1

PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com

‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ:.‬

‫ﺃﻭ ﹰ:ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺳﺖ:‬ ‫ﻻ‬
‫• ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ)ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ(:ﺳﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ،ﻧﻮﺍﺓ،ﺭﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ، ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ،‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮﻛﻨﺪﺭﻳﺎ ، ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺟﻮﻟﺠﻲ ، ﺃﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ، ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻛﺴﻴﺴﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫• ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻴﺔ )ﻏﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ(:‬ ‫‪ (i‬ﻓﺠﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫‪(ii‬‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﹰ:ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ:‬ ‫ﺎ‬
‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ :ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻧﺴﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻏﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ﻭﻣﻌﻪ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻨﺪﺭﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ،‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﻴﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﺘﺤﺮﻙ‬
‫2‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺳﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻼﺯﻣﻮﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ:ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪ý‬ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ :ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﻭﺣﻮﻳﺼﻼﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﺘﺸﺎﺑﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻐﻤﺴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻡ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻲ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻣﻠﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺧﺸﻨﺔ ﻭﺗﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﻮﻧﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ:ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ:ﻫﻲ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺪﻭﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬

‫3‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻨﺪﺭﻳﺎ، ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﻨـــﻮﺍﺓ :‪Nucleus‬‬
‫ﺍﻛﺘﺸﻔﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﺳﻨﺔ ٥٣٨١ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ‪ Robert Brown‬ﻭﻣﻨﺬ ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻦ ﻧﺎﻟﺖ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻫﺎﺋﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺭﻳﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ .‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﺗﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﻭﺗﺪﻳﺮ ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺰﻳﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ . ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺟﺴﻢ ﻛﺮﻭﻱ ﻣﻨﻐﻤﺲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ . ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺿﺠﺔ ﺗﺴﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺭﻳﺔ .‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﻭﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ٥ – ٠١ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﺑﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ‪ Nuclear envelope‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻭﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻮﻱ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﻣﺴﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻘﻮﺏ ‪ Pores‬ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ،ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﻤﺎﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻳﺔ ﻫﻤﺎ:‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺾ)‪(DNA‬ﻭﺣﻤﺾ)‪(RNA‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﺍﻟـ‪ DNA‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﺣﻠﺰﻭﻧﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﻮﻛﻠﻴﻮﺗﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﻠﺘﻔﺎﻥ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﺴﻠﺘﻴﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﻧﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ ﺛﺎﻳﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺘﻮﺳﻴﻦ،ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻣﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﺍﻟـ‪ RNA‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺧﻴﻂ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻠﺰﻭﻧﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫5‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com .‫ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬DNA‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺎﻡ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻴﻂ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺪﺭﻭﺟﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻜﺲ ﺍﻟـ‬ :‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ tRNA ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Transfer(RNA) ‫(ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻞ ﺃﻭ‬RNA) • mRNA ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Messenger(RNA)‫(ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ ﺃﻭ‬RNA) • rRNA ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Ribosomal (RNA) ‫( ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺒﻮﺳﻮﻣﻲ ﺃﻭ‬RNA) • 6 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴــﺪﺍﺕ: ‪Plastids‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻴﻀﻴﻪ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻗﻄﺮﻫﺎ ﺣﻮﺍﻟﻲ ٤-٦ ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻥ ﻭﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺑﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻭﺑﺪﺍﺧﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺸﻮﺓ ﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺑﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺰﺩﻭﺝ ﻳﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ‪ Envelope‬ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺃﺧﺮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻮﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺮﻭﻣﺎ ‪ Stroma‬ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ٥-٠٥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻛﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻠﻄﺤﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻮﺭ ﻭﻓﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺗﺤﻮﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ‪ DNA‬ﻭ ‪ RNA‬ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺇﻥ ﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ ‪Proplastids‬‬ ‫7‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻮﺭﻭﻓﻴﻞ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ،ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺍ ﺍﻷﺧﻀﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻮﻧﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﻭﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﺑﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ: ‪Mitocondria‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﺮﺩﻫﺎ ‪ Mitochondrion‬ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﻃﺔ ﺑﻮﺣﺪﺗﻴﻦ ﻏﺸﺎﺋﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻳﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﺪﺍﺧﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﻮﺓ ﻭ ﺍﻟـ ‪RNA‬‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻧﺰﻳﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﻭﺭﺓ ﻛﺮﺑﺲ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﺰﻳﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﻛﺮﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺒﻴﻦ ﺇﻥ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ .pdffactory.‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ ﺗﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻧﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﺘﺤﻠﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻫﻴﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻛﺴﺪﺓ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺛﺎﻧﻲ ﺃﻛﺴﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮﻥ ﻭﻣﺎﺀ ﻭﻃﺎﻗﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺰﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﺳﻔﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻏﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟـ ‪ ATP‬ﻭﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻻﺣﺘﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪DNA‬ﻓﺎﻥ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ‬ ‫9‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ . ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻳﻼﺣﻆ ﻛﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺳﺘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺴﻮﺩ ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﻛﻮﻧﺪﺭﻳﺎ .

‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺟﻮﻟﺠـﻲ ‪ Golgi Apparatus‬ﺃﻭ : )‪( Dictyosomes‬‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪﻭ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺟﻮﻟﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮﻭﺳﻜﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺇﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻛﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺪﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ٥-٥١ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻠﻄﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺒﺴﻄﺔ ﻭﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﻳﺼﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮﺓ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻛﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﻄﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻮﻳﺼﻼﺕ ﺃﺟﻬﺰﺓ ﺟﻮﻟﺠﻲ.com‬‬ .‬ ‫‪ý‬‬ ‫01‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.‫. ﻭﺗﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺃﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺟﻮﻟﺠﻲ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺸﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻭﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ .pdffactory. .

‫ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻮﻳﺼﻼﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻨﺸﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ‬ ‫)ﻣﺜﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻜﺮ ﻭﺑﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ( ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻮﻳﺼﻼﺕ ﺛﻢ ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺇﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﻮﺯﻱ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻲ .‬ ‫11‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﻠﻌﺐ ﺃﺟﺴﺎﻡ ﺟﻮﻟﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻭﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭﺍ ﻫﺎﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ .‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺨﻠﻴﺔ :‬ ‫‪ ý‬ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ:‬ ‫*ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﻩ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ﻭﺷﻜﻼ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .‫*ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻲ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺬﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺩﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ.pdffactory.‬ ‫*ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﺳﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻩ .‬ ‫21‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫*ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﻪ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻩ‬ ‫×‬ ‫*ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻜﻠﻴﻦ : ×ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﻪ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﻪ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﻪ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻃﺲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﻪ ﺷﻖ ﻃﻮﻟﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻝ‬ ‫31‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﻳﺔ .pdffactory.com‬‬ .‬ ‫*ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻮﺏ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﻉ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺇﻧﺒﺎﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻫﺎ ﺇﻧﺰﻳﻤﺎﺕ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻧﺒﺎﺕ .‫‪ ý‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ :‬ ‫*ﻳﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻦ ﻋﺎﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻟﻴﺮﻭﻥ ،ﻭﻧﺘﺸﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﻱ ﻭﺟﺴﻢ ﺷﺒﻪ ﻛﺮﻭﻱ ﻳﻐﻤﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﻴﻪ .‬ ‫41‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ :‬ ‫*ﺗﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ،ﻭﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫*ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍ ﻫﻲ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻛﺴﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ :‬ ‫١.pdffactory. ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺑﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫51‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ .‫ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﻪ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺢ .

com .16 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﻤﻴﺔ‬ 17 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com .‫٢.

ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮﺭﻳﺔ )ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻪ(‬ ‫* ﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﻠﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻨﺎﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻜﺒﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻮﺍﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺸﺮﻩ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻁ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻮﺻﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫81‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫٣.

19 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com .

com‬‬ .‫اﻟﺮﻣﻞ اﻟﺒﻠﻮري‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻧﻴﻨﺎﺕ:ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻏﺮﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﺸﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ،ﺗﺤﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻤﻨﻊ ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻔﻦ‬ ‫02‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

pdffactory.‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺳﻴﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻟﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ)‪:(pits‬‬ ‫١.ﻧﻘﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ )‪:( simple pit‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ :‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻠﻆ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻮﻕ ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺣﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺿﻔﺔ ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﺘﺤﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﺿﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺠﻮﺍﺗﻬﺎ‬ ‫12‬ ‫٢.com‬‬ .ﻧﻘﺮ ﻣﻀﻔﻮﻓﺔ )‪:(Bordered Pits‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻨﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﻭﻳﺘﻘﻠﺺ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﺯﻭﺟﻴﺔ )‪:(Simple Pit-Pair‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻠﻴﻪ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳋﻠﻮﻱ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻟﻴﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺳﻠﻴﻠﻮﺯﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺮﻛﺐ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ :‬ ‫ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺻﻠﺐ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻲ ﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻣﺮﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺪ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻳﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺻﻤﺎﻍ ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﻴﺔ ﻭﺩﻫﻮﻥ ﻭﺷﻤﻮﻉ ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ :‬ ‫•‬ ‫22‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.‫٣.pdffactory.com‬‬ .ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﺎﺀ )‪:(Simple Blind Pit‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻘﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ‬ ‫٤.

ﻭ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﻫﻲ:‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ.‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻜﺎﺕ .‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺑﻜﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻨﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ )‪: (Primary wall‬‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻠﻮﺯ )‪ (Cellulose‬ﻭﺃﺷﺒﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻠﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﻦ )‪(Pectine‬ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻴﻦ )‪ (Protein‬ﻭﻳﺼﻞ ﺳﻤﻜﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ٣‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ )‪: (Secondary wall‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﻴﻦ)‪(Lignin‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻮﺑﺮﻳﻦ)‪(Suberin‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ): ‪(Cutin‬ﻭﻛﺮﺑﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺪﻭﺵ ﻭﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ .pdffactory..‬ ‫32‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ .

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺯﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ‬

‫‪ (euocaryotic‬ﺃﻭ )ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ ‪(procaryotic‬ﻭ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ. )‪(bacteria‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮﻳﺎﺕ. )‪(Fungi‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻟﺐ . )‪(Algae‬‬

‫ﻭ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ )ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺘﻠﻚ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺧﻠﻮﻱ:‬
‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ. )‪(plant‬‬

‫42‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳋﻼﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ:‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ:‬
‫* ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻤﺎﺛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻬﺎ ،ﻭﺗﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺧﻼﻳﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ .‬ ‫* ﺗﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻟﺘﺆﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺸﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺕ .‬ ‫*ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻫﻤﺎ :‬

‫أوﻻ :اﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ اﻟﻤﺮﺳﺘﯿﻤﯿﺔ:‬

‫52‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ، ﻣﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ،ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻓﺠﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻳﺔ ،ﻧﻮﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ.‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻴﻦ ،ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻘﺎﻥ .‬

‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ/ اﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﯾﻤﺔ :‬
‫ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺧﻼﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻜﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻛﺒﺮ ﺣﺠﻤﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺳﺘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ، ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ،ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺠﻮﺓ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪﺭ ﺍﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ.‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻫﻢ ﺻﻔﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ .‬ ‫*ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ :‬ ‫١. ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ .‬ ‫٢. ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ.‬ ‫٣. ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﺎﻣﺔ .‬

‫62‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﻻ/ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ:‬
‫*ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ :‬ ‫١. ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫٢. ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻟﻨﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫٣. ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻠﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ :‬
‫*ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺟﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ،ﻣﺘﺴﺎﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ، ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺟﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻠﻮﺯ،ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ .‬

‫*ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ :‬ ‫**ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺸﯿﻤﯿﺔ ﺗﻤﺜﯿﻠﯿﺔ: ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻲ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭ ﻗﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻘﺎﻥ.‬
‫72‬

‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬

com‬‬ .‬ ‫82‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.‫**ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺸﯿﻤﯿﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺰﻧﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺎء:ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺠﻮﺍﺕ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ .

‫**ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺸﯿﻤﯿﺔ ھﻮاﺋﯿﺔ:ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ .pdffactory.com‬‬ .‬ ‫**ﺑﺮﻧﺸﯿﻤﺔ ﻣﻀﻠﻌﺔ:‬ ‫92‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‬ ‫**ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﻛﻮﻟﻨﺸﯿﻤﯿﺔ ﻓﺮاﻏﯿﺔ:ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ .pdffactory.‬ ‫*ﻭﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫**ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﻛﻮﻟﻨﺸﯿﻤﯿﺔ زاوﯾﺔ:ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ .‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻟﻨﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ :‬ ‫*ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﺪﺭ ﺳﻠﻴﻮﻟﻮﺯﻳﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﺔ ، ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺩﻋﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﻧﺔ.com‬‬ .‬ ‫03‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .‫**ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﻛﻮﻟﻨﺸﯿﻤﯿﺔ ﺻﻔﯿﺤﯿﺔ :ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ ﻓﺘﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺭ ﺳﻤﻴﻜﺔ .‬ ‫13‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

ﻭﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻭﻫﻤﺎ : ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫23‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻠﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ:‬ ‫*ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﺪﺭ ﻣﻠﺠﻨﻨﺔ ،ﺳﻤﻴﻜﺔ،ﻭﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫.

‬ ‫**ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺮﻳﺔ:ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻠﺠﻨﻦ،ﻭﺗﺘﺨﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺮ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫33‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ .‫**ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ:ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺇﻟﻰ :ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ‫،ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ.pdffactory.

com‬‬ .‫ﺗﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﺮﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ:‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﺼﻮﯾﺔ :ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺻﺔ ﺑﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﯾﺎ اﻟﻨﺠﻤﯿﺔ :ﻣﺘﻔﺮﻋﺔ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻈﻢ ﺗﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫43‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

com‬‬ . ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫53‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻣﻦ :‬ ‫١.‫اﻟﺨﻼﯾﺎ اﻟﻌﻈﻤﯿﺔ:ﻭﻫﻲ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻮﻳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻓﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﺨﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﯾﺎ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺣﺮف)‪: (L‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ/ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ:‬ ‫*ﺗﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻧﺴﻴﺠﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ‬ ‫*ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ. ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫٢.

com‬‬ .‫٣.‬ ‫63‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. ﺑﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺑﺘﺮﺳﺐ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻟﻲ ﺑﺘﻐﻠﻆ ﺣﻠﻘﻲ ،ﺣﻠﺰﻭﻧﻲ ،ﻧﻘﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺷﺒﻜﻲ .pdffactory. ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ‫٤.

37 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com .

com . ﺃﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﻏﺮﺑﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫٢.: ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫١. ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬ 38 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

ﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ‬ .‫٣. ‫٤.com .pdffactory. ﺑﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ‬ 39 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‬ ‫04‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.‫ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﺯﺍﺕ:‬ ‫• ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﺯﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻟﻤﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻏﺰﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ.com‬‬ .pdffactory.

pdffactory.‫• ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﺯﺍﺕ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻤﻮ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﻧﻜﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺮ ”‪ “Pits‬ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻴﻠﻮﺯﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺟﺪﺭ ﺳﻠﻴﻠﻮﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ:‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ ﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺨﻠﻴﺘﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻓﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻳﺘﺤﻜﻤﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻭﻏﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ. ﻓﻌﻨﺪ ﺍﻣﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﻔﺘﺢ ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﻐﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮ‬ ‫14‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.ﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻟﻠﺠﻬﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﻤﻮﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﺨﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﻤﻮﺯﻳﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺤﺮﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺳﺔ .com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺳﺔ،ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ،ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺛﻐﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﲔ:‬ ‫١.com‬‬ .ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫34‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪﻳﺮﻡ:‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﯾﻔﺔ:ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﻭﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺤﻞ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺳﻤﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺄﺗﮫ: ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﺸﺎ ﻣﻦ:‬ ‫• ١.

ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫• ٣-ﻳﻨﺸﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺗﺔ:‬ ‫• ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫•‬ ‫٢.‫• ٢.pdffactory.com‬‬ .ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺴﺎﺕ:‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺿﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺪﻳﺮﻡ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺳﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﺪﻳﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻴﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫44‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫• ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻣﻔﻜﻜﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫• ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻗﺸﺮﺓ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫54‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﱰﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ:‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﺍﺕ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻨﺘﺠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺘﻮﺑﻼﺯﻡ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺕ،ﻭﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ:‬ ‫ﺃ-ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﻳﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﺛﻐﻮﺭ ﻭﺣﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﻳﺔ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺁﻛﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫١-‬ ‫64‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺩﻣﺎﻉ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻮﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫٢-‬ ‫74‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺩ: ﻫﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺗﻌﻘﻴﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﺜﻴﻒ ، ﻧﻮﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ، ﻏﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻭﺗﻮﺑﻼﺯﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻘﻴﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﻏﺪﺩ ﺳﻄﺤﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﺘﺤﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺗﻔﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻖ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺮﻱ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺮﻭﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻠﻮﻛﻮﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻛﺘﻮﺯ‬ ‫٣-‬ ‫‪.pdffactory.com‬‬ .i‬‬ ‫84‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

iii‬‬ ‫‪.pdffactory.iv‬‬ ‫94‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.ii‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺮﻳﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﻏﺪﻩ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺃﻟﺰﻫﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﺪﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺳﻌﺔ:ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫‪.com‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﺿﻤﺔ:ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺈﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻟﺰﺟﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﺰﻳﻤﺎﺕ ﻫﺎﺿﻤﺔ‬ ‫‪.

pdffactory.com .50 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

ﻧﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫٢-ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﻳﻒ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ:‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﻭﻳﻒ ﺍﻧﺸﻄﺎﺭﻳﺔ:ﻭﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺒﺎﻋﺪ ﺟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻧﺸﻄﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫15‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.‫ﺏ-ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ:‬ ‫١-ﺍﻟﻘﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻨﻴﺔ: ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻓﺮﺩﻳﻪ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻤﺖ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺍ ﻳﺨﺘﺮﻕ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻫﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ:‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺗﻨﺞ، ﺩﻫﻨﻴﺔ، ﺻﻤﻮﻍ، ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻗﻠﻮﻳﺔ ،ﺟﻠﻴﻜﻮﺳﻴﺪﻳﺔ،ﻛﺎﻭﺗﺸﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ...com‬‬ ..pdffactory.

‫ﺗﺠﺎﻭﻳﻒ ﺇﻧﻘﺮﺍﺿﻴﺔ:ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺘﻤﺰﻕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﻛﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﻏﺎ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻨﺎﺓ‬ ‫25‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ .pdffactory.

pdffactory.‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳊﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ:ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﺳﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫١-‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻻﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﻛﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫٢-‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫٣.ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻟﺤﺎﺀﻳﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻭﻳﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻻﻳﻔﺼﻠﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻛﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ:ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻧﻮﻋﺎﻥ:‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ:ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺎ ﻭﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﻕ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫١-‬ ‫ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ:ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺎ ﻭﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﺟﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫٢-‬ ‫45‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ:ﺣﺰﻣﺔ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻗﻄﺮﻳﺔ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫55‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ:‬ ‫: ﻳﺘﻜﻮ ﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﻣﺼﻤﺖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﻭﻻ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺪﺍﺧﻠﻪ ﻧﺨﺎﻉ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺇﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ:ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺷﺮﻃﺔ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ ﻭﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻄﻲ‬ ‫_______________________________________________________________________________‬ ‫65‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

‫ﻋﻤﻮد وﻋﺎﺋﻲ أوﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﯾﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ:ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﺃﻧﺒﻮﺑﻲ ﻣﺠﺰﺃ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺰﺃ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﻳﺤﻴﻂ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ:ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫85‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ:ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻮﺑﻲ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ:ﻋﻤﻮﺩ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫95‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﻣﻮﺭﻓﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﺍﳉﺬﺭ:‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ :ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻨﺴﻮﺓ:‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻨﺴﻮﺓ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﻴﻂ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻨﺴﻮﺓ:‬ ‫٢. ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺧﺘﺮﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﻏﺮﻭﻳﺔ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻜﺮ ﺗﻠﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫١. ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ: ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻣﺮﺳﺘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﻭﺗﻨﺘﺞ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻓﻴﻨﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .pdffactory. ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﻣﻼﺡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫٢.‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ: ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺧﻼﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻝ ﻳﺎﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﻃﻮﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺍﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻃﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﺍﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺪﻓﻊ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﻟﻸﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺑﻌﺎ :ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ:‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻣﺘﺪﺍﺩ ﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫١. ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺒﺮ ﺳﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺓ ﻭﺗﺘﻐﻠﻞ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ:‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﻮﺕ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺩﺍﺀ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﻤﻮ ﻏﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ :ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺩﺍﺀ :‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺩﺍﺀ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻣﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﺗﺘﺴﻊ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻊ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﺳﺎ: ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ :‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺟﺬﻭﺭﺍ ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫16‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com .PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

com‬‬ . ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫٤. ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺴﻴﻜﻞ )ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮ (‬ ‫٥. ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫٣.pdffactory.‫ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﳉﺬﺭ:‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻗﻄﺎﻉ ﻋﺮﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺬﺭ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻭ ﻓﻠﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﺔ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ:‬ ‫١. ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫٢. ﺍﻻﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﺠﺫﺭ ﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫36‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ .‬ ‫٢. ﺍﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ .‫ﺃﻭﻻ / ﺍﻟﺒﺸــﺮﺓ : ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺮﺍﺻﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﺪﺭ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺗﻤﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ . ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻳﺔ . ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ : ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺃﻧﺼﺎﻑ ﺃﻗﻄﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺎﺕ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺑﻴﻀﺎﻭﻳﺔ‬ ‫46‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. ﺇﻣﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ .‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴـﺎ / ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺮﺓ : ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻴﻘﺔ ، ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﻴﺮﺓ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻫﻲ ) ﺍﻻﻧﺪﻭﺩﻳﺮﻣﺲ ( ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺷﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺬﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻳﺴﻤﻲ " ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻛﺴﺒﺎﺭ " ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻂ " ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻠﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻠﻆ ﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺑﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﻭﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ .‬ ‫٢.‬ ‫٣.‬ ‫٢.com‬‬ . ﺗﺨﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ . ﺗﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ .‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬـــــﺎ :‬ ‫١. ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ . ﺗﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ .‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ : ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ )) ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺴﻴﻜﻞ .‬ ‫٤.‬ ‫٣.) ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺴﻴﻜﻞ ( : ﻭﻫﻮ ﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔـﺘــــﻪ :‬ ‫١. ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ . ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭﻳﺔ .‬ ‫٢.ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺎﻉ ((‬ ‫١.‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬــــﺎ :-‬ ‫١.pdffactory.‬ ‫٥. ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﻼﺡ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ .

‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﻋﺪﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ) ٤ ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ( ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﻣﻦ ﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻣﺮﺳﺘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻳﺪﻋﻲ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ( ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﺸﺒﺎ ﻭﻟﺤﺎً ﺛﺎﻧﻮﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎ ﻧﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ ﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻚ . ﻛﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺑﻌـﺾ ﺍﻟﺴـﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺿـﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﺪﺃ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺒﻮﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻫﻴﺌـﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻳﺸـﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Plumule‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺬﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺒﻮﺏ ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﻧﺒﺎﺕ . (Stem‬ﻭﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻋﺮﺿﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺳﻼﻣﻴﺎﺕ )‪ (Internodes‬ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫)‪ (Nodes‬ﻭﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠـﻰ ﺑـﺎﻟﺒﺮﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﻤـﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓـﻲ )‪ (Apical bud‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻋﻢ ﺍﻻﺑﻄﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ )‪Axillary or lateral‬‬ ‫)‪.com‬‬ . ﺍﻟﻨﺨــــﺎﻉ : ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ .‬ ‫٣.pdffactory.‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﺘﻮﻳﺔ ) ‪.(Winter buds‬‬ ‫56‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. (Terminal bud‬‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻧﻮﻋﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻋﻢ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻔﻴﺔ )‪(Summer buds‬‬ ‫‪ (buds‬ﻣﺤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺑﻂ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ )‪ (Leaves‬ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ . ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻲ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫)‪ .(Subterranean stem‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿـﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺜـﻞ .‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘــــﻪ :‬ ‫١-ﺗﺨﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـــــــــــــﺎﻕ:‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻋﻢ ﻭﺍﻷﺯﻫﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺳـﻄﺢ‬ ‫)‪.

com .pdffactory.:‫ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻕ‬ 66 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .‬ ‫٤-ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻀﻮﺝ :ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻉ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ .‬ ‫76‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.‬ ‫٢-ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻟﺔ : ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺸﺄ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﺘﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﺗﻨﺘﻔﺦ ﻭﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺔ ﻧﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ .‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭ ﻫﻲ :-‬ ‫١-ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ : ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻋﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﻲ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻣﺮﺳﺘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻕ ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺑﺄﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎ .pdffactory.‬ ‫٣-ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ :ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ .

‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴــﹰ : ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ : ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﻘﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻮﺭﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﻋﻞ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻛﻮﻟﻨﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﻼﻑ ﻧﺸﻮﻱ .‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔــﺘﻪ :‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﻣﺮﻧﺔ‬ ‫٢.‬ ‫٢.‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬــــﺎ :-‬ ‫١.‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰ : ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ :‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫١.‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬــــﺎ :-‬ ‫١. ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ .pdffactory.ﺍﻟﺤـــــﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴـــﺔ : ﻳﻘﻊ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻧﺼﻒ ﻗﻄﺮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻴﺌﺔ ﺣﺰﻡ ﻣﺜﻠﺜﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺇﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﻧﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﺒﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ ﺧﻼﻳﺎﻩ‬ ‫86‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. ﻗﺪ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ ﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ .‫ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻔﺤﺺ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺿﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﻕ ﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﻭ ﻓﻠﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﻟﻔﻮﻝ ﻣﺜﻼ ﺗﺠﺪ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻵﺗﻴﺔ :-‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﹰ : ﺍﻟﺒﺸـــــﺮﺓ : ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺻﺔ ﻣﻐﻄﺎﺓ ﺑﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﻛﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ ﺗﻤﻨﻊ ﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺤﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻲ ﻗﻠﻒ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺘﺔ .‬ ‫٣. ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻮﻱ . ﻣﻨﻊ ﻧﻔﺎﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ . ﺗﺪﻋﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻟﻨﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﻐﻠﻈﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﻛﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﻧﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺡ .‬ ‫٢. ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ .‬ ‫٤.ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﺴﻴﻜﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮ : ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﻜﻠﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻴﺔ .‬ ‫٣.com‬‬ . ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﺸﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ .

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺳﺘﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﺔ ﻟﺘﻌﻄﻲ ﺧﺸﺒﹰ ﻭ ﻟﺤﺎً ﺟﺪﻳﺪﹰ ، ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﻤﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻚ ، ﻭ ﻛﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻳﺰﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ )ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺧﺸﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﻴﺒﺎﺕ ( ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻒ ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﺧﺸﺐ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻲ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻗﻲ:‬ ‫ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻷﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺤﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻳﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﺼﻼ ﻟﻸﻧﺴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺎﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺗﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺸﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺨﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺠﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫96‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

ع ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎق ﻣﺴﻨﺔ ﻟﻨﺒﺎت اﻟﺰﯾﺰﻓﻮن‬ 70 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.‫ق.com .pdffactory.

com‬‬ .‫ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ‪:Growth Rings‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺟﺬﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺩﺓ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ،‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‪‬ﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺭﺍﺣﺔ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺓ )١(: ﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺫﻉ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل )١(: ﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

ﻭﺃﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ،‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻭﺳﻊ ﻭﺟﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺃﺭﻕ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻴﻠﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ.‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ‪Spring wood‬‬ ‫)ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮ ‪ (Early wood‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ.Annual rings‬ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ.pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫ﻭﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻛﻞ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺳﻢ ﻧﻤﻮ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ،‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺬﺍ ﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺼﻌﺐ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺣﺪ ﻓﺎﺻﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻭﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﻠﺔ، ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺳﻢ ﻧﻤﻮ ﻭﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻴﻪ. ﻭﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﺳﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺮﻯ،‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻚ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ، ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ )ﻛﺎﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ(‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻳﻦ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﺫﺑﺔ، ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎﻥ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺒﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ. ﻭﻳﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺧﺸﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ ‪) Autumm wood‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺄﺧﺮ ‪ (Later wood‬ﺑﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺘﻢ ﻟﻮﻧﺎ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻟﺼﻐﺮ ﻗﻄﺮ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﻳﻒ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺟﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻜﺔ، ﻭﺗﻜﺜﺮ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻟﻴﺎﻑ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻭﻳﻒ ﺍﻟﻀﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻴﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺠﻨﻨﺔ. ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﻭﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺨﺮﻳﻒ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻭﺿﻮﺣﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ، ﻏﻴﺮ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻤﺮﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫27‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. ﻭﻳﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻴﻊ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺭﺧﻮ، ﺑﺎﻫﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ، ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ،‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ، ﺟﺪﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ.

‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺋﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ:‬ ‫١.. ﻳﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺸﺎﺑﻬﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻰ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺷﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺘﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻨﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ، ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻳﺸ ﹼﻞ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﺮﺟﻌﺎ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺎ.‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻓﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ.ﻳﺒﺮﺯ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﻋﺒﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺠﺎﻭﺑﺖ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻘﺲ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﹼﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﻒ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﻣﺎ، ﻭﻋﺒﺮ ﺣﻠﻘﺔ ﻧﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺑﺨﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ.‬ ‫٢.pdffactory.‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺪ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﻰ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺃ ﹼ ﺃﻛﺜﺮﻳﺔ ﺷﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺪﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺿﻌﺔ ﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻰ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺬﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﺤﻴﻔﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺍﺕ : ٠٠٩١، ١٠٩١، ١٢٩١، ٦٧٩١ ﻧﻈﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺬﻯ ﻋ ‪ ‬ﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ.( ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫37‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻤﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻰ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻤﺔ ﺑﻔﻬﻢ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻟﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﺸﺎﺏ )ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺠﺮ ﻟﻠﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﻊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺠﺮ..com‬‬ .‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻧﺸﺄ ﻋﻠﻢ ‪ Dendrochloronology‬ﺃﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﻱ، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺣﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﻤﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻐﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ.‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة ) ٢ (: ﺗﻮﺿﯿﺢ اﻷوﻋﯿﺔ اﻟﻮاﺳﻌﺔ واﻟﻀﯿﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ اﻟﺨﺸﺐ اﻟﻤﺒﻜﺮ واﻟﻤﺘﺎﺧﺮ، ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﻮاﻟﻲ .

‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺷﺤﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻏﺮﻕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﻣﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺩﺭﺗﻪ ﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻴﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌ ‪‬ﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ.ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻟﻮﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺤﻒ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ، ﻭﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﺖ ﺑﻬﺎ.pdffactory.com‬‬ .‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ‫٣.‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﻟﺠﺬﻉ ﺷﺠﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻮﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﻘﻂ ﻋﺎﻡ ١٩٨١ﻡ ﻭﻋﻤﺮﻩ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ٠٠٣١ ﺳﻨﺔ.‬ ‫ﺻﻮرة ) ٣ (: ﺟﺬع ﺷﺠﺮة اﻟﺴﻜﻮﯾﺎ اﻟﻤﻌﻤﺮة‬ ‫47‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ‪:The Leaf‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ:‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﺑﺮﻋﻢ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ:‬ ‫• ﻫﻲ ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫• ﻟﻸﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺃﻳﻀﺎ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻐﺬﻯ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫57‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ:‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺘﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ: ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ:ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ‪: Leaf base‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﺿﺨﻢ ﻗﻠﻴﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻖ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬﺎ:‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻔﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫‪Poinciana‬‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻧﺴﻴﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺭﺍﻟﻴ‪ Aralia ‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻐﻠﻒ ﻗﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻓﺘﺒﺪﻭ ﻭﻛﺄﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺨﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﺓ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺪﻳﺔ‪Sheating base‬‬ ‫67‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻐﻤﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ:ﻋﻨﻖ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ‪:Leaf petiole‬‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻞ ﺑﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ ﻭﻳﻨﺜﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ ﻟﻴﻀﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻧﺴﺐ ﻣﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻖ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻘﻌﺮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻣﺤﺪﺑﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻭﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻭﺗﻮﺻﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻷﻋﻨﺎﻕ ﻭﺻﻔﻴﻦ: ﻣﻌﻨﻘﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻌﻨﻘﺔ)ﺟﺎﻟﺴﺔ( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻏﺎﺏ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﹰﺎ: ﻧﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ‪: Leaf blade‬‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺠﺰﺀ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻨﺒﺴﻄﹰﺎ ﺃﺧﻀﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ ﻟﻴﻌﺮﺽ ﺃﻛﺒﺮ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ ﻟﻠﻀﻮﺀ ﻭﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺳﻄﺤﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﻛﻦ ﻟﻮﻧﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ ﺍﻷﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﳛﻲ ﻷﻧﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﲔ :-‬ ‫١-ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ : ﻭﻫﻲ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻄﺎﺓ ﺑﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺷﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺩﺧﻮﻝ ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫ﻳﺘﺨﻠﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ . ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻴﻄﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﻲ . ﺧﺰﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ .‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬـﺎ :‬ ‫١.ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ : ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺗﺸﺒﻪ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻤﻚ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻮﺗﻴﻦ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﺮﺿﻬﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻷﺷﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻭﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﻛﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻱ .ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ: ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺘﻴﻦ :‬ ‫ﺃ-ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩﻳﺔ : ﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺿﻴﻘﺔ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻣﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻓﺮﺻﺔ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺷﺪﺓ ﺍﻹﺿﺎﺀﺓ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻻ ﺗﺘﻠﻒ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺻﻐﻴﺮﺓ .‬ ‫ب-ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻔﻨﺠﻴﺔ : ﻋﺪﺓ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﺮﺍﺻﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﻟﻠﺘﻬﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﺗﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻼﺳﺘﻴﺪﺍﺕ ﺧﻀﺮﺍﺀ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﺬﺍ ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻗﻞ ﺍﺧﻀﺮﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ .com‬‬ .‬ ‫97‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.‬ ‫٣.‬ ‫٢.‬ ‫ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﻬــﺎ : ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ . ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺑﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺋﻲ .‬ ‫٣-ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ : ﺗﺤﺎﻁ ﺑﻐﻼﻑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺍﻧﺸﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﻳﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻟﺤﺎﺀ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻭﺧﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﺑﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﻕ‬ ‫٤.‬ ‫٢.

com .80 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

‫ﺍﻟﱰﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﳛﻲ ﻷﻧﺼﺎﻝ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺫﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ :-‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ:ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﺮﺗﻴﻦ ﻋﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﺳﻔﻠﻰ ﺗﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﺸﺮﺓ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺫﻭﺍ ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺜﻐﻮﺭ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻔﻮﻑ ﻃﻮﻟﻴﺔ ،ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍ ﻣﺎﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺠﻢ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﺭ ، ﺗﻨﺜﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻗﺔ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﻠﻜﺎ ﻭﺧﻼﻳﺎ ﻓﻠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ:ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻷﻧﺴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺰﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺧﺸﺐ ﻭﻟﺤﺎﺀ ، ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺣﺮﻑ ‪ Y‬ﻭ ‪ X‬ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨﺸﺐ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﺎﺀ ﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫18‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

com‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺨــﻼﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻛــﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺭﻓﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ ﻭﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺕ:‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻ:ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﻓﻲ ﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﻏﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻐﻄﺎﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻭﺑﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﺬﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻏﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻘﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻷﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ:ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻓﻴﺔ:ﺗﻄﻔﻮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻲ،ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻛﻞ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﺨﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺪﻳﺮﺓ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ ﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﻖ ﻣﻨﺘﻔﺦ ﻋﺎﺋﻢ،ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﻋﺪﻳﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻌﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﻳﺎﺳﻨﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫38‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

com .pdffactory.:‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ:ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ 84 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻐﻤﻮﺭﺓ:ﺗﻨﻤﻮ ﻛﻠﻴﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﻟﻮﺩﻳﺎ ﻭﺳﻠﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﺠﺰﺃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻴﻮﻁ ﺭﻓﻴﻌﺔ ﻟﺘﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺍﻹﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫58‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.com‬‬ .

pdffactory.com‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﺒﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ،ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﺪﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺤﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺢ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﻻﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺻﻌﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺋﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫68‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .pdffactory.‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ:ﻫﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ ﺻﻌﺐ ﻣﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺢ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺮﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻴﺔ:ﻧﻈﺮﺍ ﻹﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻣﻠﻮﺣﺔ ﻣﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻟﻬﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ ﺇﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻹﺳﻤﻮﺯﻱ ﻟﻠﻌﺼﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻮﻱ ﻟﺨﻼﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﺟﺔ ﺗﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺿﻲ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺼﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ ٠٨ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻮﻱ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺗﺮﻳﺒﻜﺲ ﺇﻟﻰ ٠٣١ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺟﻮﻱ ﻭﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺇﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻮﻓﺮ ﺃﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﺤﻴﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﻟﻺﻣﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﻭﻳﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ ﻓﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺟﺬﻭﺭ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻧﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﺑﻦ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫78‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.

com‬‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻴﺔ:ﺗﻌﻴﺶ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻴﺌﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﻭﻻﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﻃﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﻓﻲ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺯﻧﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻭﻓﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺨﻴﺮ ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺍﺿﻲ ﻻ ﻣﺨﻔﻒ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﻭﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻛﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻛﺴﺠﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﺔ ﻓﻼ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻞ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺳﻄﻴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻔﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫88‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www.pdffactory.

ﺳﻬﻴﻠﺔ ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ ﻫﻮﺳﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫٥.com‬‬ . ﻏﻔﺮﺍﻥ ﻋﺰﺕ‬ ‫٤. ﻣﺎﺟﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﻳﺠﺮﻱ‬ ‫98‬ ‫‪PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. ﺻﻔﺎﺀ ﺇﺳﻤﺎﻋﻴﻞ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺩ. ﺭﺑﻰ ﺳﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺑﻬﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫٢.‫١. ﺷﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺑﻠﻐﻴﺚ ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫٦. ﺯﻳﻨﺐ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﻳﺰ ﺳﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫٣.pdffactory.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful