This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
. Computer is an electronic device which takes input process it and gives you output or result according to the given instructions.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER: Following are the characteristics of computer: 1. SPEED: The real power of the speech is the speed with which it performs calculations. It can process a large amount of data in few seconds, much faster than humans. The time used by a computer to perform an operation is called PROCESSING. Computer speed is measure in Mega Hertz (MHz) and Giga Hertz (GHz). 2. STORAGE: A computer can store a large amount of data. User can use this data at any time. We can store any type of data in a computer. Text, Graphics, Pictures, Audio and Video can be stored easily. The storage capacity of the computer increases rapidly. 3. PROCESSING: The main function of computer is data processing. It can perform different type of processing like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It can also perform logical operations. It also includes classification of data and its transmission from one place to another. 4. ACCURACY: In addition to being very fast computer are also very accurate in calculations. A modern computer performs millions of operations in one
second without any error. If the input data and the program instruction are correct then we expect the computer will produce accurate result. The accuracy of calculations depends upon the input data and the program instruction. 5. RECALLING: A computer can recall the data and information as and when required. The data stored in the computer can be used at later time. The computer can recall the required data in few seconds. 6. CONTROL SEQUENCE: A computer work strictly according to the given instructions. It follows the same sequence of execution that is given in a program. 7. CONSISTENCY: Computer can work in a consistent way. It does not take concentration due to heavy work. It does not become tired or bored. Computer performs all jobs with equal attention. 8. COMMUNICATION: Most computers today have the capability to communicate with other computers. We can connect two or more computers by a communication device. The computer can store data, information and instructions. A collection of connective computer is called network. We can communicate with other people in the world via internet. 9. VERSATILE: Computers are extremely versatile and are capable of performing almost any task. Computers can be used to solve problems relating to various different fields like hospitals, banks or at home etc. 10. NO-FEELINGS: It cannot be affected by heavy work. It cannot be affected by sorrow. It cannot expects feelings as an input 11. NO-INTELLIGENCE: It uses the intelligence of human beings not its own. It only follows the given instructions. If a computer is a program for addition, it cannot perform subtraction by itself. 12. COST REDUCTION: -
We can perform different task using computer in less time and cost.
TOPIC # 2 USES OF COMPUTER: Today computer is used in every field of life. The use of computer has made different tasks very easy. Computer has made a vital impact on our society. It has changed the way of life. Moreover the computer being used in every field of life. Such as medical, Business, Industry, Airlines and weather forecasting. 1- USES OF COMPUTER AT HOME: Computer can be used at home in the following ways: A- HOME BUDGET: Computer can be used to manage home budget. User can easily calculate income and expenses. He can list all expenses in one column and income in other column. The user can apply any calculations on these columns to plan his home budget. B- COMPUTER GAMES: Computer can be used at home for playing games. Different kind of games are available that are separately developed to improve your mental capability and thinking power. C- WORKING FROM HOME: People can manage office work at home. The owner of the company can check the work of employees from home. He can control his office work while sitting at home. D- ENTERTAINMENT: People can find entertainment from internet. We can watch movies, hear songs and different stuff. We can also watch live matches on the internet. E- CHATTING: We can chat with our friends on internet. We can also talk with them, can send different messages, files and information to them. 2- USES OF COMPUTER IN EDUCATION: -
It is used to educate students effectively. Many computer based educational programs are available.ONLINE EDUCATION: Many websites provides online education. The use of multimedia projector and slides improve the quality of teaching. It also helps learning process. Students can ask questions and discuss their problems by sending E-Mails to these websites.CAL (COMPUTER AIDED LEARNING): CAL is a process of using information technology to help teaching and learning process. Audio and video files are recorded on the CD‘s. A. C. Some universities provide online lectures for the students.RESEARCH: Computer can also used for research purposes.AUTOMATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM: Many car factories are completely computerized. Computers can be used in industry in following ways. Computers are used to control many complex tasks. can benefit from research websites. 3. B. CBT is a low cost solution for educating people. Cars are assembled by computers controlled reborts. Books and tutorials. Computer can be used in education in the following ways. You can train a large number of people easily. Many websites are developed for research activities.USES OF COMPUTER IN INDUSTRY: Computers are used in industry in different types of robotic systems. User can download educational material. Many educational games are becoming popular in the students. Students are young researchers. Different research scientists can share their work using internet. A.CBT (OMPUTER BASED TRAINING): CBT are different programs that are supplied on CD-Rom.Computers can be used in educational field to improve teaching and learning process. D. The use of computer can reduce the time spend on preparing teaching material. Graphics and sounds. These systems work quickly than human . These programs include text.
They connect with computer were broker match the buyer with seller.DESIGIN SYSTEM: Many products are designed using CAD (Computer Aided Design).beings and becoming popular. The transactions are handled easily and quickly with the computerized system. D. Computers can be used in business in the following ways: A. Many stock exchanges use computer to conduct bids. B. The stock brokers perform all trading activities electronically. Computers also help them to reduce the overall cost of their business. After the design is complete. Computers also used to manage distributions system. Banks use computer to maintain customers accounts (A/C).BANKS: The use of computer in banks has provided many benefits.DEPARTMENTAL STORES: The use of computer in departmental store has made the business . Marketing applications provide information about the product to computer. 4. ATM is used to draw cash directly from machine.USES OF COMPUTER IN BUSINESS: The use of computer technology in business provides many facilities. Businessman uses computer to interact with their customer anywhere in the world. B.STOCK EXCHANGE: Stock exchange is the most important place of the businessman.MARKETING: Any business organization can use computer for marketing their products. Computers programs are used to design the modal of the product on the computer. It saves time and provides convenience to customers. C. It reduces cost as no paper or special building is required to conduct their activities. the actual product is produced. Advertising and selling. Many banks provide the facility of Automated Teller Machine (ATM).
We can also display our data using charts and figures. It allows you to make different calculations using formulas and built-in function. We can keep record of different . Payroll system calculates pay bonuses and other information of employees. In video conferencing people residing at various places can talk with each other.FAX: The user can send fax from computer.HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATION: Hospital is an important organization. The computer use this input to calculate bill.VIDEO-CONFERENCING: Many companies using video conferencing to deal with other companies.USES OF COMPUTER IN MEDICAL FIELD: Computer can be used in medical field in the following ways: A. stock. F. trial balance and other information of accounts. The bar code contains price of a particular item. It provides work sheet to enter data.OFFICE AUTOMATION: Word processing is used to create documents electronically. It is used to produce letters. G.activities fast and accurate. It prevents a lot of time and cost. The record of sale is also stored in computer. We can computerize the accounts payroll and stock inventory of the hospital.ACCOUNTS/PAYROLL: Accounts system is computerized in many organizations. The quality of fax is also higher. They can see one another. E. The work sheet is a collection of rows and columns. inventory & accounts. It is also possible to receive a fax directly to computer. The cashier can enter the data in the computer using bar code reader. 5. Spread sheet programs are used for calculations. H. Account system maintains daily transaction of a company. We can use computer for the administration of the hospital. It maintains daily book. applications and other documents. It is very useful in this busy age. This record can be used analyze. Different programs are used for this purpose.
Many computerized devices are used to monitor the blood pressure. The processing speed was slow . Vaccume tube technology are used was used in first generation computer. Moreover different computerized devices are used in laboratories for different tests of blood etc. These computers could only perform simple calculations. TOPIC # 3 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS: The major changes in computer manufacturing technologies with the passage of time are called GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER. Vaccume tube was developed by ―MAUCHLY & ECHERT‖ at census department of USA in 1947. Many devices are used to deaf person to hear. We can store important facts about the patient in the computer. Diagnoses of diseases are possible by entering the symptoms. E. D.medicines and their distribution in different words etc. There are five generations of computer which are briefly discussed below: 1. such systems can be very effective and helpful for the doctors.LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM: Life support system is used to help disabled persons.DIAGNOSES OF DISEASES: Many software‘s are available that store diseases and their symptoms. Monitoring is needed especially in Operation Theater and intensive care unit (Intensive Care Unit).FIRST GENERATION: (1942-1955) These computers were build from 1942-1955. We can keep the record of his past treatment and suggested medicines and their results etc. Vaccume tube is a glass device which controls and amplify electric signals. heart beat and brain of the patient. Scientists are trying to create a device that will help blind person to see.RECORDING MEDICAL HISTORY: Computer can be used to store natural history of the patient. B. These computers were very big in size and also very costly. C.MONITORING SYSTEM: Some serious patient must be monitored continuously.
FOURTH GENERATION: (1975-Present) . As compare to first generation computer these computers were small in size. Third generation computer were used for both scientific and Business applications at the same time. The instructions had to be given directly in machine language. UNIVAC-I & EDVAC etc.THIRD GENERATION: (1964-1975) These computers were build from 1964-1975. Examples of first generation computers are ENIAC. Examples of third generations computers are IBM 370. Transistor is a small device that transfers electric signals across register.SECOND GENERATION: (1955-1964) These computers were build from 1955-1964. 4. fast in speed and producing more accurate results. This computer are used both low level language and high level language for computer programs. These computers used more high level language like Pascal & C. WILLIAM BRATTIAN & WILLIAM SHOCKLEY‖. JACK KILBEY in 1958 developed using small scale integration (SSI). UNIVAC 1108 & UNIVAC 9000. CDC 164 etc. faster in processing speed and have more internal storage as compare to previous generations. Examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 SERIES. 3. These computers could perform operations in milli seconds.and had a very small storage/memory. BARDEEN. IBM 1400 SRIES. This computer was not so reliable and the output result is not accurate. The air conditioning was compulsory for this computer because of over heating. These computers were smaller in size. 2. These computers had more storage as compare to first generation computer. Transistor was developed in 1947 at Bell Laboratories by ―J. These computers were designed separately for scientific calculations and Business Application. The Air Conditioning was used to reduce heating. Integrated Circuit (IC) were used in third generation computer. The transistor technology was used in second generation computer.
FIFTH GENERATION: (Present-Beyond) Nowadays and in future the Ultra large Scale Integration (ULSI) technology is being used. Following are the characteristics of Analog Computer: - . These computers have high very memory and are comparatively smaller in size. Molecular technology. 3. 2.These computers built from 1975 and still this technology is under development. Nowadays super computer comes under this generation. Analog computers are special purpose computers and mainly used in the field of engineering and medicines. Micro processor are invented using large scale integration (LSI) and very large scale integration (VLSI). It recognizes data as a continous measurement of a physical property.ANALOG COMPUTER: Analog is a ―Greek‖ word which means establishing similarities between two quantities. Analog computer work on measurement. These computers are ultra high processing speed and are high in cost.Artificial intelligence (spoken words. It appears that the fifth generation computers have at least following important characteristics. Computer with IQ. Micro processor consists of thousands of transistor and other electronic components. It has no stale. The Micro Chip technology was used in fourth generation computer. Examples of fourth generation computers are APPLE MACINTOSH & IBM PC. Quantum computation. 1. ―TED HOFF‖ in 1971 produced first micro processor for Intel. Speech-image-character recognition). 5.Ability of extensive parallel processing. TOPIC # 4 TYPES OF COMPUTERS: Computers can be devided on the basis of there working into the following types:1.Mega Chip Memory. Such as CRAY and NEC where multiples processor are used.
They have high quality graphics.Digital computers have two states that are ‗On‘ and ‗Off‘.These computers are difficult to operate.Thermometer is the example of analog computer because it measures the length of mercury column continuously. 3.Digital watches are examples of digital computers because the time which is displayed does not vary continuously but changes from one discrete to another. 3.A traditional clock is the example of analog computer because the needle of a clock covers the distance of dial continuously. 4. Every thing is described in two states that is (i-e) ON and OFF. Depending on flexibility in operation. It shows result in digital form. 1. speed and capacities. 5. 2.These computers are easy to use.Their result is accurate and reliable. digital computers are either special purpose or general purpose.Digital computers have high memory. Following are the characteristics of digital computer: 1. Digital computers are commonly used in offices and in educational institutions.Wait machine and speedometer are other examples of analog computers.1. Following are the examples of the digital computer: 1. . 2. Following are the examples of analog computer. 2. 3. These computers are manufactured in wide variety of size.They give output in terms of graph or on scale 2.These computers have limited memory and result is less reliable. These computers operate on discrete numbers that is (i-e) digits. The digit ―1‖ represents ―ON‖ and digit ―0‖ represents ―OFF‖ state.DIGITAL COMPUTER: Digital computer works on the principal of counting.
Depending upon their speed and memory size. Computers are manufactured in wide variety of size speed and capacities. 1. speed. They have the speed of analog computer and accuracy of digital computers. processing and price. Fuel and temperature are performed by Analog Computers TOPIC # 5 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS: Normally computers are classified on the basis of size. All calculations are performed by the digital computers and action like increase/decrease of material. Camera. Hybrid computers are used for special purpose.HYBRID COMPUTER: The computers that have qualities of both Analog and Digital computers are called Hybrid Computers.Micro Computer 2.2345- Digital Digital Digital Digital power station. In computer terminologies size refers to the amount of data that a computer can handle.Mainframe Computer . These measurements are then converted into numbers and supplied to digital components that monitor the patient vital signs and signals of abnormal reading. In many cases a Hybrid computer is an Analog computer controlled by a digital computer instead of human beings. 3. Thermometer.Mini Computer 3. Following are the examples of Hybrid Computers. Output is given in both graphical and numeric form. Computers are classified into the following categories: 1. power. 2. temperatures and others vital signs.In an ICU (Intensive Care Unit) Analog devices measure the patient heart functions.In cement factory a Hybrid computer is used. Computer.
It was introduced in 1970. It is small in size and can be placed . It is mostly used by architect. In this computer monitor and system unit are combine into a single device. A. ii.4. SERVER COMPUTER: It is a computer that manages resources of a network. It is designed in a way that all its components fit on desk or table. engineers and graphics artists. information and software. It consists of one or more input devices. It also provides centralized area to store data. it is more expensive and powerful personal computer. The major types of personal computers are Desktop Computers and Personal Computers.MICRO COMPUTER: Micro computers are also called personal computer. 2. Following are the two main types of Portable Computer. i. Micro computers are used to be designed to be used by a single person at a time. It is used for calculations and graphical works. iii. at home and educational institutions. memory and processor.DESKTOP COMPUTER: Desktop computers are the most common type of personal computers. WORKSTATION COMPUTER:It was introduced in early 1980‘s. Different types of desktop computers are as follows: i. It controls access to the software and hardware of the network. Micro computers are small in size and are used in offices. 1. storage devices.Super Computer.PORTABLE COMPUTER: It is a personal computer that can be carried from one place to another easily. NOTEBOOK COMPUTER: It is also called ―LAPTOP COMPUTER‖. ALL IN ONE COMPUTER:It is a less expensive computer. output devices.
b. A laptop computer can perform the same basic functions as a personal computer. HANDHELD COMPUTERS: It is also known as ―PALMTOP COMPUTERS‖. Some hand-held computers also support voice input. It can also browse websites that are specially designed to be used on cellular phones.MINI COMPUTER: Mini computer is large and more powerful computer than personal computer (PC). address books. The programs and data are stored on chips in the system unit. It can easily fit on hand of user. It provides the facility of calendar. It is also called mid range server. It can be used by using batteries. appointment books. It is normally accessed by personal computer and terminal. Mini computer can serve upto four thousand connected user simultaneously. Handheld computer often use stylus as an input device to enter data. It used less power.PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT: (PDA) PDA is used to organize personal information. Hand-held computer is not powerful as compare to desktop computers and notebook computers. 3. It contains small screen and small keyboard.They are more expensive and have more processing speed than micro computers. Only one user can use them at a time. Notebook computers can be brought anywhere easily because of its light weight ii. Hand-held has usually no disc drive.on laps easily. calculator and notepad. Some PDA provides word processing and spread sheet functions.WEB-ENABLED CELLULAR PHONE: It is also called smart phone. They are used for monitoring details of a large business organization to analyze the result of experiments to control and maintain the production activity in a factory. Mini computers were introduced in 1960‘s. It is used to send and receive messages on the internet. Following are the examples of midrange server: - . Some examples of hand-held computers are as follows: a.
mapping the surface of the planet and studying natural network of the brain. . Air blue.SUPER COMPUTER: The most powerful and the most fastest computer available is called Super Computer. 5. It can process trillions of instruction in one second. big factories. chemical and biological systems. It has a very large storage capacity. It can be serviced an upgraded while it is running. Man always searches for fast calculating device. It was first developed in 1970‘s. It is used to prove complex scientific jobs. It is biggest in size and the most expensive in price than any other computer. It often runs 24 hours a day. Mai-frame computers can serve upto fifty thousand users simultaneously.PRIME 9755. ETA 10 and NEC etc. IBM 360 etc. These computers are used by large business organizations like banks. The processors are connected in parallel processing. power and speed. The modern super computer consists of thousands of processors. TOPIC # 6 HISTORY OF COMPUTERS: Computers were invented because necessity is the mother of invention. It is more powerful than mini computers. It is specially designed to perform multiple intensive tasks for multiple users simultaneously. It took a long time to invent the digital computer. for scientific research and for weather forecasting. These computers can store large amount of data.MAINFRAME COMPUTER: Mainframe computer is large computer in terms of price. Examples of such computers are follows: CRAY-I. 4. informations and instructions. Super computers are mainly used in weapon designed. NEC 810 and DEC 10 etc. The user can access the main frame computer through personal and terminal. DEEP BLUE. Examples of mainframe computers are given as follows: IBM 4381.
CHARLES BABAGE: In 1822 a Mathematician Charles invented different engines for mathematical calculations. Later on the system was used in computing devices. vii. JOHN NAPIER BONE: Another manually calculating device was John Napier Bone. It was a card board multiplication calculator. The beads could be moved easily. ix. PUNCH BOARD: A French engineer ―JOSEPH‖ developed punch board system for power looms. vi. It was used to create specific waving pattern on cloths. HERMAN HOLLERITH: In 1889 Herman applied idea of punch board system in computer. GOTTFIELD WILHEM VON LEIBNITZ: In 1694 German scientist developed a calculating machine. v. It could only perform addition and subtraction/ multiplication was done by repeated addition and subtraction. ii. It was developed in 600 BC. He used punch board card for input and output. It was the first . iii. It was designed in early 17th century. Calculations were performed by moving the beads. ATANASOFT: Atanasoft was a professor at Lowa University. This engine could perform sixty additions per minute. He applied Boolean Algebra to computer circuitry. Abacus was invented by Chinese. GEORGE BOOLE: George Boole simplified binary system of algebra. His rule stated that any mathematical calculations can be stated simply as either true or false. It consists of wooden beads. viii. ABACUS: The first computing device was abacus. It is used to perform simple additions and subtractions. In 1842 he developed analytical engine that was automatic. BLAISE PASCAL: In 1642 a French Mathematician Blaise Pascal developed mechanical adding machine. iv.A brief history behind the invention of computer is as follows: i. He invented an electronic computer.
xiv. xii. INPUT DEVICES: A hard ware components used to enter data and instructions into the computer is called input device. John Von Neuman. It could store instructions and data. It was first digital computer. It was very reliable but large in size.(1943-1946) ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. x.(1946-1952) EDVAC stands for Electronic Discreet Variable Automatic Calculator.calculator that put multiply and divides. xi. It was invented by IBM. xiii. AIKEN of HARWARD UNIVERSITY. EDVAC: . Some of the most commonly used input . The ENIAC was very heavy and large in size. COMERCIAL COMPUTER: The first commercial computer was IBM 701. It was developed by Dr.(1951) UNIVAC stands for Universal Automatic Computer. It was designed by HOWARD A. UNIVAC: . It was first fully automatic calculating machine. MARK -I COMPUTER: . It was invented by JOP EKERT and JOHN MAUCHLY in 1946. ENIAC: . HARDWARE: DEFINITION OF HARDWARE: The physical parts of a computer system are called Hardware. It was used in industry and business. Hardware can be seen or touch. It consumes 140 Kilowatts of power and capable of doing 5000 addition per second.(1937-1944) It is also known as automatic sequence controlled calculator. It was the first electronic computer.
Alphabetic keys contains alphabets (A-Z. Some of the alternate devices to the mouse are as under: A) TRACK BALL: A track ball cane be used as an alternate to the mouse. Tab. light weight input device. letters. The body of the track ball does not move. punctuation marks and Special characters) pressing the relevant key tells the computer what to do or write.*.MOUSE: A mouse is a small. 2. A touch pad also has one or more buttons work like mouse buttons. C) POINTING STICK: It is a pressure sensitive device. multiply and divide). Touch pad is mostly used in notebook computers. It has a large rotating ball on the top. Light Pen. Spacebar. Special keys contains (Enter. Mouse.devices are Keyboard. Navigational keys are arrow sign. A keyboard also contains function keys from F1 . Touch Screen etc. By clicking on the button of the mouse we give the computer direction what to do. The pointer on the screen moves when the . It is similar to pencil eraser and exists between the keys of keyboard. /) (plus. The movement of the finger moves the cursor on the screen. numbers.. Escape). 1. Graphic Tablet. There are other devices similar to the mouse that can be used in tits place. It also contains modifier keys like Ctrl. Digital Camera. This device has buttons similar to those on mouse. Its movement guides the cursor on the screen of the monitor.KEYBOARD: A key board contains keys of (characters.F12. which perform different functions according to the application being run. Numeric keys contains (+. It is also known as track pad. Alt. minus. Scanner. B) TOUCH PAD: A touch pad is small and flat surface over which the user moves his fingertip. Joy Stick. The ball is rolled with fingertips and the position of the cursor is controlled on the screen by rotating the ball. Del etc. It is also called pointing device. A mouse has a special ball beneath it that allows you to roll it around on pad or on a desk. a-z).
DIGITAL CAMERA: It records photographs in the form of digital signals. It is connected by a wire in the computer. It is also called digitizer.PEN-BASED COMPUTER: - . Digital scanner uses laser technology to read the images.TOUCH SCREEN: It is a video display screen that receives input from the touch of finger. Light pen is usually used by engineers and graphic designers. The pen sends the information to the computer when user touches the pen on certain areas of a specially designed screen. It has a device at the tip that emits light. No chemical film is used in it. 5. 3. It creates the same image on the screen as designer can produce. It is light sensitive stylus. 4. The user enters data by touching icons or menus on the screen. It is used to read picture and other printed materials placed on its glass surface. Touch screen is well suited for simple application like Automated Teller Machine (ATM). It reads the picture or printed material and translates it in digital form. The screen is covered with plastic layer.JOY-STICK: A joystick consists of a based and a stick. 7. 8.GRAPHICS TABLET: It consists of a small pad upon which user draws images with a stylus pen.user pushes the pointer stick. 6. 9. There are invisible beams of infrared light behind the screen. A joystick can perform a similar function to a mouse or a track-ball.LIGHT PEN: A light pen is a handheld pen like device. The stick can be moved in any direction to move an object around the computer screen. These photographs can be directly stored into the computer memory.DIGITAL SCANNER: It is an input device. The most common use of a joystick is for playing computer games.
red or amber colour. OUTPUT DEVICES: A hardware components use to display information to the user is called output device. The user writes the words and symbols on the screen. B. The system used handwriting recognition software that translates handwriting characters into useable and readable data. blue. Some of the features of a monitor are as follows: FEATURES OF DISPLAY SCREEN: A.RESOLUTION:All characters and images on the screen made of pixels and dots. The colour display screen monitors are also called RGB (Red. However monochrome display screen can display different shades of the same colour. It is the image . 1. Resolution of the monitor is the number of pixels on the screen. The standard monitor for the Personal computer (PC) is in the size of 13—16 (inches).SIZE: Monitors are available in different sizes. The RGB screen can create 256 colours and thousands of their variations. green. Green and Blue). C.MONITOR: It looks like a television (TV).COLOUR: The display screen can be either monochrome or colour. The colour display screen can display output in multiple colours. Pixels are the dots or picture elements that form images on the monitor. Pen based systems are commonly used to input signature and messages that are stored and transmitted as a graphical image. The monochrome display screen displays output in single colour. printer & speakers. Monochrome display screen display image in a single colour usually white. Output displayed by the monitor is called soft copy output.Pen-based system is used to enter hand writing in computer by using pen like stylus instead of keyboard. Some of the commonly used output devices are monitor. The monitor allows us to see what you and the computer are doing together.
The smaller dot pitch means that there is less space between each pixel which results in sharper image display. Refresh rate. D. 2. The refresh rate should be at least 72 Hertz. The distance between each pixel is measured in millimeters. REFRESH RATE: The refresh rate is the speed with which a monitor redraws the image on the screen. It is a circuit board that determines the following things: FEATURES: i. TYPES OF DISPLAY SCREEN: A. Resolution. It indicates the number of times the screen is refreshed in one second.CRT SCREEN: It is the most commonly used type of display screen. CRT consists of one or more guns that fire a beam . It can display text as well as graphics. High number of pixels means sharper image.sharpness of a display screen. Number of colours.DOTPITCH: The distance between each pixel of a monitor is called dot pitch.26—0. CRT tube creates an image on the screen by an electronic beam. The image on the screen appears more solid if the refresh rate is high. ii. WORKING OF CRT MONITOR: It uses a cathode ray tube (CRT).V. It is also known as vertical scan rate or vertical frequency. It looks like a T. It is also called pixel pitch. iii. iv. Many monitors have a dot pitch of 0. It is also called video graphic card (VGA). Speed with which images are displayed on the screen.VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTER/ GRAPHIC ADAPTER (VGA): A display screen must have a video display adapter attached with a computer to display graphics. It is measured in Hertz.28mm. Common monitors have refresh rate between 75—85 Hertz.
These monitors are available in different sizes such as 14 inch. green and blue (RGB) colours. LCD monitors use much less power than the CRT monitor. These guns generate red. The most common technology is called Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). In active matrix display each pixel on screen is controlled by its own transistor. In Passive matrix display two transistors control a whole row or column of pixels each at the same time. . It is much brighter then passive screens. B. It also requires more power. C. The other colours are generated with the combination of these three colours. It is also called dual scan monitor. it allows the user to interact with the computer by touch of a finger rather than typing on the keyboard or moving the mouse. A touch screen is a special type of visual display unit (VDU). CRT in colour monitors consists of three guns. The screen is coated with very tiny phosphorous dots from inside. Speakers are headphones are two commonly used output devices for this type of output. These monitors take less space. voice or music is known as audio output. It has a grid of light beams or fine wires on the screen.FLAT PANEL MONITOR: Laptop PC use flat panel monitor. Flat panel monitor use variety of technologies. 2. Touch screen is well suited for simple application like Automated Teller Machine (ATM). The users enter data by touching icons or menus displayed on the screen. It is also called thin film transistor (TFT).SPEAKER & HEADPHONE: A type of output produce in the form of sound.of electrons inside the screen.TOUCH SCREEN MONITORS: These are used for input as well as output. LCD‘s monitors are active matrix or passive matrix. It is less expensive and uses less power than active monitor display. 15 inch & 17 inch. LCD monitors creates image with a special tube of liquid crystals that is normally transparent but becomes solid when charged with electricity.
The printing speed of this printer is in the range of 10 to 100 characters per second. A motor rotates the wheel when the desired character reaches the printing position on the paper a hammer strikes on the desired petal against the ribbon and the character is printed on the paper. The pins in the printer are pressed forward by magnetic device and the required printer is printed. The number of pins in a matrix varies from 9*7 – 24*9 (nine multiply seven to twenty four multiply 9).DAISY WHEEL PRINTER: It is a character printer. Print resolution is measured in dot per inch (dpi). C. These printers work like type writers. It is very much like a modern electronic typewriter. The printed output is called Hard Copy Output.3. Arabic and Chinese etc.LINE PRINTER: Line printers are impact printer. B. Each petal of daisy wheel has on it a fully formed character at its end. The printing pins of a dot matrix printer are arranged on matrix.PRINTER: A printer is an output device that prints characters. Dot matrix printer also used to print characters of other languages like Urdu. Daisy wheel printer uses a printing wheel known as daisy wheel.DOT-MATRIX PRINTER: Dot matrix printer is a character printer. Different types of printers are as follows: i. It prints one character at a time. It consists of a cylindrical drum that has a complete set of characters around the drum in lines. Dot-matrix printer also prints in colour other than black by using colour ribbon. These are of two types: DRUM PRINTER: Drum printer is an impact ink printer. It speed ranges . Following are the main types of impact printers: A. symbols and graphics on the paper. IMPACT PRINTER: An impact printer prints on the paper with the strike of hammer or pins on the ribbon.
from 300—2500 per minute. It uses a chain of printable characters wrapped around two pulleys. Some of the non impact printers are described below: LASER PRINTER: These are non impact printer. Infact laser printer use the same technique to create image on the paper as photocopier do. laser and inkjet technologies for printing. It is also called page printer because it prints one page at a time. When ink is sprayed on the paper it absorbs quickly. NON-IMPACT PRINTER: Non impact printers use thermal electro static. Laser printers have very high speed for printing which ranges from 4—50 pages per minute. A full page of output is assembled in the printer buffer and its image is copied on the paper. The chain rotates with very high speed to print the output or to fit the character of one line on the printer. An electronic field controls the spraying jet that forms characters or graph on the paper. THERMAL PRINTER: - . Its quality is better than a dot-matrix printer. It is a character printer and prints one character at a time. laser stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. CHAIN PRINTER: It is another type of line printer. These printers are fast and produce high quality output as compare to impact printers. ii. It creates output on the paper by a spray of ink from a fine spray jet. The printing speed is upto 250 characters per second. Colour ink-jet printers are also available. A laser printing creates image on the paper by laser beam s. INK-JET PRINTER: An ink-jet printer is a non-impact printer. Its speed ranges from 300—2500 lines per minute. Colour laser printers are also available to print text and graphics in different colours.
The pens are moved to the right and left as the drum rotates. 5. LCD PROJECTOR: LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. The advantage of drum plotter is that the length of the plot is almost unlimited. FLAT BED PRLLOTER: Flat bed plotters are used to plot or draw images. The roll paper is used to draw out very lengthy images. It is attached to the computer directly. Now this printer is widely used to produce very high quality colour art work and text. LCD projector uses liquid crystal display technology. The output projected by the data projector can be viewed by a number of people very clearly. A plotter works by drawing lines on the paper using pens held in mechanical arm.PLOTTER: A plotter is an output device that is used to produce quality image graphics in a variety of colours. Thermal printer is the best colour printer currently available it is also very expensive. Most flat bed plotters have one or more pens of different colours and width. ii. This movement creates the desired image. DRUM PRLLOTER: Drum plotter use a rotating drum or cylinder. It was used in scientific labs to record data. Different types of data projector are as follows: i. Software instructs the pen to move down on the paper.Thermal technology uses heat technology to transfer ink on the paper. It contains pens for drawing images. 4. The pens then move to create image on the paper. The drawing pens are mounted on the drum. The plotter is placed on table like surface. The width of the image depends on the width of the drum. Different types of plotters are as follows: i. It uses its own .DATA PROJECTOR: Data projector is an output device that projects the output of computer screen onto a large screen.
A computer cannot work without CPU. /) B. All arithmetic and logical operations are performed in ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit). processing unit. Control unit also provides clock pulses that are used to regulate and control all operations in computer system. It consists of two units: A. SYSTEM UNIT: 1. It acts like a supervisor of the computer. DLP projector uses tiny mirrors to reflect light. All computers must have central. --. Most of the work consists of calculations and data transfers. It controls and coordinates all the activities of computer system. It does not execute program instructions by itself. ii. subtraction and division (+. multiplication. CPU performs all operations on data according to the given instructions and tells other parts of computer what to do. DLP PROJECTOR: DLP stands for Digital Light Processing. ii. 2. ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT: ALU is the part of CPU. equal to or less than the other. MEMORY: - . It is the brain of the computer.ARITHMETIC UNIT: Arithmetic unit of ALU performs basic arithmetic functions such as addition. CPU: CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. CPU consists of two main units: i. *.LOGIC UNIT: Logic unit of ALU performs logical operations like comparing two data items to find which data item is greater than.light source to display the information. CONTROL UNIT: Control unit is an important part of CPU. It is also called processor. It produces brighter and sharper image then LCD projector. CPU is located on the motherboard / main-board. Actual execution of instructions takes place in this part.
That is why it is faster than DRAM.A component in the computer used for storing instructions and data is called memory. So the processing speed is increased. RAM: RAM stands for Random Access Memory. SRAM is more expensive. When the power is switched off the instructions stored in RAM are not lost. It utilizes less power than DRAM. It can store data without any need of frequent recharging. DRAM is reached or refreshed again and again to maintain its electrical state for storing data. It is also called Direct Access Memory. These instructions can only be read and cannot be changed or deleted. A program must be located into RAM before execution. CPU can read data from RAM and writes data to RAM. RAM is also called Main Memory or Primary Memory.SRAM: SRAM stands for Static Random Access Memory. That is why it is slow. Different types of memory are as follows: i. Therefore ROM is called non-volatile Memory. ROM stores data and instructions permanently. The processor cannot access the data of DRAM when it is being refreshed. It means that its contents are lost when the power is turned off. The instructions in ROM prepare the computer for use. A. RAM is built by using two different techniques. The information in Ram is . RAM is a read/write memory. A bigger RAM size provides larger amount of space for processing. RAM is used to store data and instructions temperately. RAM is a volatile memory. ii. The electrical charge of DRAM decreases with time that may result loss of data. It is not possible to write new informations and instructions into the ROM. DRAM requires an electric current to maintain its electrical state. CPU does not wait to access data from SRAM during processing. ROM: ROM stands for Read only Memory. Random Access means that each individual byte in the entire memory can be accessed directly. B.DRAM: DRAM stands for Dynamic Random Access Memory.
The chip becomes un-useable. The data and instructions that are most recently or most frequently use by the CPU are stored in cache. It speeds . It is designed to speed up the transfer of data and instructions. The user or manufacturer can write data and programs on it using special devices. It is located inside or close to CPU. The data and programs written on it can be erased with special devices using ultra violet rays. In this memory user can erase and write instructions with the help of electrical pulse. If there is any error in writing the instructions.PROM: PROM stands for Programmable Read only Memory. CACHE MEMORY: A cache is a small and very fast memory. These instructions tell the computer how to access hard disk.EEPROM: EEPROM stands for Electronically Eraseable Programmable Read only Memory. ROM contains a small set of instructions called ROM BIOS.stored by the manufacturer. If the required data is found there it is retrieved from cache memory instead of main memory. This form of ROM is initially blank. The user can write data and instructions on it only once. A copy of that data or instructions is stored in cache. The data and instructions are retrieved from RAM when CPU uses them for the first time. C. The next time the CPU need that data or instruction. find operating system and lead it in RAM.EPROM: EPROM stands for Eraseable Programmable Read only Memory. If there is any error in writing the instructions user can erase the contents electronically. B. BIOS stands for Basic Input output System. The contents of EEPROM can be modified easily. the error cannot be removed from PROM. it first looks in cache. This form of ROM is initially blank. Different types of ROM are as follows: A. It is faster than RAM. The user then can write new programs on it. The user or manufacturer can write data and programs on it using special devices. iii.
v. • TYPES OF STORAGE DEVICES: 1. It stores configuration information of computer. STORAGE DEVICES: Storage devices are used to store data and programs permanently.up the working of CPU.MAGNETIC TAPE: Magnetic tape is a flexible plastic tape coated with magnetic material. printers and digital Camera etc. Most computer use it to store startup instructions as it allows the computer to update its contents easily. Flash memory chip also store data and programs on mobile computers and other devices such as smart phones. It is widely used when large amount of data is to be processed sequentially. The information in CMOS chip can be changed. CMOS: CMOS stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. iv. Two important functions of storage devices are reading and writing. instructions or information from memory to a storage media is called writing. These devices have the capacity of strong large amount of data and programs. The process of copying data. It can be erased electronically like EEPROM. portable media player. current date and time and other startup information required during booting process. FLASH MEMORY: Flash Memory is a type of Non-volatile Memory. An advantage of magnetic tape is that it is very cheap and economical storage media. instructions or information from storage media to memory is called reading. Floppy Disk and CD Rom etc. The information includes the type of disc drivers. . Some examples of storage devices are Hard Disk. keyboard. CMOS chip uses battery power to retain its information even the computer is turned off. monitor. The process of copying data. Its major disadvantage is that it is very slow and it is only sequential.
The platters are used to store data. TYPES OF MAGNETIC DISK: A. Data access speed of floppy disk is slower than hard disk. It also contains an access arm and read/write head to read and write data. Its storage capacity is upto 1000 MB. Each track on a disk is divided into sectors. It means that any part of the disk is directly accessable. The formatting process prepares the disk so that it can store data. . It was introduced by IBM in early 1970‘s. Its size is normally 512 Bytes.MAGNETIC DISK: Magnetic disk is the most widely used storage media. A hard disk consists of several circular disks called platters sealed inside a container. It consists of a thin plastic disk coated with magnetic material. The data stored on floppy disk can be read with floppy disk drive. The standard size of floppy disk sis 3.5 inch. It is used for taking the backup of large data. The data storage capacity of floppy disk is 1.2. circular metal plate or platter coated with magnetic material.FLOPPY DISK: Floppy Disk is also called Diskette. C. Information can be recorded on or read from magnetic surface. The container contains a motor to rotate the disk. The disk is enclosed in plastic jacket. It is a portable storage media and can be removed from one computer and inserted into another computer easily. B. Following are the types of magnetic disk. A platter in a hard disk is coated with magnetic material. It is also called Fixed Disk because it is fixed in the system unit. It has more storage capacity than floppy disk.44 MB.HARD DISK: Hard Disk is type of magnetic disk. Zip disk can be read/written by using Zip drive.ZIP DISK: Zip disk is a portable disk. A magnetic disk is thin. A sector is the smallest physical storage unit on a disk. Formatting process creates tracks and sectors on the disk. The read/write hed in floppy disk drive is used to read and write data on floppy disk. Magnetic disk is a Random Access Storage Media. A disk must be formatted before it can be used.
3. CD: CD stands for Compact Disk. Optical drive reads data by focusing laser beam on the surface of the disk. It cannot be deleted or changed. The data written on CD-R cannot be erased. The data stored on CD-Rom can only be read. Laser beam writes on the surface by creating small pits (hole) in the disks.D.8 MB of data per second. HiFD disk drive can also read standard 1. A single CD can store from 650 MB (Mega Byte) to 1 GB (Giga Byte) of data.OPTICAL DISK: Optical disk uses laser technology to read and write data.44 MB floppy disk. It can store about 700 MB of data. Laser stands for light amplification through stimulated emission of radiation.SUPER DISK: Super disk is produced by IMATION.HiFD DISK: HiFd disk is produced by SONY CORPORATION. Zip drive cannot read standard 1. CD-ROM is a portable storage device. Different types of CD‘s are as follows: a) CD-ROM : CD-ROM stands for compact disk read only memory. Its capacity is 200 MB. The process of putting information CD is called burning the CD. It is the most widely used media today. For example a 32x CD drive can transfer 4. The contents of CD can be read by CD drive. E. CD-R is also known as WORM (Write Once Read Many).44 MB Floppy Disk. Its capacity is 120 MB. Different categories of laser disks are as follows: i. . Laser beam converts these pits into digital form. A laser detects the presence of the pit indicates 1 and absence of pit indicates 0.44 MB floppy Disk. The rotational speed of CD drive indicates the speed of transferring data from CD. Super disk drive can also read the standard 1. The user can write data on CDR only once but can read it many times. b) CD-R: CD-R stands for Compact Disk Recordable.
It is widely used in consumer devices such as digital camera. The most common type of erasable and rewriteable optical disk is Magneto Optical Disk (MOD). It realizes on integrated circuit to store data. Solid state storage devices are portable and provide fast access to data. The user can write data on DVD-RW many times by erasing the existing contents. notebook computers. 1) USB FLASH DRIVE: USB flash drive is also known as Pen Drive. The user can write data on DVD-R only once but can read it many times. These devices do not use disks or tape and have no moving part. a) DVD-R: DVD-R stands for Digital Video Disk Recordable. MP3 player. It is similar to CD-R disks.c) CD-RW: CD-RW stands for Compact Disk Rewriteable. DVD: DVD stands for Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk. So the data storage capacity of DVD-Rom is much greater than CD-ROM. It uses a laser beam with short wave length. ii. These devices are very useful to store data on mobile devices. PDA‘s (Personal Digital Assistant) and Cell phones etc. The short wave length reads smaller holes (pits) on the disk. They use very little power. It uses the technologies of both magnetic and optical disk. Some solid state storage devices are nonvolatile and volatile. Data storage capacity of the disk increased if the pit size is small. SOLID STATE STORAGE DEVICES: Solid state storage devices or flash memory devices are unique among all storage devices. DVD-Rom can store upto 17 GB of data. b) DVD-RW: DBD-RW stands for Digital Video Disk Re-writeable. It provides much greater . The user can write data on CD-RW many times by deleting the existing contents. The data written on DVD-R cannot be erased / deleted. These devices are neither magnetic nor optical. It is also known as erasable optical disk.
It was initially used in mobile phones and pagers. 2) FLASH MEMORY CARDS: Flash memory cards are widely used in PDA‘s. c) SECURE DIGITAL CARD: Secure digital card is based on multimedia card technology. Different types of flash memory cards are as follows: a) COMPACT FLASH: Compact flash size is about the size of match box. It comes in various capacities of 512 MB and 1 GB. Digital Camera. It includes a built-in-controller to read and write data. It also includes cryptographic security protection for copy righted data or music. It does not include a built-in-controller. It includes a built-in-controller.storage capacity than Floppy Disk or Zip Disk. e) XD PICTURE CARD: It is a flash memory card that looks like a rectangular piece of plastic. It means that smart media reader manages read / write process. It is slightly larger than a peny with one edged curve. music and video files from one computer to another. b) MULTIMEDIA CARD: It provides solid state storage in a package about the size of postage stamp. It is very useful for use with digital camera that requires Mega Byte for each photo. It can be plugged into any USB port. It provides fast data transfer. A flash drive can store 256 MB to 64 GB of data. The capacity of XD . Cell Phones and notebook computers etc. It is used to transfer documents. It provides high storage capacities and high access speed. pictures. It is now used with digital camera and MP3 Player. d) SMART MEDIA CARD: Smart media card was originally called solid state floppy disk card as it looks a floppy disk. Generally these cards are not interchangeable. USB flash drive requires no card reader. It is small and light weight storage device.
If a computer has a clock speed of 300 MHz. Bigger size of register increases the performance of computer. This process is called swapping. four or eight bytes. 2) RAM (RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY): Amount of RAM directly affect the processing speed of the computer. The time required to execute a single instruction is called clock speed. Clock speed is measures as cycle per second. 1) REGISTER: Register is a small high speed memory inside a CPU. Its unit is Hertz (Htz). Computer with 32 Bit register means the CPU can process four bytes of data at one time. f) MEMORY STICK MEDIA: It is an elongated flash memory card about the width of peny developed by SONY. The size of register is in Bytes. A faster clock can execute more instructions each . Bigger amount of RAM means more programs instructions and data can be store in memory. If a computer does not have enough memory to run a program. that can greatly slow a computer performance. Memory stick media comes in capacities from 4 MB to 1 GB. Clock speed tells us show much time a CPU takes to execute each instruction. CPU takes from 1— 6 clock takes to execute one instruction. FACTORS AFFECTING PROCESSOR SPEED: Following are the important factors that affect the processing speed of the computer. The size of register determines the amount of data which the computer can work at one time. 3) SYSTEM CLOCK: System Clock is an electronic component. two. CPU contains a number of registers. It generates electric signals at a fast speed. its system clock takes 300 Millions times every second. it must move data between the RAM and Hard Disk frequently. Register stores data and information while the CPU processes them.picture card is from 16 MB to expected 8 GB. A register can be of one.
Cache is located directly on the CPU or between the CPU and RAM. Different types of buses are as follows: 1) SYSTEM BUS: System bus is used to connect the main components of a computer such as CPU and main memory. Cache is faster than RAM. 4) BUS: A bus is a path between the components of a computer. The amount of data that a bus can carry at one time is called bus width. One line of bus can transfer one bit at a time. A copy of that data or instructions is stored in cache. The bus width determines how many bits can be transmitted between the CPU and other devices. System buses are part of motherboard / main board. the data and instructions and retrieved from RAM when CPU uses them for the first time. The next time the CPU needs that data it first looks in cache if the required data is found there it is required from cache instead of main memory. It is used to transfer data between different components of the computer. Different types of system buses are as follows: a) DATA BUS: Data bus is the most common type of bus. The capacity of computer depends on the number of lines on it. A higher bus width means that the bus can carry more data. It is designed to speed up the transfer of data and instructions. COMPUTER BUSES: A bus consists of set of parallel lines. 5) CACHE MEMORY: A cache is high speed memory that holds the most recent data and instructions that have been loaded by the CPU.time. It is used to transfer data . It increases the performance of computer. It speeds up the working of CPU. A bus with 32 lines can carry 32 bits or 4 bytes of data. Bus width also affects the performance of computer. A bus with 16 lines can carry 16 bits or 2 bytes of data. Data and instructions travels along these paths.
32 or 64 lines. Data bus lines are bi-directional. TERMINALS: Terminal is a device that performs input and output. A 64 lines data can transfer 64 bits of data at one time. Each component is assigned a unique ID. This ID is called the address of that component. Dumb terminal is normally connected to a host computer. The address bus is uni-diretional. It can carry information only in one direction. It carries address of memory location from micro-processor to the main memory. it uses address bus to specify the address of that component. c) CONTROL BUS: Control bus is used to transmit different command signals from one component to another component. The data bus consists of 8. it will use control bus to send the memory read command to the main memory of the computer.between different components of computer. keyboard and a video card. The number of lines in data bus affects the speed of data transfer between components. d) EXPANSION BUS: Expansion bus is a type of computer bus that is used to connect CPU with peripheral devices such as keyboard. The control bus is also used to transmit control signals like Acknowledgment Signals (ACKS). mouse. 2) INTELLIGENT TERMINAL: It also contains memory and a processor to perform some functions . 16. printer and camera etc. Suppose CPU wants to communicate from main memory. Host computer performs the processing and then sends the output back to the dumb terminal. It consists of a monitor. b) ADDRESS BUS: Many components are connected with one another trough buses. It can enter and transmit data to a computer to which it is connected. 1) DUMB TERMIANAL: It has no processing power and cannot function as a independent device. If a component wants to communicate with another component.
The password is also called Personal Identification Number (PIN). It is usually used to connect devices that require fast data transmission like printer and scanner etc. . PORTS: A port is an interface or pint of attachment. keyboard or mouse etc. It is usually used to connect devices that do not require fast data transmission like keyboard and mouse etc. The user inserts a plastic bank card with a magnetic strip into the ATM and enters the password. Parallel ports are often referred to as line printer (LPT) port. Serial port is often referred to as communication (COM) port. The speed is measured in kilobits per second (KBS). It is attached directly to motherboard. 2) PARALLEL PORT: A type of port that transmits many bits at a time is called parallel port. Each type of port operates at a certain speed. a) POINT OF SALE TERMINAL: It is used to record purchase at the point where the consumer purchases a product or service. Different types of ports are as follows: 1) SERIAL PORT: A type of port that that transmits 1 bit at a time is called serial port. It is used to connect peripheral devices such as printer. The speed of serial port is 115 Kilo Bits per Second (KBS). 3) SERIAL PURPOSE TERMINAL: It performs specific tasks and for use in a particular industry. It is an external port on the back of computer. b) AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM): It is self service banking machine. The port connectors are attached to motherboard. all peripheral device communicates with the computer using port. It is much faster than a serial port. Two examples are point of sale terminal and Automated Teller machine (ATM). It is also called programmable terminal. It is used to access bank account. It is used in grocery store etc.independent of the host computer. It connects to a host computer through a network. The speed of parallel port is 12 Mega Byte per Second (MBPS).
.3) USB PORT: USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. It is a plug and play hardware interface. It is used to connect devices keyboard. scanner and printer etc. joystick. It can connect upto 127 devices. It has a maximum bandwidth of 12 MB (Mega Bits) per second.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.