You Gotta Know These Deserts NAQT has a quota for geography questions at all levels of play; these

are the deserts that have been most frequently asked about in our past packets. 1. Antarctica (5.4 million sq. mi.) Because it is covered with (solid) water, it is somewhat surprising that Antarctica is considered a desert, but it is classified as such due to its lack of precipitation. Players should be familiar with its tallest mountain (Vinson Massif, in the Ellsworth Mountains), its active volcano Mount Erebus, the surrounding Ross and Weddell Seas, and the Ross Ice Shelf. Norwegian Roald Amundsen was the first to reach the South Pole (1911), while Englishman Robert Scott died trying to reach it. Ernest Shackleton had to abandon his ship, the Endurance, during an attempt to cross Antarctica on foot. 2. Sahara Desert (Northern Africa; 3.5 million sq. mi.) The Sahara is the world's second largest desert, but its largest hot desert. Players should know the Atlas Mountains (which bound the western Sahara on the north) and the Sahel, a savannah-like strip that bounds it on the south. It is dominated by rocky regions (hamada), sand seas (ergs), and salt flats (shatt) and dry river valleys (wadi) that are subject to flash floods. Its most asked-about inhabitants are the Berbers and Tuaregs. 3. Atacama Desert (Chile; 70,000 sq. mi.) The Atacama's chief claim to fame is the rain shadow of the Andes which makes it the driest (hot) desert in the world. The desert was the primary bone of contention in the War of the Pacific (1879-1883, Chile defeats Peru and Bolivia) that sought to control its nitrate resources (which were necessary for the production of explosives). 4. Kalahari Desert (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa; 360,000 sq. mi.) The Kalahari is a large region, not all of which is arid enough to qualify as a desert. It is known for its red sand, large game reserves (meerkats, gemsbok, springbok, steenbok), and mineral deposits (notably uranium). Most famous are its San Bushmen and their click language. 5. Mojave Desert (U.S.; 25,000 sq. mi.) The Mojave is bounded by the San Gabriel and San Bernardino mountain ranges along the San Andreas and Garlock Faults. It lies between the Great Basin and the Sonoran Desert and it contains the lowest and driest point of North America, Death Valley. It is most strongly associated with the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia). 6. Gobi Desert (China and Mongolia; 500,000 sq. mi.) The Gobi, Asia's second largest desert (after the Arabian Desert), is bounded on the north by the Altai Mountains. It is known for its role in the Silk Road trading route and the Nemegt Basin, where fossilized dinosaur eggs and human artifacts have been found. 7. Rub' al-Khali (Arabian Peninsula; 250,000 sq. mi.) Its name means "Empty Quarter" in English and this desert can be considered the most inhospitable place on earth. It is known for the world's largest oil field, the Ghawar, and for once being part of the frankincense trade. 8. Namib Desert (Namibia and Angola; 30,000 sq. mi.) The Namib, a coastal desert, is known for its bizarre Welwitschia and medicinal Hoodia plants. It is thought to be the oldest desert in the world. 9. Painted Desert (Northern Arizona) The Painted Desert, which is shared by Grand Canyon and Petrified Forest National Parks, is known for its colorful, banded rock formations. 10. Negev Desert (Israel; 4,700 sq. mi.) The triangular Negev covers the southern half of Israel. 11. Taklamakan Desert (China; 105,000 sq. mi.) The Taklamakan is an extremely cold, sandy desert known for splitting the Silk Road into branches running north and south of it. It is bounded by the Kunlun, Pamir, and Tian Shan mountain ranges. 12. Great Sandy Desert (Western Australia; 140,000 sq. mi.) Part of the Western Desert, and the ninth largest in the world. Oddly, half of the world's ten largest deserts don't make this frequency-based list: the Arabian Desert (#3, which includes the Rub' al-Khali), the Patagonian Desert (#5), the Great Victoria Desert (#6), the Great Basin (#7), and the Chihuahuan (#8).

You Gotta Know These Mathematicians These are the ten people that have come up most frequently in NAQT's questions as a result of their accomplishments in pure mathematics. 1. The work of Isaac Newton (1643-1727, English) in pure math includes generalizing the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, doing the first rigorous manipulation with power series, and creating "Newton's method" for the finding roots. He is best known, however, for a lengthy feud between British and Continental mathematicians over whether he or Gottfried Leibniz invented calculus (whose differential aspect Newton called "the method of fluxions"). It is now generally accepted that they both did, independently. 2. Euclid (c. 300 BC, Alexandrian Greek) is principally known for the Elements, a textbook on geometry and number theory, that was used for over 2,000 years and which grounds essentially all of what is taught in modern high school geometry classes. Euclid is known for his five postulates that define Euclidean (i.e., "normal") space, especially the fifth (the "parallel postulate") which can be broken to create spherical and hyperbolic geometries. He also proved the infinitude of prime numbers. 3. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855, German) is considered the "Prince of Mathematicians" for his extraordinary contributions to every major branch of mathematics. His Disquisitiones Arithmeticae systematized number theory and stated the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. He also proved the fundamental theorem of algebra, the law of quadratic reciprocity, and the prime number theorem. Gauss may be most famous for the (possibly apocryphal) story of intuiting the formula for the summation of an arithmetic series when given the busywork task of adding the first 100 positive integers by his primary school teacher. 4. Archimedes (287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) is best known for his "Eureka moment" of using density considerations to determine the purity of a gold crown; nonetheless, he was the preeminent mathematician of ancient Greece. He found the ratios between the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder, accurately estimated pi, and presaged the summation of infinite series with his "method of exhaustion." 5. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716, German) is known for his independent invention of calculus and the ensuing priority dispute with Isaac Newton. Most modern calculus notation, including the integral sign and the use of d to indicate a differential, originated with Leibniz. He also invented binary numbers and did fundamental work in establishing boolean algebra and symbolic logic. 6. Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665, French) is remembered for his contributions to number theory including his "little theorem" that ap will be divisible by p if p is prime. He also studied Fermat primes (those of the form 22n+1) and stated his "Last Theorem" that xn + yn = zn has no solutions if x, y, and z are positive integers and n is a positive integer greater than 2. He and Blaise Pascal founded probability theory. In addition, he discovered methods for finding the maxima and minima of functions and the areas under polynomials that anticipated calculus and inspired Isaac Newton. 7. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783, Swiss) is known for his prolific output and the fact that he continued to produce seminal results even after going blind. He invented graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem and introduced the modern notation for e, the square root of -1 (i), and trigonometric functions. Richard Feynman called his proof that eiπ = -1 "the most beautiful equation in mathematics" because it linked four of math's most important constants. 8. Kurt Gödel (1906-1978, Austrian) was a logician best known for his two incompleteness theorems proving that every formal system that was powerful enough to express ordinary arithmetic must necessarily contain statements that were true, but which could not be proved within the system itself. 9. Andrew Wiles (1953-present, British) is best known for proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture that all rational semi-stable elliptic curves are modular. This would normally be too abstruse to occur frequently in quiz bowl, but a corollary of that result established Fermat's Last Theorem. 10. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865, Irish) is known for extending the notion of complex numbers to four dimensions by inventing the quaternions, a non-commutative field with six square roots of -1: ±i, ±j, and ±k with the property that ij = k, jk = i, and ki = j.

You Gotta Know These Sculptors 1. Michelangelo (1475 - 1564) A Florentine "Renaissance man" also known for architecture (the dome of St. Peter's Basilica), painting (The Last Judgment and the Sistine Chapel ceiling), poetry, and military engineering. His sculpted masterpieces include David, a Pietà, Bacchus, and a number of pieces for the tomb of Pope Julius II (including Dying Slave and Moses). He preferred to work in Carraran marble. 2. Auguste Rodin (1840 - 1917) A French sculptor known for stormy relationships with "the establishment" of the École des Beaux-Arts [ay-kohl day boh-zar] and his mistress, fellow artist Camille Claudel. His works include The Age of Bronze, Honoré de Balzac, The Burghers of Calais, and a massive pair of doors for the Museum of Decorative Arts (the Gates of Hell) inspired by Dante's Inferno. That latter work included his most famous piece, The Thinker. 3. Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 - 1680) A Roman who, with the rarely asked-about Francesco Borromini, defined the Baroque movement in sculpture. Bernini is principally known for his freestanding works including David and The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. Bernini's David differs from that of Michelangelo in that the hero is shown "in motion," having twisted his body to sling the rock. Bernini is also known for his massive fountains in Rome including the Triton and the Fountain of the Four Rivers. 4. Donatello (1386 - 1466) A Florentine sculptor who helped define Renaissance sculpture as distinct from that of the Gothic period. He is known for St. Mark and St. George in the Or San Michele [OR SAHN mee-KAY-lay] (a Florentine church), the bald Zuccone (which means "pumpkin-head," though it depicts the prophet Habbakuk), and the first equestrian statue to be cast since Roman times, the Gattamelata in Padua. He is also known for mastering the low relief form of schiacciato. 5. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 - 1455) A Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who taught both Donatello and Filippo Brunelleschi. He is best known for two pairs of bronze doors on the Florence Baptistery (associated with the Duomo, or Florentine Cathedral). He produced a single, low-relief panel to win a 1401 competition (defeating Brunelleschi) for the commission to design the 28 panels for the north doors. After that, he was given another commission to design ten panels for the east doors. This latter work, by far his most famous, was dubbed the "Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo. 6. Gutzon Borglum (1867 - 1941) An American known for crafting Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He is also known for The Mares of Diomedes and an unfinished (and later replaced) tribute to Confederate heroes on Stone Mountain in Georgia. 7. Phidias (c. 480 BC - c. 430 BC) An Athenian considered the greatest of all Classical sculptors. He created the chryselephantine (gold and ivory) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (one of the Wonders of the Ancient World, now lost) and the statue of Athena in the Parthenon (now lost). He was supported by money from the Delian League (that is, the Athenian Empire) run by his friend Pericles; he was later ruined by charges of corruption generally considered to be part of a political campaign against Pericles. 8. Constantin Brancusi (1876 - 1957) A Romanian sculptor who was a major figure in Modernism. He is best known for The Kiss (not to be confused with the Rodin work or the Klimt painting), Sleeping Muse, and Bird in Space. He's also the center of anecdote in which U.S. customs taxed his works as "industrial products" since they refused to recognize them as art. 9. Daniel Chester French (1850 - 1931) An American who created The Minute Man for Concord, Massachusetts and Standing Lincoln for the Nebraska state capitol, but who is best known for the seated statue in the Lincoln Memorial. 10. Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) A French sculptor primarily known as the creator of Liberty Enlightening the World, better known as the Statue of Liberty. He also executed The Lion of Belfort and a statue of the Marquis de Lafayette in New York's Union Square.

This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. 1440 1434 1793 1959 Date Freq. Guggenheim Museum Building . technique. Peter's Basilica The Persistence of Memory Abraham Lincoln Memorial The Thinker Title Genre Building Building Building Painting Creator Pierre Lescot Francis I of France (patron) Ictinus and Callicrates Pericles (patron) unknown Leonardo da Vinci 1546 447 BC 1160-1345 1500 1886 1937 1245 1632 1473 1480 1708 1927-1941 1942 1931 1626 1931 1922 1900 1642 1936 1509 1495-1498 1930 c. 137 136 108 104 100 89 78 77 76 76 74 74 70 68 66 65 64 64 64 63 61 60 60 59 57 56 56 Sculpture Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi Painting Building Building Building Painting Building Sculpture Painting Building Building Painting Building Pablo Picasso (y Ruiz) Henry III of England (patron) Ustad Ahmad Lahori Shah Jahan (patron) Giovanni Del Dolci Pope Sixtus IV (patron) Sandro Botticelli Sir Christopher Wren (John) Gutzon (de la Mothe) Borglum Edward Hopper (Firm of) Shreve. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. depicted action. 2007. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Louvre Parthenon Notre Dame Cathedral Mona Lisa Statue of Liberty Guernica Westminster Abbey Taj Mahal Sistine Chapel The Birth of Venus Saint Paul's Cathedral Mount Rushmore Nighthawks Empire State Building St. and circumstances of creation. While you really gotta know their creators. Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) Henry Bacon Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Rembrandt (Harmenszoon Van Rijn) Frank Lloyd (Lincoln) Wright Raphael Leonardo da Vinci Grant Wood The Shooting Company of Captain Painting Franz Banning Cocq Fallingwater School of Athens Last Supper American Gothic David The Arnolfini Wedding The Death of Marat Building Painting Painting Painting Sculpture Donatello Painting Painting Jan van Eyck Jacques-Louis David Frank Lloyd Wright Solomon R. design. Lamb & Harmon Donato Bramante et al. so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials.You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the 40 most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of November 1.

No. Charles Bullfinch. et al. (revisions) Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez .28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Uffizi Palace The Gates of Hell The Third of May. 1: The Artist's Mother Alhambra Gateway Arch Eiffel Tower Cathedral of Florence Temple of Jerusalem United States Capitol Las Meninas Building Giorgio Vasari Cosimo I de' Medici (patron) 1560-1581 1880 1814 1930 1889 1871 1354 1965 1889 1420 10th century BC 1793-1811 (reconstructed 1815-1826) 1656 55 55 53 52 50 50 49 49 49 49 49 49 48 Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Building Painting Painting Building Building Building Building Building Building Painting Francisco (José) de Goya (y Lucientes) William Van Alen Vincent (Willem) Van Gogh James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler Mahomet Ibn Al Ahmar (patron) Eero Saarinen (Alexandre-)Gustave Eiffel Filippo Brunelleschi Solomon (patron) Wiliam Thornton (original) Benjamin Latrobe. 1808 Chrysler Building Starry Night Arrangement in Gray and Black.

these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. 9. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. "Pathétique" Porgy and Bess William Tell Peter and the Wolf The Song of the Earth Swan Lake The Flying Dutchman Title Opera Opera Opera Oratorio Symphony Symphony Symphony Ballet Ballet Opera Symphony Opera Opera Ballet Opera Opera Opera Opera Concerto Composition Opera Musical Opera Sonata Suite Symphony Opera Opera Composition Symphony Ballet Opera Genre Creator Georges Bizet Giuseppe Verdi (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner George Frideric Handel Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (Louis-)Hector Berlioz Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky Giacomo Puccini Ludwig van Beethoven Gioacchino (Antonio) Rossini Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Aaron Copland Giuseppe Verdi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Giacomo Puccini Ludwig van Beethoven Antonio Vivaldi George Gershwin Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Leonard Bernstein (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Ludwig van Beethoven Date Freq. key. 2007. lyrics. 6. "Eroica" The Barber of Seville The Magic Flute Appalachian Spring Rigoletto Don Giovanni La Bohème Fidelio The Four Seasons Rhapsody in Blue The Marriage of Figaro West Side Story Siegfried Moonlight Sonata The Planets Symphony No. 3. performance. and circumstances of creation. program.You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of November 1. While you really gotta know their creators. "Choral" Symphony No. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Carmen Aida The Ring of the Nibelung Messiah Symphony No. 6. so teams should be prepared for questions on their style. "Pastoral" Symphonie fantastique The Nutcracker The Rite of Spring Madama Butterfly Symphony No. 1845 1871 1876 1741 1823 1808 1830 1892 1913 1904 1804 1816 1791 1944 1851 1787 1896 1805 1725 1924 1784 1957 1876 1801 147 146 122 102 100 97 92 91 90 89 86 85 84 83 82 79 78 77 73 72 72 68 66 63 61 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 Gustav(us Theodore von) Holst 1918 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky George Gershwin Gioacchino Rossini 1893 1935 1804 Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev 1936 Gustav Mahler Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner 1909 1877 1843 . instrumentation.

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Lohengrin Boléro The Phantom of the Opera Tosca Turandot La Traviata Pictures at an Exhibition A German Requiem Symphony No. 41. 9. Gilbert (words) Frederick Loewe Giuseppe Verdi Symphony No. 94. "From the New World" Symphony The Mikado My Fair Lady Falstaff Boris Godunov Cats Enigma Variations Salome Musical Musical Opera Opera Musical Composition Opera Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky 1869 Andrew Lloyd Webber Edward (William) Elgar Richard (Georg) Strauss 1982 1899 1905 . "Jupiter" Opera Composition Musical Opera Opera Opera Composition (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner (Joseph) Maurice Ravel Andrew Lloyd Webber Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Puccini Giuseppe Verdi 1850 1928 1910 1900 1762 1853 57 55 54 54 53 53 53 51 50 50 49 48 47 47 47 46 46 45 Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky 1874 1868 1791 1788 1893 1885 1956 1893 Sacred Choral Work Johannes Brahms Symphony Symphony (Franz) Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Antonín (Leopold) Dvorák Arthur Sullivan (music) William S. "Surprise" Symphony No.

You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the 100 most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of November 1. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. settings. 2007. so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters. While you really gotta know their authors. plots. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. 292 196 182 156 156 145 139 138 137 128 125 123 122 121 121 119 119 117 116 115 114 113 111 111 109 108 107 106 105 105 105 103 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Novel The Scarlet Letter A Streetcar Named Desire Our Town The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Divine Comedy Crime and Punishment The Red Badge of Courage Candide Billy Budd: Foretopman Les Misérables Anna Karenina A Midsummer Night's Dream Pygmalion Novel Drama Drama Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama . Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Hamlet Oedipus Rex Macbeth King Lear Othello The Tempest Moby-Dick The Great Gatsby Don Quixote Jane Eyre Iliad Pride and Prejudice 1984 Ulysses Romeo and Juliet The Merchant of Venice Paradise Lost The Canterbury Tales Title Genre Drama Drama Drama Drama Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Poem Poem Creator William Shakespeare Sophocles William Shakespeare William Shakespeare William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Herman Melville F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Charlotte Brontë Homer Jane Austen George Orwell James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce William Shakespeare William Shakespeare John Milton Geoffrey Chaucer Mark Twain Nathaniel Hawthorne Tennessee Williams Thornton (Niven) Wilder Mark Twain Dante (Alighieri) Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky Stephen Crane Voltaire Herman Melville Victor(-Marie) Hugo Leo Tolstoy William Shakespeare George Bernard Shaw 1601 430 BC 1606 1605 1622 1611 1851 1925 1605 1847 8th century BC 1813 1948 1922 1594 1596 1667 1387 1884 1850 1947 1938 1876 1314 1866 1895 1759 1891 1862 1877 1595 1912 Date Freq. and circumstances of creation. The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work.

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Julius Caesar War and Peace The Three Musketeers A Farewell to Arms Vanity Fair To Kill a Mockingbird For Whom the Bell Tolls The Grapes of Wrath Lolita A Tale of Two Cities Little Women As You Like It The Waste Land Aeneid Odyssey Heart of Darkness Pilgrim's Progress David Copperfield One Hundred Years of Solitude Antigone Faust The Count of Monte Cristo A Doll's House Robinson Crusoe Animal Farm The Call of the Wild Much Ado about Nothing The Glass Menagerie The Crucible Brave New World Beowulf The Sun Also Rises The Jungle Twelfth Night Great Expectations The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Oliver Twist Uncle Tom's Cabin Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Poem Poem Poem Novella Novel Novel Novel Drama Poem Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Drama Novel Poem Novel Novel Drama Novel Poem Novel Novel William Shakespeare Leo Tolstoy Alexandre Dumas (père) Ernest (Miller) Hemingway William Makepeace Thackeray (Nelle) Harper Lee Ernest (Miller) Hemingway John (Ernst) Steinbeck Vladimir Nabokov Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Louisa May Alcott William Shakespeare T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot Virgil Homer Joseph Conrad John Bunyan Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Gabriel García Márquez Sophocles Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Alexandre Dumas (père) Henrik (Johan) Ibsen Daniel Defoe George Orwell Jack London William Shakespeare Tennessee Williams Arthur Miller Aldous (Leonard) Huxley unknown Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Upton (Beall) Sinclair William Shakespeare Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Samuel Taylor Coleridge Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Harriet Beecher Stowe 1599 1865 1844 1929 1848 1960 1940 1939 1955 1859 1868 1599 1922 19 BC 8th century BC 1902 1678 1850 1967 441 BC 1808 1845 1879 1719 1945 1903 1598 1945 1953 1932 8th century 1926 1906 1623 1861 1797 1838 1852 103 101 100 100 100 99 99 98 98 98 97 97 95 95 94 94 94 94 93 92 92 91 90 88 87 87 87 86 86 85 85 83 83 83 82 82 81 81 .

1310-1314 1946 1961 1959 1847 1929 c. Lord Tennyson William Shakespeare 1818 1951 1952 1949 1865 1956 1946 1958 1969 1854 1600 79 77 77 77 76 75 75 75 75 74 74 73 73 72 72 72 72 72 71 71 70 70 69 69 69 69 69 68 68 68 Oscar (Fingal O'Flahertie Wills) Wilde 1895 (Paul) Thomas Mann Ralph (Waldo) Ellison William Shakespeare Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin Jane Austen Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky Dante (Alighieri) Albert Camus Joseph Heller Lorraine Hansberry Emily Brontë William (Cuthbert) Faulkner Aeschylus Giovanni Boccaccio Edgar Allan Poe Sir Walter Scott Nathaniel Hawthorne Willa (Sibert) Cather 1924 1952 1593 1833 1811 1880 c. Alfred.71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Rip van Winkle The Catcher in the Rye Waiting for Godot Death of a Salesman Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Long Day's Journey Into Night All the King's Men Things Fall Apart Slaughterhouse Five The Charge of the Light Brigade The Merry Wives of Windsor The Importance of Being Earnest The Magic Mountain Invisible Man The Taming of the Shrew Eugene Onegin Sense and Sensibility The Brothers Karamazov Inferno The Stranger Catch-22 A Raisin in the Sun Wuthering Heights The Sound and the Fury Oresteia Decameron The Raven Ivanhoe The House of the Seven Gables Short Story Washington Irving Novel Drama Drama Children's Drama Novel Novel Novel Poem Drama Drama Novel Novel Drama Poem Novel Novel Poem Novel Novel Drama Novel Novel Series Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel J(erome) D(avid) Salinger Samuel (Barclay) Beckett Arthur Miller Lewis Carroll Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill Robert Penn Warren (Albert) Chinua(lumogu) Achebe Kurt Vonnegut Jr. 458 BC 1353 1845 1820 1851 1918 100 My Ántonia .

John Jay.S. 100 1762 6th century BC 1517 1500 to 1000 BC 1776 AD 70-90 1898 1907 1667 1789 1830 3rd century BC Freq. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. 2007. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Bible U. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. cultural context. and James Madison Moses (attributed) John of Patmos David (traditionally) Thomas Hobbes Plato King John (signer) Euclid Niccoló Machiavelli St. BC 1215 c. 751 465 178 147 137 122 94 94 91 86 81 73 71 69 68 68 66 65 64 59 58 57 57 55 54 54 54 53 .You Gotta Know These Non-Fiction Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of non-fiction in NAQT questions as of November 1. 300 BC 1513 c. 95 various 1651 4th cent. 900 . so teams should be prepared for questions on their key ideas. John the Apostle Jean-Jacques Rousseau Moses (traditionally) Martin Luther divinely inspired.500 BC c. Constitution Qur'an Book of Genesis The Gospel According to Matthew The Declaration of Independence Federalist Papers Book of Exodus Book of Revelation Book of Psalms Leviathan The Republic Magna Carta The Elements The Prince The Gospel According to John The Social Contract Book of Numbers Ninety-Five Theses Vedas The Wealth of Nations Acts of the Apostles J'accuse Pragmatism Principia Mathematica Bill of Rights Book of Mormon Book of Ecclesiastes Title Genre Religious Document Religious Religious Religious Document Politics Religious Religious Religious Politics Politics Document Math Politics Religious Politics Religious Religious Religious Economics Religious Open Letter Philosophy Physics Document Religious Religious Creator divinely inspired. many authors James Madison (chiefly) Mohammed (transcriber) Uthman (codifier) Moses Saint Matthew Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton. author unknown Adam Smith Luke (traditionally) Émile(-Édouard-Charles-Antoine) Zola William James Isaac Newton James Madison Joseph Smith (Jr.) (traditional translator) Solomon (traditionally) Date varies 1787 660 950-500 BC 1st century 1776 1787 c. While you really gotta know their creators. and circumstances of creation.

author unknown Max Weber Jonathan Edwards The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Sociology Capitalism Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Religious . 600 BC 1690 c. 161-180 1859 1854 950-500 BC c. 1500 BC 1781 1896 c. 300 to 600 1863 1776 1928 1848 c. author unknown John Stuart Mill Thomas Paine 6th century BC c. author unknown Immanuel Kant William Jennings Bryan Marcus Aurelius Charles Darwin Henry David Thoreau Moses (traditionally) Jeremiah John Locke Samuel (traditionally) John Stuart Mill 54 scholars on 6 committees Moses (traditionally) divinely inspired. 550 BC 1859 1611 7th century BC 3rd century 1904 1741 52 51 51 51 50 49 49 47 47 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 43 43 41 40 40 39 Anthropology Margaret Mead Politics Religious Philosophy Speech Philosophy Biology Philosophy Religious Religious Philosophy Religious Politics Religious Religious Religious Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels divinely inspired.29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Torah Talmud Utilitarianism Common Sense Coming of Age in Samoa The Communist Manifesto Rig Veda Critique of Pure Reason Cross of Gold speech Meditations On The Origin of Species Walden Deuteronomy Book of Jeremiah An Essay Concerning Human Understanding The Book of Judges On Liberty King James Bible Book of Leviticus Mishna Religious Religious Philosophy Politics Moses (traditionally) divinely inspired.

S. and Vittorio Orlando) who headed the Allies' delegations. and reparations clauses. 3. Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity. allowing the Portuguese to establish a colony there while Spain received the rest of the Americas. Jan Smuts. It resulted from a bull by (Spanish-born) Pope Alexander VI granting lands to Spain and established a line west of the Cape Verde islands between future Spanish possessions (west) and Portuguese possessions (east). France. due to the distances involved. and the three Baltic countries after Germany invaded. and half of Sakhalin Island. The line passed through Brazil.S. Ho Chi Minh.Spain border to the Pacific Ocean leading to its alternate name. after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). The treaty confirmed a Bourbon prince (Philip. It was signed in Portsmouth. 6. made Catholicism the state religion of Italy (ended in 1984). New Hampshire.S. they were brokered by U. 10. Endless wrangling and repeated revisions ensued. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) was a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht that (mostly) ended the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) and was signed in its namesake neighborhood of Mexico City. 1. President Jimmy Carter. and it gave up Ukraine. The Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). and determined the proper remuneration for Church property taken by Italy. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981. 4. and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. The treaty made no boundary changes and had minimal effect. The Camp David Accords (1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin. 11. they aren't necessarily the most important treaties from a historical point of view. It is noted for the "Big Four" (Woodrow Wilson. minor German states. including Sicily.S. Its most significant result was the "Mexican Cession" transferring California. They were signed by France and Spain for one side and by Britain.S. in later interpretations. an outcome worse than a German offer which chief Soviet negotiator Leon Trotsky had rejected. Naples.). etc. It also made the Rio Grande the boundary between Texas and Mexico. and its controversial disarmament. and the Dutch Republic. the entire world) between Spain and Portugal. merely those that have proven most gettable as answers and most useful as clues. but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more. It was negotiated by then-Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and most notably sold Florida to the U. but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. war guilt. David Lloyd-George. in exchange for the payment of its citizens' claims against Spain. could not prevent the Battle of New Orleans two weeks later. Georges Clemenceau. The treaty was negotiated in modern-day Brest (in Belarus) and was nullified by the subsequent Treaty of Versailles following Germany's defeat. the Spanish Netherlands.You Gotta Know These Treaties These are the twelve treaties that have been mentioned most frequently in NAQT's questions since our very first tournament set back in 1997. The Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) settled a boundary dispute between the U. Utah. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) officially ended World War I and was signed at its namesake French palace after the Paris Peace Conference. but took steps to prevent the French and Spanish thrones from being merged. Duke of Anjou) on the Spanish throne (ending Habsburg control). and Spain that arose following the Louisiana Purchase. It was signed by Benito Mussolini and a representative of Pope Pius XI in the namesake papal residence and . It also delineated the U. 7. the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria. and the United Provinces (The Netherlands) for the other. 2. guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal. Sweden. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg. 5. The Lateran Treaty (1929) created the independent country of the Vatican City. The Treaty of Ghent (1814) ended the War of 1812 between the U. and Britain. and Gibraltar. The Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) ostensibly divided the New World (and. Belarus. The USSR needed to make peace to focus on defeating the "Whites" (royalists) in the Russian Civil War. both sides were ready for peace and considered the war a futile and fruitless endeavor. 8. and parts of four other states to the U. the Transcontinental Treaty. The conference was also notable for up-and-coming world figures who attended (John Maynard Keynes. Savoy. discussions of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points (particularly the League of Nations). Spain. Some Spanish possessions. Nevada. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) was a "separate peace" signed by the Bolshevik government of the new USSR and Germany. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France.S. As with all of the You Gotta Know lists available on our website. 9. It was signed in the Belgian city of Ghent but. The Peace of Westphalia (1648) is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire. were given to the victors.

The Treaty of Paris (1898) was. surprisingly.12. the only Treaty of Paris to make the list. the Philippines. The treaty was the beginning of American imperialism and underwent a lengthy and contentious ratification . and Puerto Rico to the U.S. while making Cuba (ostensibly) independent. It ended the SpanishAmerican War and transferred Guam. ended the so-called "Roman Question" that arose out of the unification of Italy and the dissolution of the Papal States.

and Money Pragmatism Book of Mormon Qur'an Meditations On The Origin of Species Ethics Rig Veda The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Apology Utilitarianism I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Critique of Pure Reason Summa theologica Cross of Gold speech The Gospel According to Matthew Vedas Title Genre Politics Politics Politics Physics Politics Politics Creator Thomas Hobbes Plato Thomas Paine Isaac Newton Niccoló Machiavelli Jean-Jacques Rousseau Date 1651 4th Cent. 2005. cultural context. 48 39 36 35 33 33 33 33 30 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 23 23 22 22 21 21 21 Economics Adam Smith Open Letter Math Anthro. Politics Religious Émile(-Édouard-Charles-Antoine) Zola Euclid Margaret Mead Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Jonathan Edwards Economics John Maynard Keynes Philosophy William James Religious Religious Joseph Smith(. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Leviathan The Republic Common Sense Principia Mathematica The Prince The Social Contract An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations J'accuse The Elements Coming of Age in Samoa The Communist Manifesto Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God The General Theory of Employment. and circumstances of creation. While you really gotta know their creators. 300 BC 1928 1848 1741 1936 1907 1830 (1st pub) 652 c.You Gotta Know These Non-Fiction Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of non-fiction in NAQT questions as of October 1. 428-348 BC 1863 1970 1781 1265 1896 1st century 1500 to 1000 BC Freq.) (traditional translator) Muhammad Philosophy Marcus Aurelius Biology Charles Darwin Philosophy Benedict de Spinoza Religious Sociology Unknown Max Weber Philosophy Plato Philosophy John Stuart Mill Autobiog. Jr. BC 1776 1667 1513 1762 1776 1898 c. so teams should be prepared for questions on their key ideas. Maya Angelou Philosophy Immanuel Kant Theology Speech Religious Religious Thomas Aquinas William Jennings Bryan Saint Matthew Anonymous . 161-180 1859 1663 c. 1500 BC 1904 c. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. Interest.

This is an update of the September 2001 You Gotta Know article. Advocacy Essay Criticism Reference Ruth (Fulton) Benedict Rachel Carson Edmund Burke Aristotle Samuel Johnson You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the 30 most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of October 1. and circumstances of creation. so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials. 1808 Title Genre Painting Painting Painting Creator Leonardo da Vinci Sandro Botticelli Jan van Eyck Date 1500 1480 1434 1900 1942 1931 1937 1504 1814 Freq. design. and James Madison Hamilton 1776 1787 1620 1910-1913 1798 1886 351-341 BC various 600 BC 1959 150 1946 350 BC 350 BC 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 Philosophy Francis Bacon Math Essay Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell Thomas (Robert) Malthus Philosophy Friedrich Nietzsche Speech Religious Religious Demosthenes David (traditionally) Anonymous Economics John Kenneth Galbraith Astronomy Anthro. technique. 2005. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. John Jay. Ptolemy of Alexandria (Claudius Ptolemaeus) Ruth (Fulton) Benedict Philosophy Plato Philosophy Plato History Aleksandr (Isayevich) Solzhenitsyn 1973 1942 1934 1962 1790 340 BC 1755 Philosophy Albert Camus Anthro. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mona Lisa The Birth of Venus The Arnolfini Wedding The Thinker Nighthawks The Persistence of Memory Guernica David The Third of May. While you really gotta know their creators. 42 39 38 37 36 34 34 32 31 Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Painting Painting Edward Hopper Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) Pablo Picasso (y Ruiz) Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) Painting Francisco de Goya (y Lucientes) . depicted action.30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 The American Crisis The Federalist Papers Novum Organum Principia Mathematica Essay on Population Beyond Good and Evil Philippics The Book of Psalms Upanishads The Affluent Society Almagest The Chrysanthemum and the Sword Crito Phaedo The Gulag Archipelago The Myth of Sisyphus Patterns of Culture Silent Spring Reflections on the Revolution in France Poetics A Dictionary of the English Language Politics Politics Thomas Paine Alexander.

No. 2 Garden of Earthly Delights Luncheon on the Grass Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist's Mother Painting Painting Painting Leonardo da Vinci Vincent (Willem) Van Gogh Rembrandt (Harmenszoon Van Rijn) 14951498 1889 16401642 1880 1886 1563 1509 1793 1919 1646 1656 1930 1538 1830 1948 1886 1499 1912 1500 1863 1871 31 29 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 24 23 23 23 22 21 21 21 20 Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Sculpture Benvenuto Cellini Painting Painting Raphael Jacques-Louis David Sculpture Constantin Brancusi Sculpture Gian Lorenzo Bernini Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez Grant Wood Titian (Ferdinand Victor) Eugène Delacroix Andrew (Newell) Wyeth Sculpture Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) Painting Painting Painting Painting Marcel Duchamp Hieronymus Bosch Édouard Manet James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Last Supper Starry Night The Shooting Company of Captain Franz Banning Cocq The Gates of Hell The Kiss Perseus With the Head Of Medusa School of Athens The Death of Marat Bird in Space The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Las Meninas American Gothic Venus of Urbino Liberty Leading the People Christina's World Liberty Enlightening the World Pietá Nude Descending a Staircase.

Gilbert (words) and Arthur Sullivan (music) (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Creator Date Freq. "Pastoral" Rigoletto The Marriage of Figaro The Ring of the Nibelung Symphonie fantastique Don Giovanni The Rite of Spring William Tell Madama Butterfly The Magic Flute La Bohème The Nutcracker The Four Seasons Fidelio Rhapsody in Blue Symphony No. program. key. "Eroica" The Song of the Earth West Side Story The Planets The Phantom of the Opera Moonlight Sonata Symphony No.You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of October 1. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. This is an update of the October 2002 You Gotta Know article. 2005. performance. and circumstances of creation. 9. lyrics. 3. While you really gotta know their creators. so teams should be prepared for questions on their style. 1871 1845 1741 1944 1808 1851 1784 1876 1830 1787 1913 1804 1904 1791 1896 1892 1725 1805 1924 1804 1909 1957 1918 1910 1801 1825 1928 1935 1885 1843 77 71 51 50 48 45 45 44 43 42 42 41 40 40 40 39 37 36 35 35 35 34 34 33 33 33 32 32 31 31 . "Great" Boléro Porgy and Bess The Mikado The Flying Dutchman Title Genre Opera Opera Oratorio Ballet Symphony Opera Opera Opera Symphony Opera Ballet Opera Opera Opera Opera Ballet Concerto Opera composition Symphony Symphony Musical Suite Musical Sonata Symphony composition Opera Musical Opera Giuseppe Verdi Georges Bizet George Frideric Handel Aaron Copland Ludwig van Beethoven Giuseppe Verdi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner (Louis-)Hector Berlioz Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky Gioacchino Rossini Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Antonio Vivaldi Ludwig van Beethoven George Gershwin Ludwig van Beethoven Gustav Mahler Leonard Bernstein Gustav(us Theodore von) Holst Andrew Lloyd Webber Ludwig van Beethoven Franz (Peter) Schubert (Joseph) Maurice Ravel George Gershwin William S. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Aida Carmen Messiah Appalachian Spring Symphony No. 6. instrumentation.

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Amahl and the Night Visitors Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini Peter and the Wolf A German Requiem Symphony No. 9. "From the New Symphony World" Symphony No. 6. 9. "Choral" Salome La Traviata Hungarian Rhapsodies The Threepenny Opera Symphony Opera Opera composition Opera . "Jupiter" Symphony of a Thousand Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Opera composition composition Sacred choral work Symphony Opera Opera Musical composition Cantata Opera Symphony Symphony Ballet Gian-Carlo Menotti Sergey (Vasilyevich) Rachmaninov Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev Johannes Brahms Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Giuseppe Verdi Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Andrew Lloyd Webber Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Carl Orff Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gustav Mahler (Achille-)Claude Debussy Antonín (Leopold) Dvorák Ludwig van Beethoven Richard (Georg) Strauss Giuseppe Verdi Franz Liszt Kurt Weill 1951 1934 1936 1868 1893 1893 1762 1982 1874 1936 1869 1788 1907 1894 1893 1823 1905 1853 1846 1928 30 30 29 29 29 29 29 29 28 27 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 Symphony No. 41. "Pathétique" Falstaff Turandot Cats Pictures at an Exhibition Carmina Burana Boris Godunov Symphony No.

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Hamlet The Tempest Macbeth Iliad Pride and Prejudice Moby-Dick The Great Gatsby Paradise Lost Faust King Lear The Merchant of Venice 1984 A Midsummer Night's Dream The Scarlet Letter Crime and Punishment Romeo and Juliet As You Like It Oedipus Tyrannus Jane Eyre The Divine Comedy The Canterbury Tales Othello Candide Little Women Vanity Fair Billy Budd: Foretopman Julius Caesar Our Town Aeneid To Kill a Mockingbird A Streetcar Named Desire War and Peace Title Genre Drama Drama Drama Poem Novel Novel Novel Poem Poem Drama Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Drama Drama Drama Novel Poem Poem Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Poem Novel Drama Novel Creator William Shakespeare William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Homer Jane Austen Herman Melville F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald John Milton Johann Wolfgang von Goethe William Shakespeare William Shakespeare George Orwell William Shakespeare Nathaniel Hawthorne Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Sophocles Charlotte Brontë Dante Alighieri Geoffrey Chaucer William Shakespeare Voltaire Louisa May Alcott William Makepeace Thackeray Herman Melville William Shakespeare Thornton (Niven) Wilder Virgil (Nelle) Harper Lee (Thomas Lanier) "Tennessee" Williams (Lev Nikolayevich) "Leo" Tolstoy Date 1601 1611 1606 8th century BC 1813 1851 1925 1667 1808 1605 1596 1948 1595 1850 1866 1594 1599 430 BC 1847 1314 1387 1622 1759 1868 1848 1891 1599 1938 19 BC 1960 1947 1865 Freq. so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters. plots. The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work. 2005. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. This is an update of the July 2001 You Gotta Know article.You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the 100 most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of October 1. settings. and circumstances of creation. While you really gotta know their authors. 130 91 85 82 78 78 73 72 71 71 71 71 69 69 67 65 64 64 64 63 63 62 60 59 59 59 59 59 59 58 58 58 .

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Les Misérables The Grapes of Wrath A Farewell to Arms A Tale of Two Cities Odyssey Chicago Heart of Darkness The Call of the Wild Much Ado about Nothing For Whom the Bell Tolls Anna Karenina Uncle Tom's Cabin The Waste Land Pilgrim's Progress The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Red Badge of Courage Pygmalion Twelfth Night The Jungle Ulysses Lolita Long Day's Journey Into Night The Catcher in the Rye A Doll's House The Taming of the Shrew Don Quixote Great Expectations Wuthering Heights Animal Farm Brave New World Things Fall Apart The Three Musketeers The Sun Also Rises Oliver Twist The Count of Monte Cristo David Copperfield One Hundred Years of Solitude Novel Novel Novel Novel Poem Poem Novella Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Victor(-Marie) Hugo John (Ernst) Steinbeck Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Homer Carl (August) Sandburg Joseph Conrad Jack London William Shakespeare Ernest (Miller) Hemingway (Lev Nikolayevich) "Leo" Tolstoy Harriet Beecher Stowe T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot John Bunyan Mark Twain Stephen Crane George Bernard Shaw William Shakespeare Upton (Beall) Sinclair James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce Vladimir (Vladimirovich) Nabokov Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill J(erome) D(avid) Salinger Henrik (Johan) Ibsen William Shakespeare Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Emily Brontë George Orwell Aldous (Leonard) Huxley (Albert) Chinua(lumogu) Achebe Alexandre Dumas (père) Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Alexandre Dumas (père) Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Gabriel García Márquez 1862 1939 1929 1859 8th century BC 1916 1902 1903 1598 1940 1877 1852 1922 1678 1884 1895 1912 1623 1906 1922 1955 1956 1951 1879 1593 1605 1861 1847 1945 1932 1958 1844 1926 1838 1845 1850 1967 57 57 57 57 57 56 56 56 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 52 51 51 51 51 50 49 48 48 48 48 48 47 47 47 47 46 46 46 46 45 .

Absalom! Drama Drama Poem Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Drama Novel Poem Poem Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Collection Drama Novel Novel Arthur Miller Lorraine Hansberry William Blake Anonymous Samuel Taylor Coleridge Joseph Heller Sir Walter Scott Robert Penn Warren Nathaniel Hawthorne Thomas Hardy Arthur Miller William Shakespeare Sophocles William (Gerald) Golding John Keats Dante Alighieri Giovanni Boccaccio Alexander Pope Mark Twain (Harry) Sinclair Lewis Jane Austen Kurt Vonnegut.70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 The Crucible A Raisin in the Sun The Tyger Beowulf The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Catch-22 Ivanhoe All the King's Men The House of the Seven Gables Tess of the d'Urbervilles Death of a Salesman The Merry Wives of Windsor Antigone Lord of the Flies Ode on a Grecian Urn Inferno Decameron The Rape of the Lock The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Main Street Sense and Sensibility Slaughterhouse Five All Quiet on the Western Front The Color Purple The Sound and the Fury Richard III Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Lyrical Ballads The Glass Menagerie Absalom. Erich Maria Remarque Alice (Malsenior) Walker William (Cuthbert) Faulkner William Shakespeare Edward (Franklin) Albee William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Thomas Lanier) "Tennessee" Williams William (Cuthbert) Faulkner Henry James 1953 1959 1794 8th century 1797 1961 1820 1946 1851 1891 1949 1600 441 BC 1954 1819 c. 1310-1314 1353 1714 1876 1920 1811 1969 1929 1982 1929 1593 1961 1798 1945 1936 1898 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 43 42 42 41 41 41 41 41 40 40 40 40 40 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 38 38 38 100 The Turn of the Screw . Jr.

Maryland passed a law taxing out-of-state banks. sued Louie Wainwright.S. 5. 5-4. claiming that he did not have clear title. 2. the vote. Peck (John Marshall. James McCulloch. Ferguson and ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were not constitutional. 9-0. matters. Sims. McCorvey later joined the pro-life movement and claimed that she was not actually raped and that she was pressured into filing the case by her ambitious attorney Sarah Weddington. 1819) After the Second Bank of the United States began calling in loans owned by the states. a Louisiana judge. He was convicted. Lieutenant John Merryman of the Maryland cavalry took an active role in evicting Union soldiers from Maryland following the attack on Fort Sumter." Plessy was overturned by Brown v. Ex Parte Merryman (Roger Taney." Maryland could not tax the bank without destroying federal sovereignty. He was convicted. Baker. Carr (Earl Warren. 1861) This was not actually a Supreme Court case. Plessy v. a rape victim. Abraham Lincoln declared a secret suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and had a number of . claiming that the state's electoral districts had been drawn to grossly favor one political party. a Tennessee citizen." 7. The legislators were mostly defeated in the next elections and the incoming politicians voided the sales. The court ruled that the federal government had the right to establish the bank even though it was not expressly enumerated in the Constitution and also noted that since "the power to tax was the power to destroy. His successor. John Adams signed commissions for 42 federal judges (the so-called "midnight judges"). and took his case to the Supreme Court. Board of Education of Topeka. in Reynolds v. 1962) Charles W. In the meantime. sued the new secretary of state. 6-2. 1973) Norma McCorvey (under the alias Jane Roe). Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote a notable dissent focusing on the lack of proper state regulation.S. to force the delivery of his commission. Roe v." held that the word "person" in the Constitution "does not include the unborn. Brown v. This was one of the earliest cases in which the Supreme Court struck down a state law. The court struck down state anti-abortion laws as "unconstitutionally vague. the power of the court to nullify unconstitutional laws. Kansas (Earl Warren. Hammer v. Gideon was retried and found innocent. When the case reached the Supreme Court. 1810) In 1795 the Georgia legislature corruptly sold land along the Yazoo River (now in Mississippi) to private citizens in exchange for bribes. who then sued him. attorney Hammer in Charlotte since his two sons would be put out of work. the director of the corrections office. He sat in the whites-only car in violation of an 1890 Louisiana law mandating separate accommodations. 7-2. The Supreme Court held that the state legislature did not have the power to repeal the sale. 9. John Peck sold some of the land in question to Robert Fletcher. Board of Education of Topeka. John Marshall Harlan issued a famous dissent claiming "Our constitution is color-blind. Thomas Jefferson. McCulloch v. 8. Wainwright (Earl Warren. Therefore Marbury's request was denied for lack of jurisdiction. 9-0. Maryland (John Marshall. 1896) Homer Plessy (an octoroon) bought a first-class ticket on the East Louisiana Railway. The defendant argued that reapportionment issues were political." and legalized abortion in the first trimester. 1803) On his final day in office in 1801. The case was overturned by the 1941 U.You Gotta Know These U. The court upheld the law provided that "separate but equal" facilities were provided. Gideon v. 1954) The suit was filed on behalf of Linda Brown. the court declined to provide him with an attorney. but appealed to the Supreme Court against John Ferguson. Marbury v. A second case in 1955 required that desegregation proceed "with all deliberate speed" but Southern schools were notoriously slow in complying. 1. 3. but a federal court case heard by Chief Justice Roger Taney while "circuit-riding" when the court was not in session. 1963) Clarence Earl Gideon was accused of breaking into a pool hall in Florida. Kansas. The court overruled Betts v. a third grader. 9-0. The case is the subject of the book Gideon's Trumpet. One appointee. and the year it was decided. Because his crime was not capital. 4-0. Brady and held that the Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments required appointed counsel in all trials. Baker v. Connecticut. so the state sued its Baltimore cashier. The Judiciary Act of 1789 had granted the court original jurisdiction in such cases. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall argued the case for the plaintiff. Ferguson (Melville Fuller. it was not until 1970 that a majority had complied with the ruling. Fletcher v. not judicial. This case established the principle of judicial review.S. the court mandated the principle of "one man. The court ruled that the Judiciary Act conflicted with the Constitution and was therefore void. Wade (Warren Burger. The federal bank refused to pay. one vote. Darby Lumber Company case upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act. 7-1. Supreme Court Cases Each case is followed by the name of the presiding chief justice. but the court disagreed and declared the issue justiciable before remanding the case to a lower court. who had to walk a mile to a blacks-only school when a whites-only school was much closer. 6. 1918) The Keating-Own Act prohibited the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor leading Roland Dagenhart to sue U. but the Constitution did not. Madison (John Marshall. Joe Carr. William Marbury. sued Dallas County attorney Henry Wade for the right to an abortion. James Madison. 6-0. 10. sued the Tennessee secretary state. v. opted to not deliver most of the commissions. The court ruled that the federal government did not have the right to regulate child labor. The court overturned Plessy v. the plaintiff depended on the growing recognition of a "right to privacy" which began with the 1965 case of Griswold v. 4. Two years later. Dagenhart (Edward Douglass White.

including Merryman. Taney found the president had acted unconstitutionally (only Congress can suspend the writ). arrested. .opposition leaders. but Lincoln simply ignored his ruling.

Each operatic title is followed by the name of its composer. that treason forces him to join a group of smugglers. who had left him for the rich . She falls in love with the Egyptian general Radames and convinces him to run away with her. the ragtag former soldier encounters Carmen at a bullfight where her lover Escamillo is competing (the source of the "Toreador Song") and stabs her. Bartolo himself. The big difference. and the year of its first performance. 1905) Jokanaan (a.You Gotta Know These Operas Opera is the subject of a disproportionate share of the musical fine arts questions in quiz bowl because the genre is more conducive to the verbal nature of the game than instrumental music.k. 1787) Don Giovanni (the Italian form of "Don Juan") attempts to seduce Donna Anna. or harmony of. 1829) William Tell is a 14th-century Swiss patriot who wishes to end Austria's domination of his country. Eventually they succeed by climbing in with a ladder and bribing the notary who was to marry Rosina to Dr. 1874) The opera's prologue shows Boris Godunov. The libretto was based on a novel of Prosper Merimée. and Don Bartolo who has a loan that Figaro has sworn he will repay before he marries. in the rapid-fire atmosphere of quiz bowl. Salome (Richard Strauss. This opera is also based on a work of Pierre de Beaumarchais and is a prequel to The Marriage of Figaro. 1875) Carmen is a young gypsy who works in a cigarette factory in Seville. 7. all of which are penetrated by Dr. whom. his servant Leporello recounts his master's 2. whom he kills in a swordfight. escape the Austrian governor. 5. Antonio Ghislanzoni. Figaro (who brags about his wit in Largo al factotum) promises to help him win the girl. She is arrested by the corporal Don José for fighting. tempo. Carmen (Georges Bizet. The opera ends with Boris dying in front of the assembled boyars (noblemen). Jemmy. it turns out. its librettist. 9. of course. and Schaunard the musician.e. 7. is that operas have stories and characters that can be easily described by words. Later in the evening Herod orders Salome to dance for him (the "Dance of the Seven Veils"). The opera was commissioned by the khedive of Egypt and intended to commemorate the opening of the Suez Canal. Tell succeeds. In the first act he helps Leuthold. In the final act. When Tell refuses. Lorenzo Da Ponte. and then a replacement music teacher." Further swordfights and assignations occur prior to the final scene in which a statue of the Commendatore comes to life. 8. In the first act the religious novice Grigori decides that he will impersonate that younger son. The issues are resolved with a series complicated schemes that involve impersonating other characters including the page Cherubino. the ward of Dr. Boris had killed. John the Baptist) is imprisoned in the dungeons of King Herod. 3. but it was finished late and instead premiered at the opening of the Cairo Opera House. The opera is based on a comedy by Pierre de Beaumarchais. knocks on the door to the room in which Don Giovanni is feasting. They meet again at an inn where she tempts him into challenging his captain. a drunken soldier. Herod's 15-year-old step-daughter Salome becomes obsessed with the prisoner's religious passion and is incensed when he ignores her advances. for instance." She asks for the head of Jokanaan and eventually receives it. but this plan is complicated by the older Marcellina who wants to wed Figaro. he is caught by the high priest Ramphis and a jealous Egyptian princess Amneris. Gessler has placed his hat on a poll and ordered the men to bow to it. Boris Godunov (Modest Mussorgsky (composer and librettist). the Commendatore. Dmitri (the (first) "false Dmitri"). but cajoles him into letting her escape. the Count who has made unwanted advances to Susanna. but is discovered by her father. He tries the guise of the poor student Lindoro. Hugo Oscar Wilde. and then opens a chasm that takes him down to hell. Gessler takes his son. 1786) Figaro and Susanna are servants of Count Almaviva who plan to marry. Lorenzo Da Ponte. being pressured to assume the throne after Ivan's two children die. unimportant librettists. a fugitive. Marcello is still attached to Musetta. but is arrested anyway. and forces Tell to shoot an apple off his son's head. 1871) Aida is an Ethiopian princess who is held captive in Egypt. Students') Quarter of Paris: Marcello the artist. his soldiers crush her with their shields. the chief adviser of Ivan the Terrible. The Barber of Seville (Gioacchino Rossini. 1816) Count Almaviva loves Rosina. Cesare Sterbini. Colline the philosopher. Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. The opera was based on a play by Friedrich von Schiller. 6. unimportant librettists. 1896) This opera tells the story of four extremely poor friends who live in the French (i. Be careful: Many of the same characters also appear in The Barber of Seville! 4.000-odd conquests in the "Catalogue Aria. unfortunately.a. Grigori raises a general revolt and Boris' health falls apart as he is taunted by military defeats and dreams of the murdered tsarevich. It is much easier to parse a question on an operatic plot than to understand a description of the notes. La Bohème (Giacomo Puccini. but finds that Aida has snuck into the tomb to join him. after which a horrified Herod orders her to be killed. William Tell (Gioacchino Rossini. Radames is buried alive. Rodolfo the poet. Don Giovanni (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy. he escapes from the Austrians and his son sets their house on fire as a signal for the Swiss to rise in revolt. Bartolo. Gessler. Later in the act.. Rodolfo meets the seamstress Mimi who lives next door when her single candle is blown out and needs to be relit. Bartolo. In the fourth act. The Marriage of Figaro (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. but she refuses until he promises her "anything she wants. 2. Aida (Giuseppe Verdi. In the third act. 1.

unimportant librettists. in turn.10. Madama Butterfly (Giacomo Puccini. When Pinkerton and his new American wife Kate do return. In the final act. La Bohème was based on a novel by Henry Murger and. Cio-Cio-San gives them her son and stabs herself with her father's dagger. Marcello and Rodolfo have separated from their lovers. man Alcindoro. Musetta bursts into their garret apartment and tells them that Mimi is dying of consumption (tuberculosis). she is already dead. but cannot stop thinking about them. He later returns to America leaving Cio-Cio-San to raise their son "Trouble" (whom she will rename "Joy" upon his return). 1904) The American naval lieutenant Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton is stationed in Nagasaki where. with the help of the broker Goro. The opera is based on a play by David Belasco . he weds the young girl CioCio-San (Madame Butterfly) with a marriage contract with a cancellation clause. when they reach her. formed the basis of the hit 1996 musical Rent by Jonathan Larson.

All neutrinos are fermions and the total number of leptons is conserved (counting regular leptons as +1 particle and anti-leptons as -1 particle). or blue (which are arbitrary names). They also come in six flavors: up. "truth"). this results in "integral" spin. and gravity is carried by the (as yet unobserved) graviton. the electron neutrino (usually just called "the" neutrino). 5. both in nature and in quiz bowl. 1. the electromagnetic force is carried by the photon. and D. but this kind of particle (a "tetraquark") is rare. The name "hadron" comes from the Greek for "thick. counting anti-baryons as -1). it results in "half-integral" spin. any particle affected by the strong nuclear force). green. The word "lepton" comes from the Greek for "light" (as in "not heavy").e. The quark and anti-quark must have the same color (such as red and anti-red) so that the resulting meson is colorless (or "white"). "beauty"). charm. if it is odd. Baryons are composite (i. The values cited for spin are not (usually) the real magnitude of that angular momentum. There are no particles with negative mass. charm. the tauon. Quantum mechanics restricts that component to being n/2 times Planck's constant divided by 2 pi for some integer n. in fact.. The strong nuclear force is carried by gluons. when it is said that there "six leptons. Generally. Rho. Note that the exact value of the spin itself is a real number. The word "baryon" comes from the Greek for "heavy. 7. green. The energies are converted to masses by Einstein's famous equation E = mc2. and Z+ particles. If n is even. Hadrons are any particles made out of quarks (alternatively. strange. The name "boson" comes from that of the Indian-American physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. The spin of a composite particle is determined by the total spin (i. All quarks are fermions and they combine in pairs to form mesons and in triples to form baryons. The name "quark" comes from the line "Three quarks for Muster Mark" in Finnegans Wake that appealed to Murray Gell-Mann. Charges are given in terms of the fundamental electric charge (the absolute value of the charge on an electron). There are six "flavors" of leptons: the electron. and top quarks have a charge of +2/3. Quarks are another class of fundamental particle. they aren't). J/Psi. and bottom have a charge of -1/3. a particle can be its own anti-particle. The name comes from the role of "gauge theories" in describing the forces (which are beyond the scope of this article). bosons prefer to be in the same quantum state). in some sense. That is. even though the muon and tauon are fairly massive. same state). For instance. The study of quarks (and the strong nuclear force) is quantum chromodynamics. and the tauon neutrino. One high-yield area of physics to study is the nomenclature of various groups of particles. No matter how they are added up." 8. Every kind of particle also has a corresponding anti-particle made of anti-matter. of the original. All hadrons are colorless (in the sense of the combined color of their constituent quarks). this means the baryons and the mesons. The Pauli Exclusion Principle does not apply to bosons (in fact. the muon neutrino. while the down. All mesons are bosons. but the component of the angular momentum along one axis." anti-particles are not counted (so. 3. and blue light) is colorless (i. Fermions are particles with half-integral spin. but the opposite charge. where an electron-volt is the energy acquired by an electron when it crosses a potential difference of one volt. 6. it's the multiplier of h/2pi that determines whether it is "integral" or not. kaon. the weak nuclear force is carried by the W. The most common examples are the proton (two up quarks and one down quark) and the neutron (two down quarks and one up). The up. the result will be an integral spin value (try it!).e. The most significant thing about fermions is that they are subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two fermions can have the same quantum numbers (i. Some conventions: The mass of particles is usually given in mega-electronvolts (MeV). but its discovery in 1995 confirmed an essential element of the "Standard Model" of particle physics. non-fundamental) particles made from three quarks. so an alpha particle is a (composite) boson. and bottom (sometimes. 4. A baryon must have one quark of each color so that the "total color" (analogous to mixing red. Bosons are particles with integral spin. top (sometimes. "white"). while the other three have a charge of -1. 2. The enormous mass of the top quark (178 GeV) made it difficult to create in particle accelerators." The total number of baryons is conserved (again. . where c is the speed of light. there are twelve).. an alpha particle (two protons and two neutrons) has four half-integral spin values. Note that in some rare situations..You Gotta Know These Classes of Particles Physics and chemistry are often difficult subjects for quiz bowl teams if those classes are taught during the junior or senior years since many players will not have completed them before encountering the subject matter at tournaments. Leptons are one of the classes of "fundamental particles" (meaning that they cannot be broken down into smaller particles). Gauge bosons (sometimes called "vector bosons") are fundamental bosons that carry the forces of nature. Quarks possess a characteristic called "color" (which has nothing to do with visual color) which can be either red. There are dozens of examples including the pion. Z-. All baryons are fermions. Spin is a form of "intrinsic angular momentum" which is possessed by particles as if they were spinning around their axis (but. forces result from particles emitting and absorbing gauge bosons. Anti-particles have the same mass. the muon.e. Mesons are composite particles generally made from a quark and an anti-quark. strange.. down. It is also possible to make mesons out of two (or more) quarks and the same number of anti-quarks. the component of its intrinsic angular momentum along one axis) of its particles. The name "fermion" comes from that of the ItalianAmerican physicist Enrico Fermi. The three neutrinos are neutral (and were once thought to be massless).e. All particles are either bosons or fermions.

Partons are an older name that was used for the "internal parts" of hadrons before the discovery and widespread acceptance of the quark model. it was determined that partons were quarks and the term is rarely used at the high school level except in historical contexts. charge and no mass.9. for the most part. but do have color (in the sense of quarks). . Gluons are the gauge bosons that carry the strong nuclear force and bind hadrons together. Gluons have no 10. Models based on partons are still used but. The name comes from their role in "gluing" quarks together. This color cannot be observed directly because the gluons are part of the larger hadron.

The capital cities of Vientiane and Phnom Penh are on the Mekong. Among its notable features is the Grand Canal. and Cambodia. 4. a figure that has led to the shrinking of the Dead Sea and serious contention among bordering nations . The Mekong is the chief river of Southeast Asia. spiritual. In modern times. 10. and its name is thought to come from the Sanskrit word for "elephant. The Tigris is the eastern of the two rivers that define the historic region of Mesopotamia (meaning. It flows south to Lake Merom. The Brahmaputra (or Tsangpo or Jamuna) runs 1. While serving as a historical route to Tibet. Laos. 7. It is the longer of the two rivers with a course of 1. it also rises in the Zagros Mountains of Turkey and its shores are home to Fallujah and Babylon. In the New Testament. which subsequently empties into the Persian Gulf.5 million people and bury more than 1.740 miles (compared to the Tigris' 1. The five major tributaries of the Indus.180). about 80% of its water is diverted for human use. It rises in the Himalayas and flows a comparatively short 1. It rises in Qinghai province and flows into the Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea.800 miles from its source in the Tibetan Himalayas. forms much of the Laos-Thailand border. Chenab. and into the Dead Sea. a significant source of that pollution is cremated remains. It flows 1. It originates in eastern Tibet. then flows southeast by Mosul.560 miles to the world's largest delta on the Bay of Bengal. which will reduce flooding but displace 1.300 feet below sea level. Wuhan. the river was the site of the baptism of John the Baptist. built during the Ming Dynasty. It rises in the Kunlun Mountains.400 miles. It rises in Turkey.300 known archaeological sites. It rises in Tibet and flows 1. Beas. which lies 1. 3. at 3. but its waterways are also of high cultural.You Gotta Know These Asian Rivers Asia is home to seven of the world's twelve longest rivers. 2." 9. The river forms the nation of Jordan's boundary with the West Bank and northern Israel. which is Persian for "Land of the Five Rivers". The Indus is the cradle of the Indus Valley Civilization. 5. The Irrawaddy (or Ayeyarwaddy) is the chief river of Myanmar (also known as Burma). it is also the most important to the northern half of the country. Its delta is one of the world's most important rice-growing regions. and Shanghai. and Baghdad before joining the Euphrates to make the Shatt-al-Arab. Among that delta's distributaries are the Hooghly (on whose banks Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) may be found) and the Padma (which enters Bangladesh). then turns south into the Indian state of Assam. Here are the ten Asian rivers that every quiz bowl team should be familiar with. the Jhelum. it starts eastward across the plateau. The Ganges (or Ganga) is the holiest river of Hinduism. Both the Tigris and the Euphrates have changed courses several times leaving ruins in the desert where cities have been abandoned. and economic importance. Ravi. China's second-longest. The Yangtze (or Chang Jiang or Ch'ang Chiang) is the longest river in China and Asia and the third longest in the world. one of the world's earliest urban areas. The river's name comes from the extraordinary amount of loess silt that it carries. Tikrit. whose main cities were Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. and enters the South China Sea in southern Vietnam just south of Ho Chi Minh City. through the Sea of Galilee. an average of 57 pounds for every cubic yard of water. the world's largest. flows across the Tibetan Plateau. The Indus is the chief river of Pakistan as well as being the ultimate source of the name of India. The Euphrates defines the western border of Mesopotamia.350 miles past Yangon (formerly Rangoon) and Mandalay to the Gulf of Martaban. 8. "The Land Between Two Rivers") that was home to the ancient civilizations of Sumer and Akkad. Approximately one in every twelve human beings lives in the Ganges Basin. 1. Nanjing. The building of dams and clearing of rapids are a source of diplomatic conflict between China. a population density that is rapidly polluting the river. are the source of the name of the Punjab region. passes the cities of Chongqing. and then enters Bangladesh where it merges with the Ganges to form the world's largest delta. the river is also prone to disastrous flooding. 6. Its basin is China's granary and is home to nearly one in every three Chinese citizens. and empties into the South China Sea. an arm of the Bay of Bengal. The river has been in the news for the construction of the Three Gorges Dam.800 miles to a delta on the Arabian Sea southeast of Karachi. flows south through Cambodia. that links it to the Yangtze. and Sutlej Rivers. The Yellow River (or Huang He or Huang Ho) is. The Jordan River rises in Syria from springs near Mount Hermon.

Afterwards. When Israel's neighbors tried to convince King Artaxerxes that the Jews shouldn't be able to rebuild the Temple because of their reputation as a rebellious province. Rachel gave birth to Joseph and Benjamin. He was also instrumental in working to rebuild the Temple (with permission from Cyrus) after the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed it. He married Rebeccah. Esau went to live in Mt." meaning "he who fights with God. King of Israel. This incident caused Esau and Isaac to be mortal enemies. Afterwards. She stayed with her mother-in-law. Jacob tricked Isaac with Rebeccah's help. spent much of his reign at war. unsuccessfully. including IndoEuropeans. Ham. Ezra helped to reestablish Jewish religious practice in Israel after the exile. Judah. as Lot and his family were fleeing. his two daughters got him drunk and became pregnant from him. Levi. The Book of Ruth is read on the holiday of Shavuot. Denied his birthright. Saul. One of his most famous victories was against the city of Jericho. Joshua was one of the twelve spies sent to scout Canaan. and he and his soldiers all fled or were killed. Simeon. when God tried to test Abraham's faith. Jabin's general. as the custom was that a family member must continue his relative's lineage if he dies by marrying his widow. as a child. and Japheth. Ruth later married Boaz. and Solomon were the first three kings of Israel. Ruth was a Moabite woman who converted to Judaism. Joshua and another spy. whose lives are told in the book of Genesis. being a "righteous man and blameless in his generation. Later. and Jacob and Leah are supposedly buried there). His wife Sarah gave birth to Isaac when she was ninety years old. However. 3. When God prepared to destroy the two cities. Hagar. Noah. Ephraim and Menasseh. and Zebulun.g. two messengers were sent to Lot to evacuate him from the area. "Am I my brother's keeper?" Cain was punished for the murder by becoming a vagabond. who allowed them to resume construction. sons of Joseph. Seir and became the father of the Edomites. Abel. Leah's maidservant Zilpah. Saul's own son Jonathan. Deborah was one of the Judges. and her son Ishmael (said to be ancestor of the Arabs). Cain. Joshua led the Israelites in conquering and dividing Canaan. When asked about Abel's fate. He proved his military prowess during the War of the Kings. God decreed that Solomon (not David) would . Abraham also bought the Cave of Machpela (near Hebron) as a burial ground for him and his descendants (Adam and Eve. He also tried. rescuing his captured nephew Lot. Additionally. one of the family's relatives. gave positive reports and were rewarded. Joshua was the charismatic attendant to Moses during the Exodus from Egypt. leaders who governed the Hebrews in Canaan during the period between Joshua's death and the establishment of the monarchy in Israel. Abraham was the first of the patriarchs. 6. after Naomi's husband and two sons died of illness. 10. Moriah. 7. rather than Cain's. 2. 9. she and Barak (son of Abinoam) led the Hebrews to a stunning victory against Jabin. she used to judge while sitting under a palm tree. he and his family populated the Earth." (Genesis 6:9) was chosen by God to continue the human race. Ten of the other spies gave negative reports of the land and were killed in the plague as punishment. His son Shem is considered the father of the Semitic people (e. and she gave birth to the twins Jacob and Esau. with the exception of Joseph. 11. David. Eve gave birth to Seth. while the rest of mankind was destroyed by a flood because of their wickedness. the ancestor of the Africans. and he was given a special mark on his forehead to protect him from anyone who might kill him (God promised that anyone who killed Cain would suffer punishment for seven generations). popular after killing the giant Goliath. In battle. Sarah evicted Abraham's concubine. which he destroyed by circling the city seven times while blowing on rams' horns (shofarim). because of the blood on his hands. almost sacrificed by his father Abraham on Mt. but had to flee Esau's rage after stealing Esau's blessing and birthright. Ezra was a Jewish scribe who led a group of Jews back to Israel from their exile in Babylonia.) Cain killed Abel out of rage because God had preferred Abel's offering from his flock. succeeded Saul at the behest of the prophet Samuel and with the blessing of his close friend. David. 8. and Seth were the sons of Adam and Eve. and she was transformed into a pillar of salt. (Adam begat other sons and daughters but the Bible mentions none by name. 5. beginning the future nations of Moab and the Ammonites. The victory ended an era of persecution of the Hebrews by Jabin. but Laban tricked him into marrying her sister Leah first. Leah bore him Reuben. Lot was the nephew of Abraham and later left him to settle around the evil cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. to persuade God to spare the evil cities of Sodom (where Lot lived) and Gomorrah. Saul greatly resented David and made more than one attempt to kill him. of whom Esau (the older one) was entitled to a birthright." Jacob was later renamed "Israel. Appointed Moses' successor. She won when the chariots of Sisera. Jacob loved his uncle Laban's daughter Rachel. got stuck in the mud of the river Kishon. the ancestor of various other races. Isaac and Rebeccah. Her lineage includes David. Arabs and Hebrews). Ezra intervened and appealed later to King Darius. fearing that they were the only people left alive on Earth. the Canaanite king. The Twelve Tribes of Israel descend from Jacob's twelve sons. Caleb. Isaac was.You Gotta Know These Old Testament Characters 1." 4. Naomi. Abraham and Sarah. each head "half-tribes. Issachar. For this. bore Jacob Gad and Asher. Cain answered. and Rachel's maidservant Bilhah bore Dan and Naphtali. like Saul. his wife accidentally glanced back. Jacob was Esau's twin brother. The young David..

as predicting Belshazzar's downfall. Tekel. and Song of Songs. he had her husband killed so that he could marry her. Daniel was summoned and interpreted the famous message. Ecclesiastes. the King was killed. Servants of Darius convinced him to lock Daniel in the lion's den. in addition to building the Temple. Daniel was given a Babylonian name. and he gained favor with Nebuchadnezzar when he correctly interpreted one of his dreams. where he magically survived with God's help . He fell in love with his future wife Bathsheba after he spotted her bathing. build the Temple. a mysterious hand inscribed strange words on the wall.12. Nebuchadnezzar was later replaced by King Belshazzar. together with his three friends (Hananiah. During a royal feast. and Azariah). the writing on the wall (it read "Mene. who was captured when his long hair caught on a tree branch. Mene. was credited with writing Proverbs. Mishael. Later that night. Ufarsin"). David captured the city of Jerusalem and made it his capital. He also exhausted himself supressing a rebellion by his son Absalom. Bathsheba's son Solomon. was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar when he conquered the Kingdom of Judah. Daniel was a young Jew who. and King Darius the Mede took over.

Present) Winner of the 1989 Pritzker Prize. the Johnson Wax Museum in Racine. Nonetheless. Wassily Kandinsky. He may be best known for two fairly recent works: the glass pyramid erected outside the Louvre in 1989. The phrase "less is more" is associated with Mies.1924) Sullivan did not design the first skyscraper but did become a vocal champion of skyscrapers as reflections of the modern age.1969) Though Gropius also designed the Fagus Factory (Alfeld." His floor plans were influenced by Cubist principles of division of space.You Gotta Know These Architects 1. the Fragrant Hill Hotel in Beijing. the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder. (Bilbao natives describe the latter as "the artichoke. all from 1421 to 1430. India). which he co-designed with Philip Johnson. Frank Gehry (1929 . his best-known work is the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. the Larkin Building in Buffalo. largely failed. Bennett. One famous Corbusian quote is: "A house is a machine for living in. the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington. As an architect. and Josef Albers. Walter Gropius (1883 . Gehry is best-known today for large-scale compositions like the Experience Music Project in Seattle.Present) Pei is among the most famous living architects. Spain.1969) The leading architect of the International Style of skyscraper design. He directed the Bauhaus from 1930-33. "Reader. he is better known for founding the Bauhaus. Pei is best known for large-scale projects. His early homes. Applications of his approach to government buildings (such as in Brasilia or in Chandigarh. D. Beginning in Weimer in 1919 and moving to a Gropius-designed facility in Dessau in 1925.) Gehry often uses uncommon materials such as plywood and . Charles II named him the King's Surveyor of Works in 1669.1723) When fire destroyed much of London in 1666. Though most associated with Chicago. he worked under Louis Sullivan before founding a Chicago practice. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 . He wrote of the "Radiant City" begun anew. Wren was an Oxford astronomy professor who had designed his first building just four years earlier. Its faculty included artists Paul Klee. whose glasscovered steel structures influenced the design of office buildings in nearly every major city in the U. and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce. like the Robie House at the University of Chicago. as did many urban renewal projects produced on the same ideological foundation. His works include the Mile High Center in Denver. including Saint Paul's Cathedral. Later works. Brunelleschi was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). 9. Gropius would later head Harvard's architecture department from 1938-52.. Born in China. Germany) and the Pan American Building (New York City). shutting it down before the Nazis could do so. 8. Other notable Wright works are the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. and Taliesin West. the Unity Temple in Oak Park. I(eoh) M(ing) Pei (1917 . burned down in 1914). Though he has also designed moderate-income housing.C. controversial Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. and the recent. he (like Gropius) worked in the office of Peter Behrens. Japan. Louis Sullivan (1856 . and the Villa Savoye (Poissy. he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral). 5.1959) Wright's life and works are staples of quiz tournaments. Born in Wisconsin. 3. Sullivan's dictum that "form should follow function" strongly influenced modern architecture. Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital). in Wisconsin. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari's Lives of the Artists). France) is his best-known early work. he wrote the 1923 book Towards a New Architecture. the John Hancock Building in Boston. the New National Gallery in Berlin. and Bradley Houses. are in the "Prairie" style: horizontal orientation and low roofs. Ohio. Louis. His partnership with Dankmar Adler produced over 100 buildings. in 1935. standard reading in architectural theory courses. and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland.1446) A friend of Donatello.S. his writings helped break the profession from classical restraints. the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo. however. shifting its focus to incorporate modern design and construction techniques. reflect an organic architecture distinct from that of Wright. 4. he emigrated to the U. such as the Babson. and the synthesis of technology and art. and the Seagram Building in New York. Wisconsin. and he was involved in rebuilding more than 50 London churches in the next halfcentury.S. 7. one of few buildings to survive a 1923 earthquake. look around you. the Bauhaus school emphasized functionalism. a completely planned city with skyscrapers for residents. which dominates the Florentine skyline." given its layers of abstract titanium structures. and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. the Lake Shore Drive Apartments in Chicago." 6. and the recent Miho Museum of Art in Shiga. (The original Taliesin. Le Corbusier (born Charles-Eduoard Jeanneret) (1887 . An inscription near his tomb in Saint Paul's declares.1965) Possibly more influential even than Wright. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886 . his Arizona home and studio. the application of modern methods and materials. Sir Christopher Wren (1632 . he influenced every other 20thcentury figure on this list. 2. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 . completed in 1995. the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. if you seek a monument. His "organic architecture" tries to harmonize with its inhabitants and site: Examples include the Kaufmann House (also known as Fallingwater) in Pennsylvania. His works include the Barcelona Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition.




limestone; his designs range from Kobe's Fishdance Restaurant, shaped like a giant fish, to the soft-sculpture look of the so-called "Fred and Ginger" buildings in Prague. He also designs furniture: The Easy Edges line is made of laminated cardboard; the Gehry Collection consists of chairs named for hockey terms (e.g. Cross Check and Power Play). As of 2002, active projects included a new wing for the Corcoran Gallery and the SoHo Branch of the Guggenheim. Andrea Palladio (1508 - 1580) Born Andrea di Pietro della Gondola, Palladio designed villas in or near Venice, including the Villa Rotonda and Villa Barbaro. He integrated Greco-Roman ideas of hierarchy, proportion, and order with contemporary Renaissance styles. His Four Books on Architecture from 1570 relates his theoretical principles. Among architects heavily influenced by Palladio were Inigo Jones and Thomas Jefferson. Eero Saarinen (1910 - 1961) The son of architect Eliel Saarinen, Eero was born in Finland but spent most of his life in the U.S. and died in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He designed many buildings on the campuses of MIT and Yale, as well as Dulles International Airport and the TWA terminal at Kennedy Airport. Saarinen may be best known for designing the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, though he died before it was completed. Many of his works are characterized by elegant, sweeping forms, such as the Kresge Auditorium at MIT. Antonio Gaudi y Cornet (1852 - 1926) Gaudi created many extraordinary buildings in Barcelona in the early 20th century. His Art Nouveau-inspired works include the Casa Mila and Casa Batllo apartments, known from their undulating facades, and several works for patron Eusebi Guell. He spent 40 years working on the Expiatory Church of the Holy Family (also known as La Sagrada Familia); although its spindle-like towers are in place, the building remains unfinished, and Gaudi's models for it were destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. He was also fond of using hyperbolic paraboloids in his work

You Gotta Know These 20th-Century Composers 1. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971). He studied under Rimsky-Korsakov and completed two grand ballets for Diaghilev, The Firebird and Petrushka. His Paris premiere of The Rite of Spring (1913), however, is what inaugurated music's Modern era. A pagan story featuring polytonal music, The Rite of Spring shocked the audience so much that riots ensued, leading a stunned Stravinsky to pursue rational, "neoclassical" music, such as his Symphony of Psalms. In 1940 he moved to Hollywood, where he composed his one full-length opera, The Rake's Progress, with libretto by W.H. Auden. Late in life, he adopted the serialist, twelve-tone style of Webern, producing the abstract ballet Agon (1957). 2. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). This Austrian pioneered dodecaphony, or the twelve-tone system, which treated all parts of the chromatic scale equally. Schoenberg's early influences were Wagner and R. Strauss, as evident in his Transfigured Night (1900) for strings. Yet by 1912, with the "Sprechstimme" (halfway between singing and speaking) piece Pierrot lunaire, he broke from Romanticism and developed expressionist pieces free from key or tone. His students, especially Alban Berg and Anton Webern, further elaborated on his theories. Fleeing Nazi persecution in 1933, he moved from Berlin to Los Angeles, where he completed A Survivor from Warsaw. The first two acts of his unfinished opera, Moses und Aron, are still frequently performed. 3. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976). Reviver of the opera in the U.K., most notably with Peter Grimes (1945), the story of a fisherman who kills two of his apprentices. Britten broke through with Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (1937), a tribute to his composition teacher, and wrote incidental music for works by his friend W.H. Auden. With his companion, the tenor Peter Pears, Britten founded the Aldeburgh Festival of Music and wrote operas such as Billy Budd, The Turn of the Screw, and Death in Venice. Britten's non-operatic works include The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946) and War Requiem (1961), based on the antiwar poems of Wilfred Owen, who was killed during World War I. 4. Aaron Copland (COPE-land) (1900-1990). At first a modernist, he was the first American student of Nadia Boulanger in Paris in the 1920s; there he finished his Organ Symphony and Music for the Theater. By the 1930s, Copland turned to simple themes, especially the American West: El Salón Mexico was followed by the ballets Billy the Kid, Rodeo, and Appalachian Spring (1944), the last containing the Shaker hymn "Simple Gifts." Copland's Third Symphony contained his Fanfare for the Common Man, while Lincoln Portrait featured spoken portions of the President's writings. Copland wrote several educational books, beginning with 1939's What to Listen For in Music. 5. Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953). He wrote seven symphonies, of which the First (Classical, 1917) is the most notable. While in Chicago, he premiered the opera The Love for Three Oranges, based on Italian commedia dell'arte. Prokofiev moved to Paris in 1922, where he composed works for Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, including The Prodigal Son. In 1936 he returned to the USSR, where he completed the popular children's work Peter and the Wolf and the score for the film Alexander Nevsky. When Stalin denounced Prokofiev as "decadent," the composer was forced to write obsequious tributes to the premier. Prokofiev survived Stalin, but only by a few hours (both died on March 5). 6. Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-1975). His work was emblematic of both the Soviet regime and his attempts to survive under its oppression. Shostakovich's operas, such as The Nose (1928) and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, were well received at first--until Stalin severely criticized his work in Pravda in 1936. Fearful for his security, Shostakovich wrote several conciliatory pieces (Fifth, Seventh/Leningrad, and Twelfth Symphonies) in order to get out of trouble. He made enemies, however, with his Thirteenth Symphony (Babi Yar). Based on the Yevtushenko poem, Babi Yar condemned anti-Semitism in both Nazi Germany and the USSR. 7. Béla Bartók (1881-1945). A young girl singing a folk tune to her son in 1904 inspired Bartók to roam the Hungarian countryside with Zoltan Kodály, collecting peasant tunes. This influence permeated his music, including the opera Duke Bluebeard's Castle (1911) and the ballets The Wooden Prince (1916) and The Miraculous Mandarin (1919). A virtuoso pianist and an innovative composer, Bartók refused to teach composition, contributing to financial problems, especially after he fled Nazi-held Hungary for the U.S. in 1940. Bartók wrote many prominent instrumental pieces; best known are six string quartets, the educational piano piece Mikrokosmos, and Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta (1936). 8. Charles Ives (1874-1954). He learned experimentation from his father George, a local Connecticut businessman and bandleader. Ives studied music at Yale but found insurance sales more lucrative; his firm of Ives and Myrick was the largest in New York during the 1910s. Privately, Ives composed great modern works, including the Second Piano (Concord) Sonata (with movements named after Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcott, and Thoreau); and Three Places in New England (1914). His Third Symphony won Ives a Pulitzer Prize in 1947, while his song "General William Booth Enters Into Heaven" was based on a Vachel Lindsay poem. Poor health ended both his insurance and music careers by 1930. 9. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937). His Basque mother gave him an affinity for Spanish themes, as evident in Rapsodie espagnole and his most popular piece, Bolero (1928). Ravel produced Pavane for a Dead Princess while a student of Gabriel Fauré, but was frustrated when the French Conservatory overlooked him for the Prix de Rome





four times. He completed the ballet Daphnis et Chloe (1912) for Diaghilev, which was followed by Mother Goose and La Valse, and also re-orchestrated Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. His health declined after a 1932 taxi accident; unsuccessful brain surgery ended his life. George Gershwin (1898-1937). Known at first for producing popular songs and musicals with his older brother Ira, Gershwin successfully melded jazz and popular music with classical forms, most famously the Rhapsody in Blue (1924), the Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra (1925), and the folk opera Porgy and Bess (1935), based on a story by DuBose Heyward. Gershwin's first major hit was 1919's "Swanee," sung by Al Jolson, and his 1931 musical Of Thee I Sing was the first to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Gershwin died of a brain tumor at age 38. John Cage (1912-1992). An American student of Arnold Schoenberg, Cage took avant-garde to a new level, and may be considered a Dada composer because he believed in aleatory, or "chance" music. His Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951) used twelve radios tuned to different stations; the composition depended on what was on the radio at that time. The following year's 4'33" required a pianist to sit at the piano for that length of time and then close it; audience noise and silence created the "music." Cage also invented the "prepared piano," where he attached screws, wood, rubber bands, and other items to piano strings in order to create a percussion sound. Ralph Vaughan Williams (RAIF) (1872-1958). Best known for reviving the Tudor style and folk traditions in English music, as exemplified in his Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1909). Vaughan Williams completed nine symphonies, the foremost his Second (London) in 1914; other principal symphonies included the First (Sea), Third (Pastoral) and Seventh (sinfonia antarctica). His orchestral work The Lark Ascending was based on a George Meredith poem, while Sir John in Love (1924) was a Shakespearean opera that featured the "Fantasia on Greensleeves." Hugh the Drover and The Pilgrim's Progress are other major Vaughan Williams operas. Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943). A highly skilled pianist and conductor, Rachmaninoff twice turned down conductorship of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He failed to reap the monetary benefits of his early pieces (notably the C-Sharp Minor Prelude of 1892), because he sold them cheaply to a publisher. Treated by hypnosis in 1901, Rachmaninoff began a productive period with his Second Piano Concerto (known affectionately by Julliard students as "Rocky II") and the symphonic poem The Isle of the Dead (1909). He moved to the U.S. in 1917, after the Bolshevik Revolution. There his output decreased, though he did complete the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini in 1934.

You Gotta Know These Hindu Deities and Heroes 1. Vishnu One of the Trimurti (the holy trinity of Hindu gods), Vishnu is the Preserver, protecting the world. When needed, Vishnu descends to Earth as an avatar, or incarnation. Nine have appeared so far: Matsya, Kurma (tortoise), Varah (boar), Narasimha (man-lion), Vamana (dwarf), Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, and Buddha. A tenth, Kalki, will appear with a flaming sword to save humans from the darkness. Some cult followers worship Vishnu as Narayana, the primal being. Vishnu has dark blue skin, rides with the eagle Garuna, and sits on the snake Shesha. His symbols are the conch, disc, club, and lotus; his chief wives are Lakshmi and Bhu (the Earth). Kama, the god of love, may be his son. 2. Shiva Also known as Lord Mahesh, Shiva is the Destroyer in the Trimurti. Developed from Rudra, the Vedic god of death, Shiva is often shown sitting on a tiger skin and riding the bull Nandi. He is also associated with a lingam (phallus). He has three eyes, of which the third (in the middle of his head) is all-knowing; when it opens, the world is destroyed and regenerated. Lord of all underworld beings, he wears a necklace of skulls and another made of a snake. He carries a trident as a weapon and has a blue throat, the result of drinking poison while the ocean churns. Parvati, one of his several consorts, bears him two sons: Kartikeya (the god of war) and Ganesha. 3. Brahma The third of the Trimurti, Brahma is the Creator. By dropping an egg into the cosmic waters, he hatches a younger form of Brahma that creates other beings. Also the chief priest, he has four heads that each point in a cardinal direction, representing the Four Vedas. Brahma has a fifth head until Shiva plucked it off; as punishment for that act, Shiva is forced to wander as a beggar and carry Brahma's severed skull as a bowl. Brahma's wife is Savitri, who curses him after he lets a cow-maiden stand in for her at an important ritual. Few people worship Brahma, either because of the curse or because he lost a power struggle to Vishnu. 4. Krishna This eighth avatar of Vishnu is born when Vishnu plucks two of his own hairs - one light, one dark - and used the dark hair to impregnate Devaki. Her husband Vasudeva saves Krishna from evil King Kansa by carrying him across the river Yamuna to safety in Gokula. Krishna can be depicted as a child, adolescent, or adult. As an infant, he plays pranks such as stealing butter. As a youthful lover, he plays the flute and dances with the gopis (cow-maidens) in the Vrindavana forest. As an adult, he is a dark-skinned warrior with a light, angelic face, charioteer to Arjuna (in the Mahabharata). In the Bhagavad-Gita it is he who reveals the importance of dharma and bhakti. His consort is the cowherd girl Radha. 5. Ganesha This elephant-headed god of wisdom and learning is often shown riding a rat. Parvati "gives birth" to Ganesha by creating him from the saffron paste she scrubbed off of herself after bathing. When Parvati instructs Ganesha not to let anyone in as she took another bath, Ganesha prevents Shiva from entering, prompting Shiva to cut off Ganesha's head. To calm Parvati, Shiva tells servants to take the head of the first baby found whose mother had her back turned; the servants bring back the head of a baby elephant. Ganesha has two wives (Riddhi and Siddhi), two sons, and a daughter. People pray to this remover of obstacles and bringer of good fortune before they commence business. 6. Rama The seventh avatar of Vishnu is hero of the Ramayana. Born as a prince to King Dasharatha and Queen Kaushalya, Rama wins the hand of his wife Sita in a competition held by Sita's father, King Janaka; only he can string Shiva's bow. When his aunt Kaikeyi schemes to deprive him of Dasharatha's throne by putting her son Bharata there, Rama and Sita are banished to a forest for 14 years. During that time, the ten-headed demon Ravana kidnaps Sita but Rama rescues her and killed Ravana. Bharata abdicates; Rama makes Sita walk through fire to prove that Ravana had not corrupted her. 7. Indra The god of rain, thunder, and war, Indra wields the thunderbolt (vajra) and rides Airavat, the four-tusked white elephant. In early Vedic times he was king of the gods who ruled swarga; many Rig Veda hymns are devoted to him. With the aid of both the Marut storm gods and his favorite drink, soma, Indra leads the Aryan conquest of India. He also defeats the dragon Vritra, who had stolen the world's water. 8. Lakshmi (or Sri) The last and greatest treasure born from the "churning of the ocean," Lakshmi is the goddess of prosperity and patron to moneylenders. The epitome of feminine beauty, she sits or stands on a lotus flower and appears in her own avatars alongside Vishnu: Sita to his Rama; Padma the lotus to Vamana the dwarf; Radha (or Rukmini) to Krishna. A form of the mother goddess (Shakti, or Devi), she also represents virtue and honesty. 9. "Shiva's consort" Several incarnations of the "mother goddess" take this moniker. Parvati, the most benevolent form, is the reincarnation of Sati, who threw herself into the fire. Durga is a demon-slayer who rides a lion into battle and carries a weapon in each of her many arms. Kali is a black-skinned goddess of destruction, who defeats the demon leader Raktavija by drinking all of his blood. Although Kali's dance can destroy the world, Shiva throws himself at her feet to calm her, turning her into Parvati. 10. Arjuna The chief hero of the Mahabharata, Arjuna is the son of Indra and one of five Pandava brothers, who fight a bitter war against their one hundred cousins, Kauravas, culminating at the battle on "Kuru's Field." Before the battle, Arjuna asks his charioteer (Krishman) why he must fight. Krishna responds that Arjuna must follow a devotion to god (bhakti) and that even as he slays his brethren, it is for a just cause. Along with the rest of the Pandavas, Arjuna is married to Draupadi.

11. Hanuman Son of the wind god Vaayu and Queen Anjana, Hanuman has a human body with a monkey's head. As
a boy he swallows the sun (mistaking it for a piece of fruit); the angry Indra whips him with a thunderbolt. In response the wind god Vaayu refuses to breathe air into the world, prompting Indra to apologize and the other gods to bestow immortality and shapeshifting ability on Hanuman. He figures prominently in the Ramayana, where he flies to Lanka to tell Sita that Rama will rescue her from Ravana. 12. Agni Part of a trinity with Surya (the sun) and Vaayu (the wind), Agni can be brought to life by rubbing two sticks together. Since Agni is responsible for sacrificial fires, he is the patron of priests. He has a red body, two heads, three legs, four arms, and seven tongues; he often carries a flaming javelin. In the Mahabharata, Agni's grandfather is one of seven great sages; with the help of Krishna, he devours the Khandav forest You Gotta Know These Trojan War Heroes Greeks 1. Agamemnon The king of Mycenae, Agamemnon shares supreme command of the Greek troops with his brother, Menelaus. An epithet of his, "king of heroes," reflects this status. As a commander, however, he often lacks good public relations skills, as shown by his feud with Achilles (book 1) and by his ill-considered strategy of suggesting that all the troops go home (book 2). Upon his return home, Agamemnon is murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. 2. Menelaus The king of Sparta, Menelaus is the husband of Helen, the cause celebre of the war. He tries to win Helen back by fighting Paris in single combat but Aphrodite carried Paris off when it seems that Menelaus will win. Despite his notionally equal say in commanding the troops with his brother Agamemnon, in practice Agamemnon often dominates. 3. Achilles This "swift-footed" warrior is the greatest on the Greek side. His father is Peleus, a great warrior in his own right, and his mother is Thetis, a sea nymph. The consequences of Achilles' rage at Agamemnon for confiscating his geras (prize of honor) are the subject of the Iliad. Achilles kills Hector, but is killed by a poisoned arrow in the heel, the only vulnerable place on his body. 4. Patroclus Achilles' foster brother and closest friend. Although Patroclus is a formidable hero, he is valued for his kind and gentle nature. Patroclus is killed by Hector while wearing the armor of Achilles. 5. Ajax This prince of Salamis is the son of Telamon. He once fights all afternoon in single combat with Hector; since neither one can decisively wound the other, they part as friends. Ajax's most glorious achievement is fighting the Trojans back from the ships almost singlehandedly. He commits suicide after the armor of Achilles is awarded to Odysseus rather than to himself. 6. Diomedes In his day of glory, Diomedes kills Pandarus and wounds Aeneas before taking on the gods. He stabs Aphrodite in the wrist and, with Athena as his charioteer, wounds Ares in the stomach. Along with Odysseus, he also conducts a successful night raid against King Rhesus. 7. Odysseus This son of Laertes is known for his cleverness and glib tongue. His accomplishments include a successful night raid against King Rhesus, winning the armor of Achilles, and engineering the famous Trojan Horse. His ten-year trip home to Ithaca (where his wife, Penelope, awaits) is the subject of the Odyssey. 8. Nestor, king of Pylos, is too old to participate in the fighting of the Trojan War, but serves as an advisor. He tells tales of "the good old days" to the other heroes. Trojans 1. Hector The son of Priam and Hecuba, he is probably the noblest character on either side. A favorite of Apollo, this captain of the Trojan forces exchanges gifts with Ajax after neither can conquer the other in single combat. He kills Patroclus when that Greek goes into battle wearing the armor of his friend, Achilles. Killed by Achilles to avenge the death of Patroclus, he is greatly mourned by all of Troy. Funeral games take place in his honor. 2. Paris (sometimes called Alexander) Also the son of Priam and Hecuba, he is destined to be the ruin of his country. He fulfills this destiny by accepting a bribe when asked to judge which of three goddesses is the fairest. When he awards Aphrodite the golden apple, Aphrodite repays him by granting him the most beautiful woman in the world; unfortunately, Helen is already married to Menelaus. Known less for hand-to-hand fighting than for mastery of his bow, he kills Achilles with an arrow but dies by the poisoned arrows of Philoctetes. 3. Priam The king of Troy and son of Laomedon, he has 50 sons and 12 daughters with his wife Hecuba (presumably she does not bear them all), plus at least 42 more children with various concubines. Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, kills him in front of his wife and daughters during the siege of Troy. 4. Hecuba (or Hecabe) The wife of Priam, she suffers the loss of most of her children but survives the fall of Troy. She is later turned into a dog. 5. Andromache The wife of Hector and mother of Astyanax, she futilely warns Hector about the war, then sees both her husband and son killed by the Greeks. After the war she is made concubine to Neoptolemus and later marries the Trojan prophet Helenus. 6. Cassandra This daughter of Priam and Hecuba has an affair with the god Apollo, who grants her the gift of prophecy. Unable to revoke the gift after they quarrel, Apollo curses her by preventing anyone from believing her predictions. Among her warnings is that the Trojan horse contains Greeks. After Troy falls she is given to Agamemnon, who tactlessly brings her home to his wife Clytemnestra. Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus then kill Agamemnon and

two serpents from the sea crush both him and his two young sons. Knocked unconscious by a large rock thrown by Diomedes. That bloodline is the basis of Julius Caesar's claim to have descended from Venus. ." he says (according to Vergil). "I fear the Greeks. this priest of Apollo shares Cassandra's doubt about the merits of bringing the Trojan horse into the city." Later. even bearing gifts. His son Iulus founds Alba Longa. while sacrificing a bull. He succeeds the late Hector as Trojan troop commander and survives the fall of Troy. 7. 8. The death of Laocoon is often blamed on Athena (into whose temple the serpent disappeared) but more likely the act of Poseidon.Cassandra. Laocoon Yet another son of Priam and Hecuba. Aeneas This son of Aphrodite and Anchises often takes a beating but always gets up to rejoin the battle. a fierce Greek partisan. leaving Agamemnon's son Orestes (egged on by sister Electra) to avenge the deaths and kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. he is evacuated by Aphrodite and Apollo. ultimately settling in Italy. near the site of Rome. "Timeo danaos et dona ferentes.

preferring to take the winter months off.. Married to actress Bridgette Wilson. losing only to Richard Krajicek in the quarterfinals in 1996. 5. Evert upset Margaret Court. a history of black athletes. Though perhaps best known for his fiery temper and abuse of referees (with taunts like "You can't be serious!"). Starting in 1993 he won the tournament seven times in eight years. six French. his own Olympic exploits included the 1996 tennis gold. Rosewall. Open title -. and in 1969 as a professional . Hoad) but Laver was the best of all. Seven Wimbledons. The following year. and is now married to women's great Steffi Graf. for a total of seven majors. Martina Navratilova and Sampras both idolized Laver. A bit heavy early in her career. Agassi rededicated himself to the game.S. Tilden was nicknamed "Big Bill" for two reasons: He stood 6foot-2 with his trademark "cannonball" serve and he faced "Little Bill" Johnston in six out of seven U. Graf retired that fall. Borg then inexplicably retired at 26. Born in Prague. Agassi has won eight major singles titles (five since 1999). Pro Championships.000 in one year (1970). garnering the #1 ranking and her first major (French) in 1987. had he been allowed to play the majors from '63 to '67. resistance to Borg was futile. and four Australians add up to 22 major career singles crowns . he was almost unstoppable: He won six straight U. becoming just the fifth man to complete the career Grand Slam. he tried an unsuccessful comeback in the early 1990s. His father boxed for Iran in the 1948 and 1952 Olympics." Graf turned pro at age 13 and steadily rose through the rankings. Stolle. Arthur Ashe (1943-1993). Martina Navratilova (1956-present). Laver won five U. and is now raising her son Jaden with her husband Andre Agassi.S. Championship (1968) or Wimbledon (1975). when John McEnroe finally knocked him off at Wimbledon. he reached the world's #3 ranking at age 18 but was better known for his image than for his play.S.S. 3. Her most devastating shot earned her the moniker "Fraulein Forehand.S. he performed in several Broadway shows (including the lead in "Dracula"). Borg got started at age nine. three Wimbledon) and turned professional in 1930 . Open. Open. finals. he won Wimbledon five straight years (1976-80) and the French Open six times. 2. team in 2000.You Gotta Know These Tennis Players Men 1.S. he fell to #141 in the world in 1997. Ashe once claimed that he would consider himself a failure if he were remembered only for tennis. 7. 167 total singles titles. He almost ended Borg's run of Wimbledons in a five-set thriller in 1980. Born in Las Vegas. As a 15-year old. was named for him in 1997. The author of Hard Road to Glory. In all. but succeeded the following year. He also played in the Davis Cup 12 times. Opens. Rod Laver (1938-present). Agassi won his first major on Wimbledon grass in 1992. when he became the youngest man ever to win the U.S. he won 77 titles. and even more doubles crowns. The only player to win the Grand Slam twice . passing Roy Emerson's 12.S. Bill Tilden (1893-1953). he won ten majors (seven U.S. In 1984.S. Turning pro in 1963. he likely would hold the wins record instead of Pete Sampras. Open (reaching the final four times). Chris Evert (1954-present). the first to earn $1 million in a career. An outstanding doubles player as well.. Opens and two Australian Opens. Briefly married to Brooke Shields. Despite his great success. Tilden also loved the theater. for a total of 11 majors. Perhaps the greatest returner and baseline player ever. A Wimbledon finalist at 37. many with partner Pam Shriver. Queen of the Clay Courts. the current home of the U. Navratilova won the first two of her nine Wimbledons in 1978-79 but subsequent losses led her to pursue a grueling fitness regimen.the last coming at the French in 1999 after two years of major back injuries. many with partner Peter Fleming. He never played at the Australian Open. he was also the first American tennis player to earn over $100. she defected to the United States in 1975 because the Czech Tennis Federation had taken most of her earnings. 3. who had just won the . McEnroe compiled an 82-3 record. but returned to play doubles in 2000. taking the mixed doubles… at age 46! 2. Women 1. The first black man to win either the U. Navratilova retired from singles in 1994.winning a pro title at age 42 and competing in barnstorming tours until he was 50.S. Arthur Ashe Stadium. Bjorn Borg (1956-present). after his father won a tennis racket in a ping-pong tournament and gave it to him. He weighed just 145 pounds in his playing days but his massive left arm generated incredible topspin shots. In 1999 he won the French Open. but his greatest accomplishments came on the Wimbledon grass. The last Wimbledon win (2000) gave Sampras the all-time men's major record. This paid off: She won 18 singles Grand Slams (58 overall). In 2003 tied Billie Jean King with 20 overall Wimbledons. Ashe announced in 1992 that tainted blood from a 1983 heart surgery had given him the AIDS virus. Borg never won the U. five U.S. Steffi Graf (1969-present).S. the only player ever to go 5-for-5 in one year. He took his first French in 1974 and dominated through 1981. In all. and in 1979 he won the first of three straight U. 6. championships and took Wimbledon both times he played. but lost a lot of money backing failed ventures. she won the French Open a record seven times and rolled off a 125-match win streak on the surface. Sampras silenced his critics (who thought he was washed up) by defeating Andre Agassi for the 2002 U. but after they divorced.Laver took 11 major singles titles overall. Andre Agassi (1970-present).in 1962 as an amateur. Graf made history by winning the Grand Slam and the gold medal at the Seoul Olympics. Pete Sampras (1971-present). Between 1920 and 1925. On both grass and clay in the late 1970s. He would take five U.S. Newcombe. winning Wimbledon and his fourth U. he made the semifinals of Wimbledon. "Pistol Pete" burst onto the scene in 1990. John McEnroe (1959-present).then he retired. Australia produced many talented players (Emerson. captaining the U. As a 17-year old amateur qualifier. McEnroe was the dominant player of the early 1980s. Open. 4.

when she took four straight major finals against Venus. but the sisters have taken the game to new levels and to more people. Open). 5. in front of over 30. she amassed 62 Grand Slam titles. Riggs's nemesis. Opens in both 2000 and 2001. Open in 1997. Billie Jean King called Court "The Arm" because of her long reach. but that changed in 2002. 1974 was the first of a record 13 straight years in which she won a major . in 1928 becoming the first player to win three Grand Slams in one season. Serena now has six majors to Venus's four. is best known for advancing women's athletics. Randy Moffitt. Margaret Smith Court (1942-present)..S. Court did defeat King. For a long time Serena could not beat her older sister. while Venus also designs interiors. 24 of them in singles (3 Wimbledon. 22 of 32 times. taking 21 singles championships overall that year. prize money for women was paltry. reaching the final of the U. so she co-founded the Virginia Slims Tour. Her records themselves are impressive: 12 Grand Slam singles wins (including six Wimbledons) and 20 overall Wimbledon titles. 5 U. In all. She retired in 1977 and became a lay minister. At the time. Wills's play contrasted with that of the other great woman of the era. though they met only once (as Lenglen turned pro).out of 22 entered . the emotional Suzanne Lenglen of France. Serena won a Grand Slam before Venus did (1999 U. and in 1971 became the first female athlete to earn $100. however.Grand Slam. The most prolific winner. California and coached from an early age by father Richard. pitched for the San Francisco Giants. On the side. between 1927 and 1932 she did not even drop a set! She won 19 major singles crowns . and 11 in her native Australia). Helen Wills Moody (1905-1998).S. both are fashion designers. six U.000 in a year.S. but Venus hit #1 by sweeping Wimbledon and the U. Her brother. Billie Jean King (1943-present).S. A California native nicknamed "Little Miss Poker Face" because her expression rarely changed on the court.including eight Wimbledons. 6. Born in Compton. She was married to British tennis player John Lloyd for eight years. aided by her height of nearly six feet. 7. Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe may have preceded them as trailblazing African-American players.000 at the Astrodome. she herself reached a #4 world ranking in 1960 and turned pro eight years later.S.. Nonetheless. Venus and Serena Williams (1980-present and 1981-present). she whipped Bobby Riggs in the "Battle of the Sexes. and four French championships. male or female. In 1970 she became the second woman (after Maureen Connolly) to win the Grand Slam. Two years later. Evert took 18 Grand Slam singles titles. With her 2003 win at Wimbledon. but they divorced in 1987. Martina Navratilova. less impressive was her 1973 loss to 55-year old Bobby Riggs.several of them hard fought against her rival. Wills dominated her competition. and was the first female player to win $1 million in her career. Wills also swept the singles and doubles gold medals at the 1924 Paris Olympics . King. 5 French. and she then wed Olympic skier Andy Mill. 4." King retired in 1983. but not before winning a singles tournament at age 39. Venus broke through first.

while in 1977 he published the lighter. Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957. Asturias left his native Guatemala in 1923 to study in Paris. but in 1962 he completed the influential story collection Labyrinths. A prominent poet and essayist. 5. 7. he fought briefly for the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. Nobel 1945). a disorder inherited from his father had taken Borges's eyesight. at age three she moved to her mother's native Chile. As a penniless consul in Burma in the 1930s. and his 584-line poem The Sun Stone deals with the planet Venus. and The General in His Labyrinth. Vargas Llosa ran for president of Peru in 1990 but was defeated by Alberto Fujimori. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986. Cuba). He died of cancer days after his friend Salvador Allende was executed. While attending military school in Lima. he met a circle of avant-garde poets in Spain. Conversation in the Cathedral (1969) was Vargas Llosa's serious take on living under the dictatorship of Manuel Odría. where he wrote essays on Walt Whitman. One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967). when she published The House of the Spirits. 6. Other prominent novels include In Evil Hour. Love in the Time of Cholera. autobiographical Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter. Argentina). a magic realist work that chronicles several generations of the Trueba family. Guatemala. Martí fought tirelessly for Cuban independence. His Ill-Omened Friendship (1885) is considered the first Spanish modernist novel. 4. Gabriel García Marquez (1928-present. she served as a diplomat both in the United States and Europe. The Time of the Hero. He published the poetry collection Luna silvestre at age 19. Born Neftalí Reyes. The town played a prominent role in many of García Marquez's works. A native Chilean. he adopted the surname of the 19th century Czech poet Jan Neruda. Borges learned that language before he learned Spanish. he wrote the surrealist collection Residence on Earth. A newspaper journalist in the 1950s. Vargas Llosa wrote the play The Escape of the Inca (1952). He served in the Chilean senate in the 1940s. He most famous novel. about soap operas. Her formal literary career began at age 40. he settled in New York for the last fifteen years of his life. José Martí (1853-1895. though government opponents forced him into exile over his Communist views. The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950). By his fifties. 2. Paz supported leftist causes in Mexico. Another prose work. Colombia. Pablo Neruda (1904-1973. and his poetry collections include Our America and Simple Verses. While studying in Los Angeles. which detailed Allende's care for her terminally ill daughter. who inspired him to write about Mexico and its Native American/mestizo heritage in his pivotal essay collection. A successful news reporter in her twenties. Imprisoned at age sixteen and exiled from the island several times. his birthplace of Aracataca was the model for the fictional town of Macondo. and the threat of Latin American economic dependence on the United States. Peru). The master of magic realism. was a satire against the oppressive Guatalemalan dictatorship. Nobel 1967). Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-present. Mexico. an important symbol to the Aztecs. El señor presidente (1946).You Gotta Know These Latin American Authors 1. Octavio Paz (1914-1998. Asturias also completed a trilogy that blasted exploitation by . Actually born in Peru. collected in A Universal History of Infamy (1935). which inspired him to found the ultraismo movement and publish the collection Fervor of Buenos Aires (1923) when he returned to Argentina. One-quarter English. Gabriela Mistral (see below) was the head of his school in the small city of Temuco. Desolation (1922). Martí was killed in a skirmish at Dos Ríos while participating in an invasion with other Cuban exiles. García Marquez exposed a naval scandal (chronicled in The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor). Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair. Isabel Allende (1942-present. she wrote "Sonnets of Death" (1914) after the suicide of her fiancé. The first Latin American to win the Nobel Literature Prize. Ficciones (1944). the poem "Guantanamera" was the inspiration for several songs. such as Leaf Storm and his seminal novel. Nobel Prize for Literature 1982). Mistral was actually named Lucila Godoy Alcayaga. While working in a library. There he discovered Mayan mythology. 9. setting up a dictatorship. Best known as a poet and a revolutionary. 8. Chile). At first a prominent educator. but took her pen name from the Italian and French poets Gabriele D'Annunzio and Frédéric Mistral respectively. Paz observed flamboyantly dressed Mexican-American pachucos ("zoot-suiters"). and translated the Popol Vuh into Spanish. Chile. and The Aleph (1949). the theme would pervade his work. 1923 saw the publication of Neruda's best-known work. Langston Hughes translated a portion of Mistral's poetry into English just after she died. Jesse James. Nobel 1971). 3. In the Light of India (1997). a depiction of Simón Bolívar's final years. Miguel Asturias (1899-1974. Educated in Europe during World War I. Other important works include The War of the End of the World and A Fish in the Water. she and her family fled to Venezuela after General Augusto Pinochet deposed and executed her uncle Salvador Allende. such as 1963's Mulata de tal. Crossing the Andes on horseback inspired his epic Canto general (1950). Nobel 1990). Chile. which discusses his political career. but the harsh treatment he received there was the basis for his best-known novel. which details the decline of the Buendía family over seven generations. Those sonnets later appeared in her most famous collection. which led to diplomatic appointments. reflected Paz's part-(East) Indian heritage. Borges developed his greatest short stories. Other works of fiction include the short-story collection Eva Luna (1989) and Paula (1995).

Fuentes has often dealt with the betrayed ideals from the Mexican Revolution of 1910. based on the CIA-led overthrow of president Jacobo Arbenz's liberal government. the subject of both his first novel. Other notable novels include Terra nostra.10. the American-led United Fruit Company. Mexico). Though born into a well-to-do family. and his most successful book. Carlos Fuentes (1928-present. The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962). and the short-story collection Weekend in Guatemala (1956). and The Old Gringo. Fuentes has also penned absurdist plays and essay collections on Mexican and American art and literature . which portrays Ambrose Bierce's last days in Mexico. set during the reign of King Philip II of Spain. Where the Air is Clear (1958).

3. 1862). McClellan had a large enough force to capture the entire rebel army but did not use all of his troops nor coordinate one solid attack.C. D. Fought at a creek near Manassas.July 1862). Burnside's troops were forced to make "The Mud March" up the Rappahannock. This resounding victory by Lee and Jackson pushed Union forces back to Washington. this was the first major showdown of the war. Union forces drove the Confederates back across the Potomac. South Carolina. The South deliberately destroyed the Virginia two months later. Beauregard ordered the small Union garrison. it was captained by Franklin Buchanan. 4.thus the Union maintained its blockade.000 Union and 10.You Gotta Know These Civil War Battles and Campaigns 1. and fit it with ten guns and iron armor plates. Virginia. 1862). which were well entrenched in the hills behind the town. leading to McClellan's retreat down the James toward Harrison's Landing. John McClernand. 1863). Renaming the Virginia. commanded by Henry Halleck.)." Congressmen and reporters. Sherman and . Built on an island in 1829. Confederate commander Albert Sidney Johnston led a force north from Corinth. Anderson refused. Fort Sumter (April 12. After Johnston was wounded at Seven Pines (June 1). Lee maneuvered Jackson's troops behind those of Pope. 1861). who had just captured Fort Donelson. Jackson detained Pope's men at Manassas while Lee sent James Longstreet to crush Pope's left flank. but Confederate forces finally abandoned Sumter when they left Charleston in February 1865. They were up against rebel forces under Joseph Johnston and John Pemberton. Virginia by sending 110. Meanwhile. Lee routed the Union army. 2. 1862). Lee planned a northern invasion into Maryland but a Union soldier discovered those battle plans wrapped around three cigars. He met Lee's forces. about 50 miles south of Washington. In order to claim true independence from the Union. First Bull Run / First Manassas (July 21. Fredericksburg / Marye's Heights (December 13. while the Monitor sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras in December 1862. Lee marched his army toward Sharpsburg Creek. This was named after a church in Pittsburg Landing. while only 5000 Confederates were killed. but by the second day Northern Generals Don Carlos Buell and Lew Wallace (who wrote Ben-Hur) brought reinforcements. the South led the attack. 7.T. Advised of Northern maneuvers. causing the Confederates to retreat. Beauregard took over.C. controlled by Major Robert Anderson. Ulysses S. and failure of the campaign. He also sent a small unit (led by Stonewall Jackson) that crushed Union reinforcements in the West. After the battle. Mississippi.000 men up the peninsula between the York and James rivers. a Confederate force under P." 2000 Union soldiers fell in a few minutes. brought five Union divisions to face him. The Confederates raised an old wooden boat. 13. Minnesota) but when the Monitor arrived. to surrender. Congress. shots were fired. The Confederacy routed the Union when Thomas Jackson's brigade held the left line at Henry House Hill. fled in panic back to D. Halleck's army was supposed to land at Aquia. but instead retreated to defend Washington. in the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1). made foul by weather and dead and wounded bodies. The Union countered by constructing a large oval with a rotating gun. Lee concentrated his force north of the Chickahominy River. Antietam thus was actually a series of five skirmishes.G. Union commander George McClellan devised this plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond. At this site. Beauregard led an army against Union commander Irwin McDowell and received reinforcements from Joseph Johnston's troops (whom Union General Robert Patterson failed to detain). Vicksburg Campaign (April 29 . 5. At first. 1862). the fort was one of three that the United States maintained in the harbor of Charleston. The bloodiest day of the Civil War: 12. and the Union commander surrendered two days later. dubbed "The Bloody Lane. 6.000 Confederate soldiers lost their lives. With a superior position. the Merrimack. with only one soldier killed. Jackson's forces captured Harper's Ferry. More than 13. 1862). ceding all of Virginia to the Confederacy and marking a low point in the Union effort.000 Northern troops fell there. in one of them. Shiloh / Pittsburg Landing (April 6-7. 1861). Hampton Roads (March 9. called the Monitor and piloted by John Worden. The Union made two unsuccessful attempts to recapture the fort with ironclad ships in 1863. the Confederates broke through Union defenses. Antietam / Sharpsburg (September 17. Peninsular Campaign (March .July 4. Virginia (30 miles west of Washington D. President Lincoln had replaced McClellan with John Pope. 8. and William Tecumseh Sherman through bayous west of the Mississippi to Hard Times.000 Union men lost their lives. Tennessee (100 miles southwest of Nashville). A channel in southeastern Virginia was the site of the first major fight between two ironclad ships.C. This campaign was launched by Grant to take control of the Mississippi River and cut off the western Confederate states from the east. as did 10. but Union troops held the "Hornets' Nest" for hours. Second Bull Run / Second Manassas (August 29-30. Union commander Ambrose Burnside (who had replaced McClellan) tried to take the initiative and cross the Rappahannock River in a march toward Richmond. 9. Jefferson Davis decided that the forts needed to be taken. Grant. killing Johnston in the process. the two ironclads fought to a stalemate . and rushed to reunite with Lee. Southern commander Joseph Johnston detached a force to defend the peninsula. Instead. this effort earned him the nickname "Stonewall. Davis replaced him with Robert E. As it was. Grant ordered regiments led by James McPherson. who would supposedly be united with the Army of the Potomac. The Virginia tore through Union wooden ships (Cumberland.000 Confederates. Lee. who had expected to watch a Union victory.

B. Hooker took a force of 134. Only George Thomas (the "Rock of Chickamauga") saved Rosecrans from annihilation. he died of pneumonia eight days later. Lincoln called on "Fighting Joe" Hooker to command the Union army. at Chickamauga (in Georgia).000 and Lee retreated to Virginia. 11. That night. Grant met Lee at Cold Harbor (June 3). in the "Battle Above the Clouds. where the Union mowed down one-third of his 15. Hooker took Lookout Mountain in the southwest. a cannonball blast hit the Chancellor House. 17. 12. 13. The following morning. McPherson drove Johnston from Jackson. Stuart was supposed to monitor Union movement with his cavalry but strayed so far east of Gettysburg that his force did not return (exhausted) until the second day. Grant moved south to lay siege to this railroad hub. Lee. Chancellorsville (May 1-4. but could not drive the Southerners out of Vicksburg. Although the South maintained the city. Jackson moved around Hooker and counterattacked the Union flank on May 2.10." The trenches in which much of the fighting took place were similar to those later seen in World War I. allowed Grant. forcing him into a siege position at Chattanooga. along with Longstreet. Pemberton finally surrendered his men. A. Thomas ran right over the Southern force at Missionary Ridge.000 Northerners fell. The first clash between Grant and Lee. On November 24. Outnumbered 71. Low on supplies. this "Battle of the Crater" killed many defenders. where Southern leaders A. knocking Hooker unconscious. Chattanooga Campaign (September-November 1863). but with great cost. The Confederates lost 20. but with the entire campaign he severely reduced Confederate strength in a war of attrition. on the final day Lee ordered an attack on the center. however. J. and Richard Ewell. Johnston withdrew east. At Spotsylvania Court House. Hill.000 and provoked Lee and Jackson's 60.000 to 20. this series of conflicts started with the Battle of the Wilderness (50 miles northwest of Richmond).P.000 men to Lee's 1. 14. 25 miles from Richmond. George Meade replaced Hooker as leader of the Union side. 1864).P. and the Union scored a victory at Champion's Hill two days later. Hill and Ewell held the line. Casualties for the North outnumbered those of the South. while Jackson was on reconnaissance. George Pickett led his famous "charge" through open fields. Victory for the South.000 men.000 men into battle. his own men mistook him for a Northerner and shot him. as Stonewall Jackson lost his life. Bragg and Longstreet turned the tables by whipping Rosecrans. so Grant laid siege to the town. 14 miles southwest of Petersburg. 1863). Welldeveloped railroad networks. and over 17.500 and withdrew across the James River. Gettysburg (July 1-3.000 to 13.June 12.April 1865).000. led the southern Pennsylvania attack. After Cold Harbor. Meade assaulted Lee's men. Union troops led by John Sedgwick then retreated. securing Tennessee for the North." The next day. Grant finally destroyed the Confederate right flank at Five Forks (April 1-2). he lost 7. effectively ending the Civil War . This marked both the farthest northward advancement by the Confederacy and the turning point that led to its defeat. its supplies ran thin in the winter of 1865. but they repelled Meade at the "Bloody Angle.E. Petersburg Campaign (June 1864 . 1863). Mississippi on May 14. Pennsylvania coal miners detonated four tons of powder in a tunnel underneath the Confederate line. Hooker. On July 30. Advancing within ten miles of Richmond. and Sherman to bring reinforcements. Ten days later. It began when Union General William Rosecrans forced Confederate commander Braxton Bragg out of the city on September 9. This resounding defeat led to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House one week later.000 and on the brink of starvation. Southern forces drove Northerners through the town but could not secure key positions at Cemetery Ridge and Little and Big Round Tops. Wilderness Campaign (May 5 .

it is the Jewish Day of Atonement. from a book called a hagaddah. Sukkot commemorates the sukkot (booths) that the Israelites lived in following the Exodus from Egypt. it is traditional to invite a Biblical figure to be your guest for that night. it is traditional to dress up. is also performed. On Passover. it is customary to wear white clothes and eat apples. it also celebrates the harvest. on Shavu'ot. the Book of Jonah is read. It is believed that on this day. Between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. the Song of Songs is recited. It is also the ancient Hebrew New Year (superceded in that role by Rosh Hashanah). Passover commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. who tried to destroy the Jews because of his anger at Mordechai. 2. matzah (usually a square flat unleavened bread) is eaten instead. against Haman. Sinai. On Purim. and Shavu'ot are the three pilgrimages. 8." hence the name Pentecost. a period of semi-mourning. and leather shoes. honey. led by Esther and Mordechai. Hanukkah This festival lasts for eight days. drinking. the etrog [a large yellow citrus]. in which Jews throw bread crumbs into running water to symbolize the cleansing of their sins. when Jews would all gather at the Temple each year. Shavu'ot Celebrated on the sixth day of Sivan (the ninth month). 6. makeup. eat triangular pastries called hamentaschen. Passover. starting on the 25th day of Kislev (the third month). called the Omer. Yom Kippur Celebrated on the tenth day of Tishrei. 168 BC). The Ninth of Av This is a day of mourning for the destructions of both the First and Second Temples. an ancient incantation that forgives Jews from vows or promises unwittingly made during the past year. Other customs include the blowing of the shofar (an instrument made from a ram's horn) and the ceremony of Tashlich. Purim Celebrated on the 14th of Adar (the sixth month) and commemorating the victory of the Jews. recorded in the Book of Esther (read from a one-handed scroll called a megillah). are the Ten Days of Repentment. the 50th day of the Omer. four symbolic species (the palm. as well as the beginning of the harvest in ancient Israel. 4. Sukkot Celebrated on the 15th of Tishrei. On the first two days. Jews are required to abstain from eating or owning leavened bread for the duration of the festival. . it is believed that one's fate is sealed. and sex. the capital city of the kingdom of the Persian King Ahasueras. Jews would dedicate their first harvest fruits to the Temple. As on Rosh Hashanah. at the end of Yom Kippur. Traditionally. and God "temporarily" decides their fate. and exchange gifts (Mishloach Manot) with friends. The story. get drunk. Jews are required to abstain from eating. 5. the word Shavu'ot means "weeks. after Passover. Rosh Hashanah marks the beginning of the Jewish year.1. people's souls are judged. the Day of Atonement. Rosh Hashanah Celebrated on the first and second days of Tishrei. Passover also begins a cycle of seven weeks. On Rosh Hashanah. washing. when people are given a chance to reflect and repent.S. in the sukkah. It celebrates the victory of the small Maccabee army against the large Greek army of Antiochus. In synagogue. 7. and pomegranates. as Jews are supposed to refrain from physical comfort. One traditionally wears white clothes to symbolizing purity from sin. in which they live and eat for seven days. It is traditional to light the eight-branched Menorah each night and spin the dreidel. Each night. the shofar is blown. 3. The Book of Lamentations and the Book of Job are read. and it is traditional to study all night on this festival. give charity. and willow) are waved in seven directions. traditionally while sitting on the floor and with candles as the only lights. where they retell the story of the Exodus. The Book of Ruth is read in synagogue on Shavu'ot. Exchanging presents is only a recent tradition developed in the U. myrtle. Jews have a festival dinner called a seder. Passover (Pesach) Celebrated for seven days beginning on the 15th day of Nissan (the seventh month). It is traditional to fast and to keep oneself in a solemn mood. Sukkot. Forbidden fashions include jewelry. Shavu'ot commemorates the giving of the Torah to the Israelites at Mt. In the afternoon. takes place in Shushan. A full day of prayers begins with the Kol Nidre. as well as the recapture and purification of the Temple in Jerusalem (ca. Jews build booths.

similar to Doric). and Composite (mixture of Ionic and Corinthian). "The Waste Land" The five parts of T. 5. Teams should be able to find the derivative. 3. Calculus. Vectors.30 = ) 1. multiply. Sword. These are called Pythagorean Triples and the simplest ones are 3-4-5. if a square has a diagonal that is 30% longer than another square. or power. etc. The first three were attacked by British and Canadian forces while the latter two were assaulted by American troops." "The Fire Sermon. Juno. Pythagorean Triples. for his idealistic poetry). Plane Figures. 1. Teams should be able to calculate the areas of triangles (especially equilateral triangles). divide. and Henri Dunant and Frédéric Passy (peace. 4. 15-20-25. Similar reasoning applies to perimeters. and converting complex numbers to magnitudeangle form. 11. Divisibility Rules. integral. For instance. and critical points of polynomial. slope-at-a-point. the most important things to know are the basic sets of integers that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem (a2 + b2 = c2) and could be the side lengths of a right triangle. 3. Note that any multiple of a Pythagorean Triple is also a Pythagorean Triple so that 6-8-10. Solids. the other three originated with the Greeks. multiply. Teams should be able to quickly apply the divisibility rules for small integers (2 through 11) to large integers. subtract. 5-12-13. respectively). Complex Math. Teams should be able to calculate the volume and surface area of simple geometric figures including the sphere. Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (chemistry. Nobel Prize Winners The five original winners of Nobel Prizes (1901) were Wilhelm Röntgen (physics. rhombi. and converting from one base to another. local extrema. metaphase. diameters.69 times as great (69% greater). hemisphere. Teams should be able to quickly add. and find the roots of low-degree polynomials. Similar Figures. and add. Ionic (fancier. graphing complex numbers. Cesar Cui (1835-1918). parallelograms. economics. 6. particularly two-by-two ones. difference. Mily Balakirev (1837-1910). used for the Parthenon). Alexander Borodin (1833-1887). Permutations. S. find the angle between. Emil Adolf von Behring (physiology or medicine. for laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure)." They are Modest Mussorgsky (1839 -1881). Teams should be familiar with basic operations of logarithmic math: simplifying the logarithm of a product. but it still sometimes finds its way in. Polynomial Math. and 300-400-500 are also ones by virtue of 3-4-5 being one. They are the Doric (simple. 7. Mitosis The five stages of the biological process of mitosis (the production of new body cells from existing ones) are interphase. and invert matrices. prism. 12. and 8-15-17. and telophase. Matrices. for the discovery of X rays). 5. cone.). Teams should be able to compute the number of permutations and combinations of n objects taken m at a time. for his serum therapy remedy for diphtheria). Eliot's 1922 masterpiece "The Waste Land" are "The Burial of the Dead. 9. pyramid. . They should also have memorized the first eight (or so) values of the factorial function to make this easier." "A Game of Chess. D-Day The codenames for the five beaches attacked in Operation Overlord on D-Day are Gold." and "What the Thunder Said. The Mighty Handful Five nationalist Russian composers are often referred to as "The Mighty Handful" or "The Five. Logarithms. the dot product of. cylinder. Every team should be able to add.You Gotta Know These Computation Areas This You Gotta Know article is devoted to twelve computational areas that will help the most in solving the sorts of math questions that come up in NAQT invitational series. Almost certainly. anaphase." a term that primarily refers to the design of the columns used in the building. and the cross product of two vectors. Every team should be able to find the length of a vector. side lengths. Tuscan (plain. 4. Corinthian (baroque. 2. 1. NAQT's collegiate sets tend to have very little computation and much of that is in the context of a specific field (physics. fluted with acanthus-like leaves for capitals). take the determinant of. trapezoids. 7-24-25. Interphase is not technically a part of mitosis. and circles using different angles and lengths. basic operations on complex numbers. prophase. The areas of similar figures are related by the square of any corresponding length and the volumes are related by the cube of any corresponding length. fluted with scrolls on their capitals). for founding the International Red Cross and the first French peace society. it has an area that is (1. subtract. factor. transpose. subtract. and parallelepiped. and other common functions These ten topics are connected by only two things: There are five answers in each set and they all come up repeatedly in quiz bowl. chemistry. and Omaha. Teams should be familiar with the symbol i representing the imaginary square root of -1. Orders of Architecture There are five classical "orders of architecture. Utah." 2. trigonometric.30 x 1. The latter two orders are Roman developments. 8. Sully Prudhomme (literature. 6. and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908). and so forth." "Death By Water. 10.

7. They are the declaration of faith (Shahadah). From lowest to highest energy of the final level. Brackett. three-dimensional shapes with congruent regular polygons for sides. 10. Platonic Solids There are only five regular polyhedra. and Walter Johnson. cube (6 square sides). Honus 8. Spectral Lines Hydrogen produces an infinite series of spectral lines. octahedron (8 triangular sides). are the tetrahedron (4 triangular sides). The first five of those series are named after scientists who observed them before it was known that they were actually examples of the same phenomenon. Balmer. and Pfund series. Pillars of Islam Islam has five fundamental tenets of religious life. giving charity to those in need (Zakat). Babe Ruth. Paschen. and icosahedron (20 triangular sides). Only the Balmer series exists in the visible spectrum. dodecahedron (12 pentagonal sides). they are known as the Lyman. Wagner. Cooperstown The first five members elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame were Ty Cobb. fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm). Christy Mathewson. . prayer (Salat). a group known as the Pillars of Islam. known as the Platonic solids. and the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) to be performed once in each adherent's lifetime 9. These.

the first being in 1960 at Squaw Valley.90 meters that would remain untouched for 23 years. with all 54 East German rowers earning a medal and the Soviets totaling 80 gold medals. these Games were marred by a United States boycott ordered by President Jimmy Carter in response to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. 1968 Summer (Mexico City." Virtually every Communist nation skipped these games. This lead was followed by Canada. Greece. April 6 . Finally. but their thunder was stolen by Ukrainian skate Oksana Baiul. future Colorado Avalanche forward Peter Forsberg's game-winning effort against Canadian goalie Sean Burke was immortalized on a Swedish postage stamp. The Games ended on a controversial note: to protest the Mexican government's killing of at least 250 unarmed demonstrators on the eve of the Games. August 26-September 11. 1980 Winter (Lake Placid. these Games saw U. Mexico. 6. King. who won seven gold medals. The result was an Eastern Bloc field day. NY. something very special had to happen. On other fronts. CA. five of whom were shot dead by West German police. perennial hard luck kid Dan Jansen won Olympic gold in his last race. as the Americans took home 83 gold medals out of a total of 174. Appropriately.000 meters. Sweden. Thorpe went on to win the decathlon with a score so astounding that it would still have won him the silver medal in 1948. led by head coach Herb Brooks and captain Mike Eruzione. 4. In the ensuing media circus. 200-meter dash.August 3. 1972) One of the most tragic Olympics ever. placed fourth in the high jump. In speed skating. or in this case.1. During the Olympic Trials in Detroit. these Games saw the kidnapping and killing of 11 Israeli athletes by eight Palestinian terrorists. Greek shepherd Spiridon Louis became the hero of the Games by winning the marathon. many of whom chose to partake." 1936 Summer (Berlin. Though the Olympics paused for 34 hours. 1980 Summer (Moscow. West Germany." the U. 3. and Norwegian Johann Olav Koss won three gold medals. 1980. Among the highlights were American sprinter Carl Lewis' repeat of Jesse Owens 1936 performance: winning the 100-meter dash. 9.S. the 1. winners were awarded silver medals. Tommie Smith and John Carlos staged a silent protest with a black gloved. 1980) Despite the glow from the Lake Placid Games. 1968) In addition to being the first Olympics to be held at high altitude. 1896) The first edition of the modern Olympics was the brainchild of Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France. Soviet Union. "The Russians aren't coming. Kerrigan was viciously attacked by an unknown assailant. 2. United States. long jump. while Harding placed eighth. 7. West Germany. both Kerrigan and Harding were sent to Norway. October 12-27. 200-meter dash. 1972 Summer (Munich. you are the greatest athlete" to which Thorpe purportedly replied "Thanks. 8. bringing American viewers up to date on the situation.S. 1994 Winter (Lillehammer. Swedish king Gustav V said. August 1-16. and Russian gymnast Olga Korbut. Sweden won the ice hockey gold by defeating Canada in a shootout. Olympic hockey team. the athletic hero was United States decathlete and Native American Jim Thorpe. the Olympics were broadcast on television for the first time (as seen in the film Contact) and also saw the introduction of the relay of the Olympic torch. May 5 . July 19 . who would later be traced back to Harding. United States. February 12-24. and 4 x 100 meter sprint relay. all in world-record times. Norway. American speed skater Eric Heiden.April 15. the Russians aren't coming. 1980) In an Olympics where a single man. defeated the powerful Soviet team 4-3 on February 22. long jumper Bob Beamon set a record of 8. Japan. 1912) While the Swedes introduced electronic timers to the games. "Sir. During the medal presentation. This didn't sit well with the International Olympic Committee who promptly ordered them home. raised fist "Black Power" salute during the award ceremony for the 200-meter race. leaving the door open for a "USA all the way" feeling.August 12. British distance runner Sebastian Coe produced the West's best performance by winning the 1500-meter race. would win five gold medals and not be the biggest story. Two days later. 1984 Summer (Los Angeles.000-meters. Germany. the German people became enamored with Owens and named a Berlin street for him after his 1980 death.July 22. 1936) These games are best remembered for Alabama native Jesse Owens' amazing work on the track against a backdrop of Nazi propaganda emphasizing Aryan superiority. The American athlete won the 100-meter dash. In what would become known as "The Miracle on Ice. Despite the growing strength of the Nazi state. long jump. while other Western nations left it up to their individual athletes. Jim McKay of ABC Sports remained on the air for hours. who edged out silver medallist Kerrigan. who captivated audiences en route to winning three gold medals. . February 12-February 27. West Virginia native Mary Lou Retton won the all-around gold medal. 1994) Massachusetts native Nancy Kerrigan and Oregonian Tonya Harding were among America's leading hopes for gold in women's figure skating. July 28 . Bonnie Blair won her third straight gold in the 500-meters and second straight in the 1. 1984) One good turn deserves another. Kenya and China. 1912 Summer (Stockholm. 1896 Summer (Athens. 5. the IOC ordered the games to continue and memorable performances were turned in by American swimmer Mark Spitz. and seventh in the long jump. they defeated Finland to claim America's second Olympic hockey gold medal. He won the pentathlon. In gymnastics. and 4 x 100-meter sprint relay. Some of the stranger events included one-handed weightlifting and 100-meter freestyle swimming for members of the Greek navy.

GA. the sweltering Georgia heat and organizational problems made these Games a veritable nightmare. But a still-unsolved bombing in Centennial Olympic Park that killed one person and injured one hundred that remains the Games' most memorable event. the former in a world-record 19. Carl Lewis got his ninth gold by winning the long jump for the fourth consecutive Games. only to be plagued by rumors of steroid use. 1996) In what have been called "The Coke Games. July 25 . 1996 Summer (Atlanta.32 seconds .10." due to their exceptional commercialization in the city of Coke's business headquarters. Irish swimmer Michelle Smith won three gold medals in the pool.August 8. United States. while American sprinter Michael Johnson became the first man to win the 200-meter and 400-meter races.

It is a highlevel and highly standardized language that remains very "close to the hardware" and allows the programmer to perform useful. etc. run everywhere" property. particularly artificial intelligence." 6. BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a high-level language developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College in the mid 1960s. 7. fast. a compiled successor to the B programming language. 5. it progressed through ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68 before waning in popularity. though it was never popular for business or scientific applications. It emphasized record-processing and database access and uses an English-like syntax. games. but adds object-oriented features (classes). all attributes that led to widespread use in business. CommonLisp. C. Instead of being compiled to object code. It is often used for web CGI scripts and parsing log files. particularly the financial sector. 4. Pascal is best known for its emphasis on structured programming techniques and strong typing. which is then interpreted or compiled on the fly. . It is named after the 17th-century mathematician Blaise Pascal and was developed by Niklaus Wirth during 1967-71. 77. and dangerous tricks. 2. it was extremely popular as a teaching language in the 1980s and early 1990s. are very closely related. but the ANSI Fortran Committee has since declared the "initial capital" spelling official. read never" because of its heavy use of symbols and idiom. "Perl" is an unofficial retronym for "Practical Extraction Report Language. high-level language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985 at Bell Labs. 9. This use of machine-independent bytecode gives it its "write once. It is intended to be practical and concise rather than theoretically elegant and is sometimes lampooned as "write one. The name "Fortran" was originally entirely capitalized. 8. Pascal is a high-level. It is easy to use but its relative lack of structure makes maintaining programs difficult. and 90. it was once in use on virtually every computer in the world and is still used today for engineering and scientific applications because of the quality of its compilers and numerical libraries. 3. C++ is similar to C. games. but hit it big after being renamed in 1995 and introduced to the World Wide Web. Designed by John Backus for IBM during the late 1950s. The language was originally named OAK and unsuccessfully used for set-top devices. and device drivers. Java is principally used for client-side web application ("applets") and server-side web application ("servlets") that make use of J2EE technology. 10. It is characterized as especially wordy (just as C and Perl are characterized as terse). ALGOL was sufficiently advanced and respected that most modern procedural languages reflect its overall structure and design. LISP (LISt Processing) is the ancestor of the family of functional languages that emphasize evaluating expressions rather than executing imperative commands.NET framework. It is a popular language for developing business applications and. compiled. Java is a popular high-level language developed by Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. The most popular Fortran versions are Fortran IV. There have been many versions of BASIC and some more modern ones (TurboBasic.) continue to be used in academic research.You Gotta Know These Programming Languages 1. COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language) was developed in 1959 by CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) under the direction of Rear Admiral Grace Hopper and is the second-oldest high-level language. Stereotypical programs like 10 PRINT "HELLO" and 10 GOTO 10 are written in BASIC. increasingly. It was developed in 1950-1960 by John McCarthy and is used primarily for symbolic manipulations of complicated structures rather than numerical calculation. because of this. like Pascal. C++ is a popular. The vast majority of Year 2000 problems involved programs written in COBOL. QuickBasic Visual Basic) have added advanced features. It is a relatively pure object-oriented language with syntax similar to C++. It and its descendants (Scheme. some. operating systems (particularly UNIX and Linux). it is compiled to Java bytecode. Perl is an interpreted language designed principally to process text. was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972. It is widely used for business applications. generic programming (templates). ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) was created in the late 1950s and was the first procedural language intended for solving mathematical and scientific problems. The success of Java inspired Microsoft to introduce its C# language and . compiled language built upon ALGOL. and exception handling to the language. Formalized in a report titled ALGOL 58. The object-oriented language Delphi was based on Pascal. Fortran (FORmula TRANslation) is the oldest high-level language. It was written by Larry Wall and first released in 1988.

1871 44 1845 41 1784 35 1944 35 1741 30 1775 30 1791 29 1804 28 1787 28 1913 28 1905 26 1869 26 1896 26 1904 26 1851 25 1830 25 1791 23 1918 21 1805 21 1808 21 1843 21 1725 21 1928 19 1853 19 1909 19 1894 19 1893 18 1936 18 1804 18 1790 18 1874 17 . so teams should be prepared for questions on their style. performance. instrumentation.You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the fifty most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of November 17. 2002. program. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. key. lyrics. and circumstances of creation. Rank Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Aida Carmen The Marriage of Figaro Appalachian Spring Messiah The Barber of Seville London Symphonies William Tell Don Giovanni The Rite of Spring Salome Boris Godunov La Bohème Madama Butterfly Rigoletto Symphonie fantastique The Magic Flute The Planets Fidelio Pastoral Symphony The Flying Dutchman The Four Seasons Bolero La Traviata The Song of the Earth Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Symphony Pathetique Carmina Burana Eroica Cosi fan tutte Pictures at an Exhibition Genre Opera Opera Opera Ballet Oratorio Opera Symphony Opera Opera Ballet Opera Opera Opera Opera Opera Symphony Opera Composition Opera Symphony Opera Concerto Composition Opera Symphony Composition Symphony Cantata Symphony Opera Composition Creator Giuseppe Verdi Georges Bizet Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Aaron Copland Geroge Frideric Handel Gioacchino Rossini Franz Josef Haydn Gioacchino Rossini Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky Richard (Georg) Strauss Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Giuseppe Verdi (Louis-)Hector Berlioz Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gustav Holst Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Antonio Vivaldi (Joseph) Maurice Ravel Giuseppe Verdi Gustav Mahler (Achille-)Claude Debussy Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Carl Orff Ludwig van Beethoven Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Date Freq. While you really gotta know their creators.

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 The Nutcracker Porgy and Bess Turandot Falstaff Symphony from the New World Peter and the Wolf The Star-Spangled Banner Moonlight Sonata Lohengrin Hungarian Rhapsodies Rhapsody in Blue Jupiter Symphony Amahl and the Night Visitors Spring Symphony Don Juan A German Requiem Symphony of a Thousand Rodeo Swan Lake Ballet Opera Opera Opera Symphony Composition Song Sonata Opera Composition Composition Symphony Opera Symphony Tone poem Sacred choral work Symphony Composition Ballet Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky George Gershwin Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Giuseppe Verdi Anton Dvorák Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev Francis Scott Key (lyrics). music traditional Ludwig van Beethoven (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Franz Liszt George Gershwin Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gian-Carlo Menotti Robert (Alexander) Schumann Richard (Georg) Strauss Johannes Brahms Gustav Mahler Aaron Copland Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1892 17 1935 17 1762 17 1893 17 1893 17 1936 17 1814 17 1801 16 1850 16 1846 15 1924 15 1788 15 1951 15 1841 15 1888 15 1868 15 1907 15 1942 15 1877 14 .

USS Maine (ACR-1) [Second class] The first Maine. which is why she was chosen as the site of the formal surrender of the Empire of Japan on the morning of September 1. USS Missouri (BB-63) [Iowa class] The fourth USS Missouri was the last battleship completed by the United States. 1955. she was on Battleship Row at Pearl Harbor when Japanese aircraft appeared just before 8:00 am on Sunday." 4. The Missouri was launched January 29. and the ship sank to the bottom of the harbor." In 1958 she departed Pearl Harbor under top secret orders to conduct "Operation Sunshine. Harry S Truman. A part of the "Great White Fleet. Shortly after 9:40 pm on February 15. a second-class armored battleship was launched in 1889. 5. daughter of then Missouri Senator. Launched from Boston in 1797. these mark significant advancements in naval technology or turning points in U. USS Arizona (BB-39) [Pennsylvania class] A lead ship of the honor escort for President Wilson's trip to France in 1918. Eight months later. Navy. In the battle. The court of inquiry convened in March was unable to obtain evidence associating the blast with any person or persons. the Constitution first saw action as the squadron flagship in the Quasi-War with France from 1799-1801 and also fought in the Barbary War and the War of 1812. USS Nautilus (SSN-571) [Nautilus class] In 1951 Congress authorized construction of the world's first nuclearpowered submarine. the battleship was torn apart by a tremendous explosion. 1944 and received her sponsorship from Miss Margaret Truman. the Navy Department announced that she would be the sixth ship of the fleet to bear the name Nautilus. 1945. 7. the Nautilus became the first commissioned nuclear-powered ship in the U. She later served many years as the nation's flagship in the Mediterranean. history. killing 1. On March 8. 8. Navy in 1940 and is now a floating museum in Boston. Capt. Boarding and taking command. between 1798 and 1799. 1898. On December 12 of that year. The Confederates destroyed the Virginia soon after to prevent her capture by Union forces. Retired from active duty in 1846. yard workers salvaged the USS Merrimack and converted her into the ironclad CSS Virginia. 1862. 2. The Chesapeake was attacked by the British Leopard off Cape Henry in 1807 (which led to the duel between Commodores James Barron and Stephen Decatur). was severely damaged and four-fifths of her crew killed or wounded. Naval Academy until the mid-1880s. on which occasion her commander. The South's ironclad rammed and sank the USS Cumberland and set fire to and sank the USS Congress. 6. he brought her into battle and soundly defeated the British fleet. The Monitor was sent to end its rampage and the two ironclads battled for 3 1/2 hours before the Virginia ran aground in its attempt to ram the USS Minnesota.S. USS Lawrence/USS Niagara Oliver Hazard Perry's decisive victory over the British fleet in the Battle of Lake Erie on September 10.S. Commissioned on June 11. James Lawrence. Wilkinson signaled "Underway on Nuclear Power." the Constitution was one of the first six ships commissioned by the U. The Arizona came under attack almost immediately. December 7. USS Constitution Better known as "Old Ironsides. Within a few seconds the forward powder magazines exploded. most importantly." the first crossing of the North Pole by a ship.S. 1954. She became the symbolic flagship of the U. the Virginia retreated and the Monitor withdrew to protect the Minnesota. Though there are some ships that were more involved in battle. 1941.S. She was captured off Boston in 1813 by the British frigate Shannon. but public opinion--inflamed by "yellow journalism"--was such that the Maine disaster led to the declaration of war on Spain on April 21. Perry summarized the fight in a now-famous message to General William Henry Harrison: "We have met the enemy and they are ours. they are the ships that come up most frequently in quiz bowl. one of the nation's first six frigates. the words of Oliver Wendell Holmes' "Old Ironsides" saved her from the scrap yard--she became the training ship of the U. victorious in her first battle. USS Chesapeake The USS Chesapeake was built at what is now the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Perry's flagship." as she became known. 1813 ensured American control of the Great Lakes during the War of 1812. the USS Niagara. Navy.S. sank in a storm off Cape Hatteras.S. as well as one from the navy of the Confederate States of America. the "Mighty Mo. uttered his celebrated dying words. Navy after the American Revolution. on September 30." which have become a tradition in the U. the CSS Virginia left the shipyard and sank two Union warships in Hampton Roads. "Don't give up the ship. Navy.177 of the crew. . sailed for the Pacific and quickly became the flagship of Admiral Halsey." in 1897 the Maine sailed for Havana to show the flag and protect American citizens. 1954. She was launched on January 21.You Gotta Know These American Warships The following list of nine American warships includes eight of the most important or interesting ships in the U. NC. In 1962 the USS Arizona memorial opened and is now administered by the National Park Service. she was laid down January 6. 1941 by New York Naval Shipyard. USS Monitor/CSS Virginia [aka USS Merrimack] After departing Union forces burned the Gosport Navy Yard in Norfolk in April 1861. 1.S. 1944. The Monitor. Commodore Perry and a small contingent rowed a half-mile through heavy gunfire to another American ship. Nautilus' Cmdr. and at about 8:10 was hit by an 800-kilogram bomb just forward of turret two on the starboard side. 1898. one of the causes of the War of 1812. 3. the USS Lawrence. The shipwreck is a national underwater sanctuary under the purview of the NOAA. Visibly damaged. On the morning of January 17.

a question that mentions specific names. and A Man in Full." 4. Angel and You Can't Go Home Again." 11.. the title is not "The Sign of the Four. was not affected by Original Sin from the moment of her conception onward. Similarly. it is singular and the plural form will be counted wrong in NAQT competitions." A similar error is often made in giving "van der Waal" as the name of the Dutch chemist. The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg is the correct title of the short story by Mark Twain.. El Greco's Christ Driving the Money-Changers from the Temple may appear as Expulsion from the Temple) and players should keep in mind that the form of the title they know may not be the one given in the question . 6. Greco-Roman Mythology Greek and Roman mythology have many analogous characters. This means that many titles (e. 8. In general music theory differentiates between notes that are enharmonic in the specific case of the piano and NAQT questions will require that correct note (and will not prompt on the other). 5. all answers (regardless of the usual cultural order) may be given in either order: "Mishima Yukio. The Descent from the Cross.present. but his name is actually "van der Waals. though it is usually a good idea to only give the family name when answering (since family names are usually sufficient and always will be prompted if not).g." and "James." 2.) occur very frequently and players should not be as quick to ring in upon immediately recognizing as a title as in other fields because there is a good chance that more than one painter produced a work by that name." "Yukio Mishima. East Asian Names Many East Asian languages (but in particular Japanese. The full name varies from translation to translation.1938. Thus the answer to "From whose head was Minerva born?" must be "Jupiter" and not "Zeus. 7. relatively few religious paintings were given specific titles. traits.. England has not existed as a separate political unit and questions about political entities after that time will nearly always require "United Kingdom" (or "Great Britain") and will not prompt on "England." In particular. 9. Aphrodite and Venus). continues to be a reasonable answer in modern times for geography or sports questions. IWW An abbreviation for the early 20th-century labor organization Industrial Workers of the World. in full. 1.g.You Gotta Avoid These Common Mistakes II This article is similar to the previous common mistakes article in that it consists of common mistakes that players make when answering questions and answers that are often confused. However. In NAQT competitions. most have been assigned traditional names based on their subject manner. Under NAQT rules. but sometimes appears as "The Revelation of St. many of which are closely identified (e.) is the modern author and journalist who wrote The Right Stuff. Thomas Clayton Wolfe) was an earlier author of works like Look Homeward. "Thomas Wolfe" will be counted wrong for the former and "Tom Wolfe" as wrong for the latter. In particular. The Adoration of the Magi. his name is not "Shay. this is not true on other instruments or under most systems of tuning. Vietnamese. Daniel Shays An officer in the Revolutionary War who went on to lead a 1786-1787 rebellion in western Massachusetts opposing its high taxes. or otherwise makes clear that it is about one tradition requires that the answer from that tradition be given. 3. "The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyburg" is incorrect." 12. Players who are not certain may wish to give both names. In particular. The Annunciation. in full Thomas Kennerly Wolfe Jr. Tom Wolfe and Thomas Wolfe Two different people. etc." England. Immaculate Conception The Roman Catholic belief that Mary. John the Divine" or "Apocalypse of John. Henry" are all acceptable. the titles are often not canonical (e." "Henry James. In particular. In particular. despite the lack of male involvement. The Sign of Four The Arthur Conan Doyle novel about the theft of the Agra treasure by four men including Jonathan Small. it does not refer to the conception by Mary of Jesus the Christ. The Bonfire of the Vanities. of course. Visual Art Titles From 1300 to 1700. it does not stand for the (redundant) "International Workers of the World. In particular. an episode known as "Shays' Rebellion.g. analogous figures from other traditions will not even be prompted under NAQT rules. Thomas Wolfe (1900 . Chinese. Revelation The final book of the New Testament. Tom Wolfe (1930 . but players should make sure that they know which part of an East Asian name is the family name as "Yukio" will be neither prompted nor accepted. and Korean) traditionally place the family name before the given name: Mishima Yukio's family name is "Mishima"." 10. the mother of Jesus. United Kingdom Since the Act of Union in 1707. Enharmonic Notes While it is true that on a piano the notes C-sharp and D-flat are indistinguishable.

" and. Rabbis and lay scholars finished the Babylonian Talmud around 600. and the highly civilized Nephites. The Qur'an is subdivided into 114 chapters. the religion is still practiced by about 120. or text of the original oral law itself. as well as an isnad. The Analects also contain some of the basic ideas found in Confucianism." the Talmud is a codification of Jewish oral and written law. or Ahriman). but most of the Avesta was put together by the Sassanid Persian dynasty. It consists of the Mishnah (the laws themselves). formalized the text after many of his oral reciters were killed in battle. or Ormuzd) and its evil counterpart (Angra Mainyu. or chain of authorities through which it has been passed by word of mouth through the generations. the angel Jibril [Gabriel] visited the prophet Muhammad in 610 and revealed the work to him.000 Parsees in Bombay and a few thousand adherents in Iran and Iraq. Wisdom. Spiritual release. the earlier Upanishads laid the foundation for the development of several key Hindu ideas. 6. the hadith point Muslims toward the Sunna. which together with the Qur'an forms the basis for shari'a . and justice of Allah. when Zoroaster is thought to have lived. and Baruch are almost always included. 1. Qur'an (or Koran) Arabic for "recitation. 3. Vendidad (legal and medical doctrine). such as ren (benevolence) and li (proper conduct). Upanishads Also called Vedanta. 4." it is the most sacred scripture of Islam. It consists of five parts: Gathas (poems written by Zoroaster). or moksha. allowing the natural order of the universe to take precedent. a chosen people instructed by Jesus but killed by the Lamanites around 421. the latter considered more authoritative by Orthodox Jews. Uthman (644-656). The name "Upanishads" means "to sit down close. Hadith A hadith is a report of the words or actions of a Muslim religious figure. Judith. though scholars now believe it was written about 200 years later. with the exception of the first one. and then Smith translated it from a "reformed Egyptian" language. happiness in Heaven versus torture in Hell." the Upanishads were written in Sanskrit between 900 and 500 BC." Scholars differ as to which books make up the Apocrypha. and Confucius thought of himself more as a teacher than as a spiritual leader. 2. in ancient Greek it meant "hidden things. during the Warring States period of the late Zhou Dynasty. According to Muslim belief. Likely formalized in the 1st or 2nd century. could be achieved through meditation and asceticism. Krishna tells Arjuna that humans possess a divine self within a material form. in particular. Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus). and Khurda (lesser rituals and hymns). are arranged in descending order of length. and documents the history of a group of Hebrews who migrated to America around 600 BC. such as connecting the individual soul (atman) with the universal soul (Brahman). compassion. but Catholics and Orthodox Christians consider the books that make up the Apocrypha to be "deuterocanonical. 9. but Tobit. The Gemara developed in two Judaic centers: Palestine and Babylonia. 10. The Book of Mormon is inscribed on thin gold plates.You Gotta Know These Religious Texts This list of religious works from around the world specifically excludes the Old Testament and the New Testament. 1 and 2 Maccabees. Joseph Smith. The philosopher Confucius did not write or edit the words that make up the Analects. which will be the subject of an upcoming You Gotta Know article. or "last part of the Vedas. based on the Torah. Yashts (hymns to angels and heroes). the Bhagavad-Gita begins on the eve of a battle." it is a poem found in Book Six of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. which. Book of Mormon Published in 1830 by the founder of the Mormon Church. it contains the sayings (aphorisms) of Confucius. usually translated as Islamic law. 5. Apocrypha Protestants and Jews assign lower authority to the Apocrypha because it was written between 300 and 100 BC. 7. Each consists of a matn. . Zoroastrianism centers on the eternal struggle between a good entity (Ahura Mazda. a religionphilosophy founded by the semi-legendary Laozi in the sixth century BC." meaning that they are just as important and divinely-inspired as other parts of the Old Testament. The third caliph. and the Gemara (scholarly commentary on the Mishnah). Part poetry but mainly prose. when the prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu) about responsibility in dealing with the suffering that impending battle will cause. Mormons believe that the prophet Moroni revealed the location of the Book of Mormon to Smith. most frequently the Prophet Muhammad. Confucianism is more of a philosophical system than a religion. his disciples compiled them in the 5th or 4th century BC. called suras. The Dao de Jing instructs adherents in restraint and passiveness. or practice of the Prophet. 8. Talmud Hebrew for "instruction. Avesta (or Zend-Avesta) Sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism. Visparat (homages to spiritual leaders). This group divided into two tribes: the Lamanites (ancestors of American Indians). Bhagavad-Gita Sanskrit for "The Song of God. and the mercy. Analects One of the "Four Books" used by the ancient Chinese for civil service study. "Apocryphal" in general means "something outside an accepted canon. Collectively. between 200 and 640. so there are two Talmuds (Palestinian and Babylonian). Dao de Jing (or Tao Te Ching or The Way and Its Power) Philosophical text behind Daoism. Various suras discuss absolute submission to Allah [God]. and that Arjuna's duty is to love God and do what is right without thinking of personal gain--some of the main tenets of Hinduism. The Gathas may be as old as the 7th century BC." as pupils did when a teacher recited them.

does not develop until the Upanishads. convicting him of treason and executing him. including both William Pitts. James dissolved Parliament from 1611 to 1621. As the great-great-grandson of Henry VII. 9. Originally a supporter of the Catholic Church--the Pope had named him "Defender of the Faith"--he named himself head of the Church of England in 1533 so that he could divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. he was promised succession to the throne by Edward the Confessor. she and her husband "Prince" Philip Mountbatten have traveled the globe representing British interests. r. but financial troubles forced him to call the Short and Long Parliaments. Vedas Consist strictly of four hymnbooks: the Rig (prayers in verse). You Gotta Know These British Monarchs 1. Richard died at the hands of Henry Tudor's Lancastrian forces at Bosworth Field. the son of Mary. and by reading pairs of these trigrams randomly. Britain's economic empire expanded during his reign. Victoria largely went into seclusion. as part of the Wars of the Roses. but likely had the boy murdered in the Tower of London that year. their elevation. he brought England into both the Renaissance and the Reformation. Lord Melbourne. George III (1738-1820. and the meaning of life. he suffered from porphyria. and Lord North. though she influenced the passage of the Reform Act of 1867. 1625-1649) House of Stuart. including Thomas Cromwell and Thomas More. At age one James succeeded his mother Mary as King James VI of Scotland. Henry VIII (1491-1547. 5. 4. Richard III (1452-1485. Her reign saw great expansion of the English navy and the emergence of William Shakespeare. Lord Bute. Representative of the modern ceremonial monarchy. 7. 6. . Yajur (prose prayers). Elizabeth I (1533-1603. After Albert's death in 1861. Richard served as regent to his nephew Edward V. Marital failures by her sons Charles (the Prince of Wales) and Andrew have plagued her reign. killing Harold and defeating the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. Duke of Normandy from 1035. The major gods Vishnu and Shiva appear as minor deities in the Vedas. His minister. (Alexandrina) Victoria (1819-1901. 1837-1901. Qin emperor Shi Huangdi burned most scholarly books. James I (1566-1625. A believer in absolutism. James was the intended target of Catholic fanatic Guy Fawkes' failed Gunpowder Plot in 1605. the painter Hans Holbein the Younger. r. He married six times. William invaded England. asked Parliament for money to fight costly foreign wars. r. Charles had to sign the Petition of Right. Charles I (1600-1649. 1558-1603) House of Tudor. Charles ran into trouble almost immediately. After the death of her Catholic sister Mary I. The last absolute English monarch. and the writer Thomas More. the sickly Edward VI. but when she died. 8. as Parliament entered into the English Civil War. one could learn about humans. also contains a Brahmana (interpretation). and the Vedas also incorporate treatises on meditation (Aranyakas) as well as the Upanishads. They defeated Charles. 1066-1087) House of Normandy. William I (the Conqueror) (1028-1087. and Atharva (spells and incantations). they fell from power frequently. Empress of India 1876-1901) House of Hanover. and when Parliament balked. The longestreigning monarch in British history. 12. Robert Peel.11. England became a Commonwealth with Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. possibly between 1500 and 1200 BC. r. She foiled attempts at her throne by Spanish king Philip II and Mary. though legend has it that the dragon-emperor Fuxi derived its eight trigrams from a turtle shell. the Vedas concentrate on sacrifices to deities. but the Yijing escaped because it was not seen as threatening. Two years later. r. He was made Duke of Gloucester in 1461 when his brother Edward IV deposed the Lancastrian king Henry VI. the Yijing was created between 1500 and 1000 BC. causing the "madness" that ultimately led to the Regency period (1811-1820) of his son George IV. but when Edward gave the throne to Harold II in 1066. but only his third wife. r. though. His rule saw English expansion into North America. Varuna (cosmic order). While George's ministers kept their lives. and Agni (fire). the latter Elizabeth reluctantly executed in 1587. Jane Seymour. he authorized a survey of his kingdom in the 1086 Domesday Book. Popular at home. he claimed the English throne upon the death of Elizabeth I. 1760-1820) House of Hanover. 3. Queen of Scots. Each Veda. By that time William had replaced Anglo-Saxon nobles and clergy with Normans and other continentals. through royal charter in Virginia and Puritan protest in Massachusetts. favoring ministers Robert Cecil and the Duke of Buckingham instead. both to her husband Albert and to her favored prime ministers. Written in an archaic form of Sanskrit by early Aryan invaders. Henry executed top ministers who crossed him. as Henry VIII's daughter by Anne Boleyn. The trigrams consist of three either broken (yin) or unbroken (yang) lines. such as Indra (god of thunder). r. as well as the concept of karma. she relinquished much of the remaining royal power. the Duke of Buckingham. the universe. r. 1952-present) House of Windsor. An able administrator. Henry patronized the philosopher Erasmus. Yijing (or I Ching or Book of Changes) The basis for ancient Chinese philosophy and religion. From 1630 to 1641 he tried to rule solo. bore him a son. 1603-1625) House of Stuart. Elizabeth I tried to restore religious order by declaring England a Protestant state but naming herself only "Governor" of the Church. 1509-1547) House of Tudor. 2. 1483-1485) House of York. Known as the "Virgin Queen" because she never married. r. and Benjamin Disraeli. Queen of Scots. the Crown went to Scottish king James VI. Though he lost the American colonies in the Revolutionary War. Sama (musical melodies). The son of Tudor founder Henry VII. which doubled the number of Britons who could vote. His attempt to reform the Scottish Church was the last straw. the Catholic Church considered her illegitimate. Elizabeth II (1926-present. ending the Wars of the Roses and beginning the reign of Henry VII. Upon Edward's death in 1483.

r. 1189-1199) House of Plantagenet. 11. he dissolved Parliament over the issue in 1681 and refused to prevent his brother James from succeeding him. He fought two lackluster wars against the Dutch. 1660-1685) House of Stuart. and died while defending his possessions in Aquitaine. Henry II (1133-1189. had it been real and not fabricated by Titus Oates. His wife Catherine of Braganza produced no legitimate heirs. While Cromwell ruled the Commonwealth. While king he developed the common law and due process. Third son of Henry II. Richard forgave John and made him his successor. but fought with Thomas (à) Becket over submission to the Pope. he translated Boethius. 13. Charles II (1630-1685.10. John Lackland (1167-1216. John was also weak as a fighter. as French King Philip II routed him at Bouvines in 1214. did feature heavy favoritism toward Catholics. r. in addition. 15. Henry had Becket executed in 1170 but performed penance at Canterbury. James II (1633-1701. deposing James in the bloodless Glorious Revolution. an event that marked the beginning of the development of the British constitution. r. 1154-1189) House of Plantagenet. 871-899) Saxon House. Exiled to Louis XIV's court. The 1678 Popish Plot against Charles II would have elevated the Roman Catholic James to the throne. he expelled the rival Danes from the Mercian town of London in 886. 14. Actually just the King of Wessex in southwestern England. r. Charles used the Declaration of Breda to restore himself to the English throne. winning many victories in the Holy Land. 12. and the Venerable Bede's works into Anglo-Saxon. however. but this "Merry Monarch" has as many as 14 illegitimate children. After Cromwell died. He went on the Third Crusade to Jerusalem. Alfred the Great (849-899. Alfred also kept England from the worst of the Dark Ages by encouraging his bishops to foster literacy. Though he tried to seize the crown from his brother Richard while the latter was in Germany. he made an attempt to regain his crown in 1690 but was routed at the Battle of the Boyne. Richard I (the Lion-Hearted) (1157-1199. Charles was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. and invaded England the following year. 1199-1216) House of Plantagenet. Eleanor and his four sons conspired with French king Philip II against Henry on several occasions. but on his way back was captured and ransomed by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. r. r. and needed protection from Louis XIV through the Treaty of Dover. The son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda. Tolerant of Catholics. so much so that Protestants invited James's son-in-law William of Orange to rule England. Excommunicated by the Pope for four years for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. A year later. England's barons forced John to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede. James's three years. He also fought Philip II in Normandy. . eventually conquering most of the Danelaw territory. he married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152. forcing Stephen of Blois to acknowledge Henry as his heir. Augustine. he spent only five months of his reign in England. 1685-1688) House of Stuart.

Norns The goddesses of destiny. and wields the hammer Mjolnir. 10. 7. Verdandi (or Verthandi). Hel (the ruler of the underworld). joy. represented as the three sisters Urd (or Wyrd). death. he is the god of light and guardians. Ymir A primordial giant who formed in the void of Ginnungagap from fire and ice. His senses are so sharp. and Sleipnir. 2. but lives with the Aesir as a hostage. and had to give away his magic sword to win the hand of the giantess Gerda. and rain. He travels in a chariot drawn by the golden boar Gullinbursti. Frey (or Freyr) The son of Njord.You Gotta Know These Norse Gods and Goddesses 1. and his special nemesis is the Midgard Serpent. poetry. Freya The daughter of Njord and twin sister of Frey. she is also a Vanir hostage living with the Aesir. horses. his many pranks include duping Hoder into killing Balder. but lives with the Aesir and is Odin's blood-brother. so Frigga extracted promises from everything not to harm Balder. and the necklace Brisingamen. and often works at her loom spinning clouds. sun. He dreamed of his own death. pierced by his own spear. and motherhood. he is the god of light. passion. After killing Balder he was chained to three boulders with snakes dripping poison onto him. Frigg (or Frigga) The wife of Odin. his possessions include the magic ship Skidbladnir. She is the goddess of the sky. and beauty. One of the most popular of the Norse gods. He hung himself for nine days on the world tree Yggsdrasil. He is one of the Vanir. The goddess of love. but she skipped mistletoe. her possessions include a cloak that allows her to turn into a falcon. Odin (or Wodin or Wotan) The All-Father. and traded one of his eyes for a drink from Mimir's well to gain wisdom. and Tyr. and twin brother of Freya. He was killed by Odin and his brothers. Hoder. who used his body to construct most of the universe. Heimdall The son of nine sisters. Balder (or Baldur) The fairest of the Aesir. 9. he is the god of thunder. Loki tricked Balder's blind brother Hoder into killing him with a spear of mistletoe. He is a god of war. 6. The god of fertility. he can see 100 miles by night or day and hear grass growing. the principal group of Norse gods. Loki He's actually giant-kin. and human fertility. weather. 4. Hermod. The counterparts of the Greek Fates. the rainbow bridge into Asgard. he travels in a chariot pulled by two goats. the Midgard Serpent Jormungandr. and rides the eight-legged horse Sleipnir. and knowledge. marriage. and mother by him of Balder. He gave birth to the frost giants and created the primordial cow Audhumla. She travels in a chariot drawn by two cats. to gain knowledge. He is married to Sif. and Skuld. He guards Bifrost. he is the leader of the Aesir. The god of fire and trickery. 8. Thor A son of Odin and the giantess Jord. and crops. 3. a second group of Norse gods. His children include the wolf Fenrir. they tend the Well of Fate at the roots of Yggdrasil . wisdom. He will call the Aesir into battle at Ragnarok with his horn Gjall (or Gjallerhorn). 5.

and ruled Iran from 1502 until 1736. but this one has a narrower focus and is aimed at experienced collegiate teams. Spain. but it is a fascinating one. They were defeated by the Ottomans. They rode to power on widespread disaffection with the Umayyads and the sense that a member of the Prophet's family was best qualified to lead the community. died in 1171. Harun ar-Rashid. Ottoman The Ottomans were Turks of uncertain origin who conquered the Balkans and the Middle East and brought the central Islamic lands into the European state system. The empire's remnants became Turkey after World War I. Their reign is divided into a "Bahri" period from 1250-1382 and a "Circassian" period from 1382-1517. giving uniformity to elite beliefs and practices. Abbas later captured Baghdad and expelled the Portugese from the Persian Gulf. power began to devolve onto increasingly autonomous local dynasties. Mamluk The Mamluks were slave soldiers of foreign origin who deposed the Ayyubids in 1250. They came to power in the civil war following the death of Uthman when Mu'awiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan defeated the forces of Ali Ibn Abi Talib after the latter's assassination. 1. By 1200 their power was all but extinct. Under 'Abd alMalik. Following the Central Asian model of "collective sovereignty. 8. becoming the Abbasids' rivals. the capture of Constantinople in 1453. Aurangzeb excluded Hindus from public office. 4. Umayyad The Umayyads ruled as caliphs from Damascus from 661-750. Baybars. however. They conquered Egypt in 969 under al-Muizz and built Cairo. They reached their height under Suleyman the Magnificient. Together with the Ottomans and Mughals. 2. The Ayyubids followed the practice of collective sovereignty. During the 15th century their lands replaced Palestine as the major target of the Crusades. 6." they divided territory among the ruling family. The woman Shajar ad-Durr was the last to rule Egypt. and claimed descent from both Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. Abbasid The Abbasids reigned as caliphs from Baghdad from 750-1258. who turned back the Mongols at the Battle of Ayn Jalut. where they founded the Sultanate of Rum. a European expert was hired to reform the military following defeats by both their Ottoman and Uzbek rivals. 3. The last caliph. Ayyubid The Ayyubids were Kurds who took control of Egypt under the Zengids. Fatimid The Fatimids were Isma'ili Shi'ite Imams who founded their state in North Africa in 909 under the caliph al-Mahdi. In the eleventh century. considered insane. and is-it's one of history's mysteries). who brought the empire to the brink of bankruptcy. is a popular figure in Arabic heroic literature. they form the three "Gunpowder Empires" in what Islamicists consider the late medieval period. al-Adil. they introduced hereditary transmission of office into Islam and favored Arabs at the expense of other Muslims. and they had a network of missionaries spreading Isma'ili doctrines into Abbasid territory and beyond. however. Under Abbas I. Denounced in traditional Islamic historiography for their secular rule. When the Mongols destroyed Baghdad in 1258.You Gotta Know These medieval Islamic dynasties Most of NAQT's You Gotta Know articles are targeted at high school and novice collegiate players. and alMamun the Great. At its height their regime reached into Yemen and Syria. and the Abbasids fell under the control of outside forces such as the Buyids and Seljuqs. In 1291 they drove the last Crusaders from Palestine. they settled in Anatolia as well. an Umayyad scion re-established the dynasty in Cordoba. Following their defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. 7. and the empire began to break up soon after his death in 1707. 9. They forcibly converted Iran to Shi'ism. It was in Ayyubid times that the Sunni revival came to Egypt. In the 10th century. Mughal The Mughals ruled most of India from the early 16th until the mid-18th century. giving rise to the Druze religion. the Umayyad Mosque was constructed in Damascus. The Taj Mahal was built under Shah Jahan. 5. and later took Damascus as well. He retook Jerusalem from the Crusader kingdoms. disappeared. and later from Cairo from 1261-1517. which prevented strong political unity. subsequent Crusades undid some of these gains. Their greatest rulers were al-Mansur. Their rule saw the beginning of the Sunni revival and the spread of religious schools called madrasas in the Islamic world. Islamic history is not a major subject in the NAQT distribution. Their key military victories were the defeat of the Serbs in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389. In 1171 Salah ad-Din (Saladin) abolished the Fatimid caliphate. Their empire was founded by Babur and expanded under his grandson Akbar. Safavid The Safavids were founded by a Sunni Sufi (mystic) order under Shah Ismail. The sultan al-Kamil gave Jerusalem to Frederick II in a peace treaty and was visited by St. Esfahan was their capital during their height . the caliph as-Mustazim was wrapped in a carpet and trampled to death by horses. and later converted themselves (this sounds strange. Seljuq The Seljuqs were a family of Ghuzz Turks who invaded the Middle East in the eleventh century and came to control the Abbasid caliphs of Baghdad. and were often politically divided. these nine dynasties cover much of what is frequently asked. and the defeat of the Mamluks in 1517. A later succession dispute gave rise to the sect of the Assassins. who beseiged Vienna in 1529. During the 9th century. who conquered Egypt in 1517. the caliph al-Hakim. Francis of Assisi.

human parasites include hookworms and the causative agents of elephantiasis. 7. now extinct). pillbugs). or leeches. both Latin names (Mollusca) or Anglicized names (molluscs) are acceptable for a given taxon.You Gotta Know These Phyla Plant. as well as the mostly terrestrial Oligochaeta (including the earthworms. and Portuguese man-o-war (which is actually an aggregation of colonial cnidarians). 1 species) The most recently named phylum. estimates of actual diversity vary but go as high as 9 million species) The most diverse and successful animal phylum on earth (incorporating about 75% of all described animal species). Most are hermaphroditic. algal. 5. 6. 1. and collect food particles via the sweeping motions of flagellated cells called choanocytes [koh-ANN-oh-sites]. barnacles. As the name implies. so that the space between the digestive tract and the body wall is filled with tissue. . Arthropods are often divided into four subphyla: Uniramia (insects. numbers represent an estimate of the number of species that have been named. Taxonomists do not always agree on the usage of even the most common terms. crayfish. Annelid classes include the marine Polychaeta. or will lump or split groups in different ways. the Arthropoda are characterized by jointed legs and a chitinous exoskeleton. It is believed to be closely related to the marine phyla Entoprocta and Ectoprocta (Bryozoa). its only known member is Symbion pandora.e. Annelida (AN-el-LEE-dah. blood vessels. they are generally flat-bodied. and are sometimes classified separately from other animals because of their asymmetric bodies and lack of distinct tissues. Familiar groups within the Mollusca include the classes Gastropoda (slugs. 8. 10. 2. octopi). and some can inflict painful stings on swimmers. and. trichinosis. Unless stated otherwise. Crustacea (shrimps. Arthropoda (ar-THROP-oh-dah or AR-thro-POE-dah. and Trilobitomorpha (the trilobites. and fungal "phyla" are often referred to as "divisions. This phylum includes parasites such as the tapeworms and flukes. but unlike annelids. thorax. 15. the cnidarians develop from a diploblastic (two-layered) embryo. They include both free-living and parasitic species. 11. in some classes. sea spiders. which are not discussed here. lobsters. with a muscular foot and an internal visceral mass.500 species) The annelids are segmented worms and represent the first lineage of truly eucoelomate (having a body cavity lined with mesoderm-derived tissue) animals.000 species) The sponges are all water-dwellers (98% marine. they are segmented. They have a true head and brain. Cnidaria (nih-DARE-ee-ya. Lumbricus) and the mostly-aquatic Hirudinea. crabs. all estimates are probably low. Body plans within this phylum are diverse. so other sources may have slightly different versions of these phyla. They are pseudocoelomate. but the body cavity is not lined with tissue derived from the mesoderm (middle embryonic layer). non-parasitic) organisms such as the planarians.. centipedes. millipedes). but the digestive system has only one opening that functions as both mouth and anus. their segments are usually fused into larger body parts with specialized functions (such as the head. for capturing prey. unless the question states otherwise. and river blindness. Nematoda (NEM-ah-TOE-dah. the three tissue layers are concentric.000 species) The molluscs are second in diversity only to the arthropods. Soil nematodes may be crop pests. a tiny invertebrate first identified in 1995 when a Danish biologist found specimens on the mouthparts of a Norwegian lobster. Cycliophora (CY-clee-oh-FORE-ah. jellyfishes. Like annelids. and have two separate tissue layers and radial body symmetry.000 species) Also called Coelenterata [se-LEN-ter-AH-tah]. 4. hermaphroditism. Mollusca (mol-LUS-kah. 15. Estimates of phylal diversity vary. a small coelom and a large hemocoel that functions as an open circulatory system. oysters. and Cephalopoda (nautilus." Some taxonomists also extend this usage to bacteria. snails). usually bell-like medusa and the sessile polyp. There are two fluid-filled body cavities derived from mesodermal tissue. All cnidarians have nematocysts.000 species described.000 species) The roundworms are unsegmented worms that live in a variety of habitats. Chelicerata (arachnids. 2% freshwater). or stinging cells. 3. scallops). Under NAQT rules. secreted by the mantle. while others are beneficial predators on other plant pests. squids. corals. Bivalvia (clams. their body cavities are lined with tissue derived from the embryonic mesoderm. Because many invertebrates are inconspicuous. Some textbooks and other publications will use alternate names or spellings to describe taxonomic groups. as well as free-living (i. and abdomen of an insect). the mobile. and are acoelomate (lacking a true body cavity). Characteristics of annelids include nephridia (kidney-like structures). They have bilateral body symmetry. over 800. Many cnidarians have two life stages. Platyhelminthes (PLAT-ee-hel-MIN-theez. 5. but general characteristics include a soft body covered by a thin mantle. Porifera (pore-IH-fer-ah. Many molluscs have a shell composed of calcium carbonate and proteins. while others advocate replacing the term "division" with "phylum" for all organisms. sea anemones.000 species) The flatworms are the most primitive phylum to develop from a triploblastic (three-layered) embryo. Examples include the hydras. The nematode species Caenorhabdis elegans is a common subject in genetics and developmental-biology labs. 50. Note that spelling and pronunciation are not completely standardized in the taxonomic world. They are sessile (immobile) except in early dispersing stages. horseshoe crabs).

have varying degrees of bilateral symmetry. 44.500 species) Characteristics of this phylum include an endoskeleton composed of many ossicles of calcium and magnesium carbonate. like sea cucumbers. a true head is absent. a notochord. . a ring canal around the esophagus. Cephalochordata. the most diverse subphylum). sea urchins. Others. Chordata (kor-DAH-tah. and a dorsal hollow nerve cord. the lancelets. the sea squirts. Defining traits of chordates include pharyngeal gill slits. In the echinoderm body plan. a post-anal tail. and the true vertebrates (Vertebrata. a water vascular system (WVS). the anatomical terms oral (mouth-bearing) and aboral (away from the mouth) are used to describe orientation of the body surfaces. Feeding adaptations include particle feeding through the WVS. and locomotion by tube feet connected to the WVS. The lancelet Amphioxus (Branchiostoma) is often used as a demonstration organism in biology labs 10.000 species) Our home phylum is divided into three subphyla: Urochordata. Unique to echinoderms is the five-fold radial symmetry obvious in sea stars (seafish). and a scraping device called Aristotle's lantern (sea urchins).9. Echinodermata (ek-KY-no-der-MAH-tah. and sea lilies. everting the stomach to engulf prey (sea stars). 6. In vertebrates. some of these structures are found only in embryonic stages.

" "Lloyd Webber. She is the mother of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797 . Sr. it creates ambiguity and is wrong. Oliver Wendell Holmes.604/605) founded the Christian church in southern England and was the first archbishop of Canterbury. 1. 5." and "Mies van der Rohe" respectively. The Invisible Man is an 1897 novel by H. 11. players are usually allowed to drop leading articles or add them where they are missing (but not use incorrect ones)--but in this case (and others.1894) was a physician. Saint Augustine Two different people. so named for her persecution of Protestants. not Primata. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin) is best known as an advocate of educational equality for women. 12. the queen of England who preceded Elizabeth I. "Concerned" philosophical works David Hume wrote An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.430) served as the Bishop of Hippo and wrote Confessions and City of God The later (? . "Bloody Mary" and Mary Queen of Scots Two different people. Andrew Lloyd Webber. Wells about a man who has turned himself invisible but is slowly being driven insane. 3.You Gotta Avoid These Common Mistakes This article is a little different from other "You Gotta Know" topics in that it consists of common mistakes that players make when answering questions and answers that are often confused. Under NAQT rules. Starting with the 2002-2003 season players in NAQT events will be prompted if they give part of a compound last name. 7. Hudson Bay The large sea of eastern Canada is Hudson Bay (no apostrophe). John Adams Even though NAQT rules generally call for players to be prompted on partial names. G. in particular. George Berkeley [BARK-lee] wrote Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Oliver Wendell Holmes. 9. the father. The son.1851) who married the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and is best known as the author of Frankenstein: or. Using the wrong form is sufficient for the answer to be counted wrong under NAQT rules. and John Locke wrote An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. (1841 . who was the queen of Scotland during the first part of Elizabeth's reign. The Merchant of Venice The title character of The Merchant of Venice is not Shylock--who is a money-lender-but Antonio. 4. the earlier (354 ." An answer of "Adams" will be prompted in either case. for example." "García Márquez. 8. the Modern Prometheus. Ralph Vaughan Williams. Jr. married name. Primates The scientific name for the order of primates is Primates [pree-MAY-teez]. Compound last names The last names of David Lloyd George. Mily Balakirev. an answer of "John Adams" will not be prompted if the correct answer is "John Quincy Adams.1797. 10.1935) was a justice of the Supreme Court known as "The Great Dissenter. These three philosophical works are often confused. Modest Mussorgsky. The company named for it is the Hudson's Bay Company (with an apostrophe)." ." "Vaughan Williams. "Bloody Mary" is a (pejorative) nickname of Mary I Tudor. and humorist who wrote "Old Ironsides" and The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. (1809 . Oliver Wendell Holmes Two different men. 6. 2. The Russian Five The nationalist composers popularly known as "The Russian Five" or "The Mighty Handful" were César Cui. Aleksandr Borodin. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 . and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. particularly in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792). Gabriel García Márquez. Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale and Helprin's Winter's Tale). and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe are "Lloyd George. Invisible Man Invisible Man is a 1952 novel by Ralph Ellison about an unnamed African-American protagonist in search of personal identity. Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley Two different people. but this rule doesn't (necessarily) hold true at other quiz bowl tournaments. they did not include Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. poet. Mary Queen of Scots was Mary Stuart.

Mourning Becomes Electra (Eugene O'Neill. but then another girl accuses her husband. Miller chose the 1692 Salem witch trials as his setting. who with the help of her lover Adam Brant has poisoned Lavinia's father Ezra. Orin cannot stand the guilt and kills himself as well. 1949). Christine. 7. 9. The Iceman Cometh (Eugene O'Neill. Elizabeth Proctor fires servant Abigail Williams after she finds out Abigail had an affair with her husband. but the work is really an allegorical protest against the McCarthy anti-Communist "witch-hunts" of the early 1950s. and her spirit converses about the meaning of life with other dead people in the cemetery). the harsh modern era. The Crucible (Arthur Miller. 8. The title comes from the Langston Hughes poem "Harlem" (often called "A Dream Deferred"). when the former high school star catches his father Willy cheating on his mother. Laura returns to her fantasy world. A distressed Christine commits suicide. and as he refuses to turn in others. Long Day's Journey Into Night (Eugene O'Neill. and is forced to move into her sister Stella's New Orleans apartment. 1956). 1947).You Gotta Know These American Plays 1. Our Town is divided into three acts: "Daily Life" (Professor Willard and Editor Webb gossip on the everyday lives of town residents). Despite his own failures. Linda. While O'Connor is there. New Hampshire just after the turn of the 20th century. Lavinia persuades her brother Orin to kill Brant. 1962)." "The Hunted. Giles Corey. A Stage Manager talks to the audience and serves as a narrator throughout the drama. In response. The first play by an African-American woman to be performed on Broadway. for drinks after a party for her father. Told in a series of flashbacks. A portrait of drunkenness and hopeless dreams. he is killed. This play is really a trilogy. Regular patrons of the End of the Line Café anticipate the annual arrival of Theodore "Hickey" Hickman. who supports his mother Amanda and his crippled sister Laura (who takes refuge from reality in her glass animals). but sees through Blanche's artifice. the instructor Nick and his wife Honey. and "Death" (Emily dies while giving birth. Abigail accuses Elizabeth of witchcraft. 1939). The father is a miserly actor. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (Edward Albee." and "The Haunted. 1931). After the patrons reveal their "pipe dreams. and commits suicide in an attempt to leave Biff with insurance money. Partly based on Williams' own family. 1944). Blanche is a Southern belle who lost the family estate. The author Virginia Woolf has little to do with the story. set on one day in August 1912. they argue and cut each other down throughout the play. and the brother is a drunk. Also notable: Judge Hathorne is a direct ancestor of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne. but the two dislike each other. Honey is barren." Though it is set in post-Civil War New England. In the story. 1938). 3. All four of them get drunk. Martha invites another couple. the drama is narrated by Tom Wingfield. 1959). 5. after Orin and Lavinia flee to the South Seas. marking the breakthrough performance of method actor Marlon Brando. The Glass Menagerie (Tennessee Williams. . 1953). George is a professor who married Martha. he ruins Blanche's chance to marry his friend Mitch by revealing to Mitch that Blanche was a prostitute. while the mother is a morphine addict. Tom brings his friend Jim O'Connor to the house as a gentleman caller for Laura. Then. Lavinia Mannon desires revenge against her mother. consisting of "Homecoming. he desperately wants his sons Biff and Happy to succeed. In fact. but in 1912 he returns to them sober. and they end up bickering over their flawed marriages: Besides George and Martha's problems. and. until O'Connor tells the family that he is already engaged. "Love and Marriage" (Emily Webb and George Gibbs fall in love and marry). driving her into insanity. 4. Her father's 1940 court fight against racist housing laws provided the basis for Hansberry's play about the Younger family. John. Our Town (Thornton Wilder. he rapes her. O'Neill wrote it fifteen years earlier and presented the manuscript to his third wife with instructions that it not be produced until 25 years after his death. A Raisin in the Sun (Lorraine Hansberry. This play questions American values of success. it centers on Edmund and the rest of the Tyrone family but is really an autobiographical account of the dysfunction of O'Neill's own family. Actually produced three years after he died." Hickey implores them to give up those dreams and lead productive lives. who attempt to move into an all-white Chicago suburb but are confronted by discrimination. A Streetcar Named Desire (Tennessee Williams. Eventually. and Nick married her for her money. Stella's husband Stanley is rough around the edges. A sentimental story that takes place in the village of Grover's Corners. the horn on Laura's glass unicorn breaks. Willy can no longer live with his perceived shortcomings. Willy Loman is a failed salesman whose firm fires him after 34 years. the story points to Biff's moment of hopelessness. Albee got the title from graffiti he saw on a men's room wall. The drama was developed into a movie. along with the old comic figure. 6. 10. bringing her into reality. In the drama. after Blanche confronts Stanley. She stands trial and is acquitted. The "Iceman" is supposed to represent the "death" found in reality. the college president's daughter. it also tore down the racial stereotyping found in other works of the time. 2. O'Neill used Aeschylus's tragedy The Oresteia as the basis for the plot. except that Martha sings the title to George when she is mad at him in Act I. while Tom abandons the family after fighting with Amanda. Death of a Salesman (Arthur Miller. At Amanda's insistence. Blanche DuBois and Stanley Kowalski represent Williams's two visions of the South: declining "old romantic" vs. leaving Lavinia in the house alone. which is performed on a bare stage.

9. 1.) 3. Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Tennessee Williams. and prime minister who became acting president upon the resignation of his predecessor. 11. such as Regina's husband Horace and their daughter Alexandra. Jean-Pierre Raffarin was the country's interim prime minister. Abdurrahman Wahid. 12. China The two chief political figures in the People's Republic of China are Jiang Zemin. a confederation of 10 provinces with a national parliament. who is dying of cancer. The title is taken from the Old Testament Song of Solomon: "the little foxes that spoil the vines. Any election in the world is fair game if it's in the news. but he may not remain in office long. 7. Boris Yeltsin. a former dictator. became Nigeria's first civilian president in 15 years when he was elected in 1999. and then won election in his own right in March 2000. Japan Japan's head of government is Prime Minister Koizumi Junichiro of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). United Kingdom Prime Minister Tony Blair has led the United Kingdom since his Labour Party won a majority of the seats in parliament in May 1997. (As of May 2002. France France's head of state is President Jacques Chirac. Germany Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) took office in October 1998. Canada The head of government of Canada. After his friend Skipper dies. 6. 5. but the leaders of these twelve countries have come up over and over again in past years. Mexico President Vicente Fox Quesada of the National Action Party (PAN) took office in December 2000.11. 2. whose powers are now almost entirely ceremonial . The Little Foxes (Lillian Hellman.. Russia Russia's president is Vladimir Putin. He took office in November 1993 after nine years in which the Progressive Conservative party ran the country. Three Hubbard siblings (Regina and her two brothers) scheme to earn vast riches at the expense of other family members. a former spy. 8. The country's head of state is Emperor Akihito. Set on a plantation in 1900. Remember that this page was written in May 2002 and may not have been updated--so verify that the list is still accurate before you start blindly memorizing names. a former Gaullist prime minister who took office in 1995. but for a quiz bowler's practical purposes there are only a few of those whose leaders players gotta know. is Prime Minister Jean Chrétien of the Liberal Party. the country's president and Communist party leader (who took power in March 1993) and Premier Zhu Rongji ["joo rong-jee"] (who was appointed in March 1998. a largely ceremonial figure who replaced his father Hirohito in 1989. Nigeria Obasanjo Olusegun. 12. The country's head of state is Queen Elizabeth II." You Gotta Know These World Leaders As of May 2002. 1939). Hellman attempts to show that by this time any notion of antebellum Southern gentility has been destroyed by modern capitalism and industrialism. India Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee of the Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was elected in early 1998. a former opposition leader and the daughter of Indonesia's first president.. 10. 1955). ex-football star Brick turns to alcohol and will not have sex with his wife Maggie ("the cat"). Israel Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of the right-wing Likud Party defeated Ehud Barak (of the left-wing Labor Party) in February 2001 elections. ending 18 years of leadership by the Conservative Party. after 16 years in which Helmut Kohl of the Christian Democrats served as chancellor. there are 267 entities with some sort of self-government listed in the CIA World Factbook. and quiz bowlers should pay more attention to the French presidency in any case. Indonesia President Megawati Sukarnoputri. Yet Maggie announces to Big Daddy that she is pregnant in an attempt to force a reconciliation with--and win the inheritance for--Brick. ending seven decades of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (or PRI). assumed the presidency in July 2001 after the impeachment of her predecessor. Centers on a fight between two sons (Gooper and Brick) over the estate of father "Big Daddy" Pollitt.) 4. intelligence chief. who was elected in April 2001 by Japan's Diet.

and 23 years later became the oldest champion with a final round 65 in 1986." he was the first great pro golfer. Gene Sarazen (1902-1999) Born Eugene Saraceni. Hogan. this South African has won nine majors. 4. but Nelson is best known for having the single most dominant year in golf history. as his fans were known as "Arnie's Army. and three British Opens. At the 2000 U. PGA Championship. Woods won three straight U. five PGA Championships. appearing in over 2.S. Gary Player (1935-present) The most successful non-American golfer in history. Open. In 1997 Woods became the youngest ever to win the Masters--by a whopping 12 strokes. winning the PGA Championship in 1922 and 1923. Nicknames include "The Black Knight" for his dress and "Mr.S.S. After each. Jones never turned pro.S. 8. Nelson was so even-tempered and mechanically sound that the USGA named its mechanical club and ball-testing device. Arnold Palmer (1929-present) A native of Latrobe." he won seven major professional championships between 1942 and 1954. when he won by 15 strokes. a tournament he won five times between 1975 and 1983.S. he carded an albatross (three under par) from the fairway of the Par-5 15th hole to force a playoff. giving him seven major pro titles. but he is known more for the one he never won: the U. After that season." after him. including four U." he won the U. Lee Trevino (1939-present) Nicknamed "Supermex" for his Mexican-American heritage. where he won the 2001 Senior PGA Championship. and the 2001 Masters.S.You Gotta Know These Golfers 1. winning four more majors. Walter Hagen (1892-1969) Nicknamed "The Haig. 3. 10. Sam Snead (1912-2002) No golfer has won more PGA Tournaments than Snead's 81. a feat no one has come close to matching. Junior Amateurs. and the PGA Championship twice each. including four straight from 1924 to 1927. Woods. Open. Amateurs. as well as the U. Open. Jones retired from golf to practice law. when he won. Hagen won eleven majors . he not only became the first non-American to win that tournament in 45 years. Tiger Woods (1975-present) Born to an African-American father and a Thai mother. Amateurs (1994-1996). and British Open. Open crown in 1965. Watson's greatest achievements were at the British Open. Open. though mostly on the Senior Tour. and still competes occasionally on the regular PGA Tour. winning the Senior PGA Open in 1980 and 1981. including 11 consecutive tournaments. In the 1960s and '70s he won a record six Senior PGA Championships. (Robert Tyre) "Bobby" Jones (1902-1971) An Atlanta native. 7. including six Masters. and was the 1961 NCAA champion at Ohio State. he came to prominence in the early 1920s. Nicknamed "Slammin' Sammy. He took eight major championships overall. his second PGA in 1984 at age 44. he won nine majors overall (six after the accident). He took his first major the following year at the U. the British Open. including four Masters. Amateur and Open Championships.S. and was the first golfer to earn one million dollars on the PGA Tour. though.S. 6. Woods began a remarkable run of four straight major championships: British Open (by eight strokes.S.S. 5. he appeared on "The Mike Douglas Show" with a golf club at age two. 12. and Gene Sarazen) to win all four modern Grand Slam events. Amateur twice (1959 and 1961). Sarazen became the first golfer to complete the modern career Grand Slam. U. including four U. Byron Nelson (1912-present) He won five major championships overall. Pennsylvania." He won seven majors. When Player took his only U. In 1945 he won a record 18 tournaments in 30 starts. Fitness" for his devotion to exercise. In 1953 he accomplished a feat matched only by Tiger Woods: winning three modern major championships in one season: the Masters. Open. where Trevino was struck by lightning on the golf course. That last win was most impressive because it came after the 1975 Western Open. Nicklaus is still somewhat active on the Senior PGA Tour. beating Arnold Palmer on Palmer's home course. Opens. 9.S. Tom Watson (1949-present) He became the major rival to Jack Nicklaus in the second half of the Golden Bear's career. He has a record 18 major pro championships overall. but he also became one of three (now five) golfers (along with Nicklaus. 11. Later Palmer became one of the stars of the Senior Tour. Open in 1922. but helped design a golf course in Augusta. A five-time PGA Champion. At the 1935 Masters. Palmer made golf popular with the masses. 2. Trevino came from a poor Dallas family and served in the Marines. In 2002 he played in his last competitive Masters. making him the youngest ever to complete the career Grand Slam). Georgia that became the permanent site of the Masters in 1934. Jack Nicklaus (1940-present) Nicknamed "The Golden Bear. when Sarazen returned to form. and as a golf course architect. In 1939 Snead led the Open for 71 holes but lost on the last hole when he took an eight. Bobby Jones and Walter Hagen then dominated golf until the early 1930s. Woods added a third Masters in 2002. but came from nowhere to win the 1968 U. and the greatest amateur golfer of all time.S.S. Open. but won thirteen major championships in eight years. four U.S. Ben Hogan (1912-1997) The PGA Tour's leading money winner from 1940-42 and in 1946 and 1948. In 1930 he won what was then considered the Grand Slam. taking both the British and U. Hogan rose to the top of his game. Opens.S. He won six majors: the U. and he amassed 135 victories worldwide.500 exhibitions. the "Iron Byron. two events interrupted his playing career: service in World War II and a near-fatal 1949 head-on car accident. and then became the only golfer to win three straight U. Nicklaus became the youngest Masters champion at the time in 1963.

S. and he was known most for his showmanship and his ability to recover from poor shots with spectacular ones. Ryder Cup team six of the first seven times the event was held .overall. Hagen captained the U.

or musketeers. the last of the Romanovs. required the boyars to shave their beards and wear Western clothing. She had thoroughly Russianized herself by the time Peter became tsar. Alexander III (1845-1894. Catherine is well known for her extravagant love life: her 21 acknowledged lovers included Grigorii Potemkin (who constructed the famous Potemkin village on an imperial inspection tour). 7. and soon had him deposed: she then dispatched several claimants to the throne and crushed a peasant uprising led by Emilian Pugachev. Orthodoxy." Ivan was proclaimed Grand Prince of Muscovy 1533 and tsar in 1547. Alexander was an eccentric and a religious mystic. Alexander I (1777-1825. He is best known for his wars with Napoleon (first as an ally and then as an enemy). But Peter could also be violent and cruel: he personally participated in the torture of the streltsy. ruled 1762-1796) Catherine the Great wasn't really a Russian at all: she was born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst (a minor German principality) and was chosen as the bride of the future Peter III. the Russo-Japanese War (which helped spark the Revolution of 1905). The most famous part of his program was the serf emancipation of 1861--a reform which occurred almost simultaneously with the end of American slavery (and whose gradual nature disappointed liberals. He is usually seen as both a kind man who loved his family and an incapable monarch who helped bring about the end of the tsarist state. and reformed the bureaucracy and army. increased censorship. created a Table of Ranks for the nobility.) He is best known for his loving marriage to Alexandra and for allowing the crazed monk Grigorii Rasputin to influence court politics while treating the hemophilia of Alexei. His government pursued a policy of Official Nationality. ruled 1881-1894) Those who hoped that the assassination of Alexander II would lead to liberalization saw the error of their ways when the new tsar. launched his program of "counterreforms. became a hermit. Some even say that he didn't really die in 1825: instead. Early in his reign. he led his country through two disastrous wars. 8. killed his favorite son. ruled 1598-1605) Boris Godunov began his career as a boyar in Ivan the Terrible's oprichnina. Contemporaries referred to him as the "Gendarme of Europe" after he helped the Habsburgs squelch the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. His Grand Embassy to Europe enabled him to learn about Western life (and even to work in a Dutch shipyard). ruled 1801-1825) Alexander I took the throne in 1801 when his repressive father Paul was assassinated and immediately set out on a more liberal course. ruled 1855-1881) Alexander II embarked on a program of Great Reforms soon after taking the throne near the end of the Crimean War. helping to plunge the country into the subsequent period of civil strife known as the "Time of Troubles. Scholars differ on whether Ivan was literate and on how auspiciously his reign began. Ivan IV (1530-1584." but his Russian nickname ("Groznyi") could be more accurately translated as "awe-inspiring" or "menacing. oversaw the partition of Poland. ruled 1533-1584) Ivan IV is known in the West as "Ivan the Terrible. and had his own son executed. the heir to the throne. and reorganized the army. and died in a monastery in 1864. and expanded the empire. created a state-within-the-state called the oprichnina to wage war on the boyars. 4. Nicholas II (1868-1918. St. 6. eased censorship. granted charters of rights and obligations to the nobility and the towns. Nicholas abdicated in 1917 and was shot in 1918. Alexander II (1818-1881. Nicholas I (1796-1855. Catherine II (1729-1796. and even founded a new capital. Boris Godunov (ca. the state enacted a series of Temporary Regulations (giving it the power to crack down on terrorism)." 3. created a position of "land captain" to exert state control in the countryside. defending a holy trinity of "Autocracy. 1551-1605. tightened controls on Russia's universities. 2. has traditionally been portrayed as the embodiment of the Russian autocracy." and established a repressive secret police force known as the Third Section. and for seeking to establish a Holy Alliance in the years that followed. Peter I (1672-1725. but Ivan had an amazingly cruel streak and eventually became unstable: he temporarily abdicated in 1564. but he left his strongest supporters disappointed. and eventually became tsar himself. and Nationality. ruled 1825-1855) Nicholas I. 9. he pushed through a series of well-received reforms and called a zemskii sobor (or "assembly of the land"). then he . and participated in the torture of his enemies. She also corresponded with Enlightenment philosophes. Petersburg--his "window on the West. they argue.You Gotta Know These Russian Tsars 1. ruled until his overthrow in the February Revolution of 1917. ruled 1894-1917) Nicholas II. and World War I (which helped cause the 1917 revolutions. who ruled Russia from the failure of the Decembrist Uprising to the middle of the Crimean War. Alexander III." He also led his country in the Great Northern War (in which Charles XII of Sweden was defeated at Poltava)." Under him. ruled 1682-1725) Peter the Great is famous both for his push for Westernization and for his boisterous personality. Alexander became more reactionary after an attempted 1866 assassination and was assassinated in 1881. tried to increase the rule of law in the court system. who rebelled against him. Ivan combined the absolutist tendencies of his predecessors with his own violent personality. he faked his own death.) But he also introduced a system of local governing bodies called zemstvos. he later invited Western artisans to come to Russia. 5. and either encouraged or ignored the first anti-Jewish pogroms. Boris first cemented his influence by marrying a daughter of one of Ivan's court favorites and arranging his sister Irina's marriage to Ivan's son Fyodor.

Boris died in the midst of growing unrest and is now best known as the subject of a Pushkin play and a Mussorgsky opera. near the end of the Time of Troubles. a zemskii sobor elected the 16-year-old Michael Romanov as the new tsar. Nevertheless. and was elected tsar when Fyodor died in 1598. ruled 1613-1645) In 1613. But Boris was rumored to have arranged the murder of Fyodor's brother Dmitrii. his election marked the return of relative stability and the succession of the Romanov dynasty . Michael was a grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible's "good" wife Anastasia and the son of a powerful churchman named Filaret (who soon became patriarch). Michael (1597-1645. he has usually been seen as a nonentity dominated by Filaret and other relatives.10. and the first of several "False Dmitriis" launched a revolt against him. as tsar. became regent under Fyodor.

Rank Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 The Arnolfini Wedding The Birth of Venus Perseus With the Head Of Medusa The Persistence of Memory The Kiss Mona Lisa Liberty Leading the People David Last Supper The Thinker School of Athens The Death of Marat Luncheon on the Grass American Gothic Arrangement in Grey and Black. so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials. design.You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the thirty most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of May 7. 21 20 20 18 18 17 17 17 16 16 14 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Sculpture Benvenuto Cellini Painting Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Painting Leonardo da Vinci Eugene Delacroix Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) Painting Leonardo da Vinci Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Raphael Jacques-Louis David Édouard Manet Grant Wood James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler Sculpture Constantin Brancusi Building Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Frank Lloyd Wright John Constable Edward Hopper Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez Thomas Gainsborough Marc Chagall Edvard Munch Pablo Picasso y Ruiz Pablo Picasso y Ruiz Sandro Botticelli (Oscar-)Claude Monet Gustave Courbet Sculpture Donatello Sculpture Gianlorenzo Bernini . depicted action. 1440 1646 Freq. 1: The Artist's Mother Bird in Space Fallingwater The Hay Wain Nighthawks Las Meninas The Blue Boy I and the Village The Scream Guernica Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Primavera Impression: Sunrise Burial at Ornans David The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Genre Painting Painting Creator Jan van Eyck Sandro Botticelli Date 1434 1480 1563 1931 1886 1500 1830 1504 14951498 1880-1 1509 1793 1863 1930 1871 1919 1936 1821 1942 1656 1770 1911 1893 1937 1907 1478 1872 1849-50 c. 2002. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. No. technique. While you really gotta know their creators. and circumstances of creation.

in failing to achieve this sense of completeness. in particular. preoperational. shelter. ego (rational thought)." "introversion. which used the technique of "free association" to identify fears and repressed memories. they developed "inferiority complexes" that inhibited their relations with successful people and dominated their relations with fellow unsuccessful people. Erik Erikson (German-born American. esteem. the need for "self-actualization. in fact. 1878-1958) John Watson was the first prominent exponent of behaviorism. how different societies create different traditions and ideas to accommodate the same biological needs.You Gotta Know These Psychologists 1. Carl Jung (Austrian. that introduced his theory of the "hierarchy of needs" (food. arguing that psychology could be completely grounded in objective measurements of events and physical human reactions. Quiz bowlers should be familiar with "anima. 6. Skinner (American. but questions about him are more often classified as "psychology" than "biology" by question writers. he was the first to perform rigorous studies of the way in which children learn and come to understand and respond to the world around them. Guided by his ideas. and superego (moral and social conscience). Motivation and Personality and Toward a Psychology of Being. Skinner was one of the leading proponents of behaviorism in works like Walden II and Beyond Freedom and Dignity. His most famous works are The Language and Thought of a Child and The Origins of Intelligence in Children. He separated the psyche into the id (illogical passion). he is mainly remembered for his experiments on "obedience to authority" that he performed at Yale in 1961-1962. Alfred Adler (Austrian. even though the bell itself is inedible and has no intrinsic connection with food. He went on to create the movement of "analytic psychology" and introduced the controversial notion of the "collective unconscious"--a socially shared area of the mind." "animus. He won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for Physiology or Medicine for unrelated work on digestive secretions. 3. He is most famous for his theory of four stages of development: sensorimotor. He argued that many problems were caused by mental states rather than by biochemical dysfunction--a purely materialist viewpoint then in vogue." all terms that occur frequently in questions on Jung. and formal operational. friends." and "archetypes. 1896-1980) Jean Piaget is generally considered the greatest figure of 20th-century developmental psychology. He argued that all human actions could be understood in terms of physical stimuli and learned responses and that there was no need to study--or even believe in--internal mental states or motivations. His best known works are The Interpretation of Dreams and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. concrete operational. Jean Piaget (Swiss. and colleagues that support them and allow them to accomplish things on which they place value. he trained animals to perform complicated tasks including teaching pigeons to play table tennis. the salivation of a dog at the sound of the bell that presages dinner. B. 2. Stanley Milgram (American.) and its pinnacle." 4. 1875-1961) Carl Jung was a close associate of Freud's who split with him over the degree to which neuroses had a sexual basis. He is largely remembered for his idea of the "conditioned reflex. 9. 1904-1990) B. 5. Ivan Pavlov (Russian 1849-1936) Ivan Pavlov was more of a physiologist than a psychologist. 1933-1984) Though he did the work that created the idea of "six degrees of separation" and the "lost-letter" technique. F. a theory given the general name of "individual psychology. . 1856-1939) Sigmund Freud founded the extremely influential discipline of psychoanalysis. The lowest unmet need on the hierarchy tends to dominate conscious thought. F. Watson (American." "extroversion. He created a notable eight-stage development process and wrote several "psychohistories" explaining how people like Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi were able to think and act the way they did. love. Adler argued in The Neurotic Constitution that neuroses resulted from people's inability to achieve self-realization. Abraham Maslow (American." for example. His most famous experiment involved conditioning an eleven-month-old boy to be apprehensive of all furry objects by striking a loud bell whenever a furry object was placed in his lap. 7. he codified its tenets in Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. etc. John B. 8." Self-actualized people are those who understand their individual needs and abilities and who have families. doing so could be harmful. 1870-1937) Alfred Adler was another close associate of Freud who split with him over Freud's insistence that sexual issues were at the root of neuroses and most psychological problems. 1902-1994) Erik Erikson is best known for his theories on how social institutions reflect the universal features of psychosocial development. Sigmund Freud (Austrian. 1908-1970) Abraham Maslow is principally known for two works. 10. Milgram found that two-thirds of his subjects were willing to administer terrible electric shocks to innocent. though many others come up frequently in quiz bowl. protesting human beings simply because a researcher told them the experimental protocol demanded it.

The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work. so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters. 64 54 46 45 43 42 41 41 41 40 36 35 35 35 34 34 33 33 33 33 32 32 32 31 31 31 31 31 30 30 30 29 29 . While you really gotta know their authors. 2002. settings. Title Hamlet The Tempest Iliad Moby-Dick Macbeth Candide Faust Othello A Midsummer Night's Dream Pride and Prejudice The Merchant of Venice The Great Gatsby The Scarlet Letter The Canterbury Tales Pilgrim's Progress King Lear Odyssey The Divine Comedy Romeo and Juliet Billy Budd: Foretopman Vanity Fair Paradise Lost Julius Caesar Little Women Twelfth Night A Doll's House Aeneid Our Town Much Ado about Nothing War and Peace Long Day's Journey Into Night For Whom the Bell Tolls Jane Eyre Genre Drama Drama Poem Novel Drama Novel Poem Drama Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Poem Religious Drama Poem Poem Drama Novel Novel Poem Drama Novel Drama Drama Poem Drama Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Author William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Homer Herman Melville William Shakespeare Voltaire Johann Wolfgang von Goethe William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Jane Austen William Shakespeare F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald Nathaniel Hawthorne Geoffrey Chaucer John Bunyan William Shakespeare Homer Dante Alighieri William Shakespeare Herman Melville William Makepeace Thackeray John Milton William Shakespeare Louisa May Alcott William Shakespeare Henrik (Johan) Ibsen Virgil Thornton (Niven) Wilder William Shakespeare Leo (or Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoi) Tolstoy Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Charlotte Brontë Date 1601 1611 8th century BC 1851 1606 1759 1808 1622 1595 1813 1596 1925 1850 1387 1678 1605 8th century BC 1314 1594 1891 1848 1667 1599 1868 1601 1879 19 BC 1938 1598 1865 1956 1940 1847 Freq. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. and circumstances of creation.You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the hundred most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of May 7. plots.

431 BC 1859 1922 1959 1960 1847 1929 1947 1593 1916 1714 1797 1961 1922 1955 1951 1957 8th century 1600 1898 1937 1926 1798 1819 1820 1850 1861 1967 1852 1901 29 29 29 29 28 28 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 Short Story Joseph Conrad Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Poem Poem Victor(-Marie) Hugo Edward (Franklin) Albee Upton (Beall) Sinclair George (Eric Arthur Blair) Orwell Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky Euripides Charles (John Huffam) Dickens James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce Lorraine Hansberry Harper Lee Emily Brontë Ernest (Miller) Hemingway (Thomas Lanier) "Tennessee" Williams William Shakespeare Carl Sandburg Alexander Pope Samuel Taylor Coleridge Joseph Heller T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot Vladimir (Vladimirovich) Nabokov J(erome) D(avid) Salinger Jack Kerouac Anonymous William Shakespeare Henry James John (Ernst) Steinbeck Ernest (Miller) Hemingway William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge John Keats Walter Scott Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Gabriel García Márquez Harriet Beecher Stowe (Joseph) Rudyard Kipling The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Poem Catch-22 The Waste Land Lolita The Catcher in the Rye On the Road Beowulf The Merry Wives of Windsor The Turn of the Screw Of Mice and Men The Sun Also Rises Lyrical Ballads Ode on a Grecian Urn Ivanhoe David Copperfield Great Expectations One Hundred Years of Solitude Uncle Tom's Cabin Kim Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Poem Drama Novel Novel Novel Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel .Anna Karenina Heart of Darkness Les Misérables Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? The Jungle 1984 Crime and Punishment Medea A Tale of Two Cities Ulysses A Raisin in the Sun To Kill a Mockingbird Wuthering Heights A Farewell to Arms A Streetcar Named Desire The Taming of the Shrew Chicago The Rape of the Lock Novel Leo (or Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoi) Tolstoy 1877 1902 1862 1961 1906 1948 1866 c.

Aldous (Leonard) Huxley John (Ernst) Steinbeck Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson Ivan (Sergeyevich) Turgenev George Bernard Shaw Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Arthur Miller Alexandre Dumas (père) Willa (Sibert) Cather James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce Marcel Proust Henrik (Johan) Ibsen William Shakespeare Theodore (Herman Albert) Dreiser Jane Austen Daphne du Maurier Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill Robert Penn Warren Anton (Pavlovich) Chekhov 1953 1604 1838 1896 c. Jr. 458 BC 22 22 22 21 21 21 200 BC to AD 200 21 1956 1833 1726 1969 1932 1939 1883 1862 1912 1774 1949 1845 1918 1939 1913 1867 1599 1925 1811 1938 1931 1946 1904 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 .A Clockwork Orange The Crucible Measure for Measure Oliver Twist The Seagull Oresteia Bhagavadgita Howl Eugene Onegin Gulliver's Travels Slaughterhouse Five Brave New World The Grapes of Wrath Treasure Island Fathers and Sons Pygmalion The Sorrows of Young Werther Death of a Salesman The Count of Monte Cristo My Antonia Finnegans Wake Remembrance of Things Past Peer Gynt As You Like It An American Tragedy Sense and Sensibility Rebecca Mourning Becomes Electra All the King's Men The Cherry Orchard Novel Drama Drama Novel Drama Series Religious Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Drama Anthony (John Anthony Burgess Wilson) Burgess 1962 Arthur Miller William Shakespeare Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Anton (Pavlovich) Chekhov Aeschylus Unknown Allen Ginsberg Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin Jonathan Swift Kurt Vonnegut.

many prominent post-1950 painters. Hopper's wife Jo served as the model for the woman at the bar. It currently belongs to MOMA. Christina's World. The Persistence of Memory is probably the most famous of surrealist paintings. an upside-down peasant woman. Nude Descending a Staircase.You Gotta Know These 20th-Century Paintings Below is a list of ten paintings which are frequent quiz bowl topics. This painting depicts five women in a brothel. the coffee pots. who lived near the Wyeths' summer home in Cushing. Guernica. which strikes the farmhouse obliquely from the right. Christina lays in the cornfield wearing a pink dress. by Edward Hopper. as only one work was painted after 1950. clocks. The painting simultaneously echoes the bright lights of a marquee. In the 1948 painting. but it was revolutionary in 1907. thus. Yellow. 3. when it was returned to the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia in Spain. and the Port Lligat landscape are motifs in many other Dalí paintings. Like the object itself. 6. The Christina of the title is Christina Olson. angular facets. and creates a feeling of vitality and vibrancy. the paintings were often done by the mass-produceable form of serigraphy (silk screening). and a series of houses. The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory. I and the Village. they are known for their style and collective body of work rather than for any one painting. 4. The degree of broken-ness is rather mild compared to later Cubist works. not unlike the music itself. The list is notably skewed toward the first half of the 20th century. The ants. Nude Descending a Staircase portrays a nude woman in a series of broken planes. Hopper uses a realistic approach (including such details as the fluorescent light of the diner. Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. and he completed his massive. As is often the case with his works. This list focuses on individual paintings rather than bodies of work. and grey anti-war mural by early June 1937. Petersburg. the Warhol soup can painting existed in many varieties. hangs at the Salvador Dalí Museum in St." Painted in various shades of brown. by Marc Chagall. her body partly twisted and hair blowing slightly in the wind. while the other three have primitive masks as faces. 8. One notable aspect is the subtle pattern of sunlight. Picasso's Cubist approach to portraying the figures adds to the sense of destruction and chaos. capturing motion down several steps in a single image." as in Composition in Red. by Marcel Duchamp. its 1951 companion piece. Campbell's Soup Can. by Andy Warhol. some of them upside-down. Also. In addition to the two giant faces—a green face on the right and a lamb's head on the left—other images include a milkmaid. 2. While Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and other Cubist paintings represent an extension of Paul Cezanne's division-of-space approach to the canvas. 9. First shown in 1931. Nighthawks. such that the canvas is often divided up into rectangular "tile patterns. facing away from the viewer. This work can also be found at the MOMA. notably the lamb and peasant life. A distant barn is near the top middle of the painting. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. by Pablo Picasso. brand names. 2. a reaper. shines in the wheel tracks in the upper right. It is currently housed at the MOMA. like O'Keeffe. and other pop culture figures. Perhaps the earlier paintings have simply had more time to be influential and make their way into the artistic canon. 1. The Persistence of Memory. by Salvador Dalí. Nighthawks is housed at the Art Institute of Chicago. flies. and the Phillies cigar sign atop the diner) to convey a sense of a loneliness and isolation. Florida. First painted in 1912. even going so far as to depict the corner store without a door connecting to the larger world. Mondrian's De Stijl works are a still further abstraction. I and the Village is among Chagall's earliest surviving paintings. reflecting another of Picasso's influences. resembles a pattern of streets as seen from above. The painting reflects a Cubist sense of division of space. the images of the women are partly broken into disjointed. Pop Art parodies (or perhaps reflects) a world in which celebrities. white. Guernica was a Basque town bombed by the Germans during the Spanish Civil War in April 1937. by Piet Mondrian. Warhol's series of Campbell's Soup paintings may be the best illustration of this. No. a church. Painted in 1911. and casts very realistic-looking shadows on . painting 32 or 100 or 200 identical cans further emphasized the aspect of mass production aspect in the work. and media images have replaced the sacred." The two central figures face the viewer. black. Nude Descending a Staircase created a sensation when shown at the 1913 Armory Show in New York. The rather phallic fruit arrangement in the foreground reflects the influence of Cezanne's "flattening of the canvas. along with two sheds to its right. by Andrew Wyeth. an artist like Georgia O'Keeffe is not included because no specific one of her familiar cowskull-andflower paintings is sufficiently prominent. do not have a specific work with a catchy title that has gained particular attention above all others. I and the Village is currently housed at MOMA. Also like the subject. In the far distance is a threestory farmhouse with dual chimneys and two dormers. However. Guernica was in the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York until 1981. The landscape of the scene echoes Port Lligat. It is a dreamlike scene which includes many motifs common to Chagall. Broadway Boogie Woogie. with different types of Campbell's Soup or numbers of cans. The same approach underlies Warhol's familiar series of prints of Marilyn Monroe. and its portrait of motion echoes the work of the Futurists. 7. like Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko. Picasso had already been commissioned to paint a mural for the Spanish Pavilion at the World's Fair. and the trompe l'oeil depiction of figures is typical of his works. by Pablo Picasso. Dalí's home. where one critic referred to it as "an explosion in a shingle factory. and Blue. Maine. 5.

as the models for the two figures. Christina's dress. Upon returning to his studio. Mystery and Melancholy of a Street by Giorgio de Chirico. and it was named to the National Register of Historic Places for its place in Christina's World. and Time Transfixed by Rene Magritte. Wood painted his most famous work after a visit to Eldon. where it was submitted for a competition by Wood upon its completion in 1930 (Wood won a bronze medal and a $300 prize).10. Red Room by Henri Matisse. . American Gothic is among the most familiar regionalist paintings. The Olson house was the subject of many Andrew Wyeth paintings for 30 years. The Twittering Machine by Paul Klee. It hangs at the Art Institute of Chicago. American Gothic. by Grant Wood. The pitchfork and the clothing were more typical of 19th-century farmers than contemporary ones. Even by Marcel Duchamp. Iowa. Byron McKeeby. Two notable painting series are the Woman series of Willem de Kooning and the White on White series by Kasimir Malevich. the incomplete Man at the Crossroads by Diego Rivera. he used his sister Nan and his dentist. when he saw a Carpenter Gothic style house with a distinctive Gothic window in its gable. The Kiss by Gustav Klimt. Dr. and it is said to be the most parodied of all paintings. Among the many other notable individual paintings are The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors.

The election also represented the demise of the Populist Party and ushered in a 16year period of Republican rule. South Carolina. with Republican Abraham Lincoln.000 miles through 27 states and was heard by some 3 million people. and Jacksonians cried foul when Clay was made Secretary of State (the so-called "corrupt bargain"). The most prominent issue. uncomfortable-looking Nixon on television were more likely to select Kennedy as the winner than were those who listened on radio. Bell. Seven southern states seceded before Lincoln even took office. Though winning under 40% of the total popular vote. traveled 18. displeased with his successor Taft. 1948: In the most recent election with four significant candidates. Douglas 12). as railroads brought voters by the thousands to hear him speak in his hometown of Canton. 1860: Another four-candidate election. all Democratic-Republicans. is often considered the first modern campaign manager. (Theodore . marking the ascent of that party's power. The following 10 that "you gotta know" are listed in chronological order. but since none had more than 50% of the vote. 2. Jackson is the only candidate to lose a presidential race despite having the most electoral votes. 4. Calhoun decided to seek the vice presidency and Crawford (from Georgia) had a stroke. Henry Clay. 1960: John F. Adams won in the House with support from Clay. Bell 39. but some elections are asked about very frequently. 1912). 1824: The candidates were John Quincy Adams. those who saw the calm. led to Bryan's famous "Cross of Gold" speech. Cleveland. The debacle leads to passage of the 12th amendment in 1804. founded in 1854. when James Bayard of Delaware changed his vote to Jefferson. he would win the electoral count 185 to 184. the gold standard versus free silver coinage. and Lincoln nearly swept the free states. presidential election is fair game for quiz bowl questions. after Taft got the Republican nomination. winning the popular vote by just two-tenths of a percent. Crawford 41. Republican William McKinley swept the North and Northeast to beat Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Breckinridge. Roosevelt. and Strom Thurmond--yes. comparing it to putting up a trapeze and competing with a professional athlete. for the extraordinary significance of the election in American history (e. 6. Former vice president Henry Wallace earned over a million votes as the Progressive candidate. and Woodrow Wilson--earned electoral votes. Mark Hanna. so DemocraticRepublican VP candidate Aaron Burr also has 73 votes. (northern) Democrat Stephen Douglas. Dewey dominated the Northeast. 1860). The Federalists never recovered.g. giving fuel to Jackson's victorious 1828 campaign. the House decided the election. Alexander Hamilton's opposition to Adams led to a permanent split between the two. and Andrew Jackson. Jackson took most of the South and won the popular vote. returned to lead the progressive Republican faction. Democrat Harry Truman beat Republican Thomas Dewey. Kentucky. Wilson won with 435 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 88 and Taft's 8. either for the unusual nature of the election (e. his dominating win must be credited largely to the splitting of the Republican vote by Roosevelt and Taft. 1. Roosevelt was nominated by the Progressive Party (nicknamed the "Bull Moose" Party). Shunned by Eastern press. and Constitutional Unionist John G. Bryan. Kennedy defeated vice president Richard Nixon 303-219 in a tight election. but results in Florida. and war soon followed. making Taft the only incumbent to finish third in a re-election bid. Though Wilson did set forth his New Freedom program. McKinley instead had a "front porch" campaign. in which Burr (then vice president) killed Hamilton. William Howard Taft.. and he is one of four (with Tilden. that Strom Thurmond--took over a million votes and 39 electoral votes as the States' Rights (or "Dixiecrat") candidate. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel Tilden. McKinley's campaign manager. The first Kennedy-Nixon debate (from September 26. 1876). and Hamilton's opposition to Burr was one cause of their 1804 duel. an informal bargain was reached (often called the Compromise of 1877) in which Hayes won the election in exchange for Reconstruction being brought to an end. (southern) Democrat John C. 1800: Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson narrowly beat incumbent Federalist John Adams 73-65. 8. neither man won the necessary 9 state delegations outright until the 36th ballot. aided by the fragmenting of the Democrats. The gold question would disappear soon after the election with gold strikes in Australia and Alaska. Also notable is the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to another. 1912: Three presidents--Teddy Roosevelt. Breckinridge swept the other slave states. 3. 1876: Republican Rutherford B. but Burr refused to step aside. The election also led to the founding of the Democratic Party. printed before results from the West came in. won in its second election (its first candidate being Fremont in 1856).g. Tilden won the popular vote and seemed to win the election. or for the figures involved (e. but the campaign was the interesting part. best known for battling Tammany Hall and the Tweed Ring in New York. and Clay 37. After John C. as was one vote in Oregon. 1960) is a classic in political science. 1896: In the election itself. The Republican Party. In Congress. Ohio. contrary to the famous headline of the Chicago Tribune. Adams 84. and Gore) to lose despite winning the popular vote. Jackson had 99 electoral votes. 5.S. William Crawford.g. handsome Kennedy and the tired. and Louisiana were contested. Lincoln dominated the electoral count with 180 to a combined 123 for his opponents (Breckinridge 72. Bell took Tennessee. In the House of Representatives. a legendary orator.. if Hayes swept these votes.. One electoral vote each is cast for president and vice president. and Virginia. but Truman nearly swept the West to pull out the victory. McKinley would not accept Bryan's challenge to debate. 7.You Gotta Know These Elections Every U.

gained the Republican nomination. 10. intimidation of vote recounters in Miami-Dade County. and Florida became the center of attention. and after Robert F. 9. Other notable election events include Polk's win as a "dark horse" candidate in 1844. Ballot confusion in Palm Beach County. Wallace's presence may well have tipped the election to the Republicans. Nixon would go on to lose the 1962 California gubernatorial race (occasioning his famous statement. and absentee ballots throughout Florida became significant issues. Richard Nixon. Alabama governor George Wallace ran as the American Independent candidate. gradually returning from political obscurity over the past six years.White's notable The Making of the President series began with the 1960 election. 2000. the Democratic nomination went to Hubert Humphrey. while Wallace won nearly ten million votes. but a recount would not have been feasible. as Americans had to hear about butterfly ballots. and Clinton's win in 1992 .) Voting irregularities in Texas and Illinois (especially in Richard Daley's Chicago) led to allegations of fraud. would hold the presidency for all but four years through 1992. Ralph Nader of the Green Party won an important 2. hanging chads. Wilson's narrow victory in 1916. and Nixon did not press the issue.7% of the vote. it is sure to be a long-term staple of history questions. Reagan's victory in 1980. Cleveland's loss in 1888 despite winning the popular vote. becoming the last third-party candidate to win multiple electoral votes. New Mexico and Oregon were initially too close to call but went to Gore. 1968: After Lyndon Johnson declined to run for re-election. FDR's defeats of Hoover in 1932 and Willkie in 1940. after being out of power for 28 of the last 36 years. and Florida Secretary of State Katharine Harris for the next five weeks. Nixon edged Humphrey by half a million popular votes and a 301-191 electoral count. Gore officially conceded the election on December 13. 2000: The closest election in American history. Kennedy was killed in California. who. while Pat Buchanan of the Reform Party placed fourth. Al Gore won the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a final count of 271-266 (one Gore elector abstained). "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more").

Rather than craters. 8. Those measurements are difficult because of Titan's major characteristic: It is the only satellite to have a substantial atmosphere. but this awaits more accurate measurements. but its surface is heavily cratered. Europa (Jupiter) One of the Galilean moons. Deimos was likely an asteroid brought into Mars' orbit after being disturbed by Jupiter. 2. characters). and believed to have water ice. calderas. and argon (trace). ranging from 1. It resembles Io. which is actually "SHAHR-en". a tenuous nitrogen-methane atmosphere. Titan's atmosphere. and an asteroid belt). Charon's surface is believed to be water ice. Io (Jupiter) Like Europa. the Queen of the Fairies. in honor of Charlene Christy.6 million. rich in carbon. 9. its structure is about half water ice. then cooled surface first. half rock. Triton is also unusual for its retrograde orbit. however. grooved regions. Io is dotted with active volcanoes. but the two show the same face toward each other at all times. Its expected pronunciation of "KAIRen" is not the correct one. Its surface. where ice appears to have melted and filled in. 6. These grooves indicate tectonic activity. Once ice had formed. Ganymede. 4. This position also means it will either impact Mars or break into a ring in around 50 million years. Titan might be the largest satellite in the solar system. Like Phobos. and Io). Additionally. indicating longterm tectonic stability. Deimos and Phobos (Mars) Named for two sons of Ares and Aphrodite. This action strips material from Io. Io (named for a lover of Zeus) is primarily formed of silicate rock. it is thought to have a three-layer structure of a molten iron core. 7. Unlike the Earth's moon. freezing forced surface cracks which formed the valleys. The eruptions are believed to consist of sulfurous compounds that comprise Io's thin atmosphere. Ganymede (Jupiter) The largest satellite in the solar system. Earth. Phobos orbits closer to the planet and has as its most prominent feature the crater Stickney (Hall's wife's maiden name). Titania is named for Oberon's wife. and a southern hemisphere "ice cap" of nitrogen and methane. 5. Some craters have dark floors that could possibly indicate post-impact upwellings of water. Based on the observations of the Galileo spacecraft. mixed with lighter. Nereid (named for the daughters of Nereus and Doris) has the most eccentric orbit of any known satellite. and the outermost of its large satellites. However. Its significant atmosphere. about twice per Martian day. 10. The most striking feature of the surface is a series of dark streaks that may be due to geysers or volcanic eruptions. is unlike any other satellite. silicate mantle. also makes it unique among satellites. and to a degree. Oberon (Uranus) Named for the King of the Fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream (all of Uranus' satellites are named for literary. Large faults are visible across its southern hemisphere. which indicates that it was not part of the natural formation of Neptune's other moons. One theory regarding this is that it began as a liquid. as Io orbits it is heated electrically from currents produced by Jupiter's magnetic field. Phobos and Deimos (Greek for "fear" and "panic") are the two moons of Mars and both were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall. the interior. Its surface is an odd mix of craters and valleys. rather than mythological. and ice exterior. Charon (Pluto) Named for the mythical boatman of the Greek underworld. The relative sizes of the two bodies has led some to call Charon and Pluto a double planet system. dark. Deimos is the smallest moon in the solar system. a mix of nitrogen (80%). this Galilean moon is larger than Mercury. in its composition of silicate rocks. it rises in the west and sets in the east. It was discovered two days before Phobos. and is the largest of the Uranian satellites. The largest moon relative to the size of its orbiting planet. The oddity of this orbit indicates it is likely a captured asteroid. Deimos is heavily cratered. it is coated in a thin layer of ice. producing a radiation field and increasing Jupiter's magnetosphere. and other signs of geological activity.You Gotta Know These Planetary Moons 1. wife of Jim Christy. but has only half its mass.3 million kilometers to 9. Oberon is both the second largest of Uranus' satellites. There is the possibility of an active sea of liquid water beneath the surface. highly cratered regions. which tends to alternate polar and equatorial regions facing the sun . Titan (Saturn) The largest of Saturn's satellites. Like all large Uranian moons. methane (20%). Titania (Uranus) Another of Herschel's discoveries. its discoverer. This ice layer may also provide a thin atmosphere as hydrogen and oxygen are released when the planet is exposed to sunlight. The tremendous activity is due to tidal warming from the gravity of Jupiter and other satellites. Its surface is marked by older. Charon not only is in synchronous orbit with Pluto. It also features seismic activity in the form of ice volcanoes. 3. which causes it to be exceedingly smooth. Triton (Neptune) By far the largest of Neptune's satellites. This is due to it being below the radius for synchronous orbit. Nereid (Neptune) Discovered by Gerard Kuiper (who also discovered Miranda. discovered in 1610 by Galileo (the others are Callisto. All of these may be caused by Triton's odd rotational axis. but Ganymede does not appear to have undergone recent tectonic shifts. This also accounts for the appearance of some craters.

and the ennead of Thebes. were spawned four other gods: Osiris. the ba was subjected to the Judgment of Osiris in the Hall of Double Justice where the heart of the deceased was weighed against Ma'at. She then conceived a son. The Stories Fortunately for quiz bowlers. In addition to his role as the chief and judge of the underworld (as a result of the above-mentioned murder by Set). the Egyptians believed that the soul had three components. and brother of Set. Osiris was represented either as a green mummy. 4. and Horus was hidden by his mother. Tutankhamen (of King Tut fame). and Nepthys. In the underworld. These nine gods became known as the ennead ("group of nine"). Amenhotep IV. His effigies were destroyed by some. the sun god. The Heliopolitan ennead was one of several in Egyptian theology. The ba went to the underworld where it merged with aspects of Osiris. He was portrayed with the head of a falcon. the monster Apep would attempt to prevent his return. Statues representing him were made of clay and grain. he lost his eye. father of Horus. . and akh. or wearing the Atef. The Pantheon 1. Not surprisingly. motherhood. Ra Personification of the midday sun. Isis searched the breadth of the land until she had recovered all of the pieces and. Set grew jealous of his brother and killed him. His cult was diminished over time. 3. and son of Ra. with the help of Anubis. • The first is the "family quarrel" of Osiris and Set: Osiris took Isis. The center of their worship was Heliopolis. and crowned with the sun disc. In earlier myth he was the brother of Set. Isis. he was also venerated as Atum (setting sun) and Khepri (rising sun). Osiris served as god of the underworld. From Geb. The akh could temporarily assume different physical forms and wander the world as a ghost of sorts. Thus Horus came to rule over the earth. 2. driving away Set. When he was grown. being emasculated in the fight. The god of the pharaohs. This process was carried to its extreme conclusion by his successor. Set Created in opposition to the forces of Ma'at. Shu. for most practical purposes. the god of the earth. In the battle. Osiris Husband of Isis. worship of the god Aton (or Aten)--a representation of the disc of the sun--was resurrected. Having killed his brother Osiris. who eventually declared Aton to be the only god. Other myths held that Ra spent the night in the underworld consoling the dead. each of which had different roles after death. • The third is actually an historical episode: during the reign of Amenhotep III (1390-1353 BC). commonly represented as an ostrich feather. Osiris also served as a god of vegetation and renewal. Harsiesis. and ruled over the earth. while others were changed into representations of Amon. Horus defeated Set to regain the kingship and all subsequent pharaohs were said to be aspects of him. that of the falcon. Her powers were gained through tricking the god Ra. by replacing the ears with horns. and at times this grouping was superseded by other sets. symbolic of the struggle of forces that brought harmony. and Nut. thereby creating one of the earliest known monotheistic religions. embalmed the body. and the cause of all disasters. which were later combined with him. a plumed crown. with Amon at its head. which would then germinate. Set (or Seth). by the (still dead) Osiris and then resurrected him. He was known to have two faces. for his wife. from the ocean in the form of an egg (or. ka. a flower. the sun god. By placing a snake in his path. Horus The god of the sky and light and the son of Isis and Osiris. but she is often equated with the Greek Demeter. protected love. and Tefnut. Set did battle with Osiris' son Horus. from the fourth dynasty onward all pharaohs termed themselves "sons of Ra. alternately. he avenged his father's death. 5. there are. only three major episodes in Egyptian mythology. Harpocrates. festivals honoring his death occurred around the time of the Nile flood's retreat. his sister. • The second is the afterlife.) Ra brought forth four children: Geb. and that of a child. the pre-eminence of these variations coincided with their corresponding cities' political control of Egypt. Shu and Nut became manifestations of air and moisture. traditional religious practices were restored. goddess of the sky. she forced him to give some power to her before she would cure him. Isis Isis. but regained it thanks to the god Thoth." The worship of Aton was centered on the capital city of Tell-al-Amarna and was largely confined to upper classes and the pharaonic court and. and protector of the dead. but was allowed to periodically return (which is why Egyptian tombs often contained narrow doors). He traveled across the sky each day and then each night. did not survive Amenhotep himself. Nut. Set (termed Typhon by Plutarch) fought the demon Apopis each day. His mother impregnated herself with the dead Osiris. due to reaction against violence. The ka remained near or within the body (which is why mummification was required). which poisoned him." and after death they joined his entourage. He then claimed kingship over the land. as all were tied to Ra.You Gotta Know These Egyptian Deities The Egyptian creation myth begins with the emergence of Ra (or Re). meaning "Aton is satisfied. Horus. and fate in the Egyptian mythos. Two notable alternatives were the ennead of the city of Memphis led by the god Ptah. In later times. Under his successor. The pharaoh even changed his name to Akhenaton. Many of her roles are similar to the goddess Hathor. and Set became the personification of violence and disorder. daughter of Geb and Nut. this struggle led Set to be associated with the serpent itself. the ba. in any case. afterwards cutting his body into 14 pieces and hiding them in various places around Egypt. emerging victorious. Knowing the principal actors in these (as well as the various animal heads) will go a long way toward scoring points in the category.

A symbolic offering of Ma'at. Set. She fulfilled many functions as goddess of the sky. His wife was the cat headed Sekhmet and his son was the lotus god Nefertem. Thoth was consulted by Isis when attempting to resurrect Osiris. in the form of a dwarf. but other appearances show him with the head of a ram. she sided against her own husband. or wearing the beard of the gods on his chin. 11. 8. Amon became linked with the sun god Ra. 7. his wife was Mut." for her role as guardian of the tomb. he also was seen as a healer. Anubis would weigh the heart of the dead against the feather of truth. His godhood was achieved by himself. His knowledge of magic led to his association with the Greek Hermes. and brought him back to life. Ma'at The daughter of Ra. much as Isis had done for Osiris. Amon Amon began as a local god of Thebes. governing the air. protector of marriage. he was typically pictured with the head of a jackal.6. Nephthys Termed the "lady of the castle. Anubis is sometimes identified with Hermes or Mercury. goddess of fertility. The temple of Amon-Ra at Karnak was the largest ever built. Osiris. 10. Ptah). Isis' sister. Anubis Son of Osiris and Nepthys. Ptah Principal god of the city of Memphis. His knowledge of science and calculation made him the creator of the calendar. Hathor Hathor (or Athor or Athyr) was the patron of women. and goddess of love and beauty. where her ostrich feather symbol was weighed against the hearts of the dead in the underworld. he was portrayed as a mummy. she was rarely associated with a cult of her own. To decide the fate of the dead. and was again consulted when the young Horus was stung by a scorpion. she predated the universe. Hathor was the daughter of Ra. and as the "Heart of Re" for his creative powers. In this form. A patron of craftsmen. and served over the creation of it. in his battle against Osiris. Thoth Serving the gods as the supreme scribe. much like his creation power. day and night. and star movements. she was also said to be Osiris' mistress. and god of embalming to the Egyptians. and the two combined as Amon-Ra. and as their judge. He also served to introduce the dead to the afterlife. and wife of Horus. and his symbol of the moon was due to his knowledge of how to calculate its path. He also served as the god of the desert and the watcher of the tombs. ensuring balance between everything. Ma'at's aspect as god of justice also showed through her role in death ritual. Pictures of Hathor show the goddess with the head of a cow. Judges wore effigies of Ma'at. His appearance in art was as a man in a loincloth. as Ma'at encompassed all other offerings. in the form a statuette was given to the gods. fertility and reproduction. 9. and his son Khon. rainfall. he became worshipped beyond Egypt. Later. In the death trilogy (Anubis. Ma'at was responsible for seasons. Due to her close ties to all the other gods. and the supreme head of courts was said to be the priest of Ma'at. she collected the bits of his body. In that final role she became equated with Aphrodite and Venus. with a headdress topped by feathers. . he was seen as the god of embalming. 12. done merely by act of will. but when Set was destroyed. leading to much complaint from Isis. and identified with Zeus and Jupiter. Primarily seen as the keeper of order. ibis-headed Thoth was known as the "tongue of Ptah" for his knowledge of hieroglyphics.

and The Decay of the Angel). Sei Shonagan was a lady-in-waiting of the Empress. She was the author of the Tale of Genji (Genji monogatari). diarist. The Sea of Fertility (Hojo no umi. Basho. based on the tea ceremony and inspired by The Tale of Genji. is about self-destructive personalities and the transformation of Japan into a modern. He failed to qualify for military service during World War II. committed ritual suicide after a public speech failed to galvanize the armed forces into overthrowing the government. Mishima Yukio (1925 .1725) He was Japan's first professional dramatist. society. Endo Shusaku (1923-1996) He converted to Catholicism at the age of 11. A friend of Mishima Yukio.1015?) Novelist. White Man and Yellow Man. and his suicide letter A Note to a Certain Old Friend became a published work. Shiiku (The Catch in the Shadow of the Sunrise). the most notable influences on his work were Zen Buddhism and his travels throughout Japan. Sei Shonagan (966/7 . 7. she sat in on the classical Chinese literature lessons that her brother received. which had been founded by his father. 3. who organized the Tate no kai. It's probably fair to say that high school (and new college players). Despite this inauspicious childhood. Confessions of a Mask (Kamen no kokuhaku).You Gotta Know These Japanese Authors Please note that unlike most of the other "You Gotta Know" articles.1970) (pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake) He was a novelist whose central theme was the disparity between traditional Japanese values and the spiritual emptiness of modern life. an historical melodrama about an attempt to re-establish the Ming dynasty in China. Since Lady Murasaki and Sei Shonagan were contemporaries and known for their wit." He is best known for three novels: Thousand Cranes. Zeami (1363-1443) (also called Kanze Motokiyo). and Wind in the Pines. Spain. 6. and Rome. the diary. about the relationship of an old man and his daughter-in-law. He committed suicide two years after Mishima. Oe Kenzaburo(1935 . he is regarded as the greatest playwright of the No theater.present) Novelist and recipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize for Literature. which means "Cottage of the Plaintain Tree. and a collection of tanka poems. The second master of the Kanze theatrical school. and Mishima. his 1915 short story Rashomon brought him into the highest literary circles and started him writing the macabre stories for which he is known. and his father was a failure who gave him up to relatives. 2. in spite of the Heian traditions against higher education for women. a style of chanted narration adapted to bunraku. In 1927 he committed suicide by overdosing on pills. Sei Shonagan's only work is the Pillow Book (Makura no soshi). Chikamatsu wrote more than 150 plays for both the bunraku (puppet theater) and the kabuki (popular theater). he was the first Japanese author to be so honored. Mishima's first novel. 4. One of Japan's two most prestigious literary prizes is named for Akutagawa. He is noted for works like The Narrow Road to the Deep North (Oku no hosomichi).1013?) Like Lady Murasaki. His four-volume epic. describes a friendship between a Japanese boy and a black American . he established the aesthetic standards by which plays have been judged ever since. Birds of Sorrow. 10. He took his pseudonym from the name of the simple hut where he retired: Bashoan. 8. 1. The Sound of the Mountain. when Kurosawa Akira made it into a film in 1951. He provided 90 of the approximately 230 plays in the modern repertoire. only really "gotta know" Lady Murasaki. a form given the name "palm-of-the-hand. and Snow Country. The daughter of the court official Fujiwara Tametoki. He is also largely responsible for developing the sewamono (contemporary drama on contemporary themes) in the joruri. Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653 . which includes descriptions of local sights in both prose and haiku. but sterile. he was also associated with right-wing causes and openly protested the Cultural Revolution in China.1972) Recipient of the 1968 Nobel Prize for Literature. 9. Matsuo Basho (1644-1694) (pseudonym of Matsuo Munefusa) Generally acknowledged as the master of the haiku form. His works combine classic Japanese values with modern trends and often center on the role of sex in people's lives." 5. Also a drama critic. Kawabata Yasunari (1899 . Runaway Horses. this one is primarily aimed at advanced college players. The Samurai recounts the tale of a samurai sent to establish trade relations between his shogun and Mexico. Among his best works are Atsumori. was successful enough to allow him to write full time. His first works. it is awarded for the best serious work of fiction by a new Japanese writer. and courtesan. Rashomon also was key to his international fame. about an aging geisha. a right-wing society stressing physical fitness and the martial arts. His Fushi kaden (The Transmission of the Flower of Acting Style) is a manual for his pupils. so worked in an aircraft factory instead. explored the differences between Japanese and Western values and national experiences. the first known novel. consisting of Spring Snow. Kawabata. Silence tells of the martyrdom of the Catholic converts of Portuguese priests. The latter two novels are generally considered to be Shusaku's greatest achievements. The Robe of Feathers. Murasaki Shikibu nikki. Mishima.1927) His mother died insane while he was a child. Murasaki Shikibu (978? . and majored in French literature. The Temple of Dawn. which is considered the best source of information about life at the Japanese court during the Heian period (784-1185). One of Chikamatsu's most popular plays was The Battles of Coxinga. Akutagawa Ryunosuke (1892 . His works are often only a few pages long. Chikamatsu's scripts fall into two categories: historical romances (mono) and domestic tragedies (wamono). Originally named Sugimori Nobumori. they were often rivals*. His first work.

was dreadfully conceited. they left a great deal to be desired." . . . but . . . His early works are filled with insanity. will inevitably suffer and come to a bad end. . . She thought herself so clever and littered her writings with Chinese characters. trying to capture every moment of interest. and won him the Akutagawa award while he was still a student. . abuse. and violence. * Lady Murasaki wrote of Sei Shonagan: "Sei Shonagan . . are bound to look ridiculous and superficial. here is one who has managed to survive this far without having achieved anything of note. This You Gotta Know article was contributed by Stephen Webb. but his later works (including A Personal Matter (Kojinteki-na taiken) and The Silent Cry (Man'en gannen no futtoboru)) reflect the experience of being the father of a brain-damaged child. His fiction centers on the alienation following Japan's surrender and his political writings focus on the search for cultural and ideological roots. and people who have become so precious that they go out of their way to be sensitive. . Those who think of themselves as being superior to everyone else . however slight. . . perverse sex.POW. .

his bad knees forced him into early retirement in 1979. He was the first NHL player to score 50 goals in a single season.857). Ken Dryden (1947-) Born in Hamilton. he led the Bruins to their first Stanley Cup in three decades with the now famous "Goal. Ontario. assists (1. against Boston in 1984. Vladislav Tretiak (1952-) Born in Moscow. A sixtime Art Ross Trophy winner.rating ever for a single season. The decision to pull Tretiak after the first period of the U. Saskatchewan. He played for CSKA Moscow (Central Red Army) for 15 years and. He played his last NHL season at the age of 52 in 1980 with the Hartford Whalers. "The Great One" was named Canada's athlete of the century. 8. Maurice Richard (1921-2000) Born in Montreal. Hockey. After a two-year retirement. After a brief stint in St. 3. and also the first to score 500 in a career. After a bout with Hodgkin's disease. and worked as a legal clerk and obtaining his law degree from McGill. The first blue liner to win the Art Ross Trophy (scoring title). +124 in 1970-71 and won eight straight Norris Trophies from 1968-75. since his retirement. As a blue liner for the Boston Bruins he was named a first team NHL All-Star for eight of nine years during the 1930s and is the only defenseman to win 4 Hart Trophies as NHL MVP." He recorded the highest +/. his suspension by league president Clarence Campbell in 1955 led to "The Richard Riot" on March 17. Bobby Hull (1939-) Born in Point Anne. his #99 was retired league wide. and Conn Smythe (playoff MVP) in the same season (1969-70). Ontario. Sawchuk also won the Calder Trophy as NHL rookie of the year in 195051. "The Rocket" was one of the most gifted offensive players in NHL history. Along with Tony Esposito. The NHL began awarding the Rocket Richard Trophy in 1999 for the league's top regular season goal scorer. including four shutouts. The winner of eight Stanley Cups.) Born in Brantford. he defected to the fledgling WHA's Winnipeg Jets for a record 10-year. Quebec: "Super Mario" scored his first NHL goal on the first shift of his first game.S. won more games (447). Bobby Orr (1948-) Born in Parry Sound. he returned to the fledgling WHA. That same year. in the playoffs for Detroit. 7. doing so in 1944-45.75 million deal. 6. He is also the father of Brett Hull and the duo is the only father-son combination to score 500 each in NHL history. He came to North American prominence when he starred in 1972 Summit Series against Canada. In 1952. he starred in the playoffs. where he would star and help make Winnipeg one of the four WHA teams to merge with the NHL in 1978-79. A "Gordie Howe hat trick" was later joked to consist of a goal. The winner of ten scoring titles (Art Ross Trophies) and nine NHL MVP's (Hart Trophies).S. he now serves as the goaltending coach for the Chicago Blackhawks. he also won the Norris (best defenseman). Manitoba. winning Conn Smythe Trophy honors (playoff MVP). and a fight in a game./USSR game in the 1980 Olympics is considered to be part of the reason the U. went on to win the gold. $2. Gretzky holds or shares 61 NHL records. Eddie Shore (1902-1985) Born in Fort Qu'Appele. He sat out the entire 1973-74 season in a contract dispute. 9. Many sociologists credit the Richard Riot with starting the Quebec independence movement. "The Edmonton Express" is the epitome of "Old-Time Hockey. 4.You Gotta Know These Hockey Hall of Famers 1. Winning 5 Vezina Trophies in his career for lowest team GAA (the criteria during his era). Bobby Orr revolutionized the position of defenseman. he had a standout career at Cornell University before joining the Montreal Canadiens organization in 1970. He then later helped bail the Penguins out of bankruptcy by becoming the lead owner of the team in 1999. Always deeply psychologically troubled." as stated in the 1977 film Slap Shot. He later went on to be the owner/GM of the AHL's Springfield Indians and the anecdotes about his stingy ways are now hockey lore . Gordie Howe (1926. he recorded eight straight wins. 10. Quebec. "Mr. In June of 1972. finishing as the NHL's career points leader until 1989. Saskatchewan. 1955. before going on to win Calder Trophy (Rookie of the Year) honors the next season. to play with his sons on the Houston Aeros. Unfortunately. and recorded more shutouts (103) than any other netminder in NHL history. "Ukey" played more games (971). Wayne Gretzky (1961. including career goals (894).) Born in Floral. he would finish career with New York Rangers in 1999. He won four Stanley Cups with Edmonton in the 1980s before a major trade sent him to Los Angeles in 1988. He currently serves as the President of the Toronto Maple Leafs. and 1984). Ontario. Louis. he won three Art Ross Trophies and led the NHL in goals seven times. he died in a household accident in 1970 while a member of the New York Rangers. 2. USSR. which was quelled only by an appeal by Richard for peace. Hart (league MVP). He led the Pittsburgh Penguins to consecutive Stanley Cups in 1991-92. Terry Sawchuk (1929-1970) Born in Winnipeg. he returned to lead the NHL in scoring in 1995-96 and 1996-97.963). and points (2. Tretiak is first Russian player in Hockey Hall of Fame. Ontario. he played 26 seasons with the Detroit Red Wings. he served as Canada's goalie during the legendary 1972 Summit Series with the USSR. retiring in 1971. an assist. 5." was equally adept with his stick as he was with his fists. In 1970-71. he also won three gold medals (1972. 1976. A 10-time World Champion. Mario Lemieux (1965-) Born in Montreal. "The Golden Jet" was the star of the Chicago Blackhawks of the 1960s.

he was a captain. John Burgoyne "Gentleman Johnny. Brought back to Britain to govern Armagh in Ireland in 1777. Greene led a spirited offensive against Lord Rawdon's. returning to England after ineffectiveness in 1774-5. 6. Carleton then repulsed efforts by Montgomery and Benedict Arnold to capture Montreal and Quebec. Sir Guy Carleton Irish-born. and led several raids on Virginia. by defeating an American naval buildup on Lake Champlain.) and Nathaniel Greene at Guilford Courthouse. being wounded in the fight. he escaped. 5. Following the loss of Fort Washington. he joined Ethan Allen in the attack on Fort Ticonderoga. Stanwix. he then directed the defense of New York against Burgoyne's invasion attempt. he was severely wounded in the failed December 1775 assault that also saw the death of General Richard Montgomery. 2. as part of the British army he raided New London. and led the evacuation of positions along the Delaware River in fall 1777. he occupied Yorktown in August 1781. and skirted several regulations to raise money. Major John Andre was captured. Carleton then directed British troops from Canada to Boston after the Battle of Concord. Greene then led the main force at Germantown. where he was surrounded by American and French forces. Greene's logistical talents led Washington to appoint him quartermaster general. he attempted to support Burgoyne's failed plan to isolate New England. Following this he became involved in the Conway cabal. he lived extravagantly among Loyalists. When his contact. he tried to raise adequate forces. Promoted following his defense of Danbury. routing a second attempt by Arnold. Until the end of the war. Joining with Daniel Morgan. which led to coldness between the two. First Marquess of Cornwallis An aristocrat and ensign in 1756. Passed over for promotion. he led grenadiers across the Plains of Abraham in the 1759 siege of Quebec under his close friend General Wolfe. returning in 1782 as commander-in-chief after Cornwallis' surrender. which gave a costly victory to the British. he was appointed governor-general of India. he sat out all but the end of the war. He entered the war as second in command to Thomas Gage before taking command after Gage's 1775 recall. Arming a flotilla on Lake Champlain. his troops met trouble at Saratoga. Following the war. but lost the battle of Camden to Cornwallis. He then led those troops as the right wing in the Battle of Monmouth. The next year. prompting investigations. the latter a pyrrhic victory which likely led to his defeat in attempts to contain Lafayette in Virginia. it was there he first met George Washington. 3. he organized the army around Boston into an effective force. Following this.You Gotta Know These Revolutionary War Generals 1. he raised a militia company but was not elected their captain due to his partial lameness. resulting in a revolt. Appointed to command to replace the traitor Benedict Arnold. Greene led forces into victory at the Battle of Trenton. Later. and . and being forced to surrender after Bemis Heights. he attacked the British forces at Valcour Island. Following this. where they aided in the battles around New York. Leger and William Howe. and forced to surrender. and proved to be a capable administrator. and commanded advance battalions at Saratoga. he formulated a plan to isolate New England. and then again distinguished himself by protecting Washington's force at the Battle of Brandywine. Burgoyne was later appointed commander-in-chief of Ireland. but met resistance when he sent his Hessians to attack Bennington. Horatio Gates Wounded in the disastrous French and Indian War attack on Fort Duquesne. he bested Horatio Gates at Camden (N. and planning to betray his expected command of West Point. and Greene resigned in 1780. he again considered resignation. Connecticut. Charles Cornwallis. and reinforcing Germantown. 4. After a failed assault on Charleston. Sent south in 1780 to capture Charleston. he began his Revolutionary War career under Gage. perhaps at the cost of the support of other officers. alerting them to a plan to invade Canada. and by the end of the Seven Years' War. Following this defeat he directed the main attack on Brandywine Creek. he was sent south following Gates' loss at Camden. an attempt to replace Washington. Sent to reinforce Canada. he served under Sir Henry Clinton in the battle of Long Island. a position he held until the end of the war. The plan worked as far as capturing Fort Ticonderoga. he made colonel.C. as part of the plan to capture Philadelphia. he marched his army to Long Island." as he was known due to his cultural tastes (Burgoyne was also a playwright). Washington personally persuaded him not to resign. Made aide-de-camp to George III. Exhausted. he made overtures to the British. being repulsed at Freedman's Farm. The quartermaster general position led to conflicts with the Continental Congress. he was assigned to command troops in New York originally intended to invade Canada. and was replaced by Nathaniel Greene. Recommended by Washington to be adjutant general of the army at the outbreak of revolution. with the help of Barry St. leading to victory at Saratoga. Following his work in the siege of Boston. Promoted to major general in 1776. a position he only accepted if he were allowed to retain field troops. Nathanael Greene A prominent Rhode Island politician prior to the revolution. but made his mark in fighting at Manhattan and pursued Washington across the Hudson. he retreated from Cornwallis' forces for two months until a crippling counterattack at Guilford Courthouse. Sent to command Philadelphia. Briefly put in charge of Philadelphia. Appointed by Washington to capture Quebec. and was promoted to major general before being sent to America. Placed in command of the South over Washington's objections by Congress. he fought in the battle of Minden. Promoted to second in command under Clinton after the Philadelphia campaign. Washington then accepted Gates back as his deputy. Benedict Arnold Volunteering for service following the Battle of Lexington. earning accolades. After marrying Peggy Shippen. 1777). but won victory at Ft. he led the Battle of Monmouth before returning home to attend his sick wife. being outmaneuvered by Washington at Princeton (January 3. Paroled on condition he returned to England.

1779. the Prussian Steuben was recommended by Ben Franklin to George Washington. and began training the army. he coordinated a joint army-navy attack with his brother. 11. and worked with the French general Jean Baptiste Rochambeau to plan the Yorktown campaign. Commissioned captain of the Ranger. April 1776. Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Formerly part of Frederick the Great's staff. Serving under Nathaniel Greene. 1781 . Richard. later Duncan Stuart's. Steuben joined Washington at Valley Forge. raising support for an expeditionary force. he distinguished himself in the Race to the Dan River. countered by the work of Lafayette.7. he resigned his commission due to poor advancement prospect. 12. and Newport. 8. George Washington Selected by the Continental Congress to serve as general-in-chief. he fought at Savannah. leading him to promotion and command of the Providence. he relinquished command to Sir Henry Clinton and returned home.S. Key to the success in Boston was the capture of Dorchester Heights. his first actions were to blockade Boston. Following the war. Appointed major general and inspector general in May 1777. he planned the building of Fort Mercer. The next month. until reinforcements arrived in June. 13. Lafayette helped the siege there until Cornwallis' surrender. At the outbreak of conflict. and later given command of the North and South Carolina militias. and at Charleston. he returned to France. Working in Virginia. 1759). Returning to America a colonel. Offering his assistance to the Americans. After a costly draw with Sir Henry Clinton's forces at Monmouth. defeating Washington at Brandywine. Sent to Virginia in 1780 to oppose Benedict Arnold's actions. The success of this campaign led to Cornwallis' surrender on October 19. Tadeusz Andrezj Bonawentura Kosciusko After receiving military training in his native Poland and France. Ordered to raid until his provisions were expended. and establishing headquarters in Charleston following Washington's victory at Yorktown. he was commissioned to outfit the Alfred. then spent two years writing the Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States. then headed south when Gates was appointed command of the Southern Department. After his attempts to secure a peace in 1777 failed. After directing the attack on Bunker Hill. waiting for acceptance of his resignation. he arrived in April 1777 with Baron de Kalb. he led the attack on Philadelphia. he served on the board that sentenced Major Andre to death. First seeing action at Brandywine. Sir William Howe A veteran of the siege of Louisbourg. the devil himself could not catch him. but Steuben recovered in time to aid in the siege of Yorktown. Monmouth. From there. he kept Howe engaged in the midAtlantic. and the leader of the ascent to the Plains of Abraham (Quebec. and then faced Andre's confederate Benedict Arnold in battle in 1781. he sank and captured ships in operations along the Atlantic coast." creating Marion's nickname of "Swamp Fox. but mishandled the siege of Ninety-Six. saw him lead the Alfred against the HMS Glasgow. Marion was given command of Fort Sullivan in 1776. Washington retreated toward Pennsylvania. which he then used to help capture New Providence in the Bahamas. allowing cannon fire against the British and forcing the withdrawal of Howe. and escaped capture when the British recaptured Charleston. Washington sent Greene south to replace Gates. Leaving Europe in August 1779. earning himself the rank of colonel. illness caused him to turn over his troops to Lafayette. he succeeded Gage as commander. becoming commander of the northern army and building fortifications which helped win the battle of Saratoga. Back home he resisted partition. forces. the two combined forces against Cornwallis in the battle of Green Spring. In 1780. he met the British ship Serapis in battle September 23. In Halifax. and captured the HMS Drake. he worked on building defenses for West Point. Tarleton's frustration at the task led to the remark "But as for this damned old fox. That winter. After participating at the battles of Barren Hill. an army training manual. 9. Steuben. Washington retired to winter quarters at Morristown. extending British supply lines and allowing a successful counterattack on Hessian mercenaries at Trenton. Pursuing Cornwallis to Yorktown. he sailed to France to acquire new ships. John Paul Jones A Scotsman who had fled Britain after two deaths at his hands. he added the last name Jones to his given name of John Paul. Minister to France Silas Deane. 1778. Commanding the 2nd South Carolina. Accepted by the Continental Congress. he wintered in Philadelphia. he helped fortify the Delaware River in 1776. an admiral. due to the failed peace negotiations." Promoted to brigadier general in 1781. resulting in a campaign which allowed the British to control New York City. he was dispatched in 1775 as second in command to Gage. Following victory at Princeton. Marie Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier. he was granted American citizenship but returned home to Poland. Autumn setbacks at Brandywine and Germantown led to a demoralized winter camp at Valley Forge. Marquis de Lafayette Approached by U. he aided in the Battle of Monmouth. besieging Augusta and Ninety-Six. After this. his primary early action was in supporting Washington during the winter at Valley Forge. Francis Marion Previously an Indian fighter. forcing Cornwallis to appoint Colonel Banastre Tarleton to eliminate Marion. and coordinated a strategic retreat from Boston to Halifax. After failing to defend New York. On May 25. and attempted to liberate the nation afterward. 10. and others. Marion fought the British at Eutaw Springs. he evaded Cornwallis' forces. Sending his best forces north to deal with Burgoyne's attack in spring 1777. Marion fought a successful guerilla campaign against British troops. and the next spring headed north with General Gates. Coordinating with Anthony Wayne.

3. "addressed" with carbohydrate tags. and packaged in vesicles for delivery. . Vacuoles Found mainly in plants and protists. 1. Mitochondria The "mighty mitos" are the powerhouses of the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) The ER is a network of tube-like membranes continuous with the nuclear envelope that comes in rough (with ribosomes) and smooth (without ribosomes) varieties. functional protein structures. Chloroplasts Found only in plants and certain protists. 7. and it has its own DNA and ribosomes in the stroma. Cilia/Flagella Cilia and flagella are important organelles of motility. processes that produce energy for the cell in the form of ATP. the chloroplast contains the green pigment chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis. chemically modified. whip-like structures. Commonly seen within the nucleus are dense bodies called nucleoli. lipids." which fits their function as organized structures found within cells that allow the cell to survive. which are stacks of single membrane structures called thylakoids on which the reactions of photosynthesis occur. They consist of several RNA and protein molecules arranged into two subunits. Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are the site of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Nucleus The nucleus is the "command central" of the cell because it contains almost all of the cell's DNA. In eukaryotes. Golgi Apparatus The stack of flattened. proteins undergo modifications and folding to yield the final. Chloroplasts contain grana.You Gotta Know These Organelles The word "organelle" comes from the Latin for "little organ. while cilia are short hair-like projections. Flagella are long. centrioles are paired organelles with nine sets of microtubule triplets in cross section. Ribosomes read the messenger RNA copy of the DNA and assemble the appropriate amino acids into protein chains. the nucleus is surrounded by a selectively-permeable nuclear envelope. They are important in processing the contents of vesicles taken in from outside the cell." Here proteins from the ribosomes are stored. 4. Lysosomes Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes that break down proteins. It is crucial to maintain the integrity of the lysosomal membranes because the enzymes they contain can digest cellular components as well. which allow the cell to move. Centrioles Not found in plant cells. 2. which are suspended in a fluid called the matrix. The DNA appears as chromatin through most of the cell cycle but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell is undergoing mitosis. 9. Like the mitochondrion. 10. a chloroplast is a double-membrane-bound organelle. 5. In the ER. Contractile vacuoles are important for freshwater protists to rid their cells of excess water that accumulates because of salt imbalance with the environment. carbohydrates. and nucleic acids. 6. which contain ribosomal RNA. 8. which encodes the information needed to make all the proteins that the cell uses. or translation. vacuoles are liquid-filled cavities enclosed by a single membrane. They are important in organizing the microtubule spindle needed to move the chromosomes during mitosis. The inner membrane of a mitochondrion forms folds called cristae [KRIS-tee]. Both contain a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules in cross section and are powered by molecular motors of kinesin and dynein molecules. The mitochondrial matrix contains DNA and ribosomes. folded membranes that forms the Golgi apparatus acts as the "post office of the cell. They serve as storage bins for food and waste products. Ribosomes Ribosomes are the machines that coordinate protein synthesis.

This was followed by a brief stint in the NASL. 1999. He made his professional debut with Brazil's Santos in 1956 and played with them until 1974. Sir Stanley Matthews (1915-2000) (England-Winger) Known as "Wizard of the Dribble. 2. 7. he led Serie A in scoring for a third ." Matthews lead a rousing comeback from a 3-1 deficit with 30 minutes remaining.S. in 1999. Two years later." Beckenbauer invented the position of attacking sweeper. He later became Brazil's Minister of Sport and. 6. captaining FC Bayern München to the Bundesliga (German First Division). he moved on to FC Napoli. A UNC-Chapel Hill alum (BS 1994.000 people. In his professional and international career. including the infamous "Hand of God" goal. Mia Hamm (1972-) (United States-Forward) The youngest American. helping him to become the only man ever to win the World Cup as both team captain and as manager (1974 as a player. and closed his international career in 1956 at the age of 41. Argentina's Boca Juniors. He is also one of the most gentlemanly players in history.S. Johann Cryuff (1947-) (The Netherlands-Midfielder) A stringent believer that "the game should be played beautifully. the nation's second triumph.282 goals. the largest crowd to see a soccer match in the U. Maradona finally retired in 1997 from his original team. his retirement game in 1977 at Giants Stadium against his old club Santos drew over 75. 5. Oregon. who retired from international play after the qualification stage.You Gotta Know These Footballers (Soccer Players) 1. He led Italian side Juventus FC to success in both Serie A (Italy's First Division) and UEFA (European) competitions. European Cup (now known as the UEFA Champions League) championships and West Germany to the World Cup. is named for her.363 matches and scored 1. having never been sent off with a red card during his entire career. National team. In 1963.. where she won 4 NCAA titles. Diego Maradona (1960-) (Argentina-Forward) The oft-controversial strike helped Argentina to the 1986 World Cup Championship with two amazing goals against England in the semi-finals. where he teamed with Pelé and was named 1977 NASL MVP. in which Maradona directed the ball into the net with his hand illegally. he became the first English footballer to be knighted. ever to play for a U. undetected by officials on the pitch. In 1985. Pelé led the Brazilian national team to three World Cup victories in 1958. He retired. Though he played for unfashionable northern first division clubs like Blackpool and Stoke City. His greatest international success came in 1974 when he helped the "Orange" to their first appearance in the World Cup Final. he left Germany for the NASL's New York Cosmos. Cup final against Bolton at Wembley. when she scored career goal 108 on May 16. earning him 1976 NASL MVP honors. where he led the team to four Spanish League titles and a European Cup in a nine-year stint. Political Science). 1990 as manager). Franz Beckenbauer (1945-) (West Germany-Sweeper) Nicknamed "Der Kaiser. He was banned for failing a drug test in 1991 and by the time he returned. Despite being both gawky and a chain-smoker. the National Olympic Committees named Pelé the IOC's Athlete of the Century. In the 1953 F. In 1984. she holds the all-time international scoring record. where they lost to West Germany in Munich.A. Cryuff helped Ajax Amsterdam to three European Cups (now known as the UEFA Champions' League) as well as being named European Footballer of the Year in 1971 and 1973.S. 1972 saw West Germany win the European Championship and Beckenbauer named European Footballer of the Year. Pelé (Edson Arantes do Nascimento) (1940-) (Brazil-Forward) Also known as "the Black Pearl". Beckenbauer's first World Cup saw him help West Germany to the 1966 World Cup Final. for men and women. In 1961. where he earned 1979 NASL MVP honors. and 1970 (though he was injured for most of '62 finals) and to permanent possession of the Jules Rimet Trophy. where they lost to host England 4-2 at Wembley Stadium. this time without Cryuff. the largest building on Nike's Corporate Campus in Beaverton. he was the most popular player of his era. he came out of retirement to promote the game in the United States by starring for the NASL's New York Cosmos. he played in 1. at the age of 37. 4. One of People's 50 Most Beautiful People in 1997. "The Orange" would also make the 1978 World Cup Finals. against Brazil in Orlando. Michel Platini (1955-) (France-Midfielder) Arguably France's greatest footballer. he was no longer his old playing self. at the age of 48. despite having never partaken in an Olympic Games. before being banned again for failing another drug test during the tournament. In 1976. He now serves as the FC Bayern München club president." the winger debuted for England as a 19 year-old. 1962. Beckenbauer had one of the single greatest football years in history. in which all positions should be equally willing and adept to play all portions of the game. Hamm was a member of both the 1991 and 1999 Womens' World Cup Champions and the 1996 Olympic Gold Medal winning side. where he would help his side claim two Serie A Championships and a UEFA Cup win in 1989. In 1975. 3. setting up three goals. he helped Stoke City back into the FA First Division by scoring the goal that clinched promotion. A two-time South American Player of the Year (1978 and 1979) before joining FC Barcelona in 1982 after the World Cup in Spain. though he did lead a stirring performance for Argentina at the 1994 World Cup in the U. this midfielder won three straight European Footballer of the Year Awards beginning in 1983. her #19 was retired by the Tar Heels. quite reluctantly. thereafter always called "The Matthews Final. male or female. before the 1984 Olympics. when he was named the first-ever European Footballer of the Year. from the game in 1965 at the age of 50. and two-time Hermann Trophy winner and Missouri Athletic Club Player of the Year winner (1992 & 1993). In international play. he helped Ajax's arch-rival Feyenoord to its first Dutch league title in a decade before moving into coaching at former club FC Barcelona. in 1984." Cryuff helped usher in the system of "total football" into the world game.

he was instrumental in organizing France's bid for the 1998 World Cup. Injuries have plagued him over the past few seasons. 10.html." One of the FA Premiership's finest midfielders. He also led his French national side to triumph in the Euro 1984. he was expected to star in the 1998 World Cup. In 1998. In as much as that football is the world game. nor is it a ten most influential. he was named runner-up for both the 1999 European Footballer of the Year and the 1999 World Footballer of the Year. better known as "Posh Spice. both triumphs for the French national side. when healthy. including his now infamous booking against rival Argentina in World Cup '98. the tragic game at Heysel (Belgium) against Liverpool in which 39 Italian supporters were fatally crushed in the stands. we feel comfortable with those five along with four modern players and the first English player to be knighted . David Beckham (1975-)(England-Midfielder) Midfielder for Manchester United FC. he is still among the world's elite players. where he has helped the Turin side win two Serie A titles. Ronaldo was twice World Footballer of the Year. While he was on the Brazil squad that won World Cup `94 in the US. but." which can be found at: http://www." helping the Red Devils secure the FA Cup (Open Cup competition for all English sides). After his retirement in 1987. winning the Golden Ball Award as tournament MVP. winning those honors in 1997 (while with FC Barcelona) and 1998 (with Inter). He also helped guide Manchester United to the rare 1999 "Treble. setting the Euro scoring record. a unique achievement as well as leading Juventus to its only European Cup triumph. FIFA named its "Team of the Century. 9." the 1998 World and European Footballer of the Year as an all-around player is France's midfield. 8. and his obscene gesture to English fans at the opening game of Euro 2000. we readily acknowledge that this list is by no means a ten greatest players list. Zinedine Zidane (1972-) (France) Known the world over as "Zizou. His results with the English national side have been mixed. That MVP performance was tarnished slightly by a poor showing (one blamed by the media on a supposed allnight session of "Tomb Raider" on PlayStation) that kept Brazil from its fifth title. Carling FA Premiership Title (regular season champion of England's top division) and UEFA Champions' League (championship for national league champions of UEFA countries). As five of the 11 players on the list are also on this list.straight year. Like fellow French legend Platini. Zidane was a critical player in the World Cup '98 (he scored a pair of header goals in the final against Brazil) and Euro 2000 (a game-winning overtime penalty kick in the semi-finals against Portugal). These three titles made ManU only the fourth team (and first English team) to accomplish the feat. Ronaldo (Ronaldo Luiz Nazario da Lima) (1976-) (Brazil-Forward) Currently with Inter Milan of Italy's Serie A. known as much for his talent as his marriage to Victoria Adams. where he helped Brazil to the Finals. Zizou plays for Italian side

Francis I (1494-1547. Charles was motivated by a desire to govern Naples. and John of England. Louis led the Seventh Crusade that ended in military disaster. and his support of luminaries like Leonardo da Vinci augured a splendid reign. and other territories. Francis's early military victories (like the Battle of Marignano). but later because of the struggles that arose when it became clear that he was going to be the last of the Valois line. though it's not clear at all that he would have merited a mention in the first place . Charles had an inauspicious start (before his reign even began) with having to ransom his father. Philip was the first of the great Capetian kings of France. r. Henry IV (1553-1610. Richard I. local nobles with barons who owed their fiefs to the crown. religious orthodoxy. with military advisor Bertrand du Guesclin. John II. 2. Louis Philippe. Louis XIV (1638-1715.You Gotta Know These Kings of France 1. 1643-1715) House of Bourbon. Louis is the only canonized king of France. however. 6. Charles VIII (1470-1498. but after his ransoming remained in the Holy Land to successfully negotiate for what he couldn't win. reorganized the army. 1364-1380) House of Capet. r. leading the Catholic Holy League to strike out of fear for its interests. Sometimes working with his chief minister. r. Cardinal Richelieu. Similarly. r. 1515-1547) House of Valois. The Three Musketeers is set in the early years of his reign. His rivalry with Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire spelled his doom. he recaptured almost all of that territory. became the heir to the throne when Henry III's brother died in 1584. Perhaps more importantly. He championed classical art. Later. Wars continued after his release. 1610-1643) House of Bourbon. Louis IX (1214-1270. Spain. Philip won back Normandy. 1589-1610) Founder of the house of Bourbon. the king of Navarre. He also took part in the famous Third Crusade (with Richard I and Frederick Barbarossa) and made use of the Albigensian crusade to pave the way for the annexation of Languedoc by his successor. Louis XIII turned France into the pre-eminent European power during his reign. After fighting Catholic opposition in the War of the Three Henries. 10. Louis led France against most of the rest of Europe to win the throne of Spain for his grandson (the War of the Spanish Succession). Fighting and negotiating against Henry II. Henry III (1551-1589. St. the "king of the French" placed on the throne after Charles X abdicated in 1830. 8. NAQT's editors opted to not include kings of Franks. Louis VIII (1187-1226. With the help of Maximilien Sully he erased the national debt and removed much of the religious strife with the Edict of Nantes (1598). Anjou. r. Charles V (1338-1380. 1574-1589) House of Valois. and Flanders. Louis' contributions to the rise of French power were enormous. Henry III was assassinated by a crazed friar in 1589." his 72-year-reign is the second longest in recorded history. 1179-1223) House of Capet. 5. The War of the Three Henries broke out after his brother died and the then-Protestant Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV) became heir. He returned to Europe with his reputation intact and negotiated a peace with England that saw Henry III become his vassal. This was largely achieved via French victories in the Thirty Years' War. Though he reigned for only three years. This allowed for the subsequent rise in French royal (and national) power. and restructured the collection of taxes while leading France's recovery from the devastation of the early period of the Hundred Years' War. from England for three million crowns and most of southwestern France. He was captured in battle in 1525 and held for a humiliating ransom. He died before he could surpass or absolve his disastrous first campaign with another. Louis XIV's reign is often cited as the best historical example of an absolute monarchy. Henry. was excluded from consideration. 1483-1498) House of Valois. had we. He stabilized the French currency and is generally held to have reduced corruption in the kingdom. his lavish court. Brittany. r. r. He died leading a crusade against Tunisia. and instituted a great program of building throughout France. Henry's reign was suffused with blood. Known as the "Sun King. r. Charles' short reign is remarkable for the enormous cost in men and money of his Italian campaign but more so for the number of his successors that to followed his catastrophic lead. 7. he renounced Protestantism and accepted Catholicism in order to enter Paris and become king. r. 1223-1226) House of Capet. at first because of the continuous Wars of Religion that pitted Catholics against Huguenots. He annexed Languedoc and captured Poitou from England. He also concluded alliances with Portugal. 3. 1226-1270) House of Capet. but bankruptcy and religious strife laid France low. Philip II (1165-1223. r. and sometimes against. Louis XIII (1601-1643. 9. which he had theoretically inherited. several of them (including Charles Martel and Charlemagne) would have made this list. 4. he established the systems of appanages (land grants) which replaced the older.

John Kenneth Galbraith (1908. he is strongly associated with the ideals of laissez-faire government policy. the first systematic school of economic thought. He is most famous for The General Theory of Employment. He also put forth the so-called iron law of wages. which judged most of classical economic analysis to be a special case (hence "General Theory") and argued that the best way to deal with prolonged recessions was deficit spending. Conservative thinker famous for his advocacy of monetarism (an revision of the quantity theory of money) in works like A Monetary History of the United States. Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) American economist (of Norwegian heritage). 8. and elasticity. Marx's principal contribution to economic thought was extending the labor theory of value to its logical conclusion. Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) French economist. quasi-rent. Karl Marx (1818-1883) German economist. appeared in Das Kapital (1867. 1867-1960 (1963). all fundamental concepts in introductory macro. we will add that Irving Fisher is probably underrepresented in quiz bowl with respect to his importance. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) British economist and social philosopher. 1894). the relationship between profits and wages) but also for exhaustively examining the necessity of private property in his Principles of Political Economy (1848). Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish philosopher and economist. We were surprised to see Thomas Malthus on their list as his lasting contributions to economic thought are not thought to be very great. as it is. and social philosopher. that said. 2. his liberal popular writings like The Affluent Society and The New Industrial State (with their emphasis on public service and the limitations of the marketplace) ensure his coming up again and again. his theory of surplus value. David Ricardo (1772-1823) English economist. Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) English economist. Veblen is primarily remembered for his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) that introduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption. introduced the notions of consumer surplus. 4." He is remembered for likening the ostentation of the rich to the Darwinian proofs-of-virility found in the animal kingdom.) American economist. Interest and Money (1936).You Gotta Know These Economists 1. Quesnay was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats." This work more-or-less singlehandedly founded the Classical school of economics. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissezfaire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth. 9.and microeconomics. 5. 7. Milton Friedman (1912. With respect to quiz bowl. Galbraith probably wouldn't make this list if contributions to economic theory were all that mattered. 1890's Principles of Economics. 10. Do you want another opinion? The San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank has its own list of the Great Economists to which you can compare and contrast. Mill is mainly known today (in economic circles) for his work extending the ideas of Ricardo in Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844) (for example. he caused an enormous contemporary stir with his pessimistic predictions of omnipresent starvation in 1798's Essay on Population which does come up quite frequently. along with his defense of economic materialism. he is basically remembered as the author of An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) and as the creator of the metaphor of the "invisible hand. demand curves. John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) English economist. which introduced more-or-less modern notions of comparative advantage and its theoretical justification for unfettered international trade. 1885. Ricardo is best known for Principles of Political Economy and Taxation.) Canadian economist. historian. 6. Though he wrote on nearly every subject of moral and social philosophy. Marshall's magnum opus. This theory.Copyright 2010 . 3.

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