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Transistortransistor logic (TTL) is a class of digital circuits built from bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and resistors.

It is called transistortransistor logic because both the logic gating function (e.g., AND) and the amplifying function are performed by transistors (contrast with RTL and DTL). TTL is notable for being a widespread integrated circuit (IC) family used in many applications such as computers, industrial controls, test equipment and instrumentation, consumer electronics, synthesizers, etc. The designation TTL is sometimes used to mean TTL-compatible logic levels, even when not associated directly with TTL integrated circuits, for example as a label on the inputs and outputs of electronic instruments.

Bipolar transistors are so named because they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers. The bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the first type of transistor to be mass-produced, is a combination of two junction diodes, and is formed of either a thin layer of p-type semiconductor sandwiched between two n-type semiconductors (an n-pn transistor), or a thin layer of n-type semiconductor sandwiched between two p-type semiconductors (a p-n-p transistor). This construction produces two p-n junctions: a baseemitter junction and a basecollector junction, separated by a thin region of semiconductor known as the base region (two junction diodes wired together without sharing an intervening semiconducting region will not make a transistor). metaloxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a transistor used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The basic principle of this kind of transistor was first patented by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. Twenty five years later, when Bell Telephone attempted to patent the Junction Transistor, they found Lilienfeld already holding a patent which was worded in a way that would include all types of transistors. Bell Labs was able to work out an agreement with Lilienfeld, who was still alive at that time. (It is not known if they paid him money or not.) It was at that time, the Bell Labs version was given the name, Bipolar Junction Transistor, or simply Junction Transistor, and Lilienfeld's design took the name, Field Effect Transistor. In MOSFETs, a voltage on the oxide-insulated gate electrode can induce a conducting channel between the two other contacts called source and drain. The channel can be of n-type or p-type (see article on semiconductor devices), and is accordingly called an nMOSFET or a pMOSFET (also commonly nMOS, pMOS). It is by far the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, though the bipolar junction transistor was at one time much more common. The 'metal' in the name is now often a misnomer because the previously metal gate material is now often a layer of polysilicon (polycrystalline silicon). Aluminium had been the gate material until the mid 1970s, when polysilicon became dominant, due to its capability to form self-aligned gates. Metallic gates are regaining popularity, since it is difficult to increase the speed of operation of transistors without metal gates.

An insulated-gate field-effect transistor or IGFET is a related term almost synonymous with MOSFET. The term may be more inclusive, since many "MOSFETs" use a gate that is not metal, and a gate insulator that is not oxide. Another synonym is MISFET for metalinsulatorsemiconductor FET. The 7400 series of transistor-transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are historically important as the first widespread family of TTL integrated circuit logic.[1][2] It was used to build the mini and mainframe computers of the 1960s and 1970s. Several generations of pin-compatible descendants of the original family have since become defacto standard electronic components. As integrated circuits in the 7400 series were made in different technologies, usually compatibility was retained with the original TTL logic levels and power supply voltages. Strictly, an integrated circuit made in CMOS is no longer a TTL chip since it uses field-effect transistors (FETs) and not bipolar junction transistors, but similar part numbers are retained to identify similar logic functions and electrical (power and I/O voltage) compatibility in the different subfamilies. Over 40 different logic subfamilies use this standardized part number scheme.

Bipolar

74 - the "standard TTL" logic family had no letters between the "74" and the specific part number. 74L - Low power (compared to the original TTL logic family), very slow H - High speed (still produced but generally superseded by the S-series, used in 1970s era computers) S - Schottky (obsolete) LS - Low Power Schottky AS - Advanced Schottky ALS - Advanced Low Power Schottky F - Fast (faster than normal Schottky, similar to AS) C - CMOS 415 V operation similar to buffered 4000 (4000B) series HC - High speed CMOS, similar performance to LS, 12 nS HCT - High speed, compatible logic levels to bipolar parts AC - Advanced CMOS, performance generally between S and F AHC - Advanced High-Speed CMOS, three times as fast as HC

CMOS

ALVC - Low voltage - 1.65 to 3.3 V, Time Propagation Delay (TPD) 2 nS[7] AUC - Low voltage - 0.8 to 2.7 V, TPD < 1.9 nS@1.8 V[7] FC - Fast CMOS, performance similar to F LCX - CMOS with 3 V supply and 5 V tolerant inputs LVC - Low voltage 1.65 to 3.3 V and 5 V tolerant inputs, tpd < 5.5 nS@3.3 V, tpd < 9 nS@2.5 V[7] LVQ - Low voltage - 3.3 V LVX - Low voltage - 3.3 V with 5 V tolerant inputs VHC - Very High Speed CMOS - 'S' performance in CMOS technology and power BCT - BiCMOS, TTL-compatible input thresholds, used for buffers ABT - Advanced BiCMOS, TTL-compatible input thresholds, faster than ACT and BCT

BiCMOS

Totem pole output happens If the output devices are driven by two (or more) signals of differing phase the design is push - pull. It is possible to build a four phase push - pull design. This is common in switching power supplies but I have never seen it used in analog audio. Propagation delay is a technical term that can have a different meaning depending on the context. It can relate to networking, electronics or physics. In general it is the length of time taken for the quantity of interest to reach its destination. It is is the length of time starting from when the input to a logic gate becomes stable and valid, to the time that the output of that logic gate is stable and valid. Often this refers to the time required for the output to reach from 10% to 90% of its final output level when the input changes. Reducing gate delays in digital circuits allows them to process data at a faster rate and improve overall performance.

Power dissipation is the power that is converted to heat and then conducted or radiated away from the device. Electronic and electric devices can have a limit on the current they can safely handle that is not an electronic limit, but a physical one. For instance, a transistor may otherwise be able to handle a certain amount of current, but it is given a lower current rating because the die gets too hot. Lower power transistor are housed in a small plastic or metallic cases of various
shapes.

Schottky transistor is a combination of a transistor and a Schottky diode that prevents the transistor from saturating by diverting the excessive input current. It is also called a Schottky-clamped transistor. When forward biased, a Schottky diode's voltage drop is much less than a standard silicon diode's, 0.25 V versus 0.6 V. In a standard saturated transistor, the base-to-collector voltage is 0.4 V. In a Schottky transistor, the Schottky

diode shunts current from the base into the collector before the transistor goes into saturation. The input current which drives the transistor in active state sees two paths, one from base to Schottky diode to collector to emitter and the other from base to emitter. When transistor conducts it will develop 0.6 V across its base and emitter. The same voltage will appear across shunt path along the Schottky diode and C to E. Schottky will give 0.25 V drop so remaining 0.35 will occur at C to E branch. So transistor will not go in saturation because it has 0.2 volt across C to E branch in saturation. Low Power Schottky Transistor can be made smaller than QI with lower parasitic capacitances, with post 1975 technology (6mm features).

TTL Characteristics Each logic family is characterized by several important parameters. These properties, and how they relate to the TTL logic family in particular, are explained below: Fan-in is the maximum number of inputs to a gate. Although physical considerations limit fanin, more pragmatic factors, such as limitations on the number of pins possible on IC packages and their standardization predominate. TTL NAND gates typically provide 1, 2, 4, or 8 inputs. If more than eight inputs are required, then a network of NAND gates must be employed. Fan-out specifies the number of standard loads that the output of a gate can drive without impairing its normal operation. A standard load is defined to be the amount of current required to drive an input of another gate in the same logic family. Due to the nature of TTL gates, two different fanout values are given, one for HIGH outputs and one for LOW outputs. Exceeding these fan-out limits may result in incorrect voltage levels at the output, as a gate cannot provide or sink enough current. The lower value of the two fanout values determines the fanout of the gate. In the case of 7400 TTL logic, they are equal, but for some other types of TTL logic the limiting value is the LOW fanout. Some TTL structures have fanouts of at least 20 for both logic levels. Noise immunity is a measure of the ability of a digital circuit to avert logic level changes on signal lines when noise causes voltage level changes. One measure of noise immunity is characterized by a pair of parameters: the dc HIGH and LOW noise margins, DC1 and DC0, respectively.

Fan-out specifies the number of standard loads that the output of a gate can drive without impairing its normal operation. A standard load is defined to be the amount of current required to drive an input of another gate in the same logic family. Due to the nature of TTL gates, two different fanout values are given, one for HIGH outputs and one for LOW outputs.
Noise Margin is the amount by which the signal exceeds the threshold for a proper '0' or '1'. For example, a digital circuit might be designed to swing between 0.0 and 1.2 volts, with anything below 0.2 volts considered a '0', and anything above 1.0 volts considered a '1'. Then the noise margin for a '0' would be the amount that a signal is below 0.2 volts, and the noise margin for a '1' would be the amount by which a signal exceeds 1.0 volt. In this case noise margins are measured as an absolute voltage, not a ratio. Noise margins for CMOS chips is usually much greater than TTL because the VOH min is closer to the power supply voltage and VOL max is closer to zero.

Sources and Sinking:


o Sinking: In an input slice, the terminology describes what the slice does with the current from the load. In a "sinking" slice, it "sinks" current to ground. You will need to supply the voltage rail for the load. Sources: In an output slice, the terminology describes what the slice does with the current from the load. In a "sourcing" slice, it "sources" current to the voltage rail. You will need to supply the ground for the load.

Standard Loading is the power drawn from a circuit by an electric measuring instrument, which may alter appreciably the quantity being measured.