Solar cookers What is it?

A solar cooker is a device that uses heat energy from the sun to cook food. Solar cooking involves no recurring expenses on fuel. Solar cookers if used properly can save three or four LPG cylinders per year. Since solar cooking is a slow process, it ensures better and more nutritious food. These are durable and simple to use. These work well only on clear sunny days. However, if an electrical heater is built in, these can be used on cloudy days too. Types of solar cookers: Two types of solar cookers are available in the market, box type and dish type. A box solar cooker: It is suitable for a family of four or five can cook most of the dishes except frying or for making chapattis. It is an ideal device for domestic cooking during most of the year except on cloudy days. Some models are available with electrical backup, so it can be used even in non-sunshine hours. These can be procured from manufacturers, suppliers, district and head offices of state agencies as well as from ‘Aditya’ solar shops. A dish solar cooker: It uses a parabolic dish to concentrate incident solar radiation. This solar cooker commonly known as an ‘SK-14’ solar cooker is useful for homes and small establishments. This can meet the needs of about 15 people and can be used for eight to nine hours during the day. Upon full use at small establishments, these can save upto 10 LPG cylinders per year. How do these work? A box type solar cooker consists of an outer box made of either fibre glass or aluminium sheet, a blackened aluminium tray, a double glass lid, a reflector, insulation and cooking pots. The blackened aluminium tray is fixed inside the box with insulating material in between to prevent heat loss from all sides. A double glass lid with toughened glass acts as the cover of the cooking tray. A reflecting mirror, fitted on the inside of the outer box cover, reflects the solar radiation and helps in increasing the solar energy input. The cooking pots are made of steel or aluminium and painted black on the outer side. The food to be cooked is placed in the cooking pots which are then placed in the aluminium tray and covered by the double glass lid. The cooker is kept facing the sun appropriately to cook the food. A dish solar cooker uses a parabolic dish to concentrate the incident solar radiation. It has a aperture diameter of 1.4 m and a focal length of 0.28 m. The reflecting material used for fabrication of this cooker is anodised aluminium sheet which has a reflectivity of over 80 per cent. The cooker has to track the sun and has to be adjusted manually after every 15 -20 minutes. The cooker can deliver power of about 0.6 kW which can boil two or three litres of water in half an hour. The temperature achieved at the bottom of the vessel could reach 350 to 400 degrees celsius which is sufficient for roasting, frying, and boiling.

What are the benefits? A box type solar cooker can be used to prepare all kinds of dishes, except frying or making chapattis. A normal size of this cooker is sufficient for a family of four to five members. A dish solar cooker however can meet the needs of about 15 people and can be used for eight to nine hours during the day. It can save up to 10 LPG cylinders per year upon full use at small establishments. What is the life span and cost? The box type solar cooker has a life of 10 to 12 years. The cost varies from Rs 1,200 to Rs. 2,500 depending on its size and features. The payback period is 2 to 3 years depending upon the extent of use and place of use. The cost of a dish solar cooker may vary from Rs. 4,300 to Rs. 5,000 depending on the type of reflector and supporting structure. Its payback period ranges from 2 to 3 years depending on the extent of its place of use. The life of this cooker is estimated at about 20 years for the metallic structure. However, the reflecting sheets may have to be replaced once in five years due to degradation in their reflectivity. Government subsidy? In case of box type solar cookers, the MNRE provide incentives to state nodal agency (SNA) which is Rs. 200 per cooker of ISI brand and Rs. 100 per cooker of non-ISI brand. In addition, Rs. 1.50 lakh is given to SNA for publicity or conducting workshops etc. The manufacturers also get 50 per cent fee reimbursement for obtaining BIS approval. Inorder to encourage the use of dish type solar cookers, an incentive of 50 per cent of the cost of the dish solar cooker is provided, which is limited to Rs. 2,500 per cooker. Where can we get them? The MNRE website has a list of manufacturers and suppliers of concentrating solar cookers (dish and scheffler cookers). <Back to Top

Community solar cooker What is it? A community solar cooker is a parabolic reflector cooker like a dish solar cooker. It is commonly known as a Scheffler cooker and is larger than the dish solar cooker (SK-14 type). How does it work? It can cook food using solar energy inside the kitchen itself. The cooker has a large reflector ranging from 7 to 12 sq m aperture area. This reflector is placed outside the kitchen so that it reflects solar rays into the kitchen through an opening in its north wall. A secondary reflector further concentrates the rays on to the bottom of the pot/frying plan which is painted black to absorb maximum heat. The temperature attained is so high up to 400 degrees celsius that the food can be cooked quickly.

The cooker is provided with a mechanical clockwork arrangement that rotates the primary reflector outside to automatically track the sun. The cook has to set this reflector in focus only once a day in the morning. By shifting two arms provided in the reflector frame, it is possible to change the curvature of the parabolic reflector for seasonal adjustment thus keeping fully tracked on to the sun during all seasons. i. Outside view (solar dishes), ii. Inside view of kitchen What is the benefit? It is possible to cook food for about 40 to 50 persons with this cooker. One dish may take about 60 to 90 minutes to cook depending on the type of dish and solar insulation available. The cooker works nicely in areas where solar insulation is good during most part of the year and it is possible to cook two meals a day with this cooker. Due to the high temperature attained with this cooker, it is suitable for making almost all traditional dishes. When not in use for cooking, the cookers can be used to hear or boil water. These can be used in schools, institutional kitchens, canteens, religious ashrams, hotels, hospitals, police and armed forces’ kitchens etc. What is the lifespan and cost? The cost of this cooker is about Rs. 50,000. The payback period is 4 to 5 years. Government subsidy? In case of Scheffler or community type cooker, the MNRE provides Rs. 25,000. <Back to Top

Solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems Outdoor lights can be powered by small photovoltaic (PV) modules that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar outdoor lights also come as stand alone fixtures. An 11 W CFL, with a 74 W photovoltaic module and a 12 V/75 AH battery, costs Rs. 22, 000 to 24 000. When fully charged, the battery can power the light from dusk to dawn. <Back to Top

the Ministry will also provide Rs. . Low cost models with smaller PV modules and battery capacity are also available. the lantern is simply detached. The distribution of solar lanterns is organised by the concerned SNAs through the district administration. 3. This is mostly in unelectrified villages and hamlets of special category states and UTs/islands. can save about 50 liters of kerosene in a year by replacing a kerosene lantern. What is the benefit? A solar lantern. Where can you get it? One can get the solar lanterns from Akshay Urja Shops established in various states and union territories. which is commonly used for lighting purposes. Under the solar lantern programme. 100 per lantern towards inspection charges of solar lanterns sold by the Akshaya Urja shops. The SNAs/departments will also get Rs. What is the life span and cost? The average cost of a solar lantern is around Rs. Due to its light weight. The incident solar radiation is converted into electricity which in turn charges the battery. This has been done to encourage a girl child belonging to the BPL family to continue her studies. Government subsidy? The MNRE provides a subsidy of Rs. In addition. The PV module is placed in the sun during the day and is connected through a cable to the lantern unit.SPV lantern What is it? Solar lantern is a portable device for lighting.500. A green LED light indicates the charging of the battery.100 per lantern as service charges to the SNAs/departments and the Akshaya Urja shops. During night. 2. Subsidy will be provided only on eligible models of solar lanterns. It does not require installation. the battery provides power to the lamp and is used wherever required. it can be carried around and is therefore ideal for both indoor and outdoor usage. procured from the pre-qualified manufacturers. There is however no subsidy in other areas. How does it work? A solar lantern consists of three main components -. a sealed maintenance free battery of 12 V. It is meant to provide light for three to four years daily and can function like this for three days without sunlight.400 on purchase of solar lantern in northeast and special areas. one girl child from a BPL family studying in class IX to XII and residing in the un-electrified villages and hamlets of the special category states and UT islands is eligible to get one solar lantern free of cost during her entire period of school study. after competitive bidding. 7 ampere hours (AH) capacity and a CFL of 5W or 7W rating.PV module of 8 W to 10 W capacity.

maintenance free or flooded lead acid battery of 12 V and 20. 40 or 75 AH capacity and CFLs of 9W or 11 W rating. A typical SPV panel has a reported lifespan of 20 to 25 years. However. The Ministry of Renewal Energy is supporting development of white LED based solar lanterns. There are several models with one. In addition to lighting. the capacity of the PV modules used to meet the load requirement and the capacity of the battery to meet the required autonomy. two or four CFLs. additional transportation costs etc. It can operate lights in one or more rooms of a house along with power to run small DC fan or a 12 V DC television with the system.500. The indicative costs do not include the cost of the fan/ television as there could be variations due to local taxes. a CFL around battery 2 to 5 years. The indicative costs of the five different SHS models are model I (one 9W CFL) Rs. model II (two 9W CFLs) Rs. The module converts incident radiation into electricity which in turn charges the battery which is placed inside the house. for replacing CFL. What is the benefit? The system is designed to provide service for 3 to 4 hours daily and can function for three cloudy days.000. What is the lifespan and cost? The cost of an SHS depends on the load to be supported. which is expected to further reduce the cost of the solar lanterns. a sealed. The battery provides power to the CFLs and to the television and fan as required. 10. model IV (two 9W CFLs and a fan/television) Rs. the lifespan of the components varies. 18. . 6000. it is also possible to run a fan or a television with the system. The draft performance specifications of white LED based solar lanterns have been prepared for product development and performance evaluation. How does it work? The PV module is usually mounted on the roof of the house so that it is exposed to direct solar radiation throughout the day. 37 or 74 W capacity. 11. model III (one 9W CFL and one fan) Rs. 17. <Back to Top SPV home lighting system What is it? A solar home lighting system provides solar electricity for indoor lighting. and model V (four 9W CFLs) Rs.500.000. It consists of a PV module of 18. A change controller prevents overcharging and deep discharge of the battery.Any concern? At present. CFL is being used as the light source in solar lanterns.

where solar power is not sufficient due to cloud cover etc. 2. grid interactive systems do not require battery back up as the grid acts as the backup for feeding excess solar power and viceversa. In grid interaction system. They generate power during the daytime which is utilized fully by powering the captive loads and feeding excess power to the grid as long as grid is available. How does it work? A roof top SPV system could be with or without grid interaction.800 for general areas depending on the model.Government incentives? The MNRE provides subsidy of Rs. a minimum battery back of one hour of load capacity is strongly recommended. However. the solar power has to be fully utilized . (Except for beneficiaries from remote un-electrified census villages) No individual would be given more than one system.500 to 8. the DC power generated from SPV panels is converted to AC power using power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid either of 11 KV three phase line or of 220 V single phase line depending on the system installed at institution/commercial establishment or residential complex.600 for northeast and special areas and Rs. The grid interactive rooftop SPV systems thus work on net metering basis wherein the beneficiary pays to the utility on net meter reading basis only. however to be ensured that in case the grid fails.500 to 4. 4. <Back to Top Rooftop SPV systems What is rooftop solar photovoltaic (SPV) system? Rooftop SPV systems can reduce dependency on diesel gensets during load shedding and to utilize the existing roof space of building. In cases. it has . The eligible category of beneficiaries includes all individuals and non-profit institutions or organizations. Ideally. In grid interactive systems. to enhance the performance reliability of the overall systems. the captive loads are served by drawing power from the grid.

the MNRE has announced a revised scheme on ‘Demonstration and Promotion of Solar Photovoltaic Devices/Systems in Urban Areas and Industry’ which has major focus on rooftop SPV systems. it is possible to segregate the day-time loads to be served directly by solar power without necessarily going through the battery back-up. Minimum capacity of installation is 25 kW. <Back to Top . nursing homes. In case the SPV power is to be used after sunshine hours. commercial establishments example malls. hotels. No targets are set for these systems to state or urban local bodies. hospitals. strongly recommended for these systems also to enhance the performance reliability of the systems. The MNRE provides central financial assistance (CFA) for rooftop SPV systems at the rate of Rs.or stopped immediately feeding to the grid (if any in excess) so as to safeguard any grid person/technician from getting shock (electrocuted) while working on the grid for maintenance etc. 75 per watt of SPV panels to a maximum of 30 per cent of the cost of the systems to profit making bodies availing depreciation benefits and at the rate of Rs. Smaller systems (not less than 10 kW) may be considered as special case. it would require full load capacity battery back up which will increase the cost of system which may not be economically viable even with support from Government. A 100 kW capacity rooftop system could save around 50. The non-grid interactive system with minimum battery back are viable only at places where normal power is not available during daytime.25 MW during rest of the Eleventh Plan. No moving parts and zero maintenance except cleaning of SPV panel once in a while. List of suppliers is available on the MNRE’s website. Benefits of the scheme? The pay pack period is 5 to 6 years. and safety mechanisms. No air and noise pollution. industry excluding manufacturers of SPV cells/modules and housing complexes facing huge power shortage during daytime. Government scheme and subsidy? In February 2009. 100 per watt to a maximum of 40 per cent of the cost of systems to non-profit making bodies (with or without grid interaction) limited to 100 kW capacity mainly for daytime use. with the introduction of advanced load management and power conditioning systems. This scheme pertains to diesel abatement in institutions. Proposals will be considered on first come first served basis through SNAs.000 litres of diesel per year. The life is 25 to 30 years. The beneficiary has to decide supplier on cost and quality competitive basis. Sanction of CFA will be based on the existing diesel consumption level of the establishment. The scheme has a target of 4. Non-grid interactive systems ideally require a full load capacity battery power back up system. However. As in the previous case of grid-interactive systems. however. minimum one hour of battery back-up is. government buildings.

clinics and other small establishments. 3. 24 or 48 V. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.500 to Rs. What is the benefit? It is designed to supply power to limited loads such as lights. What is the life span and cost? The MNRE promotes four models of solar generators with capacities of 150. search The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.45 lakh <Back to Top Please read: A personal appeal from Wikipedia author Dr. The cost varies from Rs. 350.Solar generator What is it? It is a small capacity. stand alone SPV power system based on a PV array connected to a battery bank of appropriate size and an inverter of 12. (May 2010) . 450 and 600 W. fans. 1. These are meant to replace the conventional small capacity petrol based generators that are used during routine load shedding periods in urban areas by shops. credit card operating machines and personal computers for a period of two to three hours. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Sengai Podhuvan We now accept ₹ (INR) Solar thermal energy From Wikipedia.

Greece. Sustainable energy Renewable energy Anaerobic digestion · Biomass Hydroelectricity · Geothermal Solar · Tidal Wave · Wind Energy conservation Cogeneration · Energy efficiency Geothermal · Green building Microgeneration · Passive Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Sustainable transport Electric vehicles Plug-in hybrids Environment Portal • • • v d e Solar thermal energy (STE) is a technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy (heat). which converts solar energy directly into electricity. Solar thermal collectors are classified by the United States Energy Information Administration as low-. While existing generation facilities provide only 600 megawatts of solar thermal power worldwide in October 2009. [note 1] plants for an additional 400 megawatts are under construction and development is underway for concentrated solar power projects totalling 14. STE is different from and much more efficient than[1][2][3] photovoltaics.000 megawatts.[4] . or high-temperature collectors. Lowtemperature collectors are flat plates generally used to heat swimming pools. medium-. Mediumtemperature collectors are also usually flat plates but are used for heating water or air for residential and commercial use. High-temperature collectors concentrate sunlight using mirrors or lenses and are generally used for electric power production.Solar thermal system for water heating in Santorini.

1.000.000 m2) were of the lowtemperature variety.000.2 Power tower designs  3.[5] Low-temperature collectors are generally installed to heat swimming pools.2 Molten salt storage o 5.2 Process heat 2 Medium-temperature collectors o 2.1.7 MicroCSP 4 Heat Collection and Exchange 5 Heat storage o 5.000 square feet (1.000 m2) of solar thermal collectors produced in the United States in 2007. cooling.1. cooling.1 Parabolic trough designs  3.000.3 Graphite heat storage o 5.5 Linear Fresnel reflector technologies  3. although they can also be used for space heating.000 square feet (2.1 System designs  3. 16.500.6 Fresnel lenses  3.1 Heating. [edit] Heating.1.4 Phase-change materials for storage 6 Use of water 7 Conversion rates from solar energy to electrical energy 8 Levelised cost 9 Standards 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links [edit] Low-temperature collectors Of the 21.2 Cooking o 2.3 Distillation 3 High-temperature collectors o 3.1 Solar drying o 2.Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 Low-temperature collectors o 1.4 Fresnel reflectors  3. and ventilation o 1.3 Dish designs  3. and ventilation .1 Steam accumulator o Collectors can use air or water as the medium to transfer the heat to their destination.

These solar space heating systems require at least two penetrations into the building and only perform when the air in the solar collector is warmer than the building room temperature. concrete. Solar chimney. and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy.Main articles: HVAC. Passive solar building design.[6][7] Solar heating. These systems have been in use since Roman times and remain common in the Middle East. In the United States. the air inside is heated causing an updraft that pulls air through the building. and Solar air conditioning MIT's Solar House #1 built in 1939 used seasonal thermal storage for year round heating. Solar air heat. Glazed Solar Collectors are designed primarily for space heating and they recirculate building air through a solar air panel where the air is heated and then directed back into the building. thermal mass can passively maintain comfortable temperatures while reducing energy consumption. ventilation. As the chimney warms. cooling. Thermal mass materials store solar energy during the day and release this energy during cooler periods. Common thermal mass materials include stone. Thermal mass. and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for over 25 percent (4. . Solar space heating with solar air heat collectors is more popular in the USA and Canada than heating with solar liquid collectors since most buildings already have a ventilation system for heating and cooling. The two main types of solar air panels are glazed and unglazed. daylighting. When properly incorporated. Most glazed collectors are used in the residential sector. A solar chimney (or thermal chimney) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a hollow thermal mass connecting the interior and exterior of a building. Trombe wall. The proportion and placement of thermal mass should consider several factors such as climate. and water. heating.75 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly half (10.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings. and shading conditions.

Heat conducts from the absorber surface to the thermal boundary layer of air 1 mm thick on the outside of the absorber and to air that passes behind the absorber. unglazed solar collectors. Also called.[8] Solar roof ponds are unique solar heating and cooling systems developed by Harold Hay in the 1960s. They turn building walls or sections of walls into low cost. The boundary layer of air is drawn into a nearby perforation before the heat can escape by convection to the outside air.[10] Thermal mass. The leaves of deciduous trees provide natural shade during the summer while the bare limbs allow light . "transpired solar panels". A Trombe wall is a passive solar heating and ventilation system consisting of an air channel sandwiched between a window and a sun-facing thermal mass. During the ventilation cycle. smart windows and shading methods can also be used to provide cooling. This system can control heat exchange between interior and exterior environments by covering and uncovering the bladder between night and day. The Skytherm house in Atascadero. In 1878. The heated air is then drawn from behind the absorber plate into the building's ventilation system. they employ a painted perforated metal solar heat absorber that also serves as the exterior wall surface of the building. "transpired" air collector Unglazed Solar Collectors are primarily used to pre-heat make-up ventilation air in commercial. Auguste Mouchout pioneered solar cooling by making ice using a solar steam engine attached to a refrigeration device. When heating is a concern the bladder is uncovered during the day allowing sunlight to warm the water bladder and store heat for evening use.[9] Active solar cooling can be achieved via absorption refrigeration cycles. A basic system consists of a roof-mounted water bladder with a movable insulating cover. During the heating cycle the Trombe wall radiates stored heat.Unglazed. industrial and institutional buildings with a high ventilation load. California uses a prototype roof pond for heating and cooling. When cooling is a concern the covered bladder draws heat from the building's interior during the day and is uncovered at night to radiate heat to the cooler atmosphere. desiccant cycles. high performance. and solar mechanical processes. sunlight stores heat in the thermal mass and warms the air channel causing circulation through vents at the top and bottom of the wall.

[edit] Process heat Main articles: Solar pond. The short payback period of transpired collectors (3 to 12 years) make them a more cost-effective alternative to glazed collection systems. Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams.000 m² had been installed worldwide. Solar process heating systems are designed to provide large quantities of hot water or space heating for nonresidential buildings. The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar energy.3 GJ per year. Altogether. a . The water content of trees will also help moderate local temperatures. California uses parabolic troughs to produce steam used in the manufacturing process.[16] In the United States. Representatives include an 860 m² collector in Costa Rica used for drying coffee beans and a 1300 m² collector in Coimbatore. As of 2009. UTCs can raise the incoming air temperature up to 22 °C and deliver outlet temperatures of 45-60 °C. India used for drying marigolds. over 1500 systems with a combined collector area of 300.[13] [14] A food processing facility in Modesto.and warmth into a building during the winter. evaporation ponds represent one of the largest commercial applications of solar energy in use today.[11] Evaporation ponds are shallow ponds that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation. Salt evaporation pond.000 m² collector area is expected to provide 4.[15] [edit] Medium-temperature collectors Main article: solar water heating These collectors could be used to produce approximately 50% and more of the hot water needed for residential and commercial use in the United States.[12] Unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) are perforated sun-facing walls used for preheating ventilation air. and Solar furnace Solar Evaporation Ponds in the Atacama Desert. The 5.

Crop drying by solar means is environmentally friendly as well as cost effective while improving the quality. [edit] Solar drying Solar thermal energy can be useful for drying wood for construction and wood fuels such as wood chips for combustion. Solar water heating can reduce CO2 emissions of a family of four by 1 ton/year (if replacing natural gas) or 3 ton/year (if replacing electricity). India concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking.typical system costs $4000–$6000 retail ($1400 to $2200 wholesale for the materials) and 30% of the system qualifies for a federal tax credit + additional state credit exists in about half of the states. European and International standards are being reviewed to accommodate innovations in design and operation of medium temperature collectors. pleasing both the buyers and the sellers. drain back. and fish.[17] Mediumtemperature installations can use any of several designs: common designs are pressurized glycol. depending on the state. the less it can be sold for. This innovation reduces or even eliminates the occurrence of noflow high temperature stresses called stagnation which would otherwise reduce the life expectancy of collectors. Operational innovations include "permanently wetted collector" operation. the payback time for a typical household is four to nine years. The less money it takes to make a product. With this incentive. Thermosiphon installation have negligible maintenance costs (costs rise if antifreeze and mains power are used for circulation) and in the US reduces a households' operating costs by $6 per person per month. A crew of one solar plumber and two assistants with minimal training can install a system per day. . Labor for a simple open loop system in southern climates can take 3–5 hours for the installation and 4–6 hours in Northern areas. grains. Similar subsidies exist in parts of Europe. Northern system require more collector area and more complex plumbing to protect the collector from freezing. batch systems and newer low pressure freeze tolerant systems using polymer pipes containing water with photovoltaic pumping. [18] [edit] Cooking Main article: Solar cooker The Solar Bowl above the Solar Kitchen in Auroville. Solar is also used for food products such as fruits. Technologies in solar drying include ultra low cost pumped transpired plate air collectors based on black fabrics. Solar thermal energy is helpful in the process of drying products such as wood chips and other forms of biomass by raising the heat while allowing air to pass through and get rid of the moisture.

The Solar Kitchen in Auroville. Solar energy heats up the water in the still.000 daily meals. drying and pasteurization. This technology was first developed by Wolfgang Scheffler in 1986. The simplest type of solar cooker is the box cooker first built by Horace de Saussure in 1767.[21] Many other solar kitchens in India use another unique concentrating technology known as the Scheffler reflector.[23] By early 2008.[18] [edit] High-temperature collectors . disc and parabolic trough type. The solar bowl's receiver reaches temperature of 150 °C that is used to produce steam that helps cook 2. A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid. The water then evaporates and condenses on the bottom of the covering glass. The most common reflector geometries are flat plate. reduces demand for fuel or firewood. and improves air quality by reducing or removing a source of smoke. the solar bowl uses a fixed spherical reflector with a receiver which tracks the focus of light as the Sun moves across the sky. [edit] Distillation Solar stills can be used to make drinking water in areas where clean water is not common. These designs cook faster and at higher temperatures (up to 350 °C) but require direct light to function properly. Rajasthan India is capable of cooking up to 35. Solar distillation is necessary in these situations to provide people with purified water. the world's largest Scheffler reflector system in Abu Road.[19][20] Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to concentrate light on a cooking container. Solar cooking offsets fuel costs. Contrary to conventional tracking reflector/fixed receiver systems. India uses a unique concentrating technology known as the solar bowl. A Scheffler reflector is a parabolic dish that uses single axis tracking to follow the Sun's daily course. These cookers can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 50–100 °C.000 meals a day.Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking. over 2000 large cookers of the Scheffler design had been built worldwide.[22] Built in 1999. Scheffler reflectors have the advantage of having a fixed focal point which improves the ease of cooking and are able to reach temperatures of 450-650 °C. These reflectors have a flexible reflective surface that is able to change its curvature to adjust to seasonal variations in the incident angle of sunlight.

One proposal for very high temperatures is to use liquid fluoride salts operating between 700 °C to 800 °C. have an efficiency up to 41%. reducing the plant's water use – critical in the deserts where large solar plants are practical.The solar furnace at Odeillo in the French Pyrenees-Orientales can reach temperatures up to 3. flat plate collectors will not reach temperatures much above 200 °C even when the heat transfer fluid is stagnant. The practical effect of high efficiencies is to reduce the plant's collector size and total land use per unit power generated. because more watt-hours are stored per unit of fluid. different forms of conversion become practical. Concentrated solar power plant using parabolic trough design. standard technology. Such temperatures are too low for efficient conversion to electricity. as for space heating. Above 600 °C. solar radiation is concentrated by mirrors or lenses to obtain higher temperatures – a technique called Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). using multi-stage turbine systems to achieve 50% or more thermal efficiencies. To achieve this in solar thermal energy plants. As the temperature increases. Because of the relatively high heat losses through the glazing. High temperatures also make heat storage more efficient. Where temperatures below about 95 °C are sufficient.[24] The higher operating temperatures permit the plant to use higher-temperature dry heat exchangers for its thermal exhaust. gas turbines can be more efficient.800 degrees Celsius. The efficiency of heat engines increases with the temperature of the heat source. . steam turbines. Higher temperatures are problematic because different materials and techniques are needed. reducing the environmental impacts of a power plant as well as its expense. flat-plate collectors of the nonconcentrating type are generally used. Up to 600 °C.

the obstacles for large deployment for CSP are cost. Reliability can further be improved by installing a back-up system that uses fossil energy. [edit] Parabolic trough designs Main article: Parabolic trough Sketch of a parabolic trough design. In this way. storage of heat is much cheaper and more efficient than storage of electricity. it can store the heat before conversion to electricity. unused desert. the CSP plant can produce electricity day and night. Therefore it seems unavoidable that there needs to be a tracking system that follows the position of the sun (for solar photovoltaic a solar tracker is only optional). however. and no fuel costs. The tracking system increases the cost and complexity.Since the CSP plant generates heat first of all. if the mirrors or lenses do not move. then the focus of the mirrors or lenses changes (but also in these cases nonimaging optics provides the widest acceptance angles for a given concentration). which decreases the cost of the back-up system. . With this in mind. For low concentration systems (and low temperatures) tracking can be avoided (or limited to a few positions per year) if nonimaging optics are used. still a large area must be covered with mirrors or lenses to obtain a significant amount of energy. A change of position of the sun parallel to the receiver does not require adjustment of the mirrors. no pollution.[25] For higher concentrations. An important way to decrease cost is the use of a simple design. Although only a small percentage of the desert is necessary to meet global electricity demand. [edit] System designs During the day the sun has different positions. With current technology. then the CSP plant becomes a reliable power plant. With reliability. The back-up system can reuse most of the CSP plant. aesthetics. If the CSP site has predictable solar radiation. land use and similar factors for the necessary connecting high tension lines. different designs can be distinguished in how they concentrate the light and track the position of the sun.

Common fluids are synthetic oil. seasonal changes in the in angle of sunlight parallel to the trough does not require adjustment of the mirrors. mirrored trough which reflects the direct solar radiation onto a glass tube containing a fluid (also called a receiver. molten salt and pressurized steam. that those plants have heat storage which requires a larger field of solar collectors relative to the size of the steam turbine-generator to store heat and send heat to the steam turbine at the same time. California. However. Under construction are Andasol 1 and Andasol 2 in Spain with each site having a capacity of 50MW.[28] Near . The fluid containing the heat is transported to a heat engine where about a third of the heat is converted to electricity. Since 1985 a solar thermal system using this principle has been in full operation in California in the United States. Spain uses the Parabolic Trough design which consists of long parallel rows of modular solar collectors. is circulated through the absorber pipes at temperatures up to 400 °C and generates live steam to drive the steam turbine generator of a conventional power block. It is called the SEGS system. positioned at the focal point of the reflectors. For change of the daily position of the sun perpendicular to the receiver. since the light is simply concentrated elsewhere on the receiver. California. Full-scale parabolic trough systems consist of many such troughs laid out in parallel over a large area of land.Parabolic trough power plants use a curved. 553MW new capacity is proposed in Mojave Solar Park. the high precision reflector panels concentrate the solar radiation coming directly from the sun onto an absorber pipe located along the focal line of the collector. absorber or collector) running the length of the trough. The trough is parabolic along one axis and linear in the orthogonal axis.[26] Other CSP designs lack this kind of long experience and therefore it can currently be said that the parabolic trough design is the most thoroughly proven CSP technology. due to the former plant's thermal energy storage system and larger solar field. The Solar Energy Generating System (SEGS) is a collection of nine plants with a total capacity of 350MW. A newer plant is Nevada Solar One plant with a capacity of 64MW. Thus the trough design does not require tracking on a second axis. a synthetic oil like in car engines. the trough tilts east to west so that the direct radiation remains focused on the receiver. 59MW hybrid plant with heat storage is proposed near Barstow. A heat transfer medium. Note however. It is currently the largest operational solar system (both thermal and non-thermal). The vacuum significantly reduces convective heat loss. A fluid (also called heat transfer fluid) passes through the receiver and becomes very hot. The receiver may be enclosed in a glass vacuum chamber. Andasol 1 in Gaudix.[27] Furthermore. Tracking the sun from East to West by rotation on one axis. With day and some nighttime operation of the steam-turbine Andasol 1 at 50MW peak capacity produces more energy than Nevada Solar One at 64 MW peak capacity. Heat storage enables better utilization of the steam turbine.

and eventually pumped to a steam generator. eSolar. This process.Kuraymat in Egypt. Within the receiver the concentrated sunlight heats molten salt to over 1. except it is fueled by clean and free solar energy. there is less need to flatten the ground area. maintaining 98% thermal efficiency. CA-based company founded by Idealab CEO Bill Gross with funding from Google. Flat mirrors focus the light on the top of the tower. some 40MW steam is used as input for a gas powered plant. A tower resides in the center of the heliostat field. a Pasadena. 25MW steam input for a gas power plant in Hassi R'mel. also known as the "Rankine cycle" is similar to a standard coal-fired power plant. Power towers (also known as 'central tower' power plants or 'heliostat' power plants) capture and focus the sun's thermal energy with thousands of tracking mirrors (called heliostats) in roughly a two square mile field. The advantage of this design above the parabolic trough design is the higher temperature.000 °F (538 °C). Thermal energy at higher temperatures can be converted to electricity more efficiently and can be more cheaply stored for later use. Algeria.[31] [edit] Power tower designs Main article: Solar power tower Solar Two. The heliostats focus concentrated sunlight on a receiver which sits on top of the tower. The disadvantage is that each mirror must have its own dual-axis control. while in the parabolic trough design one axis can be shared for a large array of mirrors. Mirrors can be flat and plumbing is concentrated in the tower. In principle a power tower can be built on a hillside. The steam drives a standard turbine to generate electricity. The heated molten salt then flows into a thermal storage tank where it is stored. The white surfaces below the receiver are used for calibrating the mirror positions.[29][30] Finally. In June 2008. announced a power purchase agreement (PPA) with the . Furthermore.

in February 2009. resulting in a land-to-power ratio of 4 acres (16.[38] . BrightSource Energy entered into a series of power purchase agreements with Pacific Gas and Electric Company in March 2008 for up to 900MW of electricity. the largest solar power commitment ever made by a utility. the companies announced plans to jointly build 500 megawatts of concentrating solar thermal plants throughout the United States. The 15MW Solar Tres plant with heat storage is under construction in Spain.. eSolar announced it had licensed its technology to two development partners.600 heliostats that track the sun and reflect light onto a 60 meterhigh tower. each having an area of 140 m². The site. with construction of the first plant planned to start in 2009.J.utility Southern California Edison to produce 245 megawatts of power.[32] BrightSource is currently developing a number of solar power plants in Southern California. Inc.47 ₡/kWh and for 6. the Princeton.[34] A working tower power plant is PS10 in Spain with a capacity of 11MW. In South Africa.2% for parabolic troughs. N. Over ten thousand hectors of land will be needed to sustain all of the sites.-based NRG Energy.000 m2) per 1 megawatt. ACME plans to start construction on its first eSolar power plant this year. Australia (with purified graphite as heat storage located on the tower directly by the receiver). and will build a total of 1 gigawatt over the next 10 years. This allows for a high density of reflective material which enables the development of modular concentrating solar thermal (CSP) power plants in 46 megawatt (MW) units on approximately π square mile parcels of land. In June 2008. eSolar's proprietary sun-tracking software coordinates the movement of 24.000 1 metersquare mirrors per 1 tower using optical sensors to adjust and calibrate the mirrors in real time. The capacity factor for power towers was estimated to be 72. features more than 1. generating superheated steam.[36] Morocco is building five solar thermal power plants around Ouasarzate. Also.9% and 56. The target goal for the ACME Group was nearly double. a 100MW solar power plant is planned with 4000 to 5000 heliostat mirrors. BrightSource Energy dedicated its 4-6 MW [33] Solar Energy Development Center (SEDC) in Israel's Negev Desert. and the India-based ACME Group. In the deal with NRG.[37] Out of commission are the 10MW Solar One (later redeveloped and made into Solar Two) and the 2MW Themis plants. The concentrated energy is then used to heat a boiler atop the tower to 550 degrees Celsius. A cost/performance comparison between power tower and parabolic trough concentrators was made by the NREL which estimated that by 2020 electricity could be produced from power towers for 5.[35] A 10MW power plant in Cloncurry.21 ₡/kWh from parabolic troughs. The sites will produce about 2000 MW by 2012. located in the Rotem Industrial Park.

there are also some disadvantages.Road. Heat to electricity conversion requires moving parts and that results in maintenance.[44] At the beginning of 2011 Stirling Energy's development arm. the 709 MW Imperial project and the 850 MW Calico project to AES Solar and K. A dish stirling system uses a large. Higher temperatures lead to better conversion to electricity and the dish system is very efficient on this point. Stirling Energy Systems and Tessera Solar commissioned the first demonstration 1. reflective. Typically the dish is coupled with a Stirling engine in a Dish-Stirling System. It focuses all the sunlight that strikes the dish up onto a single point above the dish.5-megawatt power plant ("Maricopa Solar") using Stirling technology in Peoria. where a receiver captures the heat and transforms it into a useful form. which requires a rigid frame and strong tracking system. but also sometimes a steam engine is used. mass producible heliostat power plant components could bring this cost down.[39] [edit] Dish designs A parabolic solar dish concentrating the sun's rays on the heating element of a Stirling engine. durable. Furthermore. respectively. In general. a centralized approach for this conversion is better than the decentralized concept in the dish design. sold off its two large projects. Arizona. However. parabolic dish (similar in shape to satellite television dish).There is some hope that the development of cheap.000 units) sufficient to generate 500 megawatts of electricity. Second.[47] .[40] These create rotational kinetic energy that can be converted to electricity using an electric generator. Tessera Solar. the (heavy) engine is part of the moving structure.[45][46] and in the fall of 2011 Stirling Energy Systems applied for Chapter 7 bankruptcy due to competition from low cost photovoltaics.[42] Stirling Energy Systems announced another agreement with San Diego Gas & Electric to provide between 300 and 900 megawatts of electricity.[43] In January 2010. parabolic mirrors are used instead of flat mirrors and tracking must be dualaxis. The entire unit acts as a solar tracker.[41] The advantage of a dish system is that it can achieve much higher temperatures due to the higher concentration of light (as in tower designs). In 2005 Southern California Edison announced an agreement to purchase solar powered Stirling engines from Stirling Energy Systems over a twenty year period and in quantities (20.

former Ausra subsidiary. shallow-curvature (or even flat) mirrors to focus light onto one or more linear receivers positioned above the mirrors. Subsequently. to build a 6.G. so they are structurally simpler. based in Munich. The mirrors also do not need to support the receiver. There are plans for SHP Europe. while still using the simple line-focus geometry with one axis for tracking. A Fresnel-based prototype with direct steam generation was built by SPG in conjunction with the German Aerospace Center (DLR[50]). was founded by some Solarmundo team members. On top of the receiver a small parabolic mirror can be attached for further focusing the light.5 MW combined cycle plant in Portugal.[48] [edit] Fresnel reflectors Wind load is avoided by the low position of the mirrors. A linear Fresnel reflector power plant uses a series of long. The Solarmundo research and development project. First Solar (a manufacturer of thin-film photovoltaic solar cells) will not build the Carrizo project. Based on the Australian prototype. and the deal has resulted in the cancellation of Ausra’s contract to provide 177 megawatts to P. This is similar to the trough design (and different from central towers and dishes with dual-axis).000 kilowatt-hour electricity per year. was closed down after successful proof of concept of the Linear Fresnel technology. The German company . Recent prototypes of these types of systems have been built in Australia (CLFR[49]) and by Solarmundo in Belgium. Germany. this can allow a denser packing of mirrors on available land area. narrow. a 177MW plant had been proposed near San Luis Obispo in California and would be built by Ausra.In July 2011. These systems aim to offer lower overall costs by sharing a receiver between several mirrors (as compared with trough and dish concepts). Light construction of tracking system due to separation from the receiver. Iran inaugurated Iran's biggest solar power plant in Mashhad which produces 72.[51] But Ausra sold its planned California solar farm to First Solar. with its pilot plant at Liège. When suitable aiming strategies are used (mirrors aimed at different receivers at different times of day).[52] Small capacity plants are an enormous economical challenge with conventional parabolic trough and drive design – few companies build such small projects. The receiver is stationary and so fluid couplings are not required (as in troughs and dishes).& E. Solar Power Group GmbH (SPG).

The project is located in Gotarrendura. one fundamental difficulty with the LFR technology is the . the Fresnel solar power plant PE 1 of the German company Novatec Biosol is in commercial operation in southern Spain . A Multi-Tower Solar Array (MTSA) concept. a small renewable energy pioneering village. the German Solar Power Group GmbH and the Spanish Laer S.[55] but has not yet been prototyped. Beside a conventional power block. However. The LFR differs from that of the parabolic trough in that the absorber is fixed in space above the mirror field. agreed the joint execution of a solar thermal power plant in central Spain. Since March 2009.4 MW. Spain. in Spain) using Fresnel mirror and steam drive technology (Press Release[54]). Also. has also been developed. In May 2008. the reflector is composed of many low row segments. The steam is generated by concentrating direct solar irradiation onto a linear receiver which is 7. [edit] Linear Fresnel reflector technologies Main article: Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector Fresnel solar power plant PE 1 in southern Spain Rival single axis tracking technologies include the relatively new linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) and compact-LFR (CLFR) technologies. PE 1 comprises a solar boiler with mirror surface of around 18. An absorber tube is positioned in the focal line of the mirror field in which water is evaporated directly into saturated steam at 270 °C and at a pressure of 55 bar by the concentrated solar energy.40m above the ground.SK Energy GmbH (company)|SK Energy[53]]) has plans to build several small 1-3 MW plants in Southern Europe (esp. The planned size of the power plant will be 10 MW a solar thermal collector field with a fossil co-firing unit as backup system. about 100 km northwest of Madrid. This will be the first commercial solar thermal power plant in Spain based on the Fresnel collector technology of the Solar Power Group. The start of constructions is planned for 2009.[56] This system offers a lower cost solution as the absorber row is shared among several rows of mirrors. which focus collectively on an elevated long tower receiver running parallel to the reflector rotational axis.000m². that uses a point-focus Fresnel reflector idea. The solar thermal power plant is based on linear Fresnel collector technology and has an electrical capacity of 1.L.

then a less rigid frame is required to withstand wind load. This prohibits any option of the direction of orientation of a given reflector. though a prototype has yet to be made. Therefore. Studies of existing CLFR plants have been shown to deliver tracked beam to electricity efficiency of 19% on an annual basis as a preheater. The classic LFR has only one linear absorber on a single linear tower. 'non-disruptive' solar concentrator technology using asymmetric Fresnel lenses that occupies minimal ground surface area and allows for large amounts of concentrated solar energy per concentrator is seen in the 'Desert Blooms' [59] project. and low maintenance. No full-scale thermal systems using Fresnel lenses are known to be in operation. minimized parasitic pumping losses. The CLFR offers an alternate solution to the LFR problem. the heat transfer loop is separated from the reflector field. Both these solutions increase costs. if the linear absorbers are close enough.[57] These reduced costs encourage the advancement of this technology. individual reflectors will have the option of directing reflected solar radiation to at least two absorbers.[57] CLFR power plants offer reduced costs in all elements of the solar array. avoiding the cost of flexible high pressure lines required in trough systems. [edit] MicroCSP .avoidance of shading of incoming solar radiation and blocking of reflected solar radiation by adjacent reflectors. which allows increased spacing between reflectors remote from the absorber. Features that enhance the cost effectiveness of this system compared to that of the parabolic trough technology include minimized structural costs. if a material is chosen that has some flexibility. although products incorporating Fresnel lenses in conjunction with photovoltaic cells are already available. This additional factor gives potential for more densely packed arrays. The use of glass-evacuated tubes ensures low radiative losses and is inexpensive. Blocking and shading can be reduced by using absorber towers elevated higher or by increasing the absorber size. Minimized parasitic pumping losses are due to the use of water for the heat transfer fluid with passive direct boiling. Since this technology would be introduced in a large field. A new concept of a lightweight.[58] The advantage of this design is that lenses are cheaper than mirrors.[56] [edit] Fresnel lenses Prototypes of Fresnel lens concentrators have been produced for the collection of thermal energy by International Automated Systems. Furthermore. Minimized structural costs are attributed to the use of flat or elastically curved glass reflectors instead of costly sagged glass reflectors are mounted close to the ground. since patterns of alternative reflector inclination can be set up such that closely packed reflectors can be positioned without shading and blocking. Also. as larger ground usage is required. one can assume that there will be many linear absorbers in the system.

The collector fluid is .[63] Solar manufacturer Sopogy completed construction on a 1MW CSP plant at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii. sterilization. the greenhouse effect in this case is the ability of a reflective surface to transmit short wave radiation and reflect long wave radiation. Heat is transferred either by conduction or convection. such as resort swimming pools. Solar thermal power plants use heat exchangers that are designed for constant working conditions. and heat insulation. kinetic energy is transferred by conduction to water molecules throughout the medium. Heat is transferred from the absorber plates of the collector in the fluid by conduction. to provide heat exchange. Unlike Photovoltaic technologies that often degrade under concentrated light.[64] MicroCSP is used for community-sized power plants (1MW to 50MW). snow and humid deployments. Heat and infrared radiation (IR) are produced when short wave radiation light hits the absorber plate. Fluid. where h is Planck's constant. Glass or ceramic coatings with high transmission in the visible and UV and effective absorption in the IR (heat blocking) trap metal absorbed low frequency light from radiation loss. Once collected as heat. water parks. Solar thermal heat is trapped using the greenhouse effect. heat is the measure of the amount of thermal energy an object contains and is determined by the temperature. usually water."MicroCSP"[60][61] references solar thermal technologies in which concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors are based on the designs used in traditional Concentrating Solar Power systems found in the Mojave Desert[62] but are smaller in collector size. [edit] Heat Collection and Exchange More energy is contained in higher frequency light based upon the formula of E = hν. large laundry facilities. mass and specific heat of the object. heat storage. These molecules spread their thermal energy by conduction and occupy more space than the cold slow moving molecules above them. heat transfer. heat transport. and when large amounts of hot water are needed. Solar Thermal depends upon light concentration that requires a clear sky to reach suitable temperatures. for industrial. agricultural and manufacturing 'process heat' applications. which is then trapped inside the collector. Heat in a solar thermal system is guided by five basic principles: heat gain. Metal collectors down convert higher frequency light by producing a series of Compton shifts into an abundance of lower frequency light. in the absorber tubes collect the trapped heat and transfer it to a heat storage vault. Heat gain is the heat accumulated from the sun in the system. thermos containment efficiency improves significantly with increased size. Convection insulation prevents mechanical losses transferred through gas. When water is heated. The distribution of energy from the rising hot water to the sinking cold water contributes to the convection process. distillation and other such uses. lighter and operate at lower thermal temperatures usually below 315 °C (600 °F). These systems are designed for modular field or rooftop installation where they are easy to protect from high winds.[65] Here.

air. Thermal storage mediums will be discussed in a heat storage section. Rate of heat transfer is related to the conductive and convection medium as well as the temperature differences. Heat is transferred to a thermal storage medium in an insulated reservoir during hours with sunlight. when pressure is lowered. and sodium. Heat insulation is vital in both heat transport tubing as well as the storage vault. including water. Heat storage enables solar thermal plants to produce electricity during hours without sunlight.circulated through the carrier pipes to the heat transfer vault. Bodies with large temperature differences transfer heat faster than bodies with lower temperature differences. . so experience with molten-salt systems exists in non-solar settings. its operating temperatures are compatible with today's high-pressure and high-temperature steam turbines.[68] [edit] Molten salt storage A variety of fluids have been tested to transport the sun's heat. This allows the use of solar power for baseload generation as well as peak power generation. Storage is for one hour. heat is transferred throughout the medium through convection. and it is non-flammable and nontoxic. which in turn relates to energy loss. but molten salt was selected[who?] as best. [edit] Heat storage Heat storage allows a solar thermal plant to produce electricity at night and on overcast days. oil. with the potential of displacing both coal and natural gas fired power plants. the utilization of the generator is higher which reduces cost. a variety of phase change materials. It is suggested that longer storage is possible. Thermal storage media include pressurized steam. it provides an efficient.[69] Molten salt is used in solar power tower systems because it is liquid at atmosphere pressure. lowcost medium in which to store thermal energy. It prevents heat loss.[66][67] [edit] Steam accumulator The PS10 solar power tower stores heat in tanks as pressurized steam at 50 bar and 285 °C. concrete. Additionally. but that has not been proven yet in an existing power plant. and molten salts such as sodium and potassium nitrate. Heat transport refers to the activity in which heat from a solar collector is transported to the heat storage vault. In addition. Heat is transferred to a thermal storage medium in an insulated reservoir during the day. The steam condenses and flashes back to steam. or decrease in the efficiency of the system. Inside the vault. molten salt is used in the chemical and metals industries as a heat-transport fluid. and withdrawn for power generation at night. and is withdrawn for power generation during hours lacking sunlight.

low thermal conductivity. The heat from the salts are transferred to a secondary heat transfer fluid via a heat exchanger and then to the storage media. The uniqueness of this solar system is in de-coupling the collection of solar energy from producing power. The salt melts at 220 °C (430 °F) and is kept liquid at 290 °C (550 °F) in an insulated storage tank. Using a similar heat transfer infrastructure. tanks that provide enough thermal storage to power a 100-megawatt turbine for four hours would be about 9 m (30 ft) tall and 24 m (80 ft) in diameter. (June 2011) Direct The proposed power plant in Cloncurry Australia will store heat in purified graphite. The plant has a power tower design. but . There may be additional information on the talk page. Normally tanks are well insulated and can store thermal energy for up to a week. and flammability. It came online March 2009. It achieved this using a molten salt heat storage design. Please help improve the article by updating it. PCMs have the potential of providing a more efficient means of storage. or alternatively. Advantages of organic PCMs include no corrosives. New studies show that calcium nitrate could be included in the salts mixture to reduce costs and with technical benefits. Disadvantages include low phase-change enthalpy.9 MW concentrating solar power plant became the first ever to generate uninterrupted electricity for 24 hours straight. As an example of their size. The Andasol power plant in Spain is the first commercial solar thermal power plant to utilize molten salt for heat storage and nighttime generation. PCMs can be either organic or inorganic materials. electricity can be generated in periods of inclement weather or even at night using the stored thermal energy in the hot salt tank. commonly called saltpeter. This simplifies the design. low or no undercooling. 2011.The molten salt is a mixture of 60 percent sodium nitrate and 40 percent potassium nitrate. and chemical and thermal stability. a company in Spain celebrated an historic moment for the solar industry: Torresol’s 19. [70] On July 4. Heat from the heliostats goes directly to the storage. Inorganics are advantageous with greater phase-change enthalpy. The graphite is located on top of the tower. Heat for energy production is drawn from the graphite. Graphite is used as it has relatively low costs and compatibility with liquid fluoride salts. The high mass and volumetric heat capacity of graphite provide an efficient storage medium.[72] Indirect Molten salt coolants are used to transfer heat from the reflectors to heat storage vaults.[71] [edit] Graphite heat storage This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. the salts can be used to directly heat graphite.[73] [edit] Phase-change materials for storage Phase Change Material (PCMs) offer an alternate solution in energy storage.

corrosion. this results in a 90 percent reduction in water usage at the cost of some loss of efficiency.exhibit disadvantages with undercooling.[76] [edit] Conversion rates from solar energy to electrical energy Of all of these technologies the solar dish/stirling engine has the highest energy efficiency. efficiency does not directly relate to cost: on calculating total cost.2 km²). both efficiency and the cost of construction and maintenance should be taken into account.[75] Other designs require less water. California water law currently prohibits use of potable water for cooling. The 500-megawatt (MW) SCE/SES plant would extract about 2. Compared to conventional wet-cooling. to build a plant in the Amargosa Valley of Nevada which would require 20% of the water available in the area. The conflict is illustrated by plans of Solar Millennium.75% of the radiation (1 kW/m².[74] [edit] Use of water A design which requires water for condensation or cooling may conflict with location of solar thermal plants in desert areas with good solar radiation but limited water resources. phase separation.300×1. .25%.[78] For the 50 MW AndaSol Power Plant[79] that is being built in Spain (total area of 1. The gross conversion efficiencies (taking into account that the solar dishes or troughs occupy only a fraction of the total area of the power plant) are determined by net generating capacity over the solar energy that falls on the total area of the solar plant. and lack of thermal stability. The water is then returned to the boiler in a closed process which is environmentally friendly.[citation needed] Fresnel reflectors have an efficiency that is slightly lower (but this is compensated by the denser packing).6% Furthermore.95 km²) gross conversion efficiency comes out at 2. A single solar dish-Stirling engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility produces as much as 25 kW of electricity.500 m = 1. The proposed Ivanpah Solar Power Facility in southeastern California will conserve scarce desert water by using air-cooling to convert the steam back into water.[77] Solar parabolic trough plants have been built with efficiencies of about 20%. Some other projected plants by the same and other companies in the Mojave Desert of California may also be affected by difficulty in obtaining adequate and appropriate water rights.500 acres (18. a German company. with a conversion efficiency of 31. see Solar power for a discussion) that falls on its 4. The greater phase-change enthalpy in inorganic PCMs make hydrate salts a strong candidate in the solar energy storage field.

Example. but that will not change the capacity factor. This has a significant negative effect on the price per kWh. Other ways of financing. if this is achieved in reality.65 results in a price of 0. an interest rate of 7%[80] should be possible.15 euro per kWh. Although the investment for one kWh year production is suitable for comparing the price of different solar power plants. different way of debt repayment. . divided by 11. the cost consists primarily of capital cost with minor operational and maintenance cost. Independent of the way of financing. different interest rate. The average capacity factor for a solar power plant. if by enhancements of the technology the investments drop by 20%. For example.73 euro per kWh. can lead to a significantly different number.65. the fact sheet of the Andasol 1 project shows a total investment of 310 million euros for a production of 179 GWh a year. which is a function of tracking. meaning that a 50MW capacity power plant will typically provide a yearly output of 50 MW × 24 hrs × 365 days × 20% = 87. It is planned to produce 30 million kWh a year for an investment of 31 million Australian dollars. the following formula can be used to calculate the division factor: (1 .6 GWh/yr. the division factor is 11. it does not give the price per kWh yet. the investment per kWh a year production is 310 / 179 = 1. is about 20%. or 87. shading and location. For a lifetime of 25 years and an interest rate of 7%. different lifetime expectation. So. in such way that the debt and interest decreases. However. the price per kWh also drops by 20%.73 euro.16 euro per kWh. which can be partially explained by the higher radiation in Cloncurry over Spain.(1 + interest / 100) ^ -lifetime) / (interest / 100). If a solar power plant has heat storage. This would be significantly cheaper than Andasol 1.03 Australian dollar for the production of 1 kWh in a year. In most cases the capacity is specified for a power plant (for instance Andasol 1 has a capacity of 50MW). it simply displaces the output. Since 179 GWh is 179 million kWh. If one cent operation and maintenance cost is added.600 MWh/year. This number is not suitable for comparison. This is called the levelised energy cost. If a way of financing is assumed whereby the money is borrowed and repaid every year. because the capacity factor can differ. In other words. The way of financing has a great influence on the final price. The investment per kWh cost for one year should not be confused with the cost per kWh over the complete lifetime of such a plant. then the levelized cost is 0. there is always a linear relation between the investment per kWh production in a year and the price for 1 kWh (before adding operational and maintenance cost). If the technology is proven. it can also produce output after sunset. the investment of Andasol 1 was 1.[edit] Levelised cost Since a solar power plant does not use any fuel. Another example is Cloncurry solar power station in Australia. The first step in the calculation is to determining the investment for the production of 1 kWh in a year. If the lifetime of the plant and the interest rate is known. the cost would be 1. for a new technology investors want a much higher rate to compensate for the higher risk. the cost per kWh can be calculated.

0. if the cost per kWh is raised with inflation.21 euro for 25 years. a price of US$0. If an investor puts his money in a savings account for 7%.21 euro will have a value comparable with 0. This increases the investment by the interest realised over the period in which the plant is not active. can deliver peak load and does not cause pollution. the inflation rate can be added to the interest rate. If this number is fixed.13 euro now. › Energy portal Renewable energy portal Sustainable development portal • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Solar thermal collector Central solar heating plant Concentrating solar power (CSP) Energy tower EnerWorks Heliostat List of solar thermal power stations Ocean thermal energy conversion Solar cooling Solar heating Solar power plants in the Mojave Desert Solar tracker Solar updraft tower SolarPACES Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collector . [edit] Standards • EN 12975 (efficiency test) [edit] See also ‹ The template (Portal box) is being considered for merging. there is some gap between the first investment and the first production of electricity. Finally.10 per kWh[81] starts to become competitive. The modular solar dish (but also solar photovoltaic and wind power) have the advantage that electricity production starts after first construction. The Andasol 1 plant has a guaranteed feed-in tariff of 0. after 25 years with 2% inflation. although a price of US$0.06 has been claimed[82] With some operational cost a simple target is 1 dollar (or lower) investment for 1 kWh production in a year. then he is compensated and can add 2% (a normal inflation rate) to his return.If the cost per kWh may follow the inflation. then he is not compensated for inflation. Given the facts that solar thermal power is reliable. However.

lbl.archive.. ^ Bartlett (1998).energy. 9. http://www. ^ Douglass. ^ "Solar Buildings (Transpired Air Collectors – Ventilation Preheating)" (PDF). 4. "His passion for solar still burns".org/web/20080410212543/http://www. m/mytopic=10300.pdf. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2007-09-29. ^ Leon (2006).[edit] Notes gs/info/documents/pdfs/hvacvolume1finalreport. Retrieved 2007-11-14. ASHRAE. Sydney Morning Herald.archive. http://www. Retrieved 2007-09-29. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981).gov/consumer/your_home/designing_remodeling/ %20Dynamic%20Windows.story?coll=la-headlines-business. ^ EIA Renewable Energy.html 12. 2. .eere. http://greenrednecks.latimes. Photovoltaic (PV) – Which Should You Choose?". 2–1. p.solarthermal. Photovoltaic". Retrieved ^ "Solar Thermal and PV Efficiency Breakthrough – Stanford Solar Energy Researchers Make Big Claims".Shipments of Solar Thermal Collectors by Market Sector. Archived from the original on 2007-12-15. Paddy (10 October 2009). 5. http://www. United States Department of Energy.eere. http://windows. ^ according to Dr David Mills of Ausra [edit] References Archived from the original on ^ "Indirect Gain (Trombe Walls)".au/business/withgreen-power-comes-great-responsibility-20091009-gqvt. ^ "Solar Thermal vs.nrel. 7. J.nrel.smh. 1–6. http://web. Los Angeles Times. End Use. "With green power comes great responsibility".html. 10. United States Department of Energy. ^ "Solar Thermal vs. ^ "Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems" (PDF).5782216. et al. ^ Manning.62 14. 8. Retrieved 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2009-1012.393-394 13. "Future Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes" (PDF). and Type 6. ^ Apte. http://www. http://web.pdf. Elizabeth (2007-11-10).72 11. pp.html.

^ Israeli company to build largest solar park in world in US Ynetnews. ^ Iberdrola to build 150MW Egyptian thermal solar plant ^ Kincaid. 22.pdf. Retrieved ^ Solar Millennium Tochter Flagsol erhält Auftrag für erstes Parabolrinnen-Kraftwerk Ägyptens 31. J.archive. ^ "BrightSource Energy signs whopper solar contract with PG&E". Solare Bruecke. The Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States. Auroville Universal Township.brightsourceenergy. Gadhia Solar.html.Combined Cycle Hybrid Plant. ^ Roland Winston et al. ^ "SOLAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER (SEDC) – NEGEV. 33. 2004 [ISBN 978-0127597515] Nonimaging Optics.doc. Solarbuzz. 17.html. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 24. 8. Arizona Solar Center. ^ ORNL's liquid fluoride proposal. 19. ^ "Design of Solar Cookers". ^ a b "Solar Thermal Energy".15. p.solarebruecke. ^ Denholm. http://news. http://web. 16. http://www. Retrieved 2008-04-25.cnet. nergy.cleanenergydurham. 34.archive. http://www. http://www.azsolarcenter. http://cleantech- .org/web/20071111132802/http://gadhiasolar. ^ "The Solar Bowl". 18. http://www. CNET News. Retrieved 2007-09-30. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981).. 23. http://web. 2009. ^ Solar thermal electric hybrid power plant for barstow 29. Archived from the original on http://practicalaction. The Modesto Bee. ^ SEGS system 27.54-59 20. http://www. ^ Abener Signs Contract for Solar Thermal Electric .com/1618/story/259206. Retrieved 2008-06-11.auroville.nrel. Durham Campaign for Solar Jobs. takes advantage of renewable energy". ^ "Scheffler-Reflector". ^ "Frito-Lay solar system puts the sun in SunChips.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-25.html. Retrieved 200804-25. ^ "BrightSource / Luz II Dedicate Negev Solar Energy Development Center".com 32. Academic Press. Retrieved 26 July 2007. ^ "Solar Steam Cooking System". (May 2006). Retrieved 2008-04-25. (March 2007) (PDF). Cleantech Investing in Israel. 25. 2008-06-12. ISRAEL". Archived from the original on why/solarjobreport.htm. BrightSource Energy. 21. http://www. Retrieved 2007-12-28. P.

com/phoenix/stories/2010/01/18/daily87. http://phoenix. ^ Ausra Sells Planned Plant to First Solar 53. "Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector Solar Thermal ^ ANU 'Big Dish'. 57. Patrick (23 January 2010). 2011.html. 41.anu. ^ http://gigaom. ^ Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts 39. 48. 28 May 2008. .org/news/aes_solar_buys_tessera_solars_imperial_valley_project_with_inten t_to_turn_c 46. 2007 40. ^ SK Energy GmbH: neuer deutscher Hersteller steigt in den Markt für kleine bis mittelgroße solarthermische Kraftwerke ein 55. Solar Energy (Elsevier) 76 (1): 19. Retrieved 2011-05-18. . Tessera debut new solar plant in Peoria". ^ CLFR 50. ^ SK Energy GmbH 54. D.Home 51. ^ "Ain Beni Mathar. http://www. ^ Runyon. ^ a b Mills. http://www.Solar Overview 42.israel.Institut für Technische Thermodynamik .blogspot. Retrieved June 17. Retrieved 2008-06-12. 56. Phoenix Business Journal. Retrieved November 14. ^ a b Mills. ^ Stirling Energy Systems Inc.html.renewableenergyworld.bizjournals. doi:10. 2010. and Morrison L. 35. D." Solar Energy 76 (2004): 19-31. 45. ^ 100 MW Solar Thermal Electric Project in South Africa 36. "Advances in Solar Thermal Electricity Technology. "Solar Shakeout Continues: Stirling Energy Systems Files for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy".com/cleantech/tessera-solar-sells-troubled-850mwproject-to-k-road/ 47. ^ World's largest solar installation to use Stirling engine technology 43. ^ Stirling Energy Systems Signs New Contract for 300 MW 44. ^ Iran's biggest solar power plant inaugurated in Mashhad 49. D (January 2004). ^ http://www. "Advances in solar thermal electricity technology". ^ PG&E links with Ausra for 177 megawatts of solar thermal power 52. Morocco Solar Thermal Power Station Project". ^ O'Grady. " renewableenergyworld. ^ Google's Goal: Renewable Energy Cheaper than Coal November 27. 28 May 2008. ^ Mills.1016/S0038092X(03)00102-6. ^ DLR ^ Cloncurry to run on solar alone 37." Solar Energy 68 (2000): 263-283. Jennifer (2011 [last update]).

^ Zalba.htm>. Belen. Heat Transfer Analysis and Applications. Charles W.. article in Scientific American 69.58." JC Solarhomes. 77. 2009. ^ Desert Blooms Land Art Generator Initiative Competition 60. ^ Solar Thermal Industry Needs Loan Guarantees 81.pdf. Jose M. ^ "Sandia. ^ ^ Sandia National Lab Solar Thermal Test Facility 67. ^ SEGS 63.jc-solarhomes. Peterson. John.solarmillennium. ^ BrightSource & Bechtel Partner on 440-MW Ivanpah CSP Project Renewable Energy 72. ^ National Renewable Energy Laboratory 68. ^ SunCube 59.. Stirling Energy Systems set new world record for solar-to-grid conversion efficiency" (Press release). Sandia National Laboratories.ese.Solar thermal application".gov/news/resources/releases/2008/solargrid. Cabeza. see news. 75. ^ Development of Two Solar-thermal Electric Hybridized Power Plant Debuts in Southern California [edit] External links . ^ http://thinkprogress. 2009 76. "Five Solar Thermal Principles. ^ Canivan." Journal of Solar Energy Engineering 129 (2007): 141 74." Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003): 251-283.pdf 61.seia. 66. "High Temperature Liquied Fluoride Salt Closed Brayton Cycle Solar Power Towers. http://www. 2008-02-12. Luisa F. ^ "Alternative Energy Projects Stumble on a Need for Water" article by Todd Woody in The New York Times September 29.php?idart=155&lang=2 71. 26 May 2008 <http://www. http://www. 65. press release 79. and Harald 70. ^ "Under 10 cents is sort of the magic line" 82. ^ 2x50 MW AndaSol Power Plant Projects in Spain 80.iitb. Inc. Per F.hawaii247. Retrieved 11 October 2011. ^ Cloncurry Solar Thermal Storage Project 73.sandia. ^ http://www. ^ MicroCSP in Idaho 64. September 10. "Review on Thermal Energy Storage with Phase Change: Materials. ^ Major New Solar Energy Project Announced By Southern California Edison and Stirling Energy Systems. Marin. ^ Forsberg. ^ Lloyd Energy Storage. ^ http://www. ^ Hawaiian Firm Shrinks Solar Thermal Power 62. ^ "High temperature storage .html. and Haihua Zhao.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Solar thermal energy "It's solar power's time to shine". Retrieved 2008-06-05.moneycentral. e. • • • • • • • • Onsite Renewable Technologies at United States Environmental Protection Agency website Renewable solar energy websites at the Open Directory Project Assessment of the World Bank/GEF Strategy for the Market Development of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power Solar thermal energy calculator Concentrating Solar Power An overview of the technology by Gerry Wolff. Solar Thermal Plant [hide] • • • v d e Solar energy Concepts The Sun · Insolation · Solar radiation · Active and passive solar energy Thermal Solar water heating · Solar chimney · Solar air conditioning · Thermal mass · Solar pond Photovoltaics Photovoltaic effect · Solar cell · Polymer solar cell · & related Nanocrystal solar cell · Photovoltaic module (solar panel) · topics Photovoltaic array (photovoltaic systems and power stations) Solar power ConcentratedHeliostat · Solar tracker · Parabolic trough Solar updraft tower · Solar-pumped laser · Thermoelectric Experimentalgenerator · Solar chemical and artificial photosynthesis · & proposed Space-based solar power · Solar sail · Magnetic sail · Solar thermal rocket By country Australia · Canada · China · Germany · India · Israel · Japan · Portugal · Spain · United Kingdom · United States . MSN Money.msn.aspx?page=1.S. coordinator of TREC-UK NREL Concentrating Solar Power Program Site Comprehensive review of parabolic trough technology and markets Nevada Gets First U.

Do you want to create an account? An account will help you track your edits. Please take a moment to complete a short survey. Please try again Submit ratings Saved successfully Your ratings have not been submitted yet Your ratings have expired Please reevaluate this page and submit new ratings. get involved in discussions. Create an accountorLog in Maybe later Thanks! Your ratings have been saved. send me an e-mail (optional) We will send you a confirmation e-mail.php? title=Solar_thermal_energy&oldid=467057927" View page ratings Rate this page What's this? Trustworthy Objective Complete Well-written I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional) I have a relevant college/university degree It is part of my profession It is a deep personal passion The source of my knowledge is not listed here I would like to help improve Wikipedia.Storage Thermal mass · Thermal energy storage · Phase change material · Grid energy storage Distribution Feed-in tariff · Net metering · Financial incentives for Adoption & uses photovoltaics · Costs Applications Solar water heating · Solar vehicle · Electric aircraft · Electric boat · Solar balloon See also Photovoltaics topics · Solar power by country · Renewable energy sources Retrieved from "http://en. Start survey Maybe later Thanks! Your ratings have been saved. An error has occured. We will not share your e-mail address with outside parties as per our feedback privacy statement. þÿ .wikipedia. and be a part of the community. Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.

Did you know that you can edit this page? Edit this page Maybe later Categories: • • Solar thermal energy Energy conversion Hidden categories: • • • • • • Articles with limited geographic scope from May 2010 All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2011 Articles with obsolete information from June 2011 All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 Personal tools • Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants Views • • • Actions Search þÿ Read Edit View history Navigation • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article .

• Donate to Wikipedia Interaction • • • • • Toolbox • • • • • • • Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Rate this page Print/export • • • Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Languages • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ‫العربية‬ Català Dansk Deutsch Ελληνικά Español Esperanto Français Hrvatski Italiano Nederlands 日本語 한국어 Norsk (bokmål) Svenska Türkçe This page was last modified on 21 December 2011 at 18:07. .

Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. See Terms of use for details.• • • • • • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.. Inc. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view • • . additional terms may apply. a nonprofit organization.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful