastery

Cettinje.

;h

f

:X)

th

•re

'penlately

1
ilo,

of

AND HERZEGOVINA.
rises a

37
until lately

round tower, which
skulls.

was

adorned by Turkish
astery
is

Near the Mon-

the

Museum

in

which are many torn
etc.,

standards, arms, medals,

etc.

Montenegro has a standing army,
every able-bodied
four

in

which

man

serves for a term of

months

at a time.

as fine soldiers as

The Montenegrins are can be found, and the Prince

takes the keenest interest in his
his

army and

Every morning he rides over to the square, where his subjects await him
people.

bare-headed.

He

signs

one to

his

side,

who, after kissing his hand, walks along by
the side of his horse as far as the barracks, the Prince meanwhile discussing and questioning

him

as to his family affairs, or crops,

&c.

At the barracks the Prince watches the
chats with his
officers,

drilling,

and inspects

the building, after which he will often visit

the

Law

Courts and superintend

affairs.

His people reverence him, and look upon

him

as their father in

more than name.

38
I

THROUGH BOSNIA
stayed at a comfortable hotel, and next
I

morning Angelos and
streets, starting at

wandered about the

6 a.m. and visiting several

shops, as I

one of

was particularly anxious to buy the pretty costumes, which are so
the shoes were tiresome to get,
I

becoming, and would make such a charming
fancy dress
;

as I did not fancy the calf-skin ones which

was
and

told I

must soak

to soften, these I scorned,

at last found a very smart pair with

leather soles

and ornamented
to get

string tops.

back to the yacht and wanted to do some sketching on the way,
I

As

had

and was

tired of

wandering about on

foot,

we

started on our return journey to Cattaro

at 9-30,
left

and

it

was with much
and

regret that I
their country.

these charming people

About half-way I paused to bitterly cold, and by the time
could hardly
feel

sketch,
I

it

was

had

finished

my
;

fingers.

The horses
and
I

had been taken out
lunch to

of the carriage
it

had
of

warm me up

was composed

The Market

Place, Cettinje.

AND HERZEGOVINA
eggs fried in rancid
oil

39

—very

nasty

!

but
rest

the bread was of excellent rye.
of our party passed us
tinje,

The

on their way to Cetvisit

which they intended to

and

re-

turn in the same day.

Soon the wind rose

and came

in

gusts at every zig-zag going
;

down

the mountain side

I

did not envy

the others

who
ten

could not reach the yacht
o'clock.

again

till

The evening was

very stormy, we thought of their terrible
drive in the dark,
all

and were on the look out

the evening for them.

About

eight

we

saw

two

lights

on

the

mountain
it

slowly

descending, so
travellers,

we were

sure

must be our

who

arrived safe and sound about

10-30, very tired,

and one driver was drunk,
walked eight miles
stormy,
wild
coast

so those in the carriage

rather
is this,

than

drive.

A

warm

in the valleys

but bitterly cold
of

in the mountains,
still

and a good deal

snow

at the

end

of April.
I

After Montenegro

decided to return once

40

THROUGH BOSNIA
to

more

—with
from

Ragusa

—that

fine old fortress

town

Miss B., so

we bade

farewell to the

yacht and retraced our steps once more, and
there

we

travelled

through

Herze-

govina and Bosnia.

Here a new guide met
strongly
there,

me from

Pola,

recommended by a friend of ours and he proved a great success, by
found ourselves at a very
Imperial

name Karabaich.
Miss B. and
I

comfortable hotel

—The

—where

we

stayed a week in this delightful old town

surrounded by walls and

fortresses.

Ragusa
is
it

lies

at the foot of

Monte

Serjio,

and

built

on

its

steep slopes.

Down

to 1805

was an independent republic, but was annexed by Napoleon, and later in 1814 by
Austria.

We

enter the
Pille,

town from Gravosa
in the niche over

by the Porta
the gateway

where

is

the statue of St. Biagio, the
is

patron saint of the town, which

entirely

surrounded by enormously thick walls, on

The Fontana

Onofrio, Ragusa.

.(A

town
ae
..

our
led

id

through

Hen

ae

from Pola,

friend of ours

sreat success,

by

nan
id
1
t

,£2u§£^

ohlonO finBJno^ sdT here

ery

we

old

town
«

;

jio, a

1805

but was
S814 by
>sa

er
St.

Biagio

AND HERZEGOVINA.
which
from
found
it

41

is

permitted to walk by an order

the

commandant's
attractions.
Pille

office

;

but we
passing

greater

On

through Porta

you enter the long wide

street called the Corso,

they run races,

and here on Sundays one of which we saw, two
forwards

men were running backwards and
for

four

miles.

The Corso extends from
is

one end of the town to the other, and
flanked

by the

principal shops

and some

of

the Churches.

On

the right, near the gate,

is

the large

fountain called Onofrio, which was built in

and here many picturesque come to draw water. To the left
1473,

figures
is

the

Franciscan Church, with
its

its fine cloisters

and

Gothic portal.

Rather lower down the
is

street

on the opposite side

the Servian

Church, at the east end of the Corso, in a
square,
left is
is

the Church of St. Biagio.

On

the

the custom house, formerly the mint.

This was built in the Venetian style, about

42
1520,

THROUGH BOSNIA
and
it
is

adorned with a statue of

St.

Biag'io,

has also a handsome courtyard.

Near,

is

the clock tower and the guard house
old
fountain.

with

an

Then

comes

the

Palazzo Comunale and the Museum.
Rector's Palace with
its

The
is

fine

colonnade

most

striking,
is

and passing through the door-

way

a beautiful courtyard surrounded by

pillars,

and a noble marble

staircase possibly
i

dating from the fifteenth century, but recently
restored.

Walking further on you come to the Cathedral, built in the

seventeenth century.

From

here

we

pass on to the market place, which
;

has a beautiful old Venetian door

there one

day

I

sketched under

difficulties,

with

a

curious crowd and a tearing wind,

which

whirled the dust round and round over

me

and

my

easel, in

a very aggravating manner.

Returning whence we came, we walked
along to the clock tower, which
under, and immediately to

we passed our left was the

AND HERZEGOVINA
Dominican
of steps.

43

Monastery,

up

several

flights

My
some

first

day was spent

in

shopping and

sight-seeing, the former consisted of

buying
I

of the beautiful gold embroideries.
I

found what

think will
is

make a

beautiful

dinner gown, the coat
all

embroidered nearly

over with the most exquisite gold embroid;

ery
to

this coat is

sleeveless,

but belonging

it

are sleeves which are also a

mass

of

embroidery, these are cut perfectly straight,
so impossible to wear, but
I

think they can

be adapted by wearing them outside others

bought a gold embroidered man's waistcoat which makes
fall loose.

and allowed to

I also

a very smart trimming for a coat, or could

be used for a winter gown.
old silver pins for hats,

I

found some

and a quaint jug
it

which has a secret how to drink out of
without spilling the wine.
It is

very

old,

the wine comes up the handle, round the top
of the jug to the lip, in

which

is

a hole to

44
drink,
all

THROUGH BOSNIA
the top of the jug
is

perforated,

so

it is

necessary to
I

know

the secret to avoid

spilling the wine.

to

my

collection

added many other things and sent them on to the
These shops are

yacht to be brought home.

too fascinating for words, there are so

many

things you can't get at Liberty's, wonderful
to relate.

There are quantities of old firearms
guns with inlaid stocks, pistols

for sale, old

The place was full of visitors speaking in German tongue,
of all sizes

and shapes, &c, &c.

but we saw no English, or even
present
buildings

the ever

American.

There are

many
also
;

old

worth

visiting,

and the

streets

are very quaint

and picturesque,
the hillsides

very

narrow, stretching up
long street

one wide

down

the centre of the town,

where the principal shops are to be found.
Friday and Saturday mornings
painting
the
cloisters
I

I

spent in

of

the

Dominican

Monastery, and

persuaded one of the young

monks

to pose for me, sitting near the well.

AND HERZEGOVINA.
In the afternoon Miss B. and
I

45

walked about

the quaint old streets and saw
tive bits for the brush,

many

attraccoffee

and then had

at a cafe

and

sat

on the terrace, but the wind
in the

was
is

cold, as

we were not

sun which

hot.

Certainly the weather as to the in-

tense cold

found

it

had somewhat improved, and we unnecessary to wear so many coats
before,

and woolly things as
blessing.

which was a

The peasants were very
there
is

picturesque,

and
in

a great variety of

costume both

men and women, some of course very shabby, and one wonders how their rags hold together.
All these

towns are wonderfully clean and
all

about here
they

the people look clean, though

may

be very ragged.

The monks

at

the monastery were very interested in

my
I

work, and crowded on to the balcony above

me,

chattering

like

magpies.

Sunday,

went

to high Mass,

and

in the afternoon took

a carriage to drive to San Giacomo, a disused

46
monastery.

THROUGH BOSNIA
Karabaich sat on the box with
Carriages are hor-

my

sketching materials.

ribly expensive,
shillings

at the rate of about

two
it

a mile.

Unfortunately we took

granted that we could get on to the terrace, and allowed the carriage to go away with
for

instructions to return in three hours.

Alas

!

the doors were

and though we found out where the custodian lived, he had
all

locked,

gone to the town, so as

it

was not very

far to
I

walk to the Villa Adrian, Karabaich and
decided to look at
as
it

on our way back on
three

foot,

we could not spend
a a

hours doing
Villa

nothing by the wayside.
is

The

Adrian
with
quite

pension,

charming

situation
;

several terraces

down

to the sea

all is

new except some of the columns used in I made various enquiries about pergolas.
pension, but

the

the

was not pleased with the idea of always schinken (ham) for supper, and the rooms I saw did not impress me favourably either.

In ten years' time the garden

AND HERZEGOVINA
will

47

be lovely, no doubt, and in the summer
leaves are out
it

when the
nice.

must now be quite

The next day we went
of Island of

to the

much

talked

Lacroma, to which a small launch

conveys you, and you pay the sum of two
krones to go and return, and another krone
to the solitary

Dominican monk who inhabits
to belong to the
to

the island.

Lacroma used

Emperor Maximilian, and then Rudolf, but it was then considered
that the

Prince

so unlucky

Emperor handed
I

it

over to the
if

Dominicans.
seen

asked the
at

monk

he had

any

ghosts,

which he was much
Monastery
can

amused.

Part

of

the

be

wandered over, and the gardens would be charming if well planted with flowers. These
gardens, of which there are several, are sur-

rounded by high hedges, and box borders enough to delight any one. The rooms of the
monastery are bare, but over each bedroom
door
is

a rhyme in German, such as

:

48

THROUGH BOSNIA
" Freund
Freund
in der
in der

Droth

Todt

Freund hintern Rucken

Das sind
and another
1 '

drei starke

Bnicken,"

Schweig und Meig

Werk und Leid
Jedes Ding hat seine Zeit."

and so on over each door.
I

saw many
Albert,

prints

of

Queen

Victoria,

Prince

and other

Royalties,

also

several engravings of old English pictures

by

famous

artists.
fir

The

island

is

itself

and cypress trees, and has many shady walks. We had some time to wait for the return launch, and amused
covered with small
Miss B. by sketching the monk took a photo of him and promised him a
ourselves
;

copy.

On

our return the town was gay with
all

people of

nationalities

and costumes

to

see a great race being run
street,

down
for

the principal

by two men who ran

an hour and

AND HERZEGOVINA.
a half without stopping.
I

49
sat at the feac

and sketched some

of the people.

After dinner there
or to see in

was nothing to be done the town, and as the drawingstuffy,
I

rooms soon became very
to

went

off

my room

after supper.

One afternoon while we were amusing
by turning over, and I am afraid purchasing, some of the fascinating goods in one of the shops, we found a bridegroom
ourselves

making purchases for his bride elect, who was attended by her mother and aunt as
chaperones.

Both bride and bridegroom came from the Canali district, where the
a very charming costume of

women wear
bright colours.

On

the head

is

a
it

little

red

and gold embroidered cap, over

a white

embroidered accordian pleated handkerchief,

embroidered vest and bolero, with tassels of
gold coloured silk on sleeves and bodice, a

white apron with a deep embroidered hem,

probably a bright blue accordian

pleated

50
skirt

THROUGH BOSNIA
with a border of some other colour.

About the bodice and waist are many ribbons as ornament, and a sash of many colours
round the waist.
dressed on Easter

We
left

saw a good many so
in the town.

Sunday

On
rain,

April 4th

we

Ragusa

in drenching

which began the day before and continued all the journey to Mostar, but was

happily fine after our arrival about 7-30. This is a journey of eight hours through the

rugged grey stone. The railway goes up a great height and winds in and out of the hills, the view is more grand than

mountains

of

beautiful.

The

train

stops

at

many

little

stations for the sole reason of allowing the
travellers to

have drinks, we concluded, as

at

many

places

we stayed

ten minutes for

that we saw apparently no reason except the travellers flocking into a bar.

been under Herzegovina, since 1878, has the titular dominion of the Turkish Sultan,

but the administration of Austria-Hungary.

The Old

Bridge,

Mostar.

I

n.

ar,

but
it

7-30.
t

ugh

ad

little

-

AND HERZEGOVINA
It
is

51

bounded on the north and

east

by

Bosnia, south by Montenegro, and west by

Dalmatia, and only just touches the Adriatic
at Sutterina.

Some

districts,

those of Niksich

and Domitor, have been placed by the Treaty of Berlin under the Government of the Prince
of Montenegro.

The greater part
to

of the population belong

the

Greek Church.

Then come about

70,000 Mohamedans, some

Roman

Catholics,

Jews, and Gipsies.

The Mahomedan popu-

lation are those that strike the eye most,

probably because of the men's picturesque
dress,

and the bazaars which one makes a

point of visiting.

The people

live

chiefly in

hamlets, and
;

there are only about five towns
of

the capital

Herzegovina

is

Mostar.
at Mostar,
is

Over the
fine old

river Narenta,

a

Roman

bridge which connects two

parts of the town.

The

river

Narenta

is

the principal river,

52

THROUGH BOSNIA
its

and along

valley

lies

the most cultivation,

olives, mulberries, figs,

melons, grapes,

rice,

and maize are grown. In some places there are forests of beech and pine. Many of the
mountains reach to a height
of 8,500 feet

near the Montenegrin frontier.

There are

many

sheep and goats, out of the wool of

which the long white thick coats are made
that you see hanging at shop doors in the

hamlets

all

the

way

to Mostar.

There

is

a

high road from Serajevo in Bosnia, through

Herzegovina to the Adriatic.

We

visited these parts in April, but

it

was

far too early for comfort,

and
it

I

should not

recommend anyone

to attempt

before June.

Herzegovina seems to have changed hands many times within the last 400 years, at one
time belonging to Hungary,

and then to
it
;

Bosnia, then Turkey conquered
too, the Venetians

earlier,
in.

seemed to have a look

Of
to

its

history under the Turks there seems

be

no

particular

records.

Feudalism,

AND HERZEGOVINA

53

under Mahomedan guise continued to survive
here.

The

Spahis,

begs,

or

agas,

were

mediaeval lords

who had apostatized

to Islam.

They kept their ancestral castles, banners and title deeds, and patents of nobility.

They enacted feudal and retainers. One
nobles,
Ali,

service from their serfs
of

these

Mahomedan

Aga

of Stolac,

did such good

service for the Sultan in his struggle with

the Bosnian magnates,
Vizier of Herzegovina,

that he was

made
for

which was freed
government.
did not

a

while

from

Bosnian

The

reform of Sultan

Mahmoud

by any

means remove the grievances of the population of Herzegovina. The serfs had now to
satisfy the extortion of imperial excisement

as well as

from

their feudal lords.

The begs

and agas extorted from them forced labour and a third of the produce the central
;

government levied a
of the outbreak

tithe,

which at the date
eighth.

had become an
:

Three

kinds of cattle tax

the tax for exemption

54

THROUGH BOSNIA

from military service levied on every infant
in arms, forced labour in the roads, forced

loan of horses, a heavy tax on grapes and
tobacco, and a variety of lesser taxes crushed

the
still

Christian

peasants
in

;

but more galling

the

manner

which these taxes were

extorted

— the
and

iniquitous assessment of tax

farmers

excisemen

— and

the

brutal
recal-

license of the Zaptiehs quartered

on

citrant villagers.

All this caused the insur-

rection of

1875, the villagers of Nevinsinge
its

(which

takes

name

from

a

plateau

near Mostar)

who were unable

to bear the

extortions and outrages committed

by the
against

Zaptiehs
their

and bashi-basouks,

rose

oppressors.

The

insurrection

spread

rapidly

through

Herzegovina

and

on

to

Bosnia, and for a year the Herzegovinians

under their leaders held out against
forces of Turkey,

all

the

gorge of
2,000

two struggles in the Muratovizza the Turks lost over
in

and

men.

In

July,

1876,

principalities

AND HERZEGOVINA.
joined in the struggle
;

55
the Russo-Turkish

war followed, and by the treaty of Berlin, the government of Herzegovina and Bosnia

was

confided

to

Austria-Hungary,

while

Niksich and the country about Mount Dor-

mitor were detached from Herzegovina and

annexed to Montenegro.
Curiously
time,

enough,
all

that

at

this

present

when

the states around are agitating,

not one word comes in protest from either
of these

two

states,

Herzegovina or Bosnia.

In July, 1878, the Austrian troops crossed
the

Herzegovinian

frontier,

and

this

news

roused the
effort.

Mahomedan
the

fanatics to a desperate

On August 2nd
ish

Mahomedans

of Mostar,

believing themselves betrayed

by the Turkmurdered

government, rose en
governor

masse,

the Turkish

and

officials.

The

Austrians

pressed

forward,

and crushing
Since the com-

some

ineffectual efforts at resistance, entered

Mostar on the 5th August.

56
pletion of the occupation,

THROUGH BOSNIA
the government

of the province has been under the military

governor

at

Sarajevo,

controlled

by the
has,

Foreign Office at Vienna.

The Sultan

up

to now, remained the sovereign de jure,

so that the present declaration of Austria
is

not likely to involve any alteration of

government

from

what

has

gone on

all

these last thirty years.

At Mostar there

is

quite a comfortable

hotel called Hotel Narenta, with a Restaurant

attached,

where you can order what you

like in the
sit

way

of food, without

having to
took an

through a weary supper

— which

hour at Ragusa,

—and we found
Two
ladies

the cooking

much

better

too.

can
if

travel

alone in

these parts quite well,

they can

speak Italian and German, and at the Hotels they all speak English. I have my guide,
Karabaich,

who
off

carries

my

and keeps

the crowd

sketching things

all of

which

is

a

convenience, but not a necessity so

far.

AND HERZEGOVINA

57

Next day we wandered into the town, which was a mass of mud. It rained at intervals,
but we managed to see the old town with the
Turkish Bazaar, which consists of tiny shops
nothing
it
;

much tempted
little

us to buy, though

was

interesting to look at them.

There

are

many

Mosques dotted about with
It

tiny minarets.
so

was too wet
I

to sketch,

memory must

suffice.

thought of taking

a drive, but the downpour began after lunch.

We
last
!

wondered how much longer
!

it

would

The stamps
cinating with

of

Herzegovina are most

fas-

little

views on them, they can

be had from the value of a quarter of a
farthing upwards, each

stamp has a

different

view on

it.

and they are double the

size of

an

ordinary stamp, so take up a good deal of

room on an envelope. Here we were much impressed by the women's ungainly costume with their hideous
baggy
trousers,

generally

of

some

black

58

THROUGH BOSNIA

material, the whole of the upper part of the

body and head is swathed in the feridjeh, and they waddle along very similar to ducks, the back view being most laughable.
I

have painted one

in

my

view of the

bridge of Mostar.
I

made

the excursion

by

carriage to the

source of the Buna, about eight miles from

Mostar

;

happily

it

ceased raining and

I

was

able to sketch the source which wells

up

from the ground apparently, but

is

one of

the curious rivers of these countries which
in

an

extraordinary

way

rind

their

way
and

through

a

mountain.

A

windmill

mosque came picturesquely into my foreground, and the rich deep blue of the water
added to
I

its

charm.

was sorry we had such wretched weather

at Mostar.

About seven o'clock next day the sun came out very kindly for our journey to
Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia, and before

The Source

of the Buna, near Mostar.

of

I

he

from
as

1

AND HERZEGOVINA
leaving Mostar

59
visit to

we paid another
streets
all
;

the
pic-

town,

into

other

but

the

turesque ones are
class

Turkish.

The

better

women wear

a most curious feridjeh,
to
;

with a bonnet attached

it

very

like

an

elongated Quaker's bonnet

no one can see
This

under

it,

but they see out of a chink.
generally
all

domino

is

black or dark blue.
trousers

Many

of

the

women wore

under

their skirts, the latter they

tucked up very

high to keep them out of the mud.

Going along

in

the

train

curious houses and scenes.
all

we saw many The houses have

very deep roofs of wood and often the
is

whole house

wood, there are no proper
at

chimneys, the smoke coming out
little

four

windows
force,

in the roof.

Ploughing was

in

full

and

six

oxen are often yoked
in

to a plough driven

by a woman

Turkish
;

trousers

and

sort of

shawl over her head
scarlet

sometimes the trousers were

and the

shawl white, and sometimes the whole cos-

60

THROUGH BOSNIA
yellow.

tume would be
boys, looking

The

little girls

and

after the flocks of sheep with

beautiful long white wool, were dressed in

brown
ing

sort of riding breeches, the
girl

boy wear-

a fez and the

a kerchief on the

head, the only distinction of sex.
Bosnia, the other state claimed

which

is

very mountainous,

is

by Austria, bounded on

by Albania and Montenegro, east by Servia, north and west by the Austrian dominions, and has an area of about 24,024
the south
miles.

A

large

proportion
it

is

forest

land,
fuel.

and valuable

as

furnishes timber

and

Plums are
prunes
;

grown and exported as maize and wheat are the principal
largely

crops, but barley, oats,

grown and goats are plentiful, and cattle, sheep large droves of pigs are fed in the oak forests.
hemp,
rice,
;

are

The whole

valley of the Bosnia
is is

is

said to

be a coal bed, and copper
places,

worked

in several

also

at

Inatch

a very valuable
is

cimmabar mine.

Marble, too,

found and

A

Street in Sarajevo.

[A

ef

on the

d by Au
ded on
.

\ustrian
'4,024

land,

own
cattl
la
-

;

and
fores*

said to
eral

ery

valuable

AND HERZEGOVINA
there
are
saline

61

springs.

The

principal

exports are timber,

fruit, cattle,

wool, lamb-

skins, furs of wild animals,

wax and honey.
Lately
that connect

Nearly

all

the trading

is

with Austria.

several roads have been

made

some
is

of the principal towns.

divided into

The province seven Sandjaks. The people
Mahomedans,

are Servians, but principally
as
is

seen in passing

many

graveyards by the

side of the railway, sadly dilapidated spots,

the gravestones of which for

men

are com-

posed of a column, crowned
turban or
fez,

by a carved

generally toppling sideways

over in a melancholy manner and

leaning

towards another column.

A

large part of

the south has an Albanian population.

Mahomedanism
but often enforced
lected,

is

not only predominant,
education
is

;

very neg-

though there are a good many schools. The population of Bosnia is about 1,592,000.
early inhabitants were Illyrians,
first

The
the

and

for

time they are mentioned in the

62
history
of

THROUGH BOSNIA
was 34
B.C.

In the

Roman

period,

which nothing remains, and at the end of

the fourth century,

Roman sway was
of

over-

come by the invasion

the Goths, then

followed Croatians, then Servians.

The south-

west part became Christian under Justinian
(527-565)

and the

rest

of

it

by Servian
a.d. 880.

apostles, Cyril

and Methodius, about

From
who

a.d.

940 and onwards, Bosnia

was

governed by elective princes or

"bans,"

afterwards became feudatories of the

Hungarian kings.
In a.d. 1377, the ruling
title

Ban assumed
I.

the

King Stephen Tvertko

In the reign of

his eighth successor,

Stephen Tomashewitch,

Bosnia was conquered by Sultan
II., this

Mahommed

was

in 1463.

In 1528, the banet of

Jaice,

and

in

1592 the north-west part of

Bosnia was taken by Turkey, and
the
chief

became
between

theatre

of

long

wars

Austria and Turkey, which at length were

ended by the peace

of Sistova in 1791.

The

AND HERZEGOVINA.
oppressive Turk
the
Christians
left

63
very
little

peace, causing

to

revolt
;

repeatedly,

par-

ticularly in 1850

and 1875

and

in 1878, the

Treaty of Berlin handed Bosnia with Herzegovina over to the government of Austria.

A

great deal has been done

by way
also

of im-

provements, such as new roads connecting

important

towns,

the

railway,

good

gendarmes keep order. I do not think the Bosnian
satisfied, in fact I

is

at all dis-

understand that at a large

meeting at Sarajevo of the Servian Independent Party, which consists chiefly of peasants, they decided to send a deputation of sixty
persons to thank the Emperor of Austria
for

the annexation

of

Bosnia and Herze-

govina,
loyalty.

and

to assure His Majesty of their
half of the deputation

One

would

consist of peasants,

and the

rest of the clergy

and townsmen.

The propositions

of Austria-

Hungary

being, that the complete

autonomy

which would be introduced into Bosnia and

64

THROUGH BOSNIA

Herzegovina would be based on the three
ruling

elements

of

the

population,

which

must receive
the Diet.

their proper representation in

To

ensure this free development

of the country, as well as religious peace, each
of

the three denominations would elect a

certain

number

of deputies,

but no one would
of his

be obliged to elect a
persuasion.
councils

member

own

In addition to the Diet, district
also be created.
It is

would

thought

that these arrangements
in the Spring.

may

be carried out

The
with

chief town,

Sarajevo,

is

picturesque

its

numerous minarets, and there are
its

nine bridges over

river,

the Miljavka.

Sad
the

to say

we found

ourselves very near

snow

at Sarajevo,

and from the

inces-

sant rain the streets were ankle-deep in
in

mud
the

the Bazaars.

We

wandered out

in

afternoon with our skirts not quite so high
as

the trousered ladies,

but

still

we were

determined they should be out of the mud.

Turkish Shops, Sarajevo.

own
ict

thought

Lout

uices-

id

re

AND HERZEGOVINA.

65

Of course sketching and photography were
not to be thought
of,

the only thing

we could
of

do was to patter along and see as much
interest

as

possible.

In

the

little

shops

copper was being beaten into trays, jugs,
ash-trays, coffee pots

there were silver
I

and cup holders, also and enamel things for sale
;

bought a couple of
brooches,

silver hat-pins.

I

saw
all

buckles,

studs,

earrings,

&c,

made
out

of silver in patterns or designs carried
article

on the
of

for

sale.

There were
all

quantities

shoemakers and saddlers
Stalls of sweet sellers

hard at work.

who

have a round table on which to display their
wares laid out in sections.
sellers

The lemonade

and

coffee

sellers

carried their jugs
like

and

glasses, calling as

they walked, very

Cairo.

People wore goloshes or pattens of
latter of

wood, some of the

which Miss B.
I

was very anxious to purchase, but
frightened her, saying she might

rather

fall

on her

nose as she was not used to them, and no

66

THROUGH BOSNIA

doubt they would be awkward to walk with
at
first,

so she refrained from buying a pair.
for

We

plodded along

some

time, then re-

turned to a

warm

cafe,

where we had delicious
grateful

coffee with beaten

up cream, so

and

warming The cold
!

at Sarajevo

was so great that

I

felt

very tempted to go straight to Budapest

and give up my tour to Plitvice after all. It is no pleasure to be even out of doors
in this

damp

depressing weather, but unfor-

tunately the morning that was to decide

me
I

broke forth into sunshine once more, and
decided to go on.

No
I

green was to be seen
all

on any bushes, and the rivers were
flood
;

in

however, as

for this trip, I

had a guide on purpose wanted to go if possible.
such a depressing outlook
it.

My bedroom had
that
I

asked to change

A tumbledown
spirits

Turkish hotel was not elevating to
I

found, and beside that there seemed to be
;

a general rubbish heap

in fact,

I

had

my

AND HERZEGOVINA.
doubts as to whether
looking such a place.
it

67

was healthy, overit

Though
I

is

always

an

effort to
it

change rooms,

made up my

mind

must be done, and changed very

much

for the better,

part of the hotel,
clean after

moving into quite a new which was very sweet and
had
just
left.

what

I

The next day was a glorious warm one and my spirits rose again, so I decided to go
the
original
,

excursion

to

Jajce,

and

on.

Miss B.
it,

who did not like

driving

and roughing

decided she would go direct to Budapest,

and home by Vienna, leaving me on Tuesday The journeys in these mountainous evening.
regions are very long

and the

trains creep

very slowly; each
since

little

journey in distance

we

left

Ragusa has taken seven or

eight hours, but the whole
"

way
I

is

interesting.

Early,

Karabaich and

wandered

forth

with

my

camera, and in hopes of finding a

place to sketch,

which seemed hopeless

in

the Bazaars, as the streets are very narrow,

68

THROUGH BOSNIA

with crowds of people and ponies laden with

wood

passing along

;

those laden with hay

require the width of the street to themselves,

and woe betide the passer-by
step back into a doorway.

if

he does not

After lunch

we

went out to sketch, and found a quiet street Karabaich which was also picturesque.

was busy keeping off the crowd who had "spotted" me. The boys soon discovered
something out of the ordinary was going on, and the little girls were made to stand back

by the boys,

was too busy to pay much attention, and finally got a most successful sketch with some Turkish ladies
I

fancy, but

I

flitting

by
it

in the picture

;

these

I

had

to

draw

in very hurriedly, as they, like all Easterns,

consider

bad luck to have a
of the groups in the

portrait taken,

and many
dispersed

market rapidly

when they detected
sees
in

my

camera.

The people one
remarkably
are tall
plain,

these parts are

though many of the men
of fine physique.

and well made, and

The Market

Place,

Sarajevo.

AND HERZEGOVINA
The Bosnian costume
is

69
very ugly, the

wear enormously wide black
to
their
feet,

women trousers down
voluminous

these
in the

being

so
in

must be much

way

wet weather,

and become very muddy and damp about the ankles. The material used has every
appearance of black sateen.
After

a

journey

of

seven
I

hours

from

Sarajevo, Karabaich and

arrived at Jajce.

The railway winds
of the mountains.
I

in

and

out,

and

in

and out
until

It

was

fine all

day

went out to paint the wonderful
is

waterfall.

This

a charming old town,

full of

quaint

wood roofed houses and mosques, the minarets are even made of wood. There seem
to be

many Turks
I

living here,

and

in these

parts

passed

many
of

dilapidated graveyards

on
or
it

my

way, and every village has a mosque

two.

Many

the

women
to

are

veiled

;

have to go about so muffled up, and what must it be in summer
!

must be a horrid bore

At Jajce

in

the old days, the Kings of

70
Bosnia had their
fortified
castle,

THROUGH BOSNIA
and the town was
;

of

and surrounded by walls the ruins Next walls and castles still remain.

morning was again wet and I did not go out, finally we had a short shower, but after
lunch
if I

it

cleared.

The landlord asked me
a Turkish lady.

would
I

like to visit

Of

course

was

delighted,

and he accompanied
where a friend

me

with Karabiach on the box, to a village
off,

about seven miles

of his

would take me into a Turkish house. We and were much drove up to a " Theehutte refreshed and warmed by some delicious
' '

coffee,

then
girl

I sallied

forth with the landlady's
call,

servant
the

as interpreter, to

as of course

landlord

from

Jajce
!

could

not

even

approach the doorstep

I

could only speak

German and
without

the Turkish lady Bosnian, so
interpreter

an

our

conversation
It

would have been very

limited.

was the

proper thing to take presents with you, for
the mother and children.
I

was at a

loss to

AND HERZEGOVINA

71

know where

the presents were to be got in
little

that tiny village, but the

maid took
for

me

to a shop,

where we bought sweets
of

the children

and a piece

soap, scented

strongly with pachouli, for the lady.

Armed
Into

with these we arrived on the doorstep.
the house

we walked without knocking

—no

doubt we were expected
very steep
entered
a
stairs,

— and climbed some
sitting-room,

went along a landing and
comfortable

very
all

with a divan
or

round

it.

There were one

two

chairs,

but the grandmother who
of her crotchet work,
floor.

came

in to

show some

squatted on her heels on the
little

One

girl

with hair of
I

a most curious red

came

into the room.

heard afterwards

it

was dyed, and certainly the colour was most unnatural and never seen in genuine red

The grandmother wore a wig of this colour, and a tiny baby of one year also had
hair.
it.

I

asked about

this

of

the

tea
will

house

landlady, and she told

me

they

dye a

72

THROUGH BOSNIA
Several

baby's hair of even a month old.
little

boys peeped at

me

through a crack in
in,

the door, but they would not come

so

I

gave the sweets to the
inside the

girl,

which she secreted

cupboard bed in the room, and the
her

mother

tucked

soap

hurriedly

away

somewhere about her person. The room was very clean and neat, with rugs on the and a quantity of coloured stuffs floor,
piled
in

one corner.
the
floor

A

stove

pipe
it,

came

through
I

to

warm

but also

saw a curious stove
it

in the corner,

which

looked as though
bottle ends in

was ornamented with
of

cement

some

kind.
;

The
she

mother had been
remarked on
they were

very good-looking

my

teeth with envious eyes as

all there,

and she had
of

lost a

many
were
river,

of hers.

The windows

good the house

latticed,

except those looking on to the

where no one could see into the room.
in

Mrs.
ring,

Turk was very interested

my wedding

which she proposed to keep as a souvenir,

Jaice.

m, atid

tl

m.
w<
Of
ith

he
ru
I

away room
he
Stll

CO;

A
th
I
~

»e

came

/Jt>-l

AND HERZEGOVINA.
but
I

73
regret that
I

expressed
it,

much
as
it

could

not part with

was the English custom

to wear our wedding rings for the rest of our
lives,

and
it

gave
I

husband might be angry if I away. No doubt she wondered what

my

was doing travelling was

alone, but she did not
I left.

ask me.
I

After a cup of Turkish coffee

really highly entertained

by

my

visit.

The road runs along by the river which has cataracts and falls, and little mills built
of

wood, standing over

the

water,
are

these

are reached

by a plank, and

used for

grinding corn.
the way, the

We
Lake
it is

passed an inland lake on
of Jesero.

In this part,

the custom to kiss your
I

hand
and
I

—a
it

performance

particularly dislike,

I

now

carefully retain

my

gloves

when

think

may

take place.
it

It

can't be helped,

and to draw
great offence.

hurriedly

away would cause
but we

Next morning was not very

fine,

started in a carriage about 7-30 to drive to

74

THROUGH BOSNIA

Bajnaluka, a nine hours' drive.

On

the way,

where we lunched and the horses
landlord told

rested, the

me

that this year

the wolves

had come down

as low as his house, but as
till

he had no gun, he had to wait
to go away.

they chose

At Bajnaluka there is not much to see. Karabaich and I wandered about and found
a few Turkish shops and
stalls.

The people

are hideously ugly, clothed in quantities of
rags, so

they

may

be warm.

A
end

train at 7 a.m. brought us to
of the

Novi

(the

world we called

it)

.

Here we were

to find a carriage to take us to Plitvice, but

the only decent one refused to go, and the
others were so falling to bits
I

was sure we
I

should never reach our destination, so
reluctantly to give

had

on to Vienna.
late

up the expedition and go Had we known what a desobut unfortunately we
evening, as there was

spot

Novi was, we should not have
;

attempted to alight
could not get on

till

AND HERZEGOVINA.
no
train.

75
in
till

these

To anyone wishing to travel parts, I recommend them to wait
At Agram
I

June.

dismissed

my

guide,

and so ends

my

trip through these unfre-

quented parts.

One
before
people.
one,
rain,
stick,

or
I

two

little

remarks

I

must make
of the

close,

one

is

on the honesty
is

My

umbrella, which
off

a valuable

not only in keeping

the constant

but because

it

has a gold duck on the
I

which

I

value very much,

suddenly

missed one day at Sarajevo while sketching;
getting a sudden shock as to
of

what had become
in

my umbrella when
I

I

had been deep

my
who
'

paint box,

appealed to Karabaich,
off

had been keeping
is all right,

a crowd of urchins.

'

It
I

' '

lady,

he explained, in Italian,
'

' '

put
it

by that fence behind,' and sure enough was still there, though the fence was twenty
it

yards behind

me and a large crowd in between.
was often
left for

My

luggage, too,

ages on a
it

table in the waiting-room quite unguarded,

76

THROUGH BOSNIA
all

was

there on our return.

I

am

afraid
in

I

should

not

have

such

confidence

my my

native land!

A word
want a

in praise, too, I

must add
of

of

guide Karabaich.
guide,
I

Should any

my

readers

can certainly recommend
attentive,
of very nice

him

as being

most

appearance
honest.

and manners,
is

He

a native of

and thoroughly Pola and is a pilot
wine
;

by
his

trade, he also has a boat trading in

name and
he
is

the

town

will

always find him,

as

well

known
and
I

there.

He

speaks

German,

Italian,

Slav,

and possibly

other languages, but

did not require them.

3?
'1

m£!£!& R£G| o^l library facil ITY
AA
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