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The Necklace of our Achaarya Lineage Sri Manavala Mamuni, Sri ThiruvaiymozhiPillai , Sri PillaiLokacharya, Sri VadakkuThiruvidhiPillai, Sri

Nampillai, Sri NanJeeyar, Sri ParasaraBhattar, Sri Embar, Sri Ramanuja, Sri Parankusa, Sri Yamunacharya, Sri RamaMisra, Sri Pundarikaksha, Sri Nathamuni, Sri Sattakopaya, Sri Vishvaksena Sri (Maha Lakshmi, the Divine Mother), Sridhara (SrimanNarayana)

CHARAMA SLOKAM

Swami Sri Pillai Lokacharya's

MUMUKSHUPPADI
Vedics Foundation: http://www.vedics.net Sri PB Annangarachar Swamis work, based on Muamunikals Vyakhyanam
English Translation by Sri TCA Venkatesan
Suggested Donation: $Y.YY

In English
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Sri Pillai Lokacharya's

Mumukshuppadi
lOkAcArya gurave krishna pAdasya sUnavE samsAra bhOgi sandaShta jeeva jeevAtavE nama:

for those caught in the samsaric cycle, exceeded the norms of the day and himself and through his disciples taught the rahasyathraya and their meanings to all who were interested. This is shown in Upadesa Raththinamalai as OrANvazhiyAy upathEsiththAr munnOr, erAr ethirAsar innaruLAl - pArulagil AsaiyudaiyOrkkellAm AriyarkAL kURumenRu pEsi varambaruththAr pin From the time of Sri Ramanuja the meanings of these rahasyas were taught but there is no evidence that during his time their special meanings were recorded in written form by acharyas. There is a possibility that a rahasyathraya vyakhyanam was made into a grantha by Sri Koorathazhvan. Sri Vedantha Desikar in his Rahasyathrayasaram, in the Carama Sloka section talks about the Carama Sloka vyakhyanam of Azhvan. However, if there was such a grantha, it is not available now. Sri Bhattar who is the son of Sri Koorathazhvan wrote the composition Ashtasloki as the essence of the rahasyathrayam. Even though this composition is short, Bhattar has included in it tremendous meanings of these manthras. Sri Pillai Lokacharyar who is the son of Sri Vadakku Thiruveethi Pillai and who is considered the avathara of Sri Varadaraja, has composed the Ashtadasa Rahasyam which is a phenomenal collection of the meanings of rahasya granthas. Later Sri Achan Pillai also wrote rahasya arthas through works such as Parantha Rahasyam. Amongst the Ashtadasa Rahasyas, Yathruccikappadi, Paranthapadi and Sriyapathippadi contain the meanings of the rahasyathraya vyakhyanams but it is Mumukshuppadi that has gained fame in many ways. The other granthas suffer from drawbacks such as being extensive or being very short or that they contain a mixture of Sanskrit and Tamil words. Mumukshuppadi does not have any of these drawbacks. Also, this work contains special and rare meanings that are not present in the other granthas. Thus, this work occupies a special place in the purvacharya works and in the minds of Srivaishnavas. 3

Foreword:
All beings who are born repeatedly in this world and suffer in the samsaric cycle have to understand many things in order to obtain Moksha (liberation). Of these many things, one of the most important is the understanding of Artha Pancakam. The understanding of 1. Nature of the Supreme, 2. Nature of the Jiva, 3. The means to attaining liberation, 4. The nature of the goal to be attained, and 5. The obstacles in attaining the goal seeked, are known as Artha Pancakam. The knowledge of these five is given clearly by the three rahasyas, Thirumanthiram, Dvayam and Carama slokam and as such the understanding of the rahasya- thrayam is very important for Mumukshus. The origin of the rahasyathrayam is as follows. The Thirumanthram, also known as Periya Thirumanthram and Moola Manthram, originated in Badri. It was taught to Nara by Narayana. Dvayam which is also known as Manthra Rathnam, was revealed to Sri Mahalakshmi in Vishnu Loka by Sriman Narayana. Carama Sloka is part of the Bhagavad Gita and as such was told to Sri Arjuna by Sri Krishna. Thus the originator of all three rahasyas is Lord Sriman Narayana. Therefore, He is the first acharya in the Guru parampara. It is thus that Sri Kooraththazhvan said "Lakshminatha samarambam ... vande guruparamparam". Therefore this rahasyathraya even though short in words has very many great, rare and majestic meanings and as such our acharyas have studied it extensively and taught their meanings carefully to their disciples. Prior to Swamy Ramanuja the acharyas guarded the rahasyathraya and their meanings and taught them exclusively to select disciples only. Bhagavad Ramanuja in his broad mind and large sympathy 2

Sri Pillai Lokacharya's

Mumukshuppadi
charama shloka prakaraNam
lOkAcArya gurave krishna pAdasya sUna vE samsAra bhOgi sandaShta jeeva jeevAtavE nama:

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kIzhE sila upAyavisEshangaLai upadhEsikka, avai dhuccagangaLenRum SvarUpa virOdhigaLenRum ninaiththu sOgAvishtanAna arjunanaik kuRiththu avanudaiya sOga nivruththyarththamAga ini idhukkavvarugillai ennalAm- padiyAna caramOpAyaththai aruLis seygaiyAlE carama slOkam enRu idhukkup pErAyirukkiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Why is this called Carama Shloka? Because it shows the final means to reaching Him. In the prior sections of Bhagavad Gita, Sri Krishna had explained other means to liberation such as Karma Yoga and Gnyana Yoga. Upon hearing them, Arjuna thought that these were not easy to follow; he also felt that for a soul, such efforts were not in tune with its nature of being completely dependent on Him and therefore were truly obstacles to the realization of that nature. Thinking that it is impossible to reach Him through such means and therefore reaching Him is a lost cause, Arjuna became grief stricken. In order to remove this sorrow of Arjuna, Krishna taught him this final means which is easy to follow and is in tune with the soul's true nature. Since this shloka explains that final means, it became to be known as the Carama Shloka.

Introduction:
Previously (in Dvaya PrakaraNam) the Dvaya mantra was explained. In the first part of that mantra, the means is explained. Since this means is dictated by the Lord it is dear to Him, as seen in the shloka that represents the entire Bhagavad Gita ("sarva dharmAn ..."). Therefore, this shloka was determined by our acharyas to be the third rahasya. Not only is surrender dictated by the Lord Himself in this shloka; it also shows that the sacrifice of other means as part of the surrender, sacrificing the thought that the surrender itself is the means and gaining release from the sins is part of the goal. Therefore the Carama shloka is an explanation for the Dvaya mantra. It is to listen to the meanings of this shloka that Swami Ramanujar walked eighteen times to Thirukkottiyur Nambi. Seeing the greatness of the shloka's meanings and the lack of people who deserved to learn them, Nambi decided to test the strength, character and desire of Ramanuja and made him walk this many times. Satisfied with the testing, he then made Ramanuja fast for a month, take a vow of secrecy and then taught him the meanings of this shloka. ________________________________________ Sutra 188:

________________________________________ Sutra 189:

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ithil pUrvArththaththAlE adhikAri kruthyaththai aruLis seygiRAn. uththarArththaththAlE upAya kruthyaththai aruLis seygiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: This shloka is made of two parts. The first talks about what should be done by one who has the right to this means. The second talks about what is done by Him for this person. ________________________________________ Sutra 190:

Acamana cannot be performed without doing these first. Similarly, complete surrender cannot be done without following that part of it which is sacrifice of all other means.

________________________________________ Sutra 192:

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rAgaprApthamAna upAyanthAnE parigrahikkaikku udalAyirukkumiRE. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: vaithamAnAl kadugap

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adhikArikku kruthyamAvadhu upAya parigraham. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: What should one, who is qualified for it, do? He should accept this means completely. This is what is explained in the first part.

Since this surrender is easy to follow, would it not come easily? Why does it have to be commanded to be followed? It is true that it is easy. But by being commanded to follow, it means that it will now be accepted immediately. ________________________________________

________________________________________ Sutra 193-197: Sutra 191:

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aththai SangamAga vidhikkiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Instead of jus t saying that he should accept this means fully, why is sacrificing all other means ("sarva dharmAn parityajya") being told? If accepting the means is the body, then its parts must also be explained. Giving up all other means is that part. For example, in performing certain rituals such as Acamana, it has certain parts such as washing one's hands and feet, etc. The 6

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idhil pUrvArththam ARu padham. Sarva dharmAn. ellA dharmangaLaiyum. dharmamAvadhu palaSAdhanamAy irukkumadhu. ingus sollugiRa dharma sabdham dhrushtapala- SAdhanagaLais sollugaiyanRikkE mOkshapalaSAdhanagaLais sollugiRadhu. 7

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The first portion of this shloka is made of six parts. In that, the first part which is "Sarva dharmAn" means "all dharmas". Dharma is that which is the means toward a particular end. Since this prakaraNam is about the means for liberation, the dharma term used here is about the means for that liberation and not about the means to either the temporary goals of this world or goals of the other world such as heaven. ________________________________________ Sutra 198:

The karma yoga which is an independent means ("karmaNaiva hi samsiddhim"; the njAna yoga which is the effect of karma yoga ("karmaNaiva karmAkhilam pArtta! jnAne parisamApyate"; the bhakti yoga which is made up of gnyana and karma yogas ("manmanA bhava matbhakta:"); the knowledge and understanding of His avataras ("janma karma ca me divyam") which is a tool to reaching Him; purushotthama vidyA ("etat buddhvA buddhimAn syAt krutakrutyas ca bhArata"); living in a holy place ("desAyAm sarvakAmaduk"); singing and reciting His divine names which leads to Him ("sarvapApa visuddhAtma yAdi brahma sanAtanam"); lighting lamps for HIm, making flower garlands for Him, and such things which destroy sins and lead to Him. ________________________________________ Sutra 200:

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avaithAn sruthiSmruthivihithangaLAyp bahuvacana prayOgam paNNugiRadhu. palavAyirukkaiyAlE

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The plural form dharmAn is used because the means for liberation, based on srutis and smrtis, are many. ________________________________________ Sutra 199:

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SarvasabthaththAlE avvava anushtikkumidaththil avaRRukku nithya karmangaLais sollugiRadhu. SadhanavisEshangaLai yOgyathApAthakangaLAna

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avaiyAvana - karmanjAna bakthiyOgangaLum avathArarahaSyanjAnam purushOththama vidhyai dhESavASam thirunAmaSankeerththanam thiruviLakkerikkai thirumAlaiyedukkai thodakkamAna upAyabuththyA seyyumavaiyum. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: What are these means?

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Since the plural form has already been used for the dharmas ("dharmAn"), why use the wo rd "sarva" along with it? When following the above explained means, as each of them are followed, there are things such as sandhyavandana, the five sacrifices and other daily rituals that make these means fit to be observed. These are defined by the term sarva. ________________________________________ Sutra 201:

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Aga sruthiSmruthi sOthithangaLAy nithyanaimiththikAdhi rUpangaLAna karmayOgAthyupAyangaLai enRapadi. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Thus the term sarva dharmAn means: The many means such as karma yoga, which are made up of the daily and the periodic acts, and are defined and declared by the srutis and the smrtis. ________________________________________ Sutra 202:

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The term parityajya is now explained. tyajya is renouncing. Here, it does not mean the simple act of giving up. The means described above must be looked at carefully. Then, repenting that we who seek the right path to the Lord set ourselves in the wrong paths, similar to those who looked at a silvery shell and mistook it for silver or those who wished to go one way but went in the opposite direction, we should give them up. ________________________________________

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ivaRRai dharmamengiRadhu pramiththa arjunan karuththAlE. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai:

Sutra 205: Since these means are against the true nature of the soul, should they not be called adharmas; instead, why are they being called dharmas? This was said taking into account the fact that Arjuna was confused and thought that these are dharmas, while forgetting his true dharma which was to do battle. ________________________________________ Sutra 203-204:

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pariyengiRa upaSargaththAlE pAthagAdhigaLai vidumApOlE ruci vASanaigaLOdum lajjaiyOdum kUda maRuvalidAthapadi vidavENumengiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: What does the upasarga "pari" attached to the "tyajya" say? When giving up the great sins and those things that should be discarded, the attachment and taste for those things should also be given up such that the interest in them never comes back. When giving up these other means, they too should be given up in the same way as well as with shame such that the association with them never comes back. ________________________________________ Sutra 206:

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parithyajya. thyAgamAvadhu ukthOpAyangaLai anuSanthiththu sukthikaiyilE rajathabuththi paNNUvARaip pOlEyum vibareetha thisAgamanam paNNuvAraip pOlEyum anupAyangaLilE upAyabuththi paNNinOmengiRa buththi visEshaththOdE thyajikkai. 10

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lyappAlE "SnAtvA pu~njIta" ennumApOlE upAyAntharangaLai vittE paRRa vENumengiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Just like the condition that one has to bathe before eating, the siddhopAyam can be followed only after giving up the other means. This is what is being said by the "ya" in the "tyajya". ________________________________________ Sutra 207:

acted as an obstacle. The other means are also the same - if there is even the smallest attachment to them, they will hinder the flow of the divine grace. ________________________________________ Sutra 208:

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cakravarththiyaippOlE izhakkaikuRuppu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: ivai Attachment to other means will result in loss of goal is also seen through another example. Dasaratha stuck to the satya dharma and lost the goal of living with Sri Rama. As in "rAmo vigrahavAn dharma:", he should have stayed with Rama who is dharma personified and given up the ordinary dharma of keeping his word. Instead he decided to keep up the lowly dharma of fulfilling his promise. Therefore, he lost the Lord. Similarly, sticking to the lowly means will result in losing the great goal of being with Him who is dharma ("krushNam dharmam sanAtanam"). ________________________________________ Sutra 209-214:

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"cacAla sAbanj ca mumOca veera:" engiRapadiyE anupAyangaLAna mAthramanRikkE kAlkattengiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Why should one follow this means, only after giving up the other means? Even if there is a small association with these other means, not only will it not take one to liberation, it will also be a hindrance to that goal. There is an example for this. Ravana who was attacked by Sri Rama's fierce arrows was unable to raise even one arrow and stood in despair. But the arrows from Sri Rama did not stop and kept continuing to fall on him. Ravana began to wonder why Sri Rama, who knew the dharma of war, has not stopped his attack when Ravana was unable to fight back. The n he realized that it was because he still had his bow in his hand. So he dropped that too. At that point, Sri Rama stopped his attack and asked him to go back and return the next day. The bow which was in the hand of Ravana was a tool for him to defeat his enemies; beyond that, it was also the reason for suffering at the hand of the Lord. The divine words "gaccAnujAnAmi" did not come out till he dropped that bow. Therefore, it is clear that it 12

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SarvadharmangaLaiyum vittu enRu sollugaiyAlE silar adharmangaL pugurumenRArkaL. adhu kUdAdhu; adharmangaLais seyyenRu sollAmaiyAlE. thannadaiyE solliRRAgAdhOvennil. AgAdhu; dharma sabdham adharma nivruththiyaik kAttAmaiyAlE. kAttinAlum aththaiyozinthavaRRais solliRRAmiththanai. thannaiyum Isvaranaiyum palaththaiyum pArththAl avai pugura vazhiyillai. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: There are some who draw the wrong conclusion from the point about giving up all dharmas. That is, a dharma is one which states rules on doing some things and not doing others. Since, it is said here to give up all dharmas, that would not only include giving up doing these acts but also include giving up not doing the other acts. That is, to start doing things that have been proscribed. This is not correct. Because, while it is said that one should give up dharmas, it is not said that one should do adharmas. Why is that? Giving up adharmas is also part of dharma. So, is it not possible through its meaning that when one is told to give up dharmas, it could also mean giving up not doing adharmas? No. Because, not doing adharma is only one part of dharma and is not its only meaning. Doing what is right is the primary thrust of a dharma. Not doing adharmas may not be the primary meaning of a dharma. But since the word sarva is used here, should it not include the specific which is giving up not doing adharmas? Even if that be case, that is not what is intended here. Therefore, what is being said is giving up the dharmas that ask for specific 14

actions to be performed. On what basis is that being decided? The answer is, looking at one's self, looking at the Lord and looking at the goal, doing adharmas is rejected. Since doing adharmas does not please the Lord and the nature of the chetana is that he will not do anything that does not please Him, looking at one's self one cannot do adharmas. Since He does not accept any act on the part of the chetana to save himself other than giving up all such acts, looking at Him one cannot do adharmas. Any act of the chetana is done to please Him; thus, looking at that goal also one cannot do adharmas. Therefore, even if the word dharma includes not doing adharmas, that meaning is not considered here. ________________________________________ Sutra 215-217:

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mAm. SarvarakshaganAy unakkuk kaiyALAy unnisaivu pArththu un dhOshangaLai bOgyamgAgak koNdu unakkup pugalAy, neer sudumApOlE sErppArE pirikkumpOdhum vidamAttAdhE rakshikkiRa ennai. iththAl paravyUhangaLaiyum dhEvthAntharyAmithvath- thaiyum thavirkkiRadhu. 15

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Now the meaning of "mAm" is explained. The Lord says 'mAm' refering to Himself - who is focused on protecting everyone; who can be made to do pleasing things for His devotees; who looks for approval by His devotees; who takes His devotees sins as pleasing acts (so they don't have to be afraid); who is the refuge for His devotees; who never gives up His devotees ("ennadiyAr adhu seyyAr") even if Periya Piratti, who normally mediates for them, were to point to their sins and ask that they be rejected ("thAmaraiyALAgilum sithag- uraikkumEl") and stands alone and protects them. Since He, who has taken avatar in this world and is present in a form that is visible to everyone (vibhava), refered to Himself as 'mAm', it rejects His para and vyUha forms which are not visible being remote in space and His antharyAmi form being inside devatas such as agni and indra and being worshipped by those using other means. It also shows the difference of this form from them. ________________________________________ Sutra 218:

dharmas. He Himself is truly the dharma. ________________________________________ Sutra 219-221:

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iththAl vitta SadhanangaLilERRam sollugiRadhu. adhAvadhu - SiddhamAy paramacEthanamAy Sarva SakthiyAy nirapAyamAy prApyamAy SahAyAnthara nirabEkshamAyirukkai. maRRaiyupAya ngaL SadhyangaLAgaiyAlE SvarUpa Siddhiyil cEthananaiyabEkshiththirukkum. acEthanangaLumAy asakthangaLumAyirukkaiyAlE kAryasiddhiyil IsvaranaiyabEkshiththirukkum. indha upAyam avaRRukkethirththattAyirukkaiyAlE ithara nirabEkshamAyirukkum. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: With this, the greatness of this means as compared to the other means that have been given up, is told. What is that greatness? Those dharmas have to be performed by the chetana. Therefore they realize their nature only through the chetana's effort. As this means is eternal, it is already accomplished. They are of the form of knowledge and effort. This one is distinguished and of supreme power. Because they are due to the effort of the chetana, they are fraught with danger. Since this is an accomplished means, it has no danger. Those means are not appropriate to the nature of the 17

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dharma SamSthApanam paNNap piRandhavan thAnE Sarva dharmangaLaiyum vittu ennaip paRRengaiyAlE SAkshAth dharmam thAnE engiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: As Lord Krishna He stated that He is born to establish the dharmas ("dharma samsthApanArthAya sambhavAmi"). Now, He is stating here that for moksha that the dharmas which are the essence of the sastras should be given up and that the chetana should surrender to Him. This leads to a special meaning. That is, those are not truly the 16

chetana. This one is most appropriate. They are dependent on each other. This is independent of anything. Since the other means are due to the effort of the che tana, they are attached to him for their existence. As they do not have the knowledge of what they need to do for the chetana nor do they have the power to do it, they are dependent on the Lord to complete their task. But this means is opposite to those means, is complete and full of power. Therefore, it is not dependent on anything. ________________________________________ Sutra 222:

________________________________________ Sutra 223:

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kaiyum uzhavukOlum pidiththa siRuvAykkayiRum SEnAthULi thUSarithamAna thirukkuzhalum thErukkuk kIzhE nARRina thiruvadigaLumAy niRkiRa Sarathya vEshaththai mAmenRu kAttugiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Of all these qualities, it is saulabhyam that is most desired. Therefore, this saulabhyam is stressed with the mAm through the fact that not only was He born in this world, amazingly He is now standing as a charioteer. By saying 'mAm', He is refering to Himself in the role of the charioteer, with the stick that He holds in His divine hand to control the horses and the small whip used to direct the horses, the divine hair on which dust due to the movement of the armies has settled beacuse it was exposed and the divine feet with its small anklet which are dangling under the chariot. ________________________________________ Sutra 224-227:

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idhilE vAthSalya SvAmithva Sauseelya SaulabyangaLAgiRa guNavisEshangaL nErAga pragAsikkiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: In the term "mAm", all the qualities of the Lord that a chetana needs are present. They are: vAtsalyam, svAmitvam, sausIlyam and saulabhyam. Vatsalyam shines in the fact that He taught all the great meanings to that Arjuna who got caught in adharmic knowledge and failed in his dharmic duty. SvAmitvam shines in the fact that not only did He explain His paratvam to Arjuna but He also allowed Arjuna to see it. SausIlyam shines in the fact that He mixed with Arjuna in such a fashion that Arjuna could call out "he krishNa he yAdava!". Saulabhyam shines in the fact that He made His divine body which is not to be seen by mortal eyes visible to Arjuna. 18

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Ekam. indha Eka sabtham SthAnapramANaththAlE avathAraNa arththaththaik kAttugiRadhu. "mAmeva ye prapathyante", "tameva sAdhyam", "tvameva upAya bUto me bhava", "ARenakku ninpAdhamE saraNAgaththozinthAy" enRum sollugiRapadiyE. iththAl 'vraja' engiRa SveekAraththil upAya bAvaththaith thavirkkiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai:

How does one remove the thought that this is the means when logic appears to show that it is? Once the chetana performs this surrender it is He who gives the chetana what he needs and removes what he does not need. Similarly, the great meaning here is that the attachment to this means which comes ahead, is also His doing. That is, doing this is the act of the means, not the means itself. ________________________________________

Now the "ekam" is explained. Sutra 229: In many places such as "mAmeva ye prapathyante", avatAraNam is used; therefore, just as in the ukAram in the praNavam (see churnais 58 & 59), here too the eka term shows the meaning of avatAraNam. What is shown by this avatAraNam? If it means the removal of attachment to other means, that has already been said in the "sarvadharmAn parityajya". If it means the removal of attachment to other devatas, that has already been said in the "mAm". Therefore, stating these would cause the error of repetition. Thus, what it means is that this avatAraNam removes the thought that the surrender, which is mentioned ahead in the "vraja", is itself the means. That is, the idea that performing surrender means moksha and not doing it means loss of moksha is likely to happen and that is removed here. ________________________________________ Sutra 228:

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SrushtyavathArAthi mugaththAlE paNNina krushipalam. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: How does one say that the attachment to the means is His act? When the chetana was without a body and was present like an acit, He gave him the body and the senses and created him. Then, in order to support him, He made several incarnations ("ethir sUzhal pukku"). And in those incarnations, He showed His divine qualities which will capture his interest. Only out of these does the chetana gain attachment to this means. Therefore, it is correct to say that it is His act. ________________________________________ Sutra 230:

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adhuvum avanadhinnaruLE. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Is there an illustration for this? Azhvar's divine words "adhuvum avanadhu innaruLE" is the 20 21

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svIkAranthAnum avanAlE vanthadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai:

answer. Azhvar first points out his act through "uNarvilumbaroruvanai avanadharuLAluRal poruttu ennuNarvinuLLE iruththinEn". Having said that he immediately states "adhuvum avandhinnaruLE" (Thiruvaymozhi 8.8.3), showing that this act too was due to His nirhetuka krupa (causeless mercy). Therefore, the act of the chetana is to be taken as the fruit of His effort. ________________________________________ Sutra 231-233:

If that is the case, why is the surrender to be performed? It is needed to answer the question of sarva mukti prasangam (if the chetana does not have to do anything for Him to do His act, then shouldn't everyone attain liberation). It is needed so that the chetana does not become confused as to why He who did not protect him for so long will do that now. Since he is not an achetana, the thought that He is the means is the result of his being a chetana (using his knowledge). This act which did not happen due to fate but due to the chetana's love for it born out of his understanding of its taste, is not opposed to his nature. Instead it is appropriate to his nature of seeking His protection. Since the chetana has rejected His protection for age- less time, this puts the spotlight on the fact that he has now given up doing that. This is the meaning of this act and not that it itself is the means. ________________________________________ Sutra 234:

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iththai ozhiyavum thAnE kAryam seyyumenRu ninaikkak kadavan. allAtha pOthu upAya nairapEksham jeeviyAdhu. idhu Sarvamukthi prasanga parihArArththam; budhdhi SamAdhAnArththam; caithanya kAryam; rAga prAptham; SvarUpa nishtam; aprathishEthathyOthagam. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Since it is His effort that is responsible for the attachment to this means, He does not do it for this goal. Even if this surrender is not done, it is to be understood that He, who is focused on the upliftment of the chetana, would give what the chetana needs and remove what he doesn't. If not - that is, if the chetana thinks that He will not do that without this surrender and that the surrender is required for Him to do it the greatness of the siddhopaya (the Lord), which is that it does not require anything, will be spoiled. 22

. .
kIzh thAnum piRarumAna nilaiyaik kulaiththAn. inguth thAnum ivanumAna nilaiyaik kulaikkiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Previously by saying "sarva dharmAn parityajya mAm", He destroyed the idea of Him and the other means being the same. By saying "mAm ekam", He is now removing the idea that the chetana's act of surrender and Him are equal (if they are both means to the same goal). Therefore, it is being shown that neither the other paths nor the 23

performance of the surrender is the true means. From the usage of "yAvar" in the pasuram "unnal allAl yAvarAlum", the other means are refered by the word "piRar" in this churnai. ________________________________________ Sutra 235-236:

In order to show that this siddhopaya will not tolerate any activity of the chetana, the difference between the other means and this means is now being showed. For the other means, the activity of the chetanas is required for them to exist and work. Therefore, if his effort fails, then they will fail. For this means, since it will not tolerate any other means, any effort of the chetana itself will make it fail. ________________________________________ Sutra 238:

. .

avanai ivan paRRum paRRu ahankAra garbham; avadhyakaram. avanudaiya SveekAramE rakshakam. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: It is shown that the surrender done with the idea that it is the means is a bad thing. If the chetana who looks to Him, who offers protection without any cause, performs the surrender for himself, then that act is done with ego and it is as shameful as a son demanding that a father sign a contract. Then, what is the chetana's protection? He is responsbile for the protection of the chetana. Therefore, it is in His desire to protect the chetana that the chetana takes protection.

' '.
siRRa vENdA. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Is there any example to show that no act is required on the part of the chetana? Yes. There is - the Thiruvaymozhi pasuram "siRRa vENdA" is the proof. In the pasuram 9.1.7 ("maRRonRillai surungac sonnOm") which explains the siddhopAya comes the phrase siRRa vENdA. Here siRRudhal vENdA means not having to do any activity on the part of the chetana. Therefore, for one who follows this means, there is no need to perform any act. ________________________________________ Sutra 239:

________________________________________ Sutra 237:

.
nivruththi kIzhE solliRRu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: There is no need to search for another example for inactivity on the part of the chetana. In this Carama shloka itself, the phrase "sarva dharmAn parityajya" was used which talks about giving up all actions on the chetana's part. 25

.
maRRai upAyangaLukku pravruththi dhOsham.

nivruththi

;
dhOsham;

idhukku

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: 24

________________________________________ Sutra 240:

The word "sharaNam" is explained as "being the means". As in "upAye gruharakshitroc sabdhac sharaNamityayam vartate", the word sharaNam can point to the protector, the home and the means. But, here it is shown to have the meaning of being the means. Since it comes under the prior discussion of leaving all dharamas and seeking only Him as the means, this is the appropriate meaning for this word here.

upakAra Smruthiyum caithanyAththAlE vanthadhu; upAyaththil antharbaviyAdhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: But should not the chetana be having gratitude for what he is getting? Then can that not be considered as part of the means? No, it cannot. As Azhvar says "ennaith thee manam keduththAy" and "maruvith thozhum manamE thanthAy", this feeling of gratitude that he has comes due to his knowledge. This cannot be taken as "the Lord will do His act only if this gratitude is shown" therefore it cannot be taken as being part of the means. ________________________________________

________________________________________ Sutra 244-246:

. . .
vraja. budhdhi paNNu. kathyarththamAvadhu budhdhyarththamAy athyavaSiyenRapadi. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The meaning of vraja is explained as 'focus your intellect'.

Sutra 241-243:

. . ; .
sharaNam. upAyamAga. indha sharaNa sabdham rakshithAvaiyum gruhaththaiyum upAyaththaiyum kAttak kadavadhEyAgilum ivvidaththil upAyaththaiyE kAttugiRadhu; kIzhOdE sEra vENdugaiyAlE. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai:

________________________________________ Sutra 247:

* * .
vAcikakAyikangaLum idhukku abEkshithangaLAy irukkac seydhEyum 'njAnAn mOksham'AgaiyAlE mAnaSamAna anushtAnaththaic sollugiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: For the completion of the acceptance, the approach has to be with mind, speech and body as said in "sinthaiyinAlum sollAlum seygaiyinAlum". Therefore for the acceptance to work, all three would be required. However, as said in "njAnAn mOksha:", the acceptance talked about here is that done through the mind. 27

26

told. ________________________________________ Sutra 248: aham - I (the Lord) who am all knowing (omniscient), who am all powerful (omnipotent) and who am the goal (as He is the Lord).

, , , , , , .
Aga, thyAjyaththaic solli, thyAgap prakAraththaic solli, paRRappadum upAyaththaic solli, upAya nairabEkshyam solli, upAyathvam solli, upAya SvIkAram sollugiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: That is, what is being said in the first part of the Charama shloka is: with "sarva dharmAn" what is to be given up is told; with "parityajya" the manner of giving up is told; with "mAm" the means is told; with "ekam" the fact that this means will not tolerate other means is told; with "sharaNam" the state of being provided with the means is told; with "vraja" the acceptance of the means is told. ________________________________________ Sutra 249-251:

________________________________________ Sutra 252:

, .
ivan kIzh ninRa nilaiyum mElpOkkadiyum aRigaikkum aRinthapadiyE seydhu thalaikkattugaikkum EkAnthamAna guNavisEshangaLaiyum, thanpERAgac seydhu thalaikkattugaikkIdAna bandha visEshaththaiyum kAttugiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: When He has countless auspicious divine qualities, why say that the 'aham' term shows these qualities? When He is removing that which the chetana does not want and give him what he seeks, it is omniscience and omnipotence that are needed 1. to know where he stood once and to know the path that he needs to take now, and 2. knowing that, being able to complete that task. When doing this, the fact that it is done for Himself and not for the sake of the che tana is due to His lordship. Therefore, it is appropriate to say that the 'aham' brings forth these qualities.

. . .
aham. Svakruthyaththai aruLic seygiRAn. SarvajnjanAy SarvasakthiyAy prApthanAna nAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Now the second part of the Charama shloka is explained. In the first part of the shloka, the chetana's act was explained. In the second part, the act of the Lord, who is Himself the means, is

________________________________________ Sutra 253:

,
29

28

.
thanakkAgak koNda sArathya vEshaththai avanaiyittup pArAdhE thannaiyittup pArththu anjina accham theera, thAnAna thanmaiyai ahamenRu kAttugiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Previously, in the 'mAm', He had refered to Himself as the charioteer. Here, He is using 'aham' to show His supreme independent self. He said 'mAm' refering to Himself in the garb of a charioteer, and asked that Arjuna surrender to Him. Seeing Him in this role, which He had taken to protect Arjuna, Arjuna forgot that He who is Supreme had done this for him. Instead of seeing this from His side, that 'the supreme protector has come down so low out of His own divine qualities', he saw it from his side, that "This person who works for me and is my charioteer, is asking me to give up all dharmas and surrender to him. If I do that, what would happen to me". In order to remove that fear, He is showing His supreme nature and is refering to His unbridled independence as 'aham'.

________________________________________ Sutra 255-256:

. .

thvA. ajnjanAy asakthanAy aprApthanAy ennaiyE upAyamAgap paRRiyirukkiRa unnai. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Now, the meaning of 'tvA' is explained. It means - you, who does not have the knowledge to understand your actions; even if you had the knowledge, you, who does not have the power to complete them; even if you had the power, you, who is not destined to protect yourself. Being thus, you, who have given up all dharmas and comprehended Me as the means.

________________________________________ Sutra 257-260:

________________________________________ Sutra 254:

udaiya

kIzhil pArathanthryamum indha SvAthanthryaththinellainilamiRE.

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The Supreme Lord who is completely independent became a charioteer and seemingly dependent not because that is His nature. He became that because He is independent and none can stop Him, and He is capable of doing whatever He choses to do. 30

:. ; . * * . , , .
Sarva pApEbhya: 31

mathprApthi prathibanthagangalenRu yAvai sila pApangaLaik kuRiththu anjugiRAy, avvO pApangaL ellAvaRRil ninRum. "poy ninRa nj Anamum pollAvozhukkum azhukkudambum" engiRapadiyE avidhyA karmavAsanAruchi prakruthi sambanthangaLais sollugiRadhu. thruNaccEdha suNdUyanAdhigaLaip pOlE prakruthi vAsanaiyAlE anuvarththikkumavaiyenna, lOkApavAdha beethiyAlum karuNaiyAlum kalakkaththAlum seyyumavai enna, ivai ellAvaRRaiyum ninaikkiRadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Now the meaning of sarva pApEbhya: is explained. pApam is that which is an obstacle to what is seeked and which is the cause for providing what is not wanted. Those which are obstacles to reaching Him are obstacles to what is seeked. Therefore, the sins that are talked about here are those that are obstacles to reaching Him. Since the plural form (pApEbhya:) is used, it talks about the many sins such as avidhyA, karma, vAsana, ruci and prakruti sambandham. avidhyA is lack of knowledge; karma is puNya and pApa; vAsana is attachment to lack of knowledge, to karma and to things of this world. What is said through the "sarva" term? It is thinking about the following: The karmas that are done by habit without thought (similar to scratching, etc) due to previous attachment to this world. The acts that are done due to the fear that 'What will the world think of us if we don't do them?' The daily and ritual acts that are done out of mercy to others with the thought that 'if others stop doing them because of we don't do them, then it is a loss to them'. The acts that have been given up but are repeated due to rajas and tamas guNas. 32

________________________________________ Sutra 261:

.
unmaththa pravruththikku grAmaprApthi pOlE thyajiththa upAyangaLilE ivai adhvithangaLAmO enRu ninaikka vENdA. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: It is shown tha t even those acts that are done without the thought that they are the means, will become associated with those acts that are done as the means. If a person who has lost his mind takes a path that leads to a certain place without knowing where he is going, due to the association between that path and the place, it will still take him there. Similarly, these acts done due to fear about this world will also lead to association with those that are performed as means. Therefore, they are refered to by the word "pApa". ________________________________________ Sutra 262:

.
kalangi upAyabuddhyA pAthagaththOdokkum.

paNNum

prapaththiyum

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: It is now said that repetition of surrender is also included in the pApa word. The act of surrender can be done only once. It's nature does not tolerate repetition. Without realizing that, repeating the act of surrender for gaining something or removing an obstacle is 33

equivalent to a sinful act. ________________________________________ Sutra 263-265:

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: What is the meaning of saying that they will leave on their own? The chetana who does these sins will forget them because he is ignorant. The Lord, who knows everything and who forgets nothing, is the one who gives out the fruits of these acts at the appropriate times. These come out of His act of handing out punishment. He is asking "If these come out of my nigraha rUpa, would they stay when I put on the opposite form of anugraha rUpa". That is, the chetana was afraid of these for a long time. Now, He will make them fear the chetana and leave him.

. . - , , .
mOkshayishyAmi. mukthanAmpadi paNNak kadavEn. NiccAlE - nAnum vENdA, neeyum vENdA, avai thannadaiyE vittup pOngANengiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Now, 'mOkshayishyAmi' is explained. That is, 'I will free you from these sins'. He says that 'For this, neither do I have to take any effort, nor do you have to pray for it. Due to the greatness of your surrender to Me, they will fear you and leave you on their own.' This is seen in the fact that He did not say "aham tE sarvapApAni nihanishyAmi" and instead said "tvA sarvapApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi".

________________________________________ Sutra 268:

; .
ini un kaiyilum unnaik kAttith thArEn; ennudambil azhukkai nAnE pOkkik koLLEnO. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The Lord says "For all these times, you were thinking that you owned your acts and their fruits. Therefore, I left you alone as one who is doing things for himself. Now that you have understood that you are my body and that I am your Lord, and surrendered to Me, I will not tell you to do yourself what it takes to remove these sins. These sins are the dirt (which is ignorance) accumulated on you who is my body; will I not do what is necessary to clean My body?" ________________________________________ Sutra 269-270:

________________________________________ Sutra 266-267:

. .
ennudaiya nigrahapalamAy vandhavai nAn iranginAl kidakkumOvenkai. anAdhi kAlam pApangaLaik kaNdu nee patta pAttai avai thAm padumpadi paNNugiREn. 34

:. ,
35

.
ma su ca: nI un kAryatht hilE adhikariyAmaiyAlum, nAn un kAryaththilE adhikariththuk koNdu pOrugaiyAlum, unakku sOga nimiththamillai kANenRu avanudaiya sOga nivruththiyaip paNNik kodukkiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: mA su ca: means "Do not worry". The Lord says "If it is your act, then you have to worry that 'what can I do for myself?'. If I do not act for you, then you have to worry that 'He is ignoring me; how will I be saved?' Instead, having understood your true nature, you are not doing anything to save yourself. I, being your Lord, am now focused on your protection. Therefore, there is no need to worry". The Lord says this to he who was worried before, to show that he has nothing to worry about now.

________________________________________ Sutra 272:

* * .
"eththinAlidarkkadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE" engiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Through the pasuram with the verse "eththinAl idark kadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE" (Thirucchanda Viruttham 115), Thirumazhisai Azhvar asks his mind, 'why are you immersed in the ocean of sorrow, when the supreme Lord has stated that He would remove all our obstacles, enter us and accept our service'. Lord Krishna too asks Arjuna the same.

________________________________________ Sutra 273:

________________________________________ Sutra 271:

, ?
pApangaLai nAn poRuththup puNyamenRu ninaippidA niRka, nI sOgikkak kadavaiyO? Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The Lord asks "First I made your sins the target for my forgiveness. Then, due to my great affection for you, I stopped thinking of them as sins and started considering them as meritorious acts. So, why would you have to worry?" ________________________________________ Sutra 274:

.
nivarththaka svarUpaththaic solli nivarthyangaL unnai vandhu mElidAthenRu solli unakku sOga nimiththam illai kANengiRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Through 'aham' , He has shown His nature of possessing qualities such as complete knowledge, which remove the obstacles. Through 'tvA sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi', He has shown that the sins will fear the chetana and leave him. This being the case, He says that the che tana has nothing to fear ("mA su ca:"). 36

.
uyyakkoNdAr vishayamAga udaiyavar aruLic seydha vArththaiyai 37

smarippadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai:

divine quality is brought forth here.

________________________________________ An episode is shown here that shows the difficulty in a chetana gaining a taste for this. During Ramanuja's time, there was a devotee called Uyyakkondar who was following the path of bhakti. Ramanuja taught him the meaning of the Carama Shloka in order to make him follow the path of prapatti. Uyyakkondar then told Ramanuja "These meanings are indeed very beautiful. But I don't have the liking to give up on that (bhakti) and seek this (prapatti)". Ramanuja replied "Because you have knowledge, you accepted the meaning. But, as you don't have the grace of the Lord, you did not get the liking for it". These words of Ramanuja are to be thought here. Sutra 276-277:

. , , .
idhu thAn anuvAdha kOdiyilE enRu vangipuraththu nambi vArththai. arjunan krushNanudaiya AnaiththozhilgaLAlum, rishigaLin vAkyangaLAlum, krushNan than kAryaththilE adhikariththuk koNdu pOrugaiyAlum, ivanE namakkuth thanjamenRu thuNindha pinbu thannaip paRRac sollugaiyAle. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Arjuna saw the superhuman acts of Sri Krishna since His childhood. He heard about Krishna's greatness from maharishis. And he saw that Krishna was always performing acts for him. Therefore, he decided that rather than following the paths shown by Krishna, he should seek refuge in Krishna Himself. After he had already taken that path, Krishna is telling him to seek only Him. Hence, Vangipuraththu Nambi would state that this shloka is of the anuvAda rUpam. That is, repeating what someone has already said.

________________________________________ Sutra 275:

.
idhukku Isvara svAthanthryaththilE nOkku. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: All the Sastras stand on one side and this shloka stands on the other side. What is this shloka focused on? It is focused on the independence of the Lord. He removes completely (even the taste of) all the dharmas prescribed in the Sastras, for the chetana. He removes all the sins of the chetana that stand in the way of him reaching the Lord, without expecting anything in return. Doing these, He lets the chetana reach Him. This is due to His supreme independence. This 38

________________________________________

Sutra 278: 39

.
puRambu piRandhadhellAm ivan nenjai sOdhikkaikAga. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Why did He not show this path in the first place and instead explained in detail all the other paths, in the beginning? He did that to check his heart to see if he stops at those paths itself or if he becomes qualified for this path.

ahankAra and mamakAra. In order to remove this enjoyment and make the chetana realize his true nature (of being completely dependent on Him), the Veda purusha prescribed the other paths.

________________________________________ Sutra 280:

sanyAsi munbuLLavaRRai vidumApOlE ivvaLavu piRandhavan ivaRRai vittAl kuRRam vArAdhu. ________________________________________ Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Sutra 279:

.
vEdha purushan upAyAntharangaLai vidhiththadhu koNdip pasuvukkuth thadi katti vidivAraip pOlE ahankAra mamakArangaLAl vandha kaLippaRRu svarUpajnAnam piRakkaikAga. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Lord Krishna might have explained the other paths to test Arjuna's heart. But why did the Lord of the Vedas do the same in the Vedas - that is, why are the other paths shown as paths to mOksha in the Vedas? An example is used here: There is a cow that does not stay under the control of it owner and always grazes at every place that it is not supposed to. So, the owner ties a big stick to its neck which hangs low. So, every time the cow tries to run away, the stick would hit its legs and would slow it down. This would prevent the cow from taking off to places where it is not supposed to go. Similarly, the chetana too enjoys many things coming out of his 40

However, will it not be a sin for the chetana to give up on these paths that were reponsible for the birth of the realization of his true nature? The other paths detailed before, have drawbacks such as being opposed to the true nature of the soul. Due to that, the chetana who has gained the knowledge to follow this path which is siddhOpaya, will not be committing a sin when giving up on them. This is similar to a person taking up the sanyAshrama dharma and giving up the prior dharmas that he had followed till then.

________________________________________ Sutra 281-282:

. . . . .
ivan thAn ivai thannai nErAga vittilan. karmam kainkaryaththilE pugum; njAnam svarUpa prakAsaththilE pugum; bakthi prApya ruciyilE pugum; prapaththi svarUpa yAythAthmya njAnaththilE pugum. 41

Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: The chetana who gives up the other paths and adopts this siddhOpaya, does not become one who has given up the other paths completely. How is that? The daily and special acts and rituals that he performs, appropriate to his varNa and Ashrama, are done not with the thought that they are the means. Instead, they are done due to kindness toward others, and therefore lead to His pleasure. Thus, they are part of the service done to Him. The acute knowledge is that which makes the chetana realize the nature of the Supreme which then leads to the realization of the nature of the self. This knowledge, when not used as a means, belongs within the true nature of the self. Once the thought that it is a means is given up on that bhakti which leads to the Lord, it becomes part of the taste (the desire) that comes just prior to service to the Lord, just as hunger precedes eating. As mentioned in the 'Eka' term, prapatti (which is acceting the Lord Himself as the means), if itself is not thought of as the means, belongs to the true knowledge of that self which has no other refuge and is solely dependent on the Lord. Therefore, it is right to say that the chetana has not given them up comple tely.

upathEsikkaiyAlE ivai iraNdumozhiya bagavath prasAdhamE upAyamAgak kadavadhu. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: If bhakti and prapatti are both removed as paths, then what gets the chetana the goal? It is the Lord's grace, which is the only means. For the same goal that is reaching Him, both bhakti which is difficult and prapatti, which includes all that is to be done and all that is to be given up, which is to be done only once and therefore easy, are advised. Because of the fact that, without differentiation, instruments that are difficult as well as easy are advised, it is understood that it is only His grace, which uses these instruments as a reason to give the goal, is the true means.

________________________________________ Sutra 284:

.
pERRukku vENduvadhu vilakkAmaiyum irappum. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Still, is there not something that has to happen on the side of the chetana for gaining the goal? There are two things that need to happen for that: 1. Not rejecting His protection, by attempting to do things by himself; 2. And praying for His grace so that that protection leads to the service desired.

________________________________________ Sutra 283:

.
oru palaththukku ariya vazhiyaiyum eLiya vazhiyaiyum 42

________________________________________ Sutra 285:

43

; .

chakravarththi thirumagan pApaththOdE varilum amaiyum enRAn; ivan puNyaththaip pOgattu varavENum enRAn. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Instead, will this work if the chetana performs good acts? This is not desired by the Lord. The examples for that are: 1. When Sri Rama sent Sugreeva to bring Vibeeshana to Him, He said "yadi vA rAvaNa: svayam". That is, Rama asked that even if it is the great sinner Ravana, that he be brought to Him. Since, sins are not the path to reach Him, it is seen that even if one is a sinner it will work (if He desires it). 2. Lord Krishna, by saying "sarva dharmAn parityajya", asks that the chetana give up the good acts, which might be thought of as required for the goal, as well. Therefore, the Lord who does not tolerate the other paths will not desire the good acts on the part of the chetana either.

attain the goal; or, thinking that all the Sastras are on one side and this is on the other side, not trust it and fail. There is no middle ground in this. ________________________________________ Sutra 287:

.
vyavasAyam illAdhavanukku idhil anvayam Amaththil bOjanam pOlE. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: For one who does not have the great faith in this shloka, which asks for the sacrifice of all dharmas and adopt this siddhOpAya, association with it will lead to destruction - just like a person having a feast while suffering from indigestion. ________________________________________ Sutra 288:

* .

"vittuciththar kEttiruppar" engiRapadiyE adhikArigaL niyathar. ________________________________________ Sutra 286: Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Just as Andal sang "semmaiyudaiya thiruvarangar thAm paNiththa meymmaip peruvArththai vittusiththar kEttu iruppar", only those who listen to this and are steady in it are qualified for it. The meaning of the verse is that, Periyazhvar would listen to the "mAmEkam sharaNam vraja" given by Lord Ranganatha on the chariot and be steady in following it.

, .
AsthikanAy ivvarththaththil ruci visvAsangaLai udaiyanAy ujjIviththal, nAsthikanAy nasiththalozhiya naduvil nilai illaiyenRu battarukku embAr aruLic seydha vArththai. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Embar told Bhattar the following: A chetana can either look at the greatness of the Lord, totally trust the meaning of this shloka and 44

________________________________________ Sutra 289: 45

* * ** .
"vArththai aRibavar" engiRa pAttum, "aththanAgi" engiRa pAttum idhukkarththamAga anusandhEyam. Sri PBA Swamis Sarartha Deepikai: Azhvars, who follow this completely, have sang verses expla ining this. 1. Thiruvaymozhi pasuram: "vArththai aRibavar mAyavarkALanRi yAvarO? pOrththa piRappodu nOyodu mUppodu iRappavai pErththu, perum thunbam vErARa neekkith than thALin keezhs sErththu, avan seyyum sEmaththai eNNith theLivuRRE" 2. Thirucchandha Viruththam pasuram: "aththanAgi annaiyAgi ALum empirAnumAy, oththovvAdha pal piRappozhiththu nammai AtkoLvAn, muththanAr mukundhanAr pugundhu nammuL mEvinAr, eththinAl idarkkadal kidaththi Ezhai nenjamE"
Salutation

Sri Pillai Lokacharya

Article From Vedic_Magazine Sri Vedaraman Sriraman

LokAchArya guravE krushNapAdaSya SUnavE I SamSArabhOgiSandashta jIvajIvAtavE nama: II His Life Sri Manavala Mamunigal (MM) composed a work called Upadesarattinamalai to commemorate the lives and works of Azhvars and Acharyas. In this great composition he has singled out one acharyan , in honor of whom, he devoted several pasurams. This acharyan so revered by Sri MM is Sri Pillai Lokacharya (also known as Ulagariyan).

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AzhvAr emperumAnAr jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

Sri PL was born in 1205 AD on the occasion of Aippasi, Thiruvonam. Those were days when Sri Vaishnavam flourished under the able leadership of the august Sri Nampillai. His disciples included several luminaries; prompting the oft quoted Nampillai ghosthiyO, Namperumal ghostiyO. The most prominent amongst these disciples were Sri Vadakku

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Thiruveethip Pillai (VTP) and Sri Periya Vaachaan Pillai (PVP), who authored the two most authoritative commentaries on Sri Nammazhwars Thiruvaymozhi, viz. muppattiarayirapadi (36,000) or Edu and the irupattinalayirapadi (24,000) vyakhyanams respectively. Sri VTP was blessed with two sons. The eldest of the two was Sri PL and the second was Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal (AMP) Nayanar. Sri VTP named his eldest son after his acharya Sri Nampillai who was also known as Lokacharya or Ulagariyan. To gain the quintessence of Emberumanars darsanam very clearly one need to look no further than the works of Sri PVP, VTP, PL and AMP Nayanar. Both brothers grew up and lived in Srirangam. They learned from their father as well as from other contemporary acharyas like Sri Nampillai. It is said that when they were young they overheard their father expressing some regrets about gruhastasrama . This incident left an indelible impression on the young minds and as a consequence they remained brahmacharis throughout their lives and rendered magnificent kainkaryams to Namperumal and bhagavathas. Sri PL would be considered a social revolutionary in that he was the first acharyan who wrote independent works in the vernacular language that expounded the Vedanta and on account of his views on caste. In the latter instance he was a blazing visionary and pioneer, the likes of which finds no rival in the past or present, saving his younger brother. He very staunchly held that ALL that mattered was a bhagavathas devotion to Perumal and that any consideration of the caste of a bhagavatha constituted a GRAVE apacharam!!! (Sin) Sri PL was a practical man who practiced what he preached. Included amongst his disciples was a Harijan by the name of Vilancolaipillai. This mahatma had several Brahmin bhagavatas as disciples. To fully grasp the immensity of Sri PLs views and actions, they must be evaluated in the timeframe in which they occurred, ie, almost 800 years ago. Understandably then, several baghavathas in Srirangam took exception to Sri PLs position. These objections reached a level of criticality that in turn necessitated Sri AMP Nayanars having to formally vindicate his

brother. However, Sri PL never soft peddled these issues!!! He composed several works in which he very directly and explicitly covers these issues. Notable amongst the many works that were composed for the benefit of future generations by this supremely benevolent acharyan are eighteen in Manipravala style, that are called Ashtadasa Rahasyangal, and that leave no aspect of Visistadvaita uncovered. Srirangam was sacked in 1327 by Mohemedan invaders led by Malik Kafur. In what is certainly a clear expression of Gods will hath no why, some parama bhagavathas like Sri PL, Sri Sudarsana suri and Swami Vedanta Desikan had to suffer extreme hardships. What follows is a description of some the details of the raid and are heart wrenching. In that catastrophe, several (12,000 according to one account) Sri Vaishnavas lost their lives. The leading acharyas like Sri PL and Swami Desikan (Sri Sudarsana suri was very aged) provided outstanding courage, conviction and leadership. With no thoughts about their own lives or well being, they planned on a course of action the fruits of which we enjoy today. Sri PL, out of concern for harm to Periya Perumals and Namperumals thirumeni, had a brick wall built before Periya Perumals archa vigraham, thereby deceiving the invaders. He physically carried Namperumal and fled Sriranagam, not out of concern for himself but out of extreme concern for Namperumal! The mental image of the advanced Sri PL fleeing Srirangam, courting countless hardships to avert any harm to Namperumal brings tears to ones eyes. Finally, upon reaching the village of Jyothiskudi (near Madhurai) and in the secure knowledge that Namperumal was atleast momentarily out of harms way, Sri PL ascended home to Paramapadam. The very aged Sri Sudarsana suri did not survive the attack. Swami Desikan undertook to protect Sri Sudarsana suris sons and the manuscript of Sutraprakasika (Sri Suris commentary on Sri Bhasyam). Thus armed Swami Desikan escaped to Satyamangalam in Karnataka after a very tortuous journey.

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His Works Sri PL was an extremely compassionate acharyan who undertook to write several treatises for the benefit of posterity. Most of the acharyas prior to Sri PL only commented on the works of their predecessors. However, Sri PL wrote independent treatises like Tattva Trayam for instance, that expouds Vedanta in the vernacular. Sri PL foresaw that in generations to come people, under the influence of Kali, would abandon traditional studies in the Sanskrit language. Thus, magnificent works like the Sri Bhasyam would be beyond the ken of most mortals. To remedy the situation, Sri PL composed eighteen works that are collectively referred to as Ashtadasa Rahasyangals in Manipravalam. These include: Srivachanabhusanam (SVB) This work is considered as Sri PLs magnum opus. As the name implies this work is intended to be an ornament of sayings from purvacharyas. This great work consists of 465 aphorisms that are organized into four prakaranas or chapters. Six key concepts are covered that include: Purusakaravaibhava (Greatness of Intercessor) Sadhanasya Guarava (Greatness of Means) Adhikari Kritya (Duties of Prapanna) Satgurupasevana (Dependence on the Eminent Guru) Ahetuki Haridaya (Spontaneous Grace of the Supreme Lord) Guror Upayata (The Role of the Preceptor) Sri MM devotes six stanzas in Upadesarattinamalai to SVB. Tattvatrayam This work deals with the three fundamental real entities (tatvas) of the Visistadvaita system of Vedanta. These entities include cit (soul), acit (matter) and Isvara (the Lord). This work is considered to be a mini Sri Bhasyam. Mumukshuppadi The rahasyas that a mumukshu or aspirant for liberation needs to comprehend are covered in this work. The rahasyas are three (rahasyatrayam) in number and include : a. Tirumantaram (also known as Mulamantaram or Astaksara), b. Dwayam (or Mantra

Ratnam), and c. Charamaslokam (Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 18, verse 66). These mantras contain knowledge about the souls essential nature (svarupa), the means (upaya) and the goal (purusartha). In the introduction to Mumukshuppadi, it is said that amongst the works of Sri Pl that deal with the three rahasyas, the Yadrcchikappadi was too short, the Parantappadi was too long, and the Sriyapatippadi though it had neither of the two faults, was full of Sanskrit quotes (making its comprehension difficult for the lay person). Therefore with a desire to compose one more work which would avoid these problems, Sri PL wrote the Mumukshuppadi after all others. Arthpanchakam This work deals with the five prerequisites for the attainment of any goal or artha. These include: The realization of oneself (svasvarupa). The understanding of the essential form of the Supreme (parasvarupa). The understanding of the essential form of the goals (purusharthasvarupa). The understanding of the essential form of the means (upayasvarupa). The understanding of the essential nature of the obstructions (virodhisvarupa). Archiradi This work which consists of four prakarnas or chapters, deals with journey of a muktatma from earth to Sri Vaikuntam. Details of the where the soul stops along the way and its reception in Sri Vaikuntam etc. are provided. Prameyasekaram This work discusses how the Lords grace is the basis for all good things in this world as well as in the next world. Prapannaparitranam The necessary qualifications for one who himself/herself to the Lord are covered in this work. surrenders

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Sarasangraham In this work the author gives a consise definition of the Dwaya mantram and explains how the entire Tiruvaymozhi of Sri Nammazhwar is an exposition of this mantram. Sri PL relates every word of the Dwayam to the ten chapters of the Tiruvaymozhi and quotes profusely from the latter to document the relavent correlation. Samsarasamrajyam This work deals with how people who become completely immersed in worldly pleasures and turn away from the path of God, return to the Lord with the guidance of an Acharyan. Navaratnamalai This work deals with the nine points that a person who surrenders must understand properly: themselves as a whole, their body, their relatives, other people, gods other than Sriman Narayana, Srivaishnavas, Acharyas, Piratti, and the Lord. Navavidhasambandham This work deals with the nine kinds of relationships that a person has with Sriman Narayana as shown in the Tirumantram. These include: The relationship between father and son. The relationship between the protector and protected. The relationship between master and servant. The relationship between husband and wife. The relationship between the person who understands and the object that is understood. The relationship between the owner and his property. The relationship of body and soul. The relationship of the thing that is dependent and the things on which it depends. The relationship between the person who enjoys and the thing enjoyed. Sri PL says that the understanding of the relationships is essential for salvation. These nine kinds of relationships are interlinked.

Yadrccikapadi This work is a brief summary of the rahasyatrayam, but the order of the rahsyas has been changed (in comparison to Mummukshupati) to Tirumantram, Charamaslokam and Dwayam. Parantapadi Paranta means widespread or spreading out. This work deals exhaustively with the rahasyatrayam. Sriyapatippadi This is yet another work on the rahasyatrayam. This work contains too many Sanskrit terms for the ordinary vernacular reader. Tattvasekharam This work deals with the tattva trayam. It also presents refutation of the arguments of rival schools in order to establish the Visistadvaita definition of the tattva trayam. Tanidwayam This work deals with the Dwaya mantran. Tanicharamam This work deals with the Charama slokam. Tanipranavam This work deals with the OM in the Tirumantram.

________________________________________ AzhvAr emperumAnAr jeeyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

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Swami ManavalaMamuni (PeriyaJeeyar): Lords Acharya


Sri Mukundan VP

Ubhayavedantacharya as per the Lord and Sri Ramanuja. The only Acharya to have had the unique opportunity of delivering Dravida Veda discourses before Lord Ranganatha and samskrita vedanta discourses before Sri Ramanuja. Srisailesa Daya Patram is the only taniyan recognised as a mantra. Mantra: that which protects by invocation. This is a mantra because this sloka is submitted by Lord Himself for his Acharya As per the Lord's instructions, Srisailesa Daya Patram thaniyan is to be recited at the beginning and conclusion of any divya prabandham recitation. (akin to how the sacred Om is chanted at the beginning and ending for Sanskrit Vedic recitations). Jeeyar emphasised the importance of protecting and propagating works of PurvaAcharyas. He taught us to write new works only if the existing ones are inadequate or incomplete. Most of his contributions were in the form of writing commentaries for existing works by purvacharyas and teaching it to all those who were interested. There are 18 works attributed to Sri Mamunikal: Four in Sanskrit - Devaraja Mangalam, KanchidivyadEshastuti, YathirajaVimsathi, and Tatparya Deepa - A commentary on Bhagawad Gita. Three in Tamil - UpadesaRattinamalai, Thiruvaimozhi Noothandhandhi and Arthiprabhandham Eleven in Manipravala (Mixture of Tamizh & Sanskrit words) - Commentaries on works of Pillai Lockacharya, Azhagiya Manavalapperumal Nayanar, Periyazhwar Thirumozhi and Ramanuja Noothandhandhi. Four indices containing the sources of the Gnyanasara and Prameyasara of Arulalapperumal Emberumanar. One work is on the daily worship of the Lord (ThiruAradhana Kramam). Everything he did was directed toward establishing Ramanuja Darshanam. He added a verse about Swamy Ramanuja into the Daily Prayer. "RamanujArya DivyAgnya VardhathAm abhivardhatAm" 55

He is the avatara of Swami Ramanuja. Anantah Prathamam Roopam Threthayam Lakshmanasthatha Dvapare Balabadrasthu kalou kaschith bavishyathi Adhisesha , took avatharas in different yugas to render service at the Lotus feet of the Lord, in Thretha yuga as Lakshmana and in Dvapara yuga as Balarama and in the Kaliyuga as Swami Ramanuja. * Swami Ramanuja was originally asked to have an avathara for 200 years, but he finished the avathara in 120 years. So he had 80 more years of avathara time left in this BhuLoka. * Lord wanted to take the role of a sishya, and offer sambhavana to adisesha as the Acha rya. Adisesha had already done acts of an acharya for the Lord (in Thirukurungudi, Thirumalai etc) but the lord never gave any sambhavana at those instances. * Ramanujas work was being undone in 300 years after his avathara. * Lord wanted to complete the list of purvacharas. By taking on as HIS Acharya, the Lord shows Mamunikal as the last purvacaharya and the acharya haram cycle is completed. * Last but not the least, Lord wanted to enjoy Idu kalakshepam. Combining all these, Lord wills adisesha to take the birth as Ramanujas avathara to fulfill the service.

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In one of his important compositions UpadesaRatnaMala, He provides us what he has learnt via the GuruParampara so that the message does not get completely lost or altered in the future. This forms the basis for any basic education we seek as devotees of the Lord. All the Acharyas and works we need to know first are listed in URM. There are many more acharyas, but the ones listed here are the ones we definitely need to know. In URM, swami has listed out the importance and works of all the Azhvars. In line with propagating exisiting works, he tells us about the Purvacharyas who have contributed via commentaries on Azhvars works. These commenraties are the only way for us to understand the Azhvars works. That is the reason why the names of other Acharyas like Azhvan, Bhattar, Embar etc., are not mentioned in URM. His other main contributions are: Temple renovations, administration and management. (After Muslim invasions and political confusions in the south) Spiritual leadership by contributions through commentaries and propagation of Azhvars & Purvacharyas Works, Making complex issues on the Philosophical doctrines (Mostly written and preserved in Sanskrit texts originally) made easy to and accessible to all. Following the footsteps of Ramanuja, Mamunikal rebuilt the temples and strengthened Sri Viashanava Sampradaya. Rebuilding and strengthening temples, he re-built the society as a whole. Established Acharyas for the protection of SriViashnva sampradaya. These Acharyas knows as Ashta Diggajas (elephants of the eight directions) are: Ramanuja Jeeyar Swamis: Vanamaamalai Jeeyar, BhattarPiraan Jeeyar, Tiruvengada Jeeyar, and Swamis: Koil kanthaadai annan, Prathivaadhi Bhayankaram Annaa, Erumbi appaa, Appillai and Appillan. They and their disciples are protecting and promoting Srivaishnavam even today. He had one of his desciples sri Prativaadi Bhayankaram Anna compose Venkatesa Suprabhatam, Prapatti, and Mangalam and offered it to Lord Srinivasa at Thirumala. Even today this is being chanted during morning prayers at all Sri Vaishnava temples. ________________________________________ AzhvAr emperumAnAr jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam 56

Azhvar Emperumanar Jeeyar Thiruvadigale Saranam

To receive a copy of this booklet: Please visit: www.vedics.net Or any Vedics Center. Join our volunteers to participate, serve and learn from any of the following services: e-mail: vedics@yahoogroups.com Vedic Anushtanams & Utsavams: Document and publish. Tele-Upanyasams: Scholars from India teach us over the phone. Santhai: Divyaprabandham and StotraPatam. Multimedia: Sampradayic CDs, DVDs, Audio and Video. Divyadesam Kainkaryam: Help Maintain ancient temples. Vedics-Magazine: Magazine in English for all devotees. Sanskrit Class: For beginners. Vedic-Books: Preserve and distribute sampradayic books

For information visit: www.vedics.net SriVaishnava discussions and satsangham, ramanuja@yahoogroups.com

Srimathe Ramanujaya Namaha 57

Maintaining an ancient temple is better than building a hundred new ones. That is the reason why Yashoda who brought up Sri Krishna, attained greater eminence compared to Devaki who gave birth to Him. When the temple is a Divyadesam, the service is S ERVE OUR TEMPLES ( ANCIENT VAISHNAVA SHRINES - DIVYA DESAMS ) all the more significant. Serve our Temples is an intiative to help our temples by restoring basic services, food, shelter, education, financial independence Dream a little. Do a little "What we can do, we must" - As He allows us to use His resources for Him via devotees like us. Back home in India, there are so many temples deprived of their basic needs and services, primarily due to lack of funds. With galloping prices, temple assets stripped, no government support, the temples have never found it as difficult to sustain as they have now. Most of the temples are deprived of basic necessities for the unhindered performance of minimum daily prayers. 1. One priest to offer prayers and keep the premises clean and open for devotees (Rs: 2500 per month) 2. Food (Prasadam), Oil, Flowers (Rs 2500 per month) With just $100 per month (Rs 5000 per month) we have a divine opportunity to preserve a temple. It is the solemn duty to preserve the temple not only for current day devotees to have a divine Darshan but also for our future generations. From the U.S, far away from India, yet you can still make a difference. Allow His Grace to flow, and spend His money for His causes. Vedics Foundation volunteers to serve as a bridge between those willing devotees who have resources and the temples in need. Vedics has already reached out to a few temples. Please visit www.vedics.net/projects for helping an ancient temple. For further details, send mail to: vedics@yahoogroups.com Details : www.vedics.net/activities/

Basic Tenets of VEDICS: www.vedics.net


FALL IN LOVE WITH GOD Pray with sincerity humility and gratitude for atleast 15 minutes a day. RESTRICT FOOD CONSUMPTION Eat anything only after offering it to God. MEDITATION Meditate on the LORD, atleast thrice a day, atleast a minimum of 3 minutes each time. Chant Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam (the 1000 Holy Names of Lord Vishnu) once a day. RESPECT FOR ALL THAT IS HIS Strive to lead a life in which you will never hurt a fellow living being for any reason. MONEY Earn to live, educate, support and serve and not for the sake of pursuing materialistic desires. CHARITY Donate however little it may be to noble causes. Feeding the needy is the highest form of charity. CONTENTMENT Be happy and content that you are His. Thank your preceptors at least once a day for blessing you with this awareness. ABSOLUTE FAITH Place complete trust in the supreme LORD. Do not go against His way. SELF CONTROL Strive to live a life free from selfish desire and anger.

Always adorn a peaceful smile; it will work on others and on you too e-mail: ramanuja@yahoogroups.com

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