INTERNET PROTOCOL TELEVISION (IPTV
1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. BRIEF IDEA 4. APPLICATIONS 5. IPTV INTRODUCTION 6. WORKING OF IPTV 7. CONCLUSION 8. REFERENCE
“IPTV (Internet Protocol Television)”
IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. A general definition of IPTV is television content that, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. For residential users, IPTV is often provided in conjunction with Video on Demand and may be bundled with Internet services such as Web access and VoIP. The commercial bundling of IPTV, VoIP and Internet access is referred to as "Triple Play" service (when these three are offered with mobility, the service is referred to as "Quadruple Play"). IPTV is typically supplied by a service provider using a closed network infrastructure. This closed network approach is in competition with the delivery of TV content over the public Internet, called Internet Television. In businesses, IPTV may be used to deliver television content over corporate LANs.
The term IPTV can cause some confusion. In narrow terms, IPTV is defined as the provision of video services (for example, live television channels, near video-ondemand (VOD) or pay-per-view) through an IP platform. However, some define IPTV services to encompass all the possible functionalities that can be provided over an IP platform. For example, some equate IPTV services with multimedia services, a category that can include television, video, audio, text, graphics, and data. This encompasses not only one-way video broadcasting services but also ancillary interactive video and data services, such as VOD, web browsing, advanced email, and messaging services. The interactive services associated with IPTV allow the viewer to determine what and when to watch, and also allow the user to “teleshop” or order movie tickets. IPTV providers now commonly include in their commercial packages a personal video recorder (PVR) through a hard disk in the set-top-box (STB) or on the network, allowing “time-shifted” or “catch-up” viewing of TV broadcasts. With an IP-based managed network, the service provider is able to offer a high quality of service (QoS) level and high “Quality of Experience” (QoE), as well as security, interactivity and reliability. IPTV providers are signing content agreements and developing innovative applications in order to compete with cable and satellite television. This includes striking deals for special viewing packages such as sports. Several IPTV providers have also launched High Definition (HD) television services. In Hong Kong, China PCCW recently introduced stock trading on its “Now” IPTV service. In France, Iliad’s “TV Perso Freebox” lets subscribers post their own videos for view by others. IPTV can be confused with Internet video or Internet TV, but those services are quite different. Internet video and Internet TV are both offered over the public Internet. Internet video is an unmanaged service that offers the streaming of video through the public Internet. Internet video companies include user-generated video websites like YouTube or Metacafe where users can upload and view others’ videos. Today, these services tend to lack a QoS standard and are without any real control over production quality.
Internet TV companies, like Joost, Babelgum, and Zattoo, tend to operate on peerto-peer networks rather than on managed networks, and they typically offer free, ad-based services. However, their offerings are similar or identical to IPTV in several key areas. First, like IPTV, Internet TV provides professionally produced and copyright-protected video. Internet TV companies also tend to use MPEG 4, the same encoding technology used by IPTV providers, for high video quality and offer near-TV quality picture resolution. While IPTV allows subscribers to more easily switch from television to computer mode, users are increasingly able to view all kinds of video on their television sets with Internet TV. For Internet TV providers like Joost that offer VOD, users can rewind and fastforward videos, much like IPTV users that rewind and fast forward with PVR. However, Internet TV providers that stream live television, such as Zattoo, do not yet have this capability. Although limited in their service areas, both the U.S.based Joost and European-based Zattoo have negotiated digital rights management (DRM) agreements, requiring operators to prevent end users from copying or converting copyrighted materials. DRM deals are considered a necessary component of offering IPTV.
IPTV is often misconstrued for lack of clear definition. Let’s look at what IPTV is not: – IPTV is not video over the public Internet.(Because the public internet is actually composed of several independent networks with separate controls, it is NOT a managed network. For this reason, it is not really capable of delivering multiple streams of high definition video in the manner subscribers now expect from a service provider. – IPTV is not video compression – (MPEG-2, MPEG-4, MPEG-4 Part 10, VC-1, AVC, JVT, H.264, etc.) – IPTV is not video services – IPTV should not be confused with the term “All Digital” which can apply to MSO and DBS services IPTV is not DOCSIS (although DOCSIS incorporates IP)
– IPTV isn’t necessarily “better”, “cheaper” or “newer” (although some IP settops are cheaper)
In 1994, ABC's World News Now was the first television show to be broadcast over the Internet, using the CU-SeeMe videoconferencing software. The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept designed and built an internet video product named "IP/TV". IP/TV was an MBONE compatible Windows and Unix based application that moved single and multi-source audio/video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast RTP/RTCP. The software was written primarily by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, and Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the "IP/TV" trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January, 1998 and KCTU-LP on January 10, 1998.
Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in UK, launched KIT (Kingston Interactive Television), an IPTV over DSL broadband interactive TV service in September 1999 after conducting various TV and VoD trials. The operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with Yes TV, a provider VoD content. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL. In 2006, AT&T launched its U-Verse IPTV service, comprising a national head end and regional video-serving offices. AT&T offered over 300 channels in 11 cities with more to be added in 2007 and beyond. While using IP protocols, AT&T has built a private IP network exclusively for video transport.
An IPTV operation has four components: the content source, the core network, the access network, and the end user (see figure below). The content source is the video provider that owns or is licensed to sell live television programming, VOD, or other downloaded content. Live television is typically received via satellite or through fiber networks, while VOD content is stored by the network operator. Content passes through an encoder, or headend, which prepares the content for transmission on the network. The core network encodes the video streams using MPEG-2, although the use of MPEG-4 (H.264 AVC, Windows Media VC-1) is on the rise. Once encoded, the content is encapsulated into IP packets, and is then ready for delivery to subscribers.
Live television is delivered via multicast, which allows many end users to receive content from one packet through efficient use of the IP network. Channels are essentially IP multicast group addresses that subscribers request to join. Unlike a cable system or an over-the-air television that “tunes” to a channel, the IPTV settop box (STB) acts only as an IP receiver. The STB changes channels by using the protocol to join a new multicast group. When the local switch office obtains the channel change request, it confirms that the subscriber is authorized to view the content and adds the user to the channel distribution list. Therefore, only signals being watched are sent from the local office, through a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM), if necessary, and finally to the user. Rather than a “one-to-many” transmission like multicast, VOD is unicast, or “oneto-one.” When an end user requests a VOD product, the servers pull precompressed video streams and transmit them as IP packets. Typically, the local switch office uses a VOD server to stream from the server to a particular subscriber’s location. The stream is generally controlled by real time streaming protocol (RTSP), which allows the user to play, pause, and stop the program. If the video stream is delivered over a copper local loop, the IPTV provider must use DSLAM equipment to deliver IP packets to the subscriber after the content is encoded. DSLAMs are located either along the core network or access network.
At the customer premises, the STB allows subscribers to select the content they want to watch and provides user control over functionalities such as rewind, fastforward, and pause over non-live programs. The two-way functionality of IPTV services not only allows subscribers to choose their services with the press of a button, it also offers interactive capabilities, which allow a user to easily manage multimedia sessions and personalize preferences.
IPTV presents an opportunity for traditional telecommunication providers to offer triple play services. In addition, unlike new entrants, most major operators launching IPTV operations have the financial resources available to upgrade their networks and an existing customer base for marketing purposes. But they do face some bottlenecks that impact IPTV strategy. First, coverage is far from ubiquitous. In order to receive IPTV, high-speed broadband access is required. While many operators have broadband systems operate at speeds too slow to support IPTV, which requires a downstream connection of at least 4 megabits per second (Mbit/s). A second issue is that some telecommunication operators already provide television service through cable or satellite ownership or partnership agreements. So they are reluctant to “cannibalize” those services.
The sheer number of possible applications and usage scenarios is almost beguiling if not daunting. This might also explain why interest, investments and forecasts are so startling and compelling.Beyond the enthusiasm does it really matter if the home entertainment delivery mechanism is IP? IPTV matters if: – IPTV enables a differentiated product or service; – IPTV enables a new source of revenue; – IPTV provides operational efficiency; or – IPTV provides a cost savings in equipment as well as overall system implementation. Possible applications that fall under this list include: – Targeted advertising, such as banner advertising in an electronic programming guide (EPG) or sponsored advertising for on-demand content – In-program electronic messaging – Personal TV channels – Sharing of photos, movies, and interests – Walled garden portals – weather, sports, recipes, etc. – EPG-based electronic messaging and social networking; – Home security and management services – Whole home DVR – Network-based time shifting – Voting – Sports participation and gauge.
INTRODUCTION OF IPTV
Countries are taking various approaches to classifying IPTV. These approaches range from simply not addressing classification − instead focusing on competitive market entry into the video market − to denoting IPTV and its related functionalities as a regulated broadcasting service. Some countries are also developing a broad middle ground, where some services offered over IPTV platforms are considered broadcasting while others, such as VOD, are not. In the United States, for example, IPTV has yet to be classified. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) initiated a proceeding on IP-enabled services in 2004, in which it made certain determinations about VoIP and other IP services but did not decide anything on IPTV services. This has not precluded FCC, however, from addressing certain perceived barriers to the deployment of IPTV services. FCC has:
Declined to require incumbent local exchange carriers to provide unbundled access to their hybrid or FTTH loops for the provision of broadband services; Relaxed the process for issuing cable franchises (a licensing process) to facilitate entry into the video market; and Found that clauses granting cable providers exclusive access for the provision of video services to multiple dwelling units and other real estate developments harm competition and broadband deployment and were therefore illegal.
On the other end of the spectrum, some countries have adopted a technologyneutral approach to classifying IPTV. For example, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), considers IPTV one of the broadcast distribution technologies available for television programming. Services offered over this platform, including VOD, are deemed to be broadcasting services. IPTV providers fall within the category of broadcasting distribution companies, and are licensed accordingly. Another approach is taken by the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Pakistan, where IPTV has not only been specifically classified as a broadcasting service, but new categories of broadcasting licences have been established. In Singapore, for example, “broadcasting” includes the IP transmission of any television programming − either full scheduled channels or VOD − to households via a broadband connection. The Republic of Korea has enacted a new law that classifies IPTV as an “Internet multimedia broadcasting” service. This is defined as a “type of broadcasting whereby various types of content, including real-time
broadcasting programmes, are provided to users through television sets by way of Internet protocol that allows interactivity using fixed-line telecommunications facilities.” Some jurisdictions are basing their regulatory classification of IPTV services on the degree of interactivity they allow. On this basis, many countries are distinguishing between broadcast and VoD elements of IPTV. For instance, the EU countries and New Zealand differentiate between transmission that is linear (transmitted at a scheduled time) or non-linear (content that is selected by the user and viewed when the viewer wishes). Linear programming is generally subject to broadcasting and content regulations. Non-linear content may be exempt from those regulations, as in New Zealand, or subject to some of them but not others, as in the EU. It is important to note that historically there have been many different definitions of "IPTV" including elementary streams over IP networks,transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems. Although (in Mid 2007) it is premature to say that there is a full consensus of exactly what IPTV should mean, there is no doubt that the most widely used definition today is for single or multiple program transport streams (MPTS) which are sourced by the same network operator that owns or directly controls the "Final Mile" to the consumer's premises. This control over delivery enables a guaranteed quality of service, and also allows the service provider to offer an enhanced user experience such as better program guide, interactive services etc.
A telco IPTV service is usually delivered over a complex and investment heavy walled garden network, which is carefully engineered to ensure bandwidth efficient delivery of vast amounts of multicast video traffic. The higher network quality also enables easy delivery of high quality SD or HD TV content to subscribers’ homes. This makes IPTV by default the preferred delivery platform for premium content. However the investment for a telco to build an end-to-end IPTV service can be substantial. By contrast "Internet TV" generally refers to transport streams sent over IP networks (normally the Internet) from outside the network that connects to the users premises. An Internet TV provider has no control over the final delivery and so broadcasts on a "best effort" basis. Elementary streams over IP networks and proprietary variants as used by websites such as YouTube are now rarely considered to be IPTV services. Compared to telco IPTV, Internet TV is a quick-to-market and relatively low investment service. Internet TV rides on existing infrastructure including broadband, ADSL, Wi-Fi, cable and satellite which makes it a valuable tool for a wide variety of service providers and content owners looking for new revenue streams. However, due to the fact that IPTV is always delivered over low cost IP STBs, which have limited computing power, the capability for IPTV operators to provide diverse multimedia services is limited. This is where Internet TV has an advantage as it is delivered to a subscriber's (generally) powerful PC.
The relative ease of establishing an Internet TV service seems at first a threat to telco IPTV operators’ multimillion dollar investment, but both services do not necessarily compete for the same customers and there are some synergies between the two such as a common technology platform in the form of web-based technologies for content storage and delivery.
Broadcast IPTV has two major architecture forms: free and fee based. As of June 2006, there are over 1,300 free IPTV channels available.This sector is growing rapidly and major television broadcasters worldwide are transmitting their broadcast signal over the Internet. These free IPTV channels require only an Internet connection and an Internet enabled device such as a personal computer, HDTV connected to a computer or even a 3G cell/mobile phone to watch the IPTV broadcasts. Various Web portals offer access to these free IPTV channels. Some cite the ad-sponsored availability of TV series such as Lost as indicators that IPTV will become more prevalent. Because IPTV uses standard networking protocols, it promises lower costs for operators and lower prices for users. Using set-top boxes with broadband Internet connections, video can be streamed to households more efficiently than current coaxial cable. ISPs are upgrading their networks to bring higher speeds and to allow multiple High Definition TV channels. IPTV uses a two-way digital broadcast signal sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection and a set-top box programmed with software (much like a cable or DSS box) that can handle viewer requests to access to many available media sources.
IPTV covers both live TV (multicasting) as well as stored video (Video on Demand VOD). The playback of IPTV requires either a personal computer or a set-top box connected to a TV. Video content is typically compressed using either a MPEG-2 or a MPEG-4 codec and then sent in an MPEG transport stream delivered via IP Multicast in case of live TV or via IP Unicast in case of Video on Demand. IP Multicast is a method in which information can be sent to multiple computers at the same time. The newly released (MPEG-4) H.264 codec is increasingly used to replace the older MPEG-2 codec. In standards-based IPTV systems, the primary underlying protocols used are:
• Live TV uses IGMP version 2 for IPv4 for connecting to a multicast stream (TV channel) and for changing from one multicast stream to another (TV channel change). • VOD is using the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). • N-PVR (Network-based Personal Video Recorder)is also using the Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP). Network Personal Video Recording is a consumer service where real-time broadcast television is captured in the network on a server allowing the end user to access the recorded programs on the schedule of their choice, rather than being tied to the broadcast schedule. The NPVR system provides timeshifted viewing of broadcast programs, allowing subscribers to record and watch programs at their convenience, without the requirement of a truly personal PVR device. It could be compared as a "PVR that is built into the network" -- however that would be slightly misleading unless the word "Personal" is, of course, changed to "Public" for this context. Subscribers can choose from the programmes available in the network-based library, when they want, without needing yet another device or remote control. However, many people would still prefer to have their own PVR device, as it would allow them to choose exactly what they want to record. This bypasses the strict copyright and licensing regulations, as well as other limitations, that often prevent the network itself from providing "on demand" access to certain programmes In Greece, On Telecoms offers an NPVR service to all subscribers in their basic package with all the programming of all major national Greek TV channels for the last 72 hours. The user has to sign in their contract that they agree that the company will record national programming of the last 72 hours FOR them so that they can come around any legal implications as this service would work like a personal PVR. Because IPTV uses standard networking protocols, it promises lower costs for operators and lower prices for users. Using set-top boxes with broadband Internet connections, video can be streamed to households more efficiently than current coaxial cable. ISPs are upgrading their networks to bring higher
speeds and to allow multiple High Definition TV channels. IPTV uses a two-way digital broadcast signal sent through a switched telephone or cable network by way of a broadband connection and a set-top box programmed with software (much like a cable or DSS box) that can handle viewer requests to access to many available media sources. Subscribers can choose from the programmes available in the network-based library, when they want, without needing yet another device or remote control. However, many people would still prefer to have their own PVR device, as it would allow them to choose exactly what they want to record. This bypasses the strict copyright and licensing regulations, as well as other limitations, that often prevent the network itself from providing "on demand" access to certain programmes
The IP-based platform offers significant advantages, including the ability to integrate television with other IP-based services like high speed Internet access and VoIP. A switched IP network also allows for the delivery of significantly more content and functionality. In a typical TV or satellite network, using broadcast video technology, all the content constantly flows downstream to each customer, and the customer switches the content at the set-top box. The customer can select from as many choices as the telecomms, cable or satellite company can stuff into the “pipe” flowing into the home. A switched IP network works differently. Content remains in the network, and only the content the customer selects is sent into the customer’s home. That frees up bandwidth, and the customer’s choice is less restricted by the size of the “pipe” into the home. This also implies that the customer's privacy could be compromised to a greater extent than is possible with traditional TV or satellite networks. It may also provide a means to hack into, or at least disrupt the private network.
There is no doubt IPTV is an emerging means and technology for delivering high definition (HD) content around the home. It also requires a managed network that guarantees performance, reliability and overall QoE.There are many technologies claiming delivery of HD video and seamless integration into an IPTV environment. Unlike other technology standards, MoCA was designed to operate over coax – the medium native to video. MoCA meets the requirements for an IPTV network and operates in all broadband industry segments thus making it the standard of choice for any service provider wishing to implement IPTV.
http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/Section.3422 http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/Section.3423 http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/Section.3424 http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/Section.3425 http://www.ictregulationtoolkit.org/en/Section.3426 http://www.advanced electronics.org