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Ana Maria Ljuština, FSB, I.
Lučića 5, Zagreb
Joško Parunov, FSB, I. Lučića 5, Zagreb
Ivo Senjanović, FSB, I. Lučića 5, Zagreb
STATIC AND DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF MARINE RISER
Summary
The analysis is concerned with static and dynamic behaviour of the explorational
marine riser exposed to the sever environmental conditions. The most significant influence
factors that can exert the loads on the riser structure are taken into account. The static
analysis is based on a nonlinear mathematical model. The static equilibrium solution is used
as an initial condition for the time domain dynamic analysis. Time domain analysis is based
on a stepbystep numerical integration of the dynamic equilibrium equations. The wave load
is given by the modified Morison equation. The frequency domain dynamic analysis is based
on the linearised dynamic equilibrium equation at the static equilibrium position by
application of stochastic linearisation of the hydrodynamic loading. Riser displacement,
rotations, axial forces, bending moments, shear forces and natural modes and frequencies of
free vibration are evaluated. Numerical procedure by the finite element method is utilized.
Key words: marine risers, hydroelasticity, sea current, sea waves, finite element
method
STATIČKA I DINAMIČKA ANALIZA MORSKOG PODIZAČA
Sažetak
Istraživano je statičko i dinamičko ponašanje morskog podizača, izloženog nepovoljnim
vremenskim uvjetima. U proračunu su razmatrani najznačniji uzročnici vanjskog opterećenja
strukture podizača. Statička analiza temelji se na nelinearnom matematičkom modelu.
Riješenje statičke ravnoteže uzeto je kao početni uvjet dinamičke analize u vremenskoj
domeni. Analiza u vremenskoj domeni temelji se na postepenoj numeričkoj integraciji
jednadžbi dinamičke ravnoteže. Valna opterećenja opisana su modificiranom Morisonovom
jednadžbom. Dinamička analiza u frekventnoj domeni provedena je pomoću lineariziranih
dinamičkih jednadžbi ravnoteže, te lineariziranih modela hidrodinamičkog opterećenja uz
uvjet statičke ravnoteže na određenoj poziciji podizača. Određeni su pomaci i zaokreti
podizača, uzdužne sile, momenti savijanja, tangencijalne sile, te modovi i frekvencije
prirodnih vibracija strukture. U proračunu primjenjena je metoda konačnih elementa.
Ključne riječi: podizači, hidroelastičnost , morske struje, valovi, metoda konačnih
elemenata
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 2
1. Introduction
Flexible marine risers are some of the most important components in floating
production units for oil and gas. These slender flexible structures exhibit complex dynamic
behaviour which has been investigated trough varies numerical and experimental methods in
the last few decades 1. The requirements placed on the drilling riser become increasingly
severe as the offshore drilling operations develop into deeper waters. The response of deep
water marine risers excited by sea current and sea surface waves is of great interest to the
offshore industry. Precise prediction of the dynamic behaviour is of primary importance,
therefore it is necessary to define all the significant sources of the environmental loads and the
external forces 2.
This study is concerned with the drilling marine riser, fixed on its top and bottom end,
and the analysis of static and dynamic behaviour of the riser exposed to a horizontal sea
current, regular sea waves, static horizontal offset and the periodic horizontal motion of the
platform (surge). The dynamic response is analysed as nonlinear and linearized problem in
the time and frequency domain by using the finite element methods. All significant loads
incorporated into the mathematical methods for the response analyses are shown in Figure 1.
The analysis of marine riser static and dynamic behaviour is performed by computer programs
developed for the slender, simply supported structures and adopted for the marine risers.
Fig. 1. Environmental loads exerted on the marine riser Fig. 2. Marine riser system
Slika 1. Opterećenja morskog podizača Slika 2. Sustav morskog podizača
2. Environmental condition and external forces
For estimating the external forces acting on a deep ocean pipe two general aspects had
to be considered: the sub sea environmental characteristics and the external force produced by
such environment. The environment is dominated by the vertical variation of sub sea current
vector and seawater properties such a density, viscosity and temperature along with depth, and
by strong winds and gusts that exert dominant aerodynamic forces on the riser and the
supporting structure. The forces exerted on marine riser by surface waves are more significant
then other sources of excitations. Internal waves, micro seismic waves, tides, tidal and
volcanic waves are less significant and they are usually ignored in dynamic analysis 4.
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 3
2.1. Current drag force
The internal wavegenerated current and tidal current are equally important for the
analysis of the problem. The transverse load due to a sea current is determined according to
the simplified current profile 3, which is assumed to coincide with the wind 5, 6, 7. The
tidal part is assumed to be constant along the riser, and the part of the current caused by the
winds is approximated with the linear profile (Figure 1):
( )

.

\

+ =
l
z
v v z v
w t c
(1)
( )
2
2
1

.

\

+ =
l
z
v v D C z q
w t D f
ρ (2)
C
D
– drag coefficient v
t
– tidal current velocity
l – riser length v
c
(z) – sea current velocity
D – diameter of the riser part v
w
– wind current velocity
2.2. Static axial force
Static axial force consist of effective tension force, weight and buoyancy of the riser
with sea water and drilling mud inside 4:
z G F N
ef z s
− =
0
(3)
2
1 0
4
i m m z z
d g F F δ ρ
π
− = (4)
F
z0
– effective tension force F
z1
– riser tension force
2.3. Wave load
Regular waves are described in accordance with the theory of progressive sinusoidal
wave. Horizontal wave load on the vertical cylinders is determined by the Morison equation
that takes into account inertia and drag force, but neglects the diffraction component. In a case
of small amplitude motion Morison equation takes the form 8:
t t
C
t
C t z y q
D I
∂
∂
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
ξ ξ ξ
2
2
) , , ( (5)
If a cylinder amplitude is of the same order of magnitude as the trajectory of a fluid
particle, the relative motion of the fluid and cylinder has to be taken into account. The
modified nonlinear Morison equation is dedicated to large motion analysis:

.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−
(
¸
(
¸
∂ ∂
∂

.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
t
w
t t
w
t
C
t
w
m
t y t
w
t t
C t z y q
D a I
ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ
2
2 2
2
2
) , , ( (6)
where C
I,
C
D
and m
a
are inertia, drag and added mass coefficients 9.
Linearised Morison equation is necessary to make the analysis of riser response in
frequency domain possible. The convective load component of wave is neglected because it
has minor influence on the riser response, drag component is linearised and the effect of large
amplitude of riser motion is ignored. In such a way equation (6) takes the form:

.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
=
t
w
t
C
t
w
m
t
C t y z q D
a I
ξ ξ
2
2
2
2
) , , ( (7)
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 4
Linearized drag coefficient for regular waves
D
C is obtained from the equivalence of
work of nonlinear and linearized drag force 10, where
max
r& is amplitude of deterministic
relative velocity.
max
3
8
r C C
D
D
&
π
= (8)
3. Analysis mathematical models
3.1. Nonlinear response model
For the beam column model of riser exposed to transverse load due to regular waves
and axial load due to weight, buoyancy and tension force, differential equation of motion is
obtained 3, 8, 10:
( ) ( ) t z y q
t
w
m
t
w
C
z
w
G
z
w
N N
z
w
EI
z
s s ef d s
, ,
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ −


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂
(9)
Distributed mass m
s
include structure mass and inside water and C
S
is coefficient of structural
damping. Dynamic axial force is result of buoyancy variation in a regular wave:
( ) t y d gA N
d
, , η ρ = (10)
The modified Morison equation and the complete form of the differential equation of
motion that is suitable for iteration time integration:
( ) t z y q
t
w
m
t
w
C
z
w
G
z
w
N
z
w
EI
z
t s ef s
, ,
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂

.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
(
¸
(
¸
∂ ∂
∂

.

\

∂
∂
−
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
t
w
t t
w
t
C
t y t
w
t t
C
x
w
N t z y q
D I d
ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ
2
2
2
2
2
) , , ( (11)
3.2. Linearized response model
Dynamic axial force and convective inertia components may be neglected and drag load
can be linearized. The equation (11) may be solved in the frequency domain if the effect of
the large amplitude riser motion is ignored. Linearized form of the differential equation of
motion is:
( )
t
C
t
C
t
w
m
t
w
C C
z
w
G
z
w
N
z
w
EI
z
D
I t
D
s ef s
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
+ +
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
−


.

\

∂
∂
∂
∂ ξ ξ
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(12)
4. Analysis methods
4.1. Finite element method
The problems of static and dynamic behaviour of marine riser, formulated by equations
of motion, may be solved by the finite element method. The marine riser is modeled by the
string of beam finite elements having appropriate mass and stiffness characteristics.
The problem of the elastic deformation of the riser exposed to steady sea current and
tension force is mathematically modeled by partial differential equation of static equilibrium
7,11:
 { }  { } { } F d M d K = +
& &
(13)
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 5
The stiffness matrix is general, consisting of bending stiffness and geometric stiffness matrix:
     
G B
K K K + = (14)
The modes of free undamped vibration may be calculated from the homogenous system
of equations:
    ( ){ }  { } { } 0 = + + d M d K K
G S
& &
(15)
Since the displacement vector is harmonic, the eigenvalue problem is formulated:
      ( ){ } { } 0
2
= − + d M K K
G S
ω (16)
where m is a global mass matrix and ω is a natural frequency of the system.
Partial nonlinear differential equation (11) and linearized differential equation (12) of
riser motion in regular waves may be solved in space by the finite element method. The
Pseudolinear matrix equation represents equilibrium of nodal forces and compatibility of
nodal displacements result in
 { }  { }  { } ( ) { } t F M C K = + + δ δ δ
& & &
(17)
where
C, M  damping and mass matrix
{ } δ , { } δ
&
, { } δ
& &
 displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors
  { } t F  force vector dependent on load q
The matrix equation may be solved utilizing the mode superposition method:
{ }  { } Z φ δ = (18)
where φ and {Z} are undumped mode matrix and generalized displacement vector,
respectively.
The equation (18) may be reduced to a set of coupled modal equations written in a
pseudolinear form:
N i t Z Z Z
i i i i i i i
... 2 , 1 ), ( 2
2
= = + + ϕ ξ ω ω
& & &
(19)
( ) ( )
j j i
N
j
ij i i i
Z t t
&
,
1
1 2 ) ( ξ δ ω ψ ϕ
∑
=
− − = (20)
where N is number of d.o.f., δ
i,j
is Kronecker symbol, ω
i
is natural frequency of i–th mode, ξ
I
coefficient of modal damping and ψ
i
(t) modal excitation.
4.2. Nonlinear solution in time domain
Nonlinear problem of marine riser response to a regular wave may be solved by time
integration utilizing the harmonic acceleration method since it is unconditionally stable. The
corresponding algorithm reads 8:
{ }
( )
 { } { }
( ) k
j i j i
k
j i
L Y T Y
1 , ,
1
1 , +
+
+
+ = ϕ (21)
where { }
T
Z Z Z Y 〉 〈 =
& & &
, , is response vector, T integration transfer matrix and {L} load
operator. The subscript i (1,2 … N) is the mode index, while j (1,2,…N) and k (0,1,2…) denote
the time step and iteration step respectively. Since at nodes w∈{δ}, it is necessary to
determine { } δ , { } δ
&
and { } δ
& &
in each time and iteration step using (18) and its derivates.
To start time integration by (21) the initial condition { } { }
0
δ δ = and { } { }
0
δ δ
& &
= at t=0
have to be assumed.
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 6
4.3. Linearized solution in frequency domain
In the case of linearized differential equation (12) and small amplitude motion the
marine riser response may be determined in the frequency domain. Governing modal load and
the modal response are harmonic, therefore one may write:
( ) t t t
ci si i 0 0
cos sin ω ϕ ω ϕ ϕ + = (22)
( ) t t t
ci si i 0 0
cos sin ω ϕ ω ϕ ϕ + = (23)
By inserting (22) and (23) into (20) yields
( )
( ) ( )  
,
2 1
2 1
2 2
2
2
2
i i i i
ci i i si i
si
Z
ω β ξ β
ϕ β ξ ϕ β
+ −
+ −
=
( )
( ) ( )  
2 2
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
i i i i
si i i ci i
ci
Z
ω β ξ β
ϕ β ξ ϕ β
+ −
− −
= (24)
where . ,... 2 , 1 , /
0
n i
i i
= = ω ω β
Displacement vector according to (18) is
{ } { } { } t t
c s 0 0
cos sin ω δ ω δ δ + = (25)
The marine riser deflection is
t W t W w
c s 0 0
cos sin ω ω + = (26)
5. Numerical example
Following the established algorithms, static and dynamic behaviour of marine riser is
determined for the particular riser 7. Numerical simulation are performed using discretized
beam column model by computer programs developed for the slender, simply supported
structures and adopted for the marine risers 8.
Table 2 Particulars of the marine riser
Tablica 2. Svojstva morskog podizača
Riser length 457 m Modulus of elasticity, E 210 GPa
Outer diameter of riser 0.533 m Density of water 1025 kg/m
3
Inner diameter of riser 0.508 m Density of mud 2157 kg/m
3
Buoyancy module diameter 1.067 m Water depth 470 m
5.1. Static analysis
Analysed static case includes the transverse static load exerted by the sea current and
the platform offset of 20 m. Sea current velocity at the surface is 0.2 m/s and tidal current is
0.3 m/s. Maximum deflection angle at the riser bottom should not exceed 24 degrees during
the operational period and 67 degrees during the sever whether condition.
According to this limitation safe factor for the tension force on top of the riser is
determined. Drag coefficient for the riser joint is 1.1. Results of the numerical procedure
show that the acceptable rotation angle (Fig. 3.b) is insured with the top tension force of 2000
kN (Fig. 3.c) for the safe factor 1.5. The largest static bending moment (15000 Nm) is close to
the wellhead, at the sea depth of 420 m.
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 7
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 2 4 6
deg (°)
d
(m)
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
N (k N)
d (m)
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 10 20 30 40
w (m)
d
(m)
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
5000 0 5000 10000 15000 20000
M (Nm)
d (m)
a) b) c) d)
Fig. 3. a) riser displacement, b) riser rotation c) axial force in riser d) static bending moment
Slika 3. a) pomak podizača, b) rotacija podizača, c) uzdužna sila, d) statički moment savijanja
5.2. Dynamic analysis
Analyzed dynamic case includes the load exerted by the time–varying wave forces and
the platform surge motion. Surge motion is assumed to be sinusoidal with the same period as
the wave, that is 14.6 s. Wave height is 9.5 m, surge amplitude is 4.2 m. Top tension is
assumed to be constant throughout the wave cycle. Dynamic response of the riser structure
model is shown in Figure 4. The largest deflection is at riser top and it corresponding with the
surge motion amplitude (4.2 m). The highest bending moment amplitudes are at the sea
depths of 390 m and 150 m (around 80 kNm). Amplitude of rotation angle at the marine riser
bottom (lower ball joint) is 2.5 degrees. Rotation angle amplitudes, bending moments and
shear forces determined in time domain show good agreement with the linearized solution.
nodal displacement (m)
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 2 4 6
d (m)
linear
nelin
bending moment (kNm)
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
30 20 70 120
d (m)
linear
nelin
shear forces (kN)
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3
d (m)
linear
nelin
Fig. 4. Dynamic response of the marine riser
Slika 4. Dinamički odziv morskog podizača
XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser
FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 8
s ea depth  390 m
100
60
20
20
60
100
0 50 100 150 200
time (s )
M
(
k
N
m
s ea depth  150 m
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
0 50 100 150 200
time (s )
M
(
k
N
m
Fig. 5. Simulated bending moment of the marine riser at the critical positions
Slika 5. Simulacija momenta savijanja morskog podizača na kritičnim mjestima.
6. Conclusion
Marine riser is analysed with the computationally efficient method of evaluating the
response of slender flexible structure subjected to static and dynamic excitations. The first
level of marine riser analyses is static response due to a sea current and a platform offset.
Riser displacement, rotations, axial forces, bending moments The tension force on top of the
riser is determined with respect to the recommended rotation angle at the marine riser lower
ball joint. Second level of riser analyses is dynamic behaviour due to the regular waves and
platform surge motion. The problem of dynamic response is solved in linearized form in the
frequency domain and in nonlinear form in the time domain. Regions on marine riser with
highest bending moments and largest deflection amplitudes are determined. Both considered
methods give similar results. Comparison of the results of static and dynamic analyses shows
that the vessel motion and waves are the dominant source of riser bending stress.
REFERENCES
[1] T.D. Hanson, A. Otteren, N. Sodahl: Response Calculation Using an Enhanced Model for Structural
Damping in Flexible Risers, BALKEMA 1994, Rotterdam, pp. 6373.
[2] K. Matsunaga, M. Ohkusun : A study of the Dynamics of Hanging Marine Risers, BALKEMA 1994,
Rotterdam, pp. 7581.
[3] Faltinsen, O. M., "Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures", Cambridge University Press, 1990.
[4] Randall, R. E., "Elements of Ocean Engineering", The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers,
New Jersey, 1997.
[5] C.A. Felippa , J. S. Chung,: Nonlinear Static Analysis of Deep Ocean Mining Pipe – Part I, Modeling and
Formulation, Journal of Energy Resources technology, Vol. 103, March 1981. pp. 1116.
[6] J. S. Chung, C.A. Felippa: Nonlinear Static Analysis of Deep Ocean Mining Pipe – Part II, Numerical
Studies, Transaction of the ASME, Vol. 103, March 1981. pp. 1625.
[7] Čorić, V. et al., "Upgrading of Semisumersible Offshore Platform Zagreb I for Deeper See",
Brodogradnja, Vol. 47, No. 4, 1999, pp. 356368.
[8] Senjanović, I., Parunov, J., "Dynamic Analysis of Tower Buoy in Regular Waves", Brodogradnja, Vol.
45, No. 2, 1997, pp. 123132.
[9] Ljuština, A. M., Parunov, J., Senjnović, I.: " Dynamic Behaviour of Deep Water Marine Riser ", 4th
ICCSM , September 2003, Bizovac, Croatia.
[10] Chakrabarati, S. K., "Hydrodynamics of Offshore Structures", Computational Mechanics, Publications
Southampton Boston, 1994.
[11] Kirk, C. K.; Etok, E. U.; Cooper, M. T., "Dynamic and Static Analysis of a Marin Riser", Applied Ocean
Research, Vol. 1, No. 3., 1979, pp.125135.
Fig. micro seismic waves. Opterećenja morskog podizača Fig. static horizontal offset and the periodic horizontal motion of the platform (surge). The response of deep water marine risers excited by sea current and sea surface waves is of great interest to the offshore industry.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser 1. The requirements placed on the drilling riser become increasingly severe as the offshore drilling operations develop into deeper waters. viscosity and temperature along with depth. Internal waves. Environmental loads exerted on the marine riser Slika 1. This study is concerned with the drilling marine riser. Marine riser system Slika 2. The dynamic response is analysed as nonlinear and linearized problem in the time and frequency domain by using the finite element methods. regular sea waves. All significant loads incorporated into the mathematical methods for the response analyses are shown in Figure 1. simply supported structures and adopted for the marine risers. Precise prediction of the dynamic behaviour is of primary importance. The analysis of marine riser static and dynamic behaviour is performed by computer programs developed for the slender. fixed on its top and bottom end. and the analysis of static and dynamic behaviour of the riser exposed to a horizontal sea current. and by strong winds and gusts that exert dominant aerodynamic forces on the riser and the supporting structure. The environment is dominated by the vertical variation of sub sea current vector and seawater properties such a density. tidal and volcanic waves are less significant and they are usually ignored in dynamic analysis [4]. 1. therefore it is necessary to define all the significant sources of the environmental loads and the external forces [2]. These slender flexible structures exhibit complex dynamic behaviour which has been investigated trough varies numerical and experimental methods in the last few decades [1]. tides. Sustav morskog podizača 2. The forces exerted on marine riser by surface waves are more significant then other sources of excitations. 2. FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 2 . Environmental condition and external forces For estimating the external forces acting on a deep ocean pipe two general aspects had to be considered: the sub sea environmental characteristics and the external force produced by such environment. Introduction Flexible marine risers are some of the most important components in floating production units for oil and gas.
The convective load component of wave is neglected because it has minor influence on the riser response. Static axial force 2 (1) (2) vt vc(z) vw – tidal current velocity – sea current velocity – wind current velocity Static axial force consist of effective tension force. 6. t ) = C I 2 + − − ma 2 + C D ∂t − ∂t ∂t − ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂y∂t ∂t (6) where CI.1. t ) = C I ∂ 2ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ + CD 2 ∂t ∂t ∂t (5) If a cylinder amplitude is of the same order of magnitude as the trajectory of a fluid particle. Linearised Morison equation is necessary to make the analysis of riser response in frequency domain possible. In such a way equation (6) takes the form: ∂ 2ξ ∂2w ∂ξ ∂w q ( z . drag and added mass coefficients [9]. The tidal part is assumed to be constant along the riser. In a case of small amplitude motion Morison equation takes the form [8]: q( y. 7]. The transverse load due to a sea current is determined according to the simplified current profile [3]. the relative motion of the fluid and cylinder has to be taken into account. weight and buoyancy of the riser with sea water and drilling mud inside [4]: N s = Fz 0 − Gef z (3) Fz 0 = Fz1 − Fz0 2. Current drag force The internal wavegenerated current and tidal current are equally important for the analysis of the problem.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser 2. The modified nonlinear Morison equation is dedicated to large motion analysis: ∂ 2ξ ∂ξ ∂w ∂ 2ξ ∂2w ∂ξ ∂w ∂ξ ∂w q( y.2. π gρ mδ m di2 4 – effective tension force (4) Fz1 – riser tension force Wave load Regular waves are described in accordance with the theory of progressive sinusoidal wave. but neglects the diffraction component. z.3. Horizontal wave load on the vertical cylinders is determined by the Morison equation that takes into account inertia and drag force. CD and ma are inertia. which is assumed to coincide with the wind [5. z . and the part of the current caused by the winds is approximated with the linear profile (Figure 1): z v c ( z ) = vt + v w l 1 z q ( z ) = ρ f C D D vt + v w 2 l CD – drag coefficient l – riser length D – diameter of the riser part 2. t ) = C I 2 − ma 2 + C D − ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 3 (7) . drag component is linearised and the effect of large amplitude of riser motion is ignored. y .
8. t ) = N d 2 + C I 2 + − + C D ∂t − ∂t ∂t − ∂t ∂x ∂t ∂t ∂y∂t ∂t 3. The marine riser is modeled by the string of beam finite elements having appropriate mass and stiffness characteristics. The problem of the elastic deformation of the riser exposed to steady sea current and tension force is mathematically modeled by partial differential equation of static equilibrium [7.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser Linearized drag coefficient for regular waves C D is obtained from the equivalence of & work of nonlinear and linearized drag force [10]. formulated by equations of motion. 8 & CD = C D rmax (8) 3π 3. Linearized response model (11) Dynamic axial force and convective inertia components may be neglected and drag load can be linearized. y. t ) ∂z ∂t ∂z 2 ∂z ∂z ∂t ∂ 2ξ ∂ξ ∂w ∂ 2ξ ∂2w ∂ξ ∂w ∂ξ ∂w q( y. z . Analysis methods 4. differential equation of motion is obtained [3.1. may be solved by the finite element method. buoyancy and tension force. z . 10]: ∂2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂w ∂w ∂2w EI − ( N s + N d ) 2 + Gef + Cs + ms 2 = q ( y.11]: & [K ]{d }+ [M ] d& = {F } (13) {} FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 4 .2. Analysis mathematical models 3. The equation (11) may be solved in the frequency domain if the effect of the large amplitude riser motion is ignored. Nonlinear response model For the beam column model of riser exposed to transverse load due to regular waves and axial load due to weight. Linearized form of the differential equation of motion is: ∂2w ∂w ∂w ∂2w ∂ 2ξ ∂ξ ∂2 ∂2w EI 2 − N s 2 + Gef + Cs + C D + mt 2 = C I 2 + C D 2 ∂z ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂z ∂z ∂z 4. Dynamic axial force is result of buoyancy variation in a regular wave: (10) N d = ρgA η (d . Finite element method ( ) (12) The problems of static and dynamic behaviour of marine riser. t ) ∂z ∂t ∂z 2 ∂z 2 ∂z ∂t (9) Distributed mass ms include structure mass and inside water and CS is coefficient of structural damping.1. where rmax is amplitude of deterministic relative velocity. t ) The modified Morison equation and the complete form of the differential equation of motion that is suitable for iteration time integration: ∂2 ∂2w ∂2w ∂w ∂w ∂2w EI 2 − N s 2 + Gef + Cs + mt 2 = q ( y. z .
respectively.2 … N) is the mode index. Z . velocity and acceleration vectors .. [T] integration transfer matrix and {L} load operator. The Pseudolinear matrix equation represents equilibrium of nodal forces and compatibility of nodal displacements result in & [K ]{δ }+ [C ] δ& + [M ] δ& = {F (t )} (17) S G The stiffness matrix is general. Nonlinear solution in time domain Nonlinear problem of marine riser response to a regular wave may be solved by time integration utilizing the harmonic acceleration method since it is unconditionally stable.j is Kronecker symbol. ξI coefficient of modal damping and ψi (t) modal excitation. Z 〉 T is response vector.2…) denote the time step and iteration step respectively.N (19) i i i i i i i & ϕ i (t ) = ψ i (t ) − 2ω i ∑ (1 − δ ij ) ξ i . [M] & {δ }.o.force vector dependent on load q (18) The matrix equation may be solved utilizing the mode superposition method: {δ } = [φ ] {Z } where [φ] and {Z} are undumped mode matrix and generalized displacement vector. 4. δ& {F [t ]} {} {} . j Z j N j =1 (20) where N is number of d...kj)+1 (21) & && where {Y } = 〈 Z . j + {L}ϕ i(.damping and mass matrix . Since at nodes w∈{δ}.…N) and k (0. it is necessary to & determine {δ }.f.2.2. The corresponding algorithm reads [8]: {Y }i(.2.1. {} {} {} {} FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 5 . The equation (18) may be reduced to a set of coupled modal equations written in a pseudolinear form: & && ω 2 Z + 2ω ξ Z + Z = ϕ (t ). the eigenvalue problem is formulated: {} ) ([K ] + [K ] {} {} where [C]. δ& .kj++11) = [T ]{Y }i . Partial nonlinear differential equation (11) and linearized differential equation (12) of riser motion in regular waves may be solved in space by the finite element method. consisting of bending stiffness and geometric stiffness matrix: [K ] = [K ]B + [K ]G (14) The modes of free undamped vibration may be calculated from the homogenous system of equations: & ([K ]S + [K ]G ){d }+ [M ] d& = {0} (15) Since the displacement vector is harmonic. The subscript i (1. while j (1. δ& and δ& in each time and iteration step using (18) and its derivates. i = 1.displacement.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser − ω 2 [M ] {d } = {0} (16) where [m] is a global mass matrix and ω is a natural frequency of the system. δi. To start time integration by (21) the initial condition {δ } = {δ }0 and δ& = δ& 0 at t=0 have to be assumed. ωi is natural frequency of i–th mode.
Z ci (1 − β )ϕ − 2ξ β ϕ = [(1 − β ) + (2ξ β ) ]ω ci i 2 2 i i 2 i i si 2 i (24) where β i = ω0 / ωi . simply supported structures and adopted for the marine risers [8]. Linearized solution in frequency domain In the case of linearized differential equation (12) and small amplitude motion the marine riser response may be determined in the frequency domain. Sea current velocity at the surface is 0.067 m Modulus of elasticity. The largest static bending moment (15000 Nm) is close to the wellhead. Static analysis Analysed static case includes the transverse static load exerted by the sea current and the platform offset of 20 m. 3. Drag coefficient for the riser joint is 1. Maximum deflection angle at the riser bottom should not exceed 24 degrees during the operational period and 67 degrees during the sever whether condition. Table 2 Particulars of the marine riser Tablica 2. E Density of water Density of mud Water depth 210 GPa 1025 kg/m3 2157 kg/m3 470 m 5.b) is insured with the top tension force of 2000 kN (Fig.3 m/s.2 m/s and tidal current is 0.. Numerical simulation are performed using discretized beam column model by computer programs developed for the slender.5.1. FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 6 . at the sea depth of 420 m. According to this limitation safe factor for the tension force on top of the riser is determined.c) for the safe factor 1. i = 1. therefore one may write: ϕ i (t ) = ϕ si sin ω 0 t + ϕ ci cos ω 0 t (22) ϕ i (t ) = ϕ si sin ω 0 t + ϕ ci cos ω 0 t By inserting (22) and (23) into (20) yields Z si (23) 2 i (1 − β )ϕ + 2ξ β ϕ = [(1 − β ) + (2ξ β ) ]ω 2 i si i 2 2 i i 2 i i ci 2 i .. Results of the numerical procedure show that the acceptable rotation angle (Fig.3.533 m 0.508 m 1.n.. Governing modal load and the modal response are harmonic. 3. Numerical example Following the established algorithms. Svojstva morskog podizača Riser length Outer diameter of riser Inner diameter of riser Buoyancy module diameter 457 m 0.2. static and dynamic behaviour of marine riser is determined for the particular riser [7]. (25) (26) Displacement vector according to (18) is {δ } = {δ }s sin ω 0t + {δ }c cosω 0t The marine riser deflection is w = Ws sin ω 0 t + Wc cos ω 0 t 5.1.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser 4.
Dynamic response of the marine riser Slika 4.6 s. that is 14. 3. Dynamic analysis Analyzed dynamic case includes the load exerted by the time–varying wave forces and the platform surge motion. a) riser displacement.2.5 m.2 m). 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 nodal displacement (m) linear nelin 0 2 d (m) 4 6 30 20 70 120 0 0 0. c) uzdužna sila. b) riser rotation c) axial force in riser d) static bending moment Slika 3. Surge motion is assumed to be sinusoidal with the same period as the wave. d) statički moment savijanja 5. Dynamic response of the riser structure model is shown in Figure 4.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser d (m ) 0 50 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 40 0 45 0 50 0 w (m ) 0 10 20 30 d 4 0 (m ) 0 50 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 40 0 45 0 50 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 5 0 0 0 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 50 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 40 0 45 0 50 d (m ) 10 0 d (m ) 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 0 35 0 40 0 45 0 N (k N ) d e g (°) 50 0 50 0 M (Nm ) a) b) c) d) Fig. surge amplitude is 4. a) pomak podizača. The highest bending moment amplitudes are at the sea depths of 390 m and 150 m (around 80 kNm). Wave height is 9. b) rotacija podizača. Rotation angle amplitudes. bending moments and shear forces determined in time domain show good agreement with the linearized solution.5 1 1. Dinamički odziv morskog podizača FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 7 .5 3 50 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 bending moment (kNm) linear nelin d (m) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 d (m) linear nelin shear forces (kN) Fig.5 degrees.5 2 2. 4.2 m. The largest deflection is at riser top and it corresponding with the surge motion amplitude (4. Amplitude of rotation angle at the marine riser bottom (lower ball joint) is 2. Top tension is assumed to be constant throughout the wave cycle.
1625.A. BALKEMA 1994. M. 2. K. J. pp. Numerical Studies. 103.A. "Elements of Ocean Engineering". March 1981. The problem of dynamic response is solved in linearized form in the frequency domain and in nonlinear form in the time domain. M. M. Applied Ocean Research. Croatia. E.3 9 0 m 100 60 40 20 0 0 2 0 6 0 4 0 50 s e a d e p th .. C. rotations. The first level of marine riser analyses is static response due to a sea current and a platform offset. March 1981. V. pp. Conclusion Marine riser is analysed with the computationally efficient method of evaluating the response of slender flexible structure subjected to static and dynamic excitations. Chung. pp. M. 1990. 45. Cooper. I. 1. Etok. Ohkusun : A study of the Dynamics of Hanging Marine Risers. 6. Felippa . New Jersey. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] T. Hanson.: " Dynamic Behaviour of Deep Water Marine Riser ". Kirk.1 5 0 m 60 M (k N m 20 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 M (k N m 100 150 200 1 0 0 tim e (s ) 6 0 tim e (s ) Fig. Matsunaga. et al. A. Transaction of the ASME.. S. FSB Zagreb tema 9 rad 3: 8 . Chakrabarati. 103. Vol.. S. 6373. Journal of Energy Resources technology. 1999. Bizovac. J. O. "Hydrodynamics of Offshore Structures". Vol. Both considered methods give similar results. K. pp.XVI Symposium SORTA2004 Static and dynamic analysis of marine riser s e a d e p th .. 1116.. "Dynamic Analysis of Tower Buoy in Regular Waves". Vol. Cambridge University Press. U. A. Computational Mechanics. pp. C. Modeling and Formulation. K. axial forces. E..: Nonlinear Static Analysis of Deep Ocean Mining Pipe – Part I. J. No.. Simulated bending moment of the marine riser at the critical positions Slika 5. Parunov. N.. bending moments The tension force on top of the riser is determined with respect to the recommended rotation angle at the marine riser lower ball joint. Senjanović. BALKEMA 1994. The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Vol. S. Senjnović. "Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures". Čorić. Rotterdam. Rotterdam. 1979. Riser displacement. R. Second level of riser analyses is dynamic behaviour due to the regular waves and platform surge motion. 1994.. 356368. "Upgrading of Semisumersible Offshore Platform Zagreb I for Deeper See". 4th ICCSM . pp. Sodahl: Response Calculation Using an Enhanced Model for Structural Damping in Flexible Risers.. 1997. Parunov. 4. 7581. Comparison of the results of static and dynamic analyses shows that the vessel motion and waves are the dominant source of riser bending stress. No. T. I. 1997. Brodogradnja. Chung. No. Felippa: Nonlinear Static Analysis of Deep Ocean Mining Pipe – Part II. Publications Southampton Boston.. C. September 2003. Faltinsen. Vol. Simulacija momenta savijanja morskog podizača na kritičnim mjestima. Ljuština. "Dynamic and Static Analysis of a Marin Riser".. Randall. Regions on marine riser with highest bending moments and largest deflection amplitudes are determined. 3. 47. 5. pp. 123132. J.D. Otteren.125135. Brodogradnja.