# You Gotta Know These Deserts NAQT has a quota for geography questions at all levels of play; these

You Gotta Know These Mathematicians These are the ten people that have come up most frequently in NAQT's questions as a result of their accomplishments in pure mathematics. 1. The work of Isaac Newton (1643-1727, English) in pure math includes generalizing the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, doing the first rigorous manipulation with power series, and creating "Newton's method" for the finding roots. He is best known, however, for a lengthy feud between British and Continental mathematicians over whether he or Gottfried Leibniz invented calculus (whose differential aspect Newton called "the method of fluxions"). It is now generally accepted that they both did, independently. 2. Euclid (c. 300 BC, Alexandrian Greek) is principally known for the Elements, a textbook on geometry and number theory, that was used for over 2,000 years and which grounds essentially all of what is taught in modern high school geometry classes. Euclid is known for his five postulates that define Euclidean (i.e., "normal") space, especially the fifth (the "parallel postulate") which can be broken to create spherical and hyperbolic geometries. He also proved the infinitude of prime numbers. 3. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855, German) is considered the "Prince of Mathematicians" for his extraordinary contributions to every major branch of mathematics. His Disquisitiones Arithmeticae systematized number theory and stated the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. He also proved the fundamental theorem of algebra, the law of quadratic reciprocity, and the prime number theorem. Gauss may be most famous for the (possibly apocryphal) story of intuiting the formula for the summation of an arithmetic series when given the busywork task of adding the first 100 positive integers by his primary school teacher. 4. Archimedes (287-212 BC, Syracusan Greek) is best known for his "Eureka moment" of using density considerations to determine the purity of a gold crown; nonetheless, he was the preeminent mathematician of ancient Greece. He found the ratios between the surface areas and volumes of a sphere and a circumscribed cylinder, accurately estimated pi, and presaged the summation of infinite series with his "method of exhaustion." 5. Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716, German) is known for his independent invention of calculus and the ensuing priority dispute with Isaac Newton. Most modern calculus notation, including the integral sign and the use of d to indicate a differential, originated with Leibniz. He also invented binary numbers and did fundamental work in establishing boolean algebra and symbolic logic. 6. Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665, French) is remembered for his contributions to number theory including his "little theorem" that ap will be divisible by p if p is prime. He also studied Fermat primes (those of the form 22n+1) and stated his "Last Theorem" that xn + yn = zn has no solutions if x, y, and z are positive integers and n is a positive integer greater than 2. He and Blaise Pascal founded probability theory. In addition, he discovered methods for finding the maxima and minima of functions and the areas under polynomials that anticipated calculus and inspired Isaac Newton. 7. Leonhard Euler (1707-1783, Swiss) is known for his prolific output and the fact that he continued to produce seminal results even after going blind. He invented graph theory with the Seven Bridges of Königsberg problem and introduced the modern notation for e, the square root of -1 (i), and trigonometric functions. Richard Feynman called his proof that eiπ = -1 "the most beautiful equation in mathematics" because it linked four of math's most important constants. 8. Kurt Gödel (1906-1978, Austrian) was a logician best known for his two incompleteness theorems proving that every formal system that was powerful enough to express ordinary arithmetic must necessarily contain statements that were true, but which could not be proved within the system itself. 9. Andrew Wiles (1953-present, British) is best known for proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture that all rational semi-stable elliptic curves are modular. This would normally be too abstruse to occur frequently in quiz bowl, but a corollary of that result established Fermat's Last Theorem. 10. William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865, Irish) is known for extending the notion of complex numbers to four dimensions by inventing the quaternions, a non-commutative field with six square roots of -1: ±i, ±j, and ±k with the property that ij = k, jk = i, and ki = j.

You Gotta Know These Sculptors 1. Michelangelo (1475 - 1564) A Florentine "Renaissance man" also known for architecture (the dome of St. Peter's Basilica), painting (The Last Judgment and the Sistine Chapel ceiling), poetry, and military engineering. His sculpted masterpieces include David, a Pietà, Bacchus, and a number of pieces for the tomb of Pope Julius II (including Dying Slave and Moses). He preferred to work in Carraran marble. 2. Auguste Rodin (1840 - 1917) A French sculptor known for stormy relationships with "the establishment" of the École des Beaux-Arts [ay-kohl day boh-zar] and his mistress, fellow artist Camille Claudel. His works include The Age of Bronze, Honoré de Balzac, The Burghers of Calais, and a massive pair of doors for the Museum of Decorative Arts (the Gates of Hell) inspired by Dante's Inferno. That latter work included his most famous piece, The Thinker. 3. Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 - 1680) A Roman who, with the rarely asked-about Francesco Borromini, defined the Baroque movement in sculpture. Bernini is principally known for his freestanding works including David and The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. Bernini's David differs from that of Michelangelo in that the hero is shown "in motion," having twisted his body to sling the rock. Bernini is also known for his massive fountains in Rome including the Triton and the Fountain of the Four Rivers. 4. Donatello (1386 - 1466) A Florentine sculptor who helped define Renaissance sculpture as distinct from that of the Gothic period. He is known for St. Mark and St. George in the Or San Michele [OR SAHN mee-KAY-lay] (a Florentine church), the bald Zuccone (which means "pumpkin-head," though it depicts the prophet Habbakuk), and the first equestrian statue to be cast since Roman times, the Gattamelata in Padua. He is also known for mastering the low relief form of schiacciato. 5. Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378 - 1455) A Florentine sculptor and goldsmith who taught both Donatello and Filippo Brunelleschi. He is best known for two pairs of bronze doors on the Florence Baptistery (associated with the Duomo, or Florentine Cathedral). He produced a single, low-relief panel to win a 1401 competition (defeating Brunelleschi) for the commission to design the 28 panels for the north doors. After that, he was given another commission to design ten panels for the east doors. This latter work, by far his most famous, was dubbed the "Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo. 6. Gutzon Borglum (1867 - 1941) An American known for crafting Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He is also known for The Mares of Diomedes and an unfinished (and later replaced) tribute to Confederate heroes on Stone Mountain in Georgia. 7. Phidias (c. 480 BC - c. 430 BC) An Athenian considered the greatest of all Classical sculptors. He created the chryselephantine (gold and ivory) Statue of Zeus at Olympia (one of the Wonders of the Ancient World, now lost) and the statue of Athena in the Parthenon (now lost). He was supported by money from the Delian League (that is, the Athenian Empire) run by his friend Pericles; he was later ruined by charges of corruption generally considered to be part of a political campaign against Pericles. 8. Constantin Brancusi (1876 - 1957) A Romanian sculptor who was a major figure in Modernism. He is best known for The Kiss (not to be confused with the Rodin work or the Klimt painting), Sleeping Muse, and Bird in Space. He's also the center of anecdote in which U.S. customs taxed his works as "industrial products" since they refused to recognize them as art. 9. Daniel Chester French (1850 - 1931) An American who created The Minute Man for Concord, Massachusetts and Standing Lincoln for the Nebraska state capitol, but who is best known for the seated statue in the Lincoln Memorial. 10. Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi (1834-1904) A French sculptor primarily known as the creator of Liberty Enlightening the World, better known as the Statue of Liberty. He also executed The Lion of Belfort and a statue of the Marquis de Lafayette in New York's Union Square.

This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. 1440 1434 1793 1959 Date Freq. Guggenheim Museum Building . technique. Peter's Basilica The Persistence of Memory Abraham Lincoln Memorial The Thinker Title Genre Building Building Building Painting Creator Pierre Lescot Francis I of France (patron) Ictinus and Callicrates Pericles (patron) unknown Leonardo da Vinci 1546 447 BC 1160-1345 1500 1886 1937 1245 1632 1473 1480 1708 1927-1941 1942 1931 1626 1931 1922 1900 1642 1936 1509 1495-1498 1930 c. 137 136 108 104 100 89 78 77 76 76 74 74 70 68 66 65 64 64 64 63 61 60 60 59 57 56 56 Sculpture Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi Painting Building Building Building Painting Building Sculpture Painting Building Building Painting Building Pablo Picasso (y Ruiz) Henry III of England (patron) Ustad Ahmad Lahori Shah Jahan (patron) Giovanni Del Dolci Pope Sixtus IV (patron) Sandro Botticelli Sir Christopher Wren (John) Gutzon (de la Mothe) Borglum Edward Hopper (Firm of) Shreve. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. depicted action. 2007. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Louvre Parthenon Notre Dame Cathedral Mona Lisa Statue of Liberty Guernica Westminster Abbey Taj Mahal Sistine Chapel The Birth of Venus Saint Paul's Cathedral Mount Rushmore Nighthawks Empire State Building St. and circumstances of creation. While you really gotta know their creators. Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) Henry Bacon Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Rembrandt (Harmenszoon Van Rijn) Frank Lloyd (Lincoln) Wright Raphael Leonardo da Vinci Grant Wood The Shooting Company of Captain Painting Franz Banning Cocq Fallingwater School of Athens Last Supper American Gothic David The Arnolfini Wedding The Death of Marat Building Painting Painting Painting Sculpture Donatello Painting Painting Jan van Eyck Jacques-Louis David Frank Lloyd Wright Solomon R. design. Lamb & Harmon Donato Bramante et al. so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials.You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the 40 most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of November 1.

No. Charles Bullfinch. et al. (revisions) Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez .28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Uffizi Palace The Gates of Hell The Third of May. 1: The Artist's Mother Alhambra Gateway Arch Eiffel Tower Cathedral of Florence Temple of Jerusalem United States Capitol Las Meninas Building Giorgio Vasari Cosimo I de' Medici (patron) 1560-1581 1880 1814 1930 1889 1871 1354 1965 1889 1420 10th century BC 1793-1811 (reconstructed 1815-1826) 1656 55 55 53 52 50 50 49 49 49 49 49 49 48 Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Building Painting Painting Building Building Building Building Building Building Painting Francisco (José) de Goya (y Lucientes) William Van Alen Vincent (Willem) Van Gogh James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler Mahomet Ibn Al Ahmar (patron) Eero Saarinen (Alexandre-)Gustave Eiffel Filippo Brunelleschi Solomon (patron) Wiliam Thornton (original) Benjamin Latrobe. 1808 Chrysler Building Starry Night Arrangement in Gray and Black.

these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. 9. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. "Pathétique" Porgy and Bess William Tell Peter and the Wolf The Song of the Earth Swan Lake The Flying Dutchman Title Opera Opera Opera Oratorio Symphony Symphony Symphony Ballet Ballet Opera Symphony Opera Opera Ballet Opera Opera Opera Opera Concerto Composition Opera Musical Opera Sonata Suite Symphony Opera Opera Composition Symphony Ballet Opera Genre Creator Georges Bizet Giuseppe Verdi (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner George Frideric Handel Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (Louis-)Hector Berlioz Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky Giacomo Puccini Ludwig van Beethoven Gioacchino (Antonio) Rossini Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Aaron Copland Giuseppe Verdi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Giacomo Puccini Ludwig van Beethoven Antonio Vivaldi George Gershwin Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Leonard Bernstein (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Ludwig van Beethoven Date Freq. key. 2007. lyrics. 6. "Eroica" The Barber of Seville The Magic Flute Appalachian Spring Rigoletto Don Giovanni La Bohème Fidelio The Four Seasons Rhapsody in Blue The Marriage of Figaro West Side Story Siegfried Moonlight Sonata The Planets Symphony No. 3. performance. and circumstances of creation. program.You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of November 1. While you really gotta know their creators. "Choral" Symphony No. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Carmen Aida The Ring of the Nibelung Messiah Symphony No. 6. so teams should be prepared for questions on their style. "Pastoral" Symphonie fantastique The Nutcracker The Rite of Spring Madama Butterfly Symphony No. 1845 1871 1876 1741 1823 1808 1830 1892 1913 1904 1804 1816 1791 1944 1851 1787 1896 1805 1725 1924 1784 1957 1876 1801 147 146 122 102 100 97 92 91 90 89 86 85 84 83 82 79 78 77 73 72 72 68 66 63 61 60 60 59 59 59 58 58 Gustav(us Theodore von) Holst 1918 Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky George Gershwin Gioacchino Rossini 1893 1935 1804 Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev 1936 Gustav Mahler Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner 1909 1877 1843 . instrumentation.

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Lohengrin Boléro The Phantom of the Opera Tosca Turandot La Traviata Pictures at an Exhibition A German Requiem Symphony No. 41. 9. Gilbert (words) Frederick Loewe Giuseppe Verdi Symphony No. 94. "From the New World" Symphony The Mikado My Fair Lady Falstaff Boris Godunov Cats Enigma Variations Salome Musical Musical Opera Opera Musical Composition Opera Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky 1869 Andrew Lloyd Webber Edward (William) Elgar Richard (Georg) Strauss 1982 1899 1905 . "Jupiter" Opera Composition Musical Opera Opera Opera Composition (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner (Joseph) Maurice Ravel Andrew Lloyd Webber Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Puccini Giuseppe Verdi 1850 1928 1910 1900 1762 1853 57 55 54 54 53 53 53 51 50 50 49 48 47 47 47 46 46 45 Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky 1874 1868 1791 1788 1893 1885 1956 1893 Sacred Choral Work Johannes Brahms Symphony Symphony (Franz) Joseph Haydn Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Antonín (Leopold) Dvorák Arthur Sullivan (music) William S. "Surprise" Symphony No.

You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the 100 most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of November 1. This is an update of an earlier You Gotta Know article. settings. 2007. so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters. While you really gotta know their authors. plots. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. 292 196 182 156 156 145 139 138 137 128 125 123 122 121 121 119 119 117 116 115 114 113 111 111 109 108 107 106 105 105 105 103 The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Novel The Scarlet Letter A Streetcar Named Desire Our Town The Adventures of Tom Sawyer The Divine Comedy Crime and Punishment The Red Badge of Courage Candide Billy Budd: Foretopman Les Misérables Anna Karenina A Midsummer Night's Dream Pygmalion Novel Drama Drama Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama . Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Hamlet Oedipus Rex Macbeth King Lear Othello The Tempest Moby-Dick The Great Gatsby Don Quixote Jane Eyre Iliad Pride and Prejudice 1984 Ulysses Romeo and Juliet The Merchant of Venice Paradise Lost The Canterbury Tales Title Genre Drama Drama Drama Drama Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Poem Poem Creator William Shakespeare Sophocles William Shakespeare William Shakespeare William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Herman Melville F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Charlotte Brontë Homer Jane Austen George Orwell James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce William Shakespeare William Shakespeare John Milton Geoffrey Chaucer Mark Twain Nathaniel Hawthorne Tennessee Williams Thornton (Niven) Wilder Mark Twain Dante (Alighieri) Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky Stephen Crane Voltaire Herman Melville Victor(-Marie) Hugo Leo Tolstoy William Shakespeare George Bernard Shaw 1601 430 BC 1606 1605 1622 1611 1851 1925 1605 1847 8th century BC 1813 1948 1922 1594 1596 1667 1387 1884 1850 1947 1938 1876 1314 1866 1895 1759 1891 1862 1877 1595 1912 Date Freq. and circumstances of creation. The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work.

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Julius Caesar War and Peace The Three Musketeers A Farewell to Arms Vanity Fair To Kill a Mockingbird For Whom the Bell Tolls The Grapes of Wrath Lolita A Tale of Two Cities Little Women As You Like It The Waste Land Aeneid Odyssey Heart of Darkness Pilgrim's Progress David Copperfield One Hundred Years of Solitude Antigone Faust The Count of Monte Cristo A Doll's House Robinson Crusoe Animal Farm The Call of the Wild Much Ado about Nothing The Glass Menagerie The Crucible Brave New World Beowulf The Sun Also Rises The Jungle Twelfth Night Great Expectations The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Oliver Twist Uncle Tom's Cabin Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Poem Poem Poem Novella Novel Novel Novel Drama Poem Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Drama Novel Poem Novel Novel Drama Novel Poem Novel Novel William Shakespeare Leo Tolstoy Alexandre Dumas (père) Ernest (Miller) Hemingway William Makepeace Thackeray (Nelle) Harper Lee Ernest (Miller) Hemingway John (Ernst) Steinbeck Vladimir Nabokov Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Louisa May Alcott William Shakespeare T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot Virgil Homer Joseph Conrad John Bunyan Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Gabriel García Márquez Sophocles Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Alexandre Dumas (père) Henrik (Johan) Ibsen Daniel Defoe George Orwell Jack London William Shakespeare Tennessee Williams Arthur Miller Aldous (Leonard) Huxley unknown Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Upton (Beall) Sinclair William Shakespeare Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Samuel Taylor Coleridge Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Harriet Beecher Stowe 1599 1865 1844 1929 1848 1960 1940 1939 1955 1859 1868 1599 1922 19 BC 8th century BC 1902 1678 1850 1967 441 BC 1808 1845 1879 1719 1945 1903 1598 1945 1953 1932 8th century 1926 1906 1623 1861 1797 1838 1852 103 101 100 100 100 99 99 98 98 98 97 97 95 95 94 94 94 94 93 92 92 91 90 88 87 87 87 86 86 85 85 83 83 83 82 82 81 81 .

1310-1314 1946 1961 1959 1847 1929 c. Lord Tennyson William Shakespeare 1818 1951 1952 1949 1865 1956 1946 1958 1969 1854 1600 79 77 77 77 76 75 75 75 75 74 74 73 73 72 72 72 72 72 71 71 70 70 69 69 69 69 69 68 68 68 Oscar (Fingal O'Flahertie Wills) Wilde 1895 (Paul) Thomas Mann Ralph (Waldo) Ellison William Shakespeare Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin Jane Austen Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky Dante (Alighieri) Albert Camus Joseph Heller Lorraine Hansberry Emily Brontë William (Cuthbert) Faulkner Aeschylus Giovanni Boccaccio Edgar Allan Poe Sir Walter Scott Nathaniel Hawthorne Willa (Sibert) Cather 1924 1952 1593 1833 1811 1880 c. Alfred.71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 Rip van Winkle The Catcher in the Rye Waiting for Godot Death of a Salesman Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Long Day's Journey Into Night All the King's Men Things Fall Apart Slaughterhouse Five The Charge of the Light Brigade The Merry Wives of Windsor The Importance of Being Earnest The Magic Mountain Invisible Man The Taming of the Shrew Eugene Onegin Sense and Sensibility The Brothers Karamazov Inferno The Stranger Catch-22 A Raisin in the Sun Wuthering Heights The Sound and the Fury Oresteia Decameron The Raven Ivanhoe The House of the Seven Gables Short Story Washington Irving Novel Drama Drama Children's Drama Novel Novel Novel Poem Drama Drama Novel Novel Drama Poem Novel Novel Poem Novel Novel Drama Novel Novel Series Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel J(erome) D(avid) Salinger Samuel (Barclay) Beckett Arthur Miller Lewis Carroll Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill Robert Penn Warren (Albert) Chinua(lumogu) Achebe Kurt Vonnegut Jr. 458 BC 1353 1845 1820 1851 1918 100 My Ántonia .

author unknown Max Weber Jonathan Edwards The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Sociology Capitalism Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Religious . 600 BC 1690 c. 161-180 1859 1854 950-500 BC c. 1500 BC 1781 1896 c. 300 to 600 1863 1776 1928 1848 c. author unknown John Stuart Mill Thomas Paine 6th century BC c. author unknown Immanuel Kant William Jennings Bryan Marcus Aurelius Charles Darwin Henry David Thoreau Moses (traditionally) Jeremiah John Locke Samuel (traditionally) John Stuart Mill 54 scholars on 6 committees Moses (traditionally) divinely inspired. 550 BC 1859 1611 7th century BC 3rd century 1904 1741 52 51 51 51 50 49 49 47 47 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 43 43 41 40 40 39 Anthropology Margaret Mead Politics Religious Philosophy Speech Philosophy Biology Philosophy Religious Religious Philosophy Religious Politics Religious Religious Religious Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels divinely inspired.29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Torah Talmud Utilitarianism Common Sense Coming of Age in Samoa The Communist Manifesto Rig Veda Critique of Pure Reason Cross of Gold speech Meditations On The Origin of Species Walden Deuteronomy Book of Jeremiah An Essay Concerning Human Understanding The Book of Judges On Liberty King James Bible Book of Leviticus Mishna Religious Religious Philosophy Politics Moses (traditionally) divinely inspired.

The Treaty of Paris (1898) was. surprisingly.12. the only Treaty of Paris to make the list. the Philippines. The treaty was the beginning of American imperialism and underwent a lengthy and contentious ratification . and Puerto Rico to the U.S. while making Cuba (ostensibly) independent. It ended the SpanishAmerican War and transferred Guam. ended the so-called "Roman Question" that arose out of the unification of Italy and the dissolution of the Papal States.

and Money Pragmatism Book of Mormon Qur'an Meditations On The Origin of Species Ethics Rig Veda The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Apology Utilitarianism I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings Critique of Pure Reason Summa theologica Cross of Gold speech The Gospel According to Matthew Vedas Title Genre Politics Politics Politics Physics Politics Politics Creator Thomas Hobbes Plato Thomas Paine Isaac Newton Niccoló Machiavelli Jean-Jacques Rousseau Date 1651 4th Cent. 2005. cultural context. 48 39 36 35 33 33 33 33 30 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 25 25 24 24 24 23 23 23 22 22 21 21 21 Economics Adam Smith Open Letter Math Anthro. Politics Religious Émile(-Édouard-Charles-Antoine) Zola Euclid Margaret Mead Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Jonathan Edwards Economics John Maynard Keynes Philosophy William James Religious Religious Joseph Smith(. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Leviathan The Republic Common Sense Principia Mathematica The Prince The Social Contract An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations J'accuse The Elements Coming of Age in Samoa The Communist Manifesto Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God The General Theory of Employment. and circumstances of creation. While you really gotta know their creators. 300 BC 1928 1848 1741 1936 1907 1830 (1st pub) 652 c.You Gotta Know These Non-Fiction Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of non-fiction in NAQT questions as of October 1. 428-348 BC 1863 1970 1781 1265 1896 1st century 1500 to 1000 BC Freq.) (traditional translator) Muhammad Philosophy Marcus Aurelius Biology Charles Darwin Philosophy Benedict de Spinoza Religious Sociology Unknown Max Weber Philosophy Plato Philosophy John Stuart Mill Autobiog. Jr. BC 1776 1667 1513 1762 1776 1898 c. so teams should be prepared for questions on their key ideas. Maya Angelou Philosophy Immanuel Kant Theology Speech Religious Religious Thomas Aquinas William Jennings Bryan Saint Matthew Anonymous . 161-180 1859 1663 c. 1500 BC 1904 c. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. Interest.

This is an update of the September 2001 You Gotta Know article. Advocacy Essay Criticism Reference Ruth (Fulton) Benedict Rachel Carson Edmund Burke Aristotle Samuel Johnson You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the 30 most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of October 1. and circumstances of creation. so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials. 1808 Title Genre Painting Painting Painting Creator Leonardo da Vinci Sandro Botticelli Jan van Eyck Date 1500 1480 1434 1900 1942 1931 1937 1504 1814 Freq. design. and James Madison Hamilton 1776 1787 1620 1910-1913 1798 1886 351-341 BC various 600 BC 1959 150 1946 350 BC 350 BC 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 Philosophy Francis Bacon Math Essay Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell Thomas (Robert) Malthus Philosophy Friedrich Nietzsche Speech Religious Religious Demosthenes David (traditionally) Anonymous Economics John Kenneth Galbraith Astronomy Anthro. technique. 2005. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. John Jay. Ptolemy of Alexandria (Claudius Ptolemaeus) Ruth (Fulton) Benedict Philosophy Plato Philosophy Plato History Aleksandr (Isayevich) Solzhenitsyn 1973 1942 1934 1962 1790 340 BC 1755 Philosophy Albert Camus Anthro. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mona Lisa The Birth of Venus The Arnolfini Wedding The Thinker Nighthawks The Persistence of Memory Guernica David The Third of May. While you really gotta know their creators. 42 39 38 37 36 34 34 32 31 Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Painting Painting Edward Hopper Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) Pablo Picasso (y Ruiz) Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) Painting Francisco de Goya (y Lucientes) . depicted action.30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 The American Crisis The Federalist Papers Novum Organum Principia Mathematica Essay on Population Beyond Good and Evil Philippics The Book of Psalms Upanishads The Affluent Society Almagest The Chrysanthemum and the Sword Crito Phaedo The Gulag Archipelago The Myth of Sisyphus Patterns of Culture Silent Spring Reflections on the Revolution in France Poetics A Dictionary of the English Language Politics Politics Thomas Paine Alexander.

No. 2 Garden of Earthly Delights Luncheon on the Grass Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist's Mother Painting Painting Painting Leonardo da Vinci Vincent (Willem) Van Gogh Rembrandt (Harmenszoon Van Rijn) 14951498 1889 16401642 1880 1886 1563 1509 1793 1919 1646 1656 1930 1538 1830 1948 1886 1499 1912 1500 1863 1871 31 29 29 29 28 28 28 27 27 26 26 25 24 23 23 23 22 21 21 21 20 Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Sculpture Benvenuto Cellini Painting Painting Raphael Jacques-Louis David Sculpture Constantin Brancusi Sculpture Gian Lorenzo Bernini Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez Grant Wood Titian (Ferdinand Victor) Eugène Delacroix Andrew (Newell) Wyeth Sculpture Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) Painting Painting Painting Painting Marcel Duchamp Hieronymus Bosch Édouard Manet James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler .10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Last Supper Starry Night The Shooting Company of Captain Franz Banning Cocq The Gates of Hell The Kiss Perseus With the Head Of Medusa School of Athens The Death of Marat Bird in Space The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Las Meninas American Gothic Venus of Urbino Liberty Leading the People Christina's World Liberty Enlightening the World Pietá Nude Descending a Staircase.

Gilbert (words) and Arthur Sullivan (music) (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Creator Date Freq. "Pastoral" Rigoletto The Marriage of Figaro The Ring of the Nibelung Symphonie fantastique Don Giovanni The Rite of Spring William Tell Madama Butterfly The Magic Flute La Bohème The Nutcracker The Four Seasons Fidelio Rhapsody in Blue Symphony No. program. key. "Eroica" The Song of the Earth West Side Story The Planets The Phantom of the Opera Moonlight Sonata Symphony No.You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the 50 most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of October 1. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. This is an update of the October 2002 You Gotta Know article. 2005. performance. and circumstances of creation. 9. lyrics. 3. While you really gotta know their creators. so teams should be prepared for questions on their style. 1871 1845 1741 1944 1808 1851 1784 1876 1830 1787 1913 1804 1904 1791 1896 1892 1725 1805 1924 1804 1909 1957 1918 1910 1801 1825 1928 1935 1885 1843 77 71 51 50 48 45 45 44 43 42 42 41 40 40 40 39 37 36 35 35 35 34 34 33 33 33 32 32 31 31 . "Great" Boléro Porgy and Bess The Mikado The Flying Dutchman Title Genre Opera Opera Oratorio Ballet Symphony Opera Opera Opera Symphony Opera Ballet Opera Opera Opera Opera Ballet Concerto Opera composition Symphony Symphony Musical Suite Musical Sonata Symphony composition Opera Musical Opera Giuseppe Verdi Georges Bizet George Frideric Handel Aaron Copland Ludwig van Beethoven Giuseppe Verdi Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner (Louis-)Hector Berlioz Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky Gioacchino Rossini Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Antonio Vivaldi Ludwig van Beethoven George Gershwin Ludwig van Beethoven Gustav Mahler Leonard Bernstein Gustav(us Theodore von) Holst Andrew Lloyd Webber Ludwig van Beethoven Franz (Peter) Schubert (Joseph) Maurice Ravel George Gershwin William S. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Aida Carmen Messiah Appalachian Spring Symphony No. 6. instrumentation.

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Amahl and the Night Visitors Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini Peter and the Wolf A German Requiem Symphony No. 9. "From the New Symphony World" Symphony No. 6. 9. "Choral" Salome La Traviata Hungarian Rhapsodies The Threepenny Opera Symphony Opera Opera composition Opera . "Jupiter" Symphony of a Thousand Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Opera composition composition Sacred choral work Symphony Opera Opera Musical composition Cantata Opera Symphony Symphony Ballet Gian-Carlo Menotti Sergey (Vasilyevich) Rachmaninov Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev Johannes Brahms Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Giuseppe Verdi Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Andrew Lloyd Webber Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Carl Orff Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gustav Mahler (Achille-)Claude Debussy Antonín (Leopold) Dvorák Ludwig van Beethoven Richard (Georg) Strauss Giuseppe Verdi Franz Liszt Kurt Weill 1951 1934 1936 1868 1893 1893 1762 1982 1874 1936 1869 1788 1907 1894 1893 1823 1905 1853 1846 1928 30 30 29 29 29 29 29 29 28 27 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 Symphony No. 41. "Pathétique" Falstaff Turandot Cats Pictures at an Exhibition Carmina Burana Boris Godunov Symphony No.

Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Hamlet The Tempest Macbeth Iliad Pride and Prejudice Moby-Dick The Great Gatsby Paradise Lost Faust King Lear The Merchant of Venice 1984 A Midsummer Night's Dream The Scarlet Letter Crime and Punishment Romeo and Juliet As You Like It Oedipus Tyrannus Jane Eyre The Divine Comedy The Canterbury Tales Othello Candide Little Women Vanity Fair Billy Budd: Foretopman Julius Caesar Our Town Aeneid To Kill a Mockingbird A Streetcar Named Desire War and Peace Title Genre Drama Drama Drama Poem Novel Novel Novel Poem Poem Drama Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Drama Drama Drama Novel Poem Poem Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Poem Novel Drama Novel Creator William Shakespeare William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Homer Jane Austen Herman Melville F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald John Milton Johann Wolfgang von Goethe William Shakespeare William Shakespeare George Orwell William Shakespeare Nathaniel Hawthorne Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Sophocles Charlotte Brontë Dante Alighieri Geoffrey Chaucer William Shakespeare Voltaire Louisa May Alcott William Makepeace Thackeray Herman Melville William Shakespeare Thornton (Niven) Wilder Virgil (Nelle) Harper Lee (Thomas Lanier) "Tennessee" Williams (Lev Nikolayevich) "Leo" Tolstoy Date 1601 1611 1606 8th century BC 1813 1851 1925 1667 1808 1605 1596 1948 1595 1850 1866 1594 1599 430 BC 1847 1314 1387 1622 1759 1868 1848 1891 1599 1938 19 BC 1960 1947 1865 Freq. so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters. plots. The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work. 2005. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. This is an update of the July 2001 You Gotta Know article.You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the 100 most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of October 1. settings. and circumstances of creation. While you really gotta know their authors. 130 91 85 82 78 78 73 72 71 71 71 71 69 69 67 65 64 64 64 63 63 62 60 59 59 59 59 59 59 58 58 58 .

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Les Misérables The Grapes of Wrath A Farewell to Arms A Tale of Two Cities Odyssey Chicago Heart of Darkness The Call of the Wild Much Ado about Nothing For Whom the Bell Tolls Anna Karenina Uncle Tom's Cabin The Waste Land Pilgrim's Progress The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The Red Badge of Courage Pygmalion Twelfth Night The Jungle Ulysses Lolita Long Day's Journey Into Night The Catcher in the Rye A Doll's House The Taming of the Shrew Don Quixote Great Expectations Wuthering Heights Animal Farm Brave New World Things Fall Apart The Three Musketeers The Sun Also Rises Oliver Twist The Count of Monte Cristo David Copperfield One Hundred Years of Solitude Novel Novel Novel Novel Poem Poem Novella Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Victor(-Marie) Hugo John (Ernst) Steinbeck Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Homer Carl (August) Sandburg Joseph Conrad Jack London William Shakespeare Ernest (Miller) Hemingway (Lev Nikolayevich) "Leo" Tolstoy Harriet Beecher Stowe T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot John Bunyan Mark Twain Stephen Crane George Bernard Shaw William Shakespeare Upton (Beall) Sinclair James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce Vladimir (Vladimirovich) Nabokov Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill J(erome) D(avid) Salinger Henrik (Johan) Ibsen William Shakespeare Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Emily Brontë George Orwell Aldous (Leonard) Huxley (Albert) Chinua(lumogu) Achebe Alexandre Dumas (père) Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Alexandre Dumas (père) Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Gabriel García Márquez 1862 1939 1929 1859 8th century BC 1916 1902 1903 1598 1940 1877 1852 1922 1678 1884 1895 1912 1623 1906 1922 1955 1956 1951 1879 1593 1605 1861 1847 1945 1932 1958 1844 1926 1838 1845 1850 1967 57 57 57 57 57 56 56 56 56 56 55 55 55 54 54 53 52 51 51 51 51 50 49 48 48 48 48 48 47 47 47 47 46 46 46 46 45 .

Absalom! Drama Drama Poem Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Drama Novel Poem Poem Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Collection Drama Novel Novel Arthur Miller Lorraine Hansberry William Blake Anonymous Samuel Taylor Coleridge Joseph Heller Sir Walter Scott Robert Penn Warren Nathaniel Hawthorne Thomas Hardy Arthur Miller William Shakespeare Sophocles William (Gerald) Golding John Keats Dante Alighieri Giovanni Boccaccio Alexander Pope Mark Twain (Harry) Sinclair Lewis Jane Austen Kurt Vonnegut.70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 The Crucible A Raisin in the Sun The Tyger Beowulf The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Catch-22 Ivanhoe All the King's Men The House of the Seven Gables Tess of the d'Urbervilles Death of a Salesman The Merry Wives of Windsor Antigone Lord of the Flies Ode on a Grecian Urn Inferno Decameron The Rape of the Lock The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Main Street Sense and Sensibility Slaughterhouse Five All Quiet on the Western Front The Color Purple The Sound and the Fury Richard III Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Lyrical Ballads The Glass Menagerie Absalom. Erich Maria Remarque Alice (Malsenior) Walker William (Cuthbert) Faulkner William Shakespeare Edward (Franklin) Albee William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge (Thomas Lanier) "Tennessee" Williams William (Cuthbert) Faulkner Henry James 1953 1959 1794 8th century 1797 1961 1820 1946 1851 1891 1949 1600 441 BC 1954 1819 c. 1310-1314 1353 1714 1876 1920 1811 1969 1929 1982 1929 1593 1961 1798 1945 1936 1898 45 45 45 44 44 44 44 44 43 42 42 41 41 41 41 41 40 40 40 40 40 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 38 38 38 100 The Turn of the Screw . Jr.

including Merryman. Taney found the president had acted unconstitutionally (only Congress can suspend the writ). arrested. .opposition leaders. but Lincoln simply ignored his ruling.

unimportant librettists. in turn.10. Madama Butterfly (Giacomo Puccini. When Pinkerton and his new American wife Kate do return. In the final act. La Bohème was based on a novel by Henry Murger and. Cio-Cio-San gives them her son and stabs herself with her father's dagger. Marcello and Rodolfo have separated from their lovers. man Alcindoro. Musetta bursts into their garret apartment and tells them that Mimi is dying of consumption (tuberculosis). she is already dead. but cannot stop thinking about them. He later returns to America leaving Cio-Cio-San to raise their son "Trouble" (whom she will rename "Joy" upon his return). 1904) The American naval lieutenant Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton is stationed in Nagasaki where. with the help of the broker Goro. The opera is based on a play by David Belasco . he weds the young girl CioCio-San (Madame Butterfly) with a marriage contract with a cancellation clause. when they reach her. formed the basis of the hit 1996 musical Rent by Jonathan Larson.

Partons are an older name that was used for the "internal parts" of hadrons before the discovery and widespread acceptance of the quark model. it was determined that partons were quarks and the term is rarely used at the high school level except in historical contexts. charge and no mass.9. for the most part. but do have color (in the sense of quarks). . Gluons are the gauge bosons that carry the strong nuclear force and bind hadrons together. Gluons have no 10. Models based on partons are still used but. The name comes from their role in "gluing" quarks together. This color cannot be observed directly because the gluons are part of the larger hadron.

as predicting Belshazzar's downfall. Tekel. and Song of Songs. he had her husband killed so that he could marry her. Daniel was summoned and interpreted the famous message. Ecclesiastes. the King was killed. Servants of Darius convinced him to lock Daniel in the lion's den. in addition to building the Temple. Daniel was given a Babylonian name. and he gained favor with Nebuchadnezzar when he correctly interpreted one of his dreams. where he magically survived with God's help . He fell in love with his future wife Bathsheba after he spotted her bathing. build the Temple. a mysterious hand inscribed strange words on the wall.12. Nebuchadnezzar was later replaced by King Belshazzar. together with his three friends (Hananiah. During a royal feast. and Azariah). the writing on the wall (it read "Mene. who was captured when his long hair caught on a tree branch. Mene. was credited with writing Proverbs. Mishael. Later that night. Ufarsin"). David captured the city of Jerusalem and made it his capital. He also exhausted himself supressing a rebellion by his son Absalom. Bathsheba's son Solomon. was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar when he conquered the Kingdom of Judah. Daniel was a young Jew who. and King Darius the Mede took over.

Present) Winner of the 1989 Pritzker Prize. the Johnson Wax Museum in Racine. Nonetheless. Wassily Kandinsky. He may be best known for two fairly recent works: the glass pyramid erected outside the Louvre in 1989. The phrase "less is more" is associated with Mies.1924) Sullivan did not design the first skyscraper but did become a vocal champion of skyscrapers as reflections of the modern age.1969) Though Gropius also designed the Fagus Factory (Alfeld." His floor plans were influenced by Cubist principles of division of space.You Gotta Know These Architects 1. the Fragrant Hill Hotel in Beijing. the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder. (Bilbao natives describe the latter as "the artichoke. all from 1421 to 1430. India). which he co-designed with Philip Johnson. Frank Gehry (1929 . his best-known work is the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. the Larkin Building in Buffalo. largely failed. Bennett. One famous Corbusian quote is: "A house is a machine for living in. the East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington. As an architect. and Josef Albers. Walter Gropius (1883 . Gehry is best-known today for large-scale compositions like the Experience Music Project in Seattle.Present) Pei is among the most famous living architects. Spain.1969) The leading architect of the International Style of skyscraper design. He directed the Bauhaus from 1930-33. "Reader. he is better known for founding the Bauhaus. Pei is best known for large-scale projects. His early homes. Applications of his approach to government buildings (such as in Brasilia or in Chandigarh. D. Beginning in Weimer in 1919 and moving to a Gropius-designed facility in Dessau in 1925.) Gehry often uses uncommon materials such as plywood and . Charles II named him the King's Surveyor of Works in 1669.1723) When fire destroyed much of London in 1666. Though most associated with Chicago. he worked under Louis Sullivan before founding a Chicago practice. Frank Lloyd Wright (1867 . He wrote of the "Radiant City" begun anew. Wren was an Oxford astronomy professor who had designed his first building just four years earlier. Its faculty included artists Paul Klee. whose glasscovered steel structures influenced the design of office buildings in nearly every major city in the U. and the Pazzi Chapel in the Cloisters of Santa Croce. like the Robie House at the University of Chicago. as did many urban renewal projects produced on the same ideological foundation. His works include the Mile High Center in Denver. including Saint Paul's Cathedral. Later works. Brunelleschi was a skilled sculptor and goldsmith whose 1401 competition with Lorenzo Ghiberti for the commission of the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery is a frequent question topic (Ghiberti got the chief commission). 9. Gropius would later head Harvard's architecture department from 1938-52.. Born in China. Germany) and the Pan American Building (New York City). shutting it down before the Nazis could do so. 8. Other notable Wright works are the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. and Taliesin West. the Unity Temple in Oak Park. I(eoh) M(ing) Pei (1917 . burned down in 1914). Though he has also designed moderate-income housing.C. controversial Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. and the recent. he (like Gropius) worked in the office of Peter Behrens. Japan. Louis Sullivan (1856 . and the Villa Savoye (Poissy. he is mainly known for the extraordinary octagonally-based dome of the Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Florence Cathedral). 5.1959) Wright's life and works are staples of quiz tournaments. Born in Wisconsin. 3. Sullivan's dictum that "form should follow function" strongly influenced modern architecture. Other projects include the Spedale degli Innocenti (a hospital). in Wisconsin. The task required an innovative supporting framework and occupied much of his career (as described in detail in Vasari's Lives of the Artists). France) is his best-known early work. he wrote the 1923 book Towards a New Architecture. the John Hancock Building in Boston. the New National Gallery in Berlin. and Bradley Houses. are in the "Prairie" style: horizontal orientation and low roofs. Ohio. Louis. His partnership with Dankmar Adler produced over 100 buildings. in 1935. standard reading in architectural theory courses. and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland.1446) A friend of Donatello.S. his writings helped break the profession from classical restraints. the Old Sacristy at San Lorenzo. however. shifting its focus to incorporate modern design and construction techniques. reflect an organic architecture distinct from that of Wright. 4. he emigrated to the U. such as the Babson. and the synthesis of technology and art. and the Seagram Building in New York. Wisconsin. and he was involved in rebuilding more than 50 London churches in the next halfcentury.S. 7. one of few buildings to survive a 1923 earthquake. look around you. the Bauhaus school emphasized functionalism. a completely planned city with skyscrapers for residents. which dominates the Florentine skyline." given its layers of abstract titanium structures. and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo. the Lake Shore Drive Apartments in Chicago." 6. and the recent Miho Museum of Art in Shiga. (The original Taliesin. Le Corbusier (born Charles-Eduoard Jeanneret) (1887 . An inscription near his tomb in Saint Paul's declares.1965) Possibly more influential even than Wright. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886 . his Arizona home and studio. the application of modern methods and materials. Sir Christopher Wren (1632 . he influenced every other 20thcentury figure on this list. 2. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 . completed in 1995. the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles. if you seek a monument. His "organic architecture" tries to harmonize with its inhabitants and site: Examples include the Kaufmann House (also known as Fallingwater) in Pennsylvania. His works include the Barcelona Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition.

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limestone; his designs range from Kobe's Fishdance Restaurant, shaped like a giant fish, to the soft-sculpture look of the so-called "Fred and Ginger" buildings in Prague. He also designs furniture: The Easy Edges line is made of laminated cardboard; the Gehry Collection consists of chairs named for hockey terms (e.g. Cross Check and Power Play). As of 2002, active projects included a new wing for the Corcoran Gallery and the SoHo Branch of the Guggenheim. Andrea Palladio (1508 - 1580) Born Andrea di Pietro della Gondola, Palladio designed villas in or near Venice, including the Villa Rotonda and Villa Barbaro. He integrated Greco-Roman ideas of hierarchy, proportion, and order with contemporary Renaissance styles. His Four Books on Architecture from 1570 relates his theoretical principles. Among architects heavily influenced by Palladio were Inigo Jones and Thomas Jefferson. Eero Saarinen (1910 - 1961) The son of architect Eliel Saarinen, Eero was born in Finland but spent most of his life in the U.S. and died in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He designed many buildings on the campuses of MIT and Yale, as well as Dulles International Airport and the TWA terminal at Kennedy Airport. Saarinen may be best known for designing the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, though he died before it was completed. Many of his works are characterized by elegant, sweeping forms, such as the Kresge Auditorium at MIT. Antonio Gaudi y Cornet (1852 - 1926) Gaudi created many extraordinary buildings in Barcelona in the early 20th century. His Art Nouveau-inspired works include the Casa Mila and Casa Batllo apartments, known from their undulating facades, and several works for patron Eusebi Guell. He spent 40 years working on the Expiatory Church of the Holy Family (also known as La Sagrada Familia); although its spindle-like towers are in place, the building remains unfinished, and Gaudi's models for it were destroyed in the Spanish Civil War. He was also fond of using hyperbolic paraboloids in his work

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four times. He completed the ballet Daphnis et Chloe (1912) for Diaghilev, which was followed by Mother Goose and La Valse, and also re-orchestrated Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition. His health declined after a 1932 taxi accident; unsuccessful brain surgery ended his life. George Gershwin (1898-1937). Known at first for producing popular songs and musicals with his older brother Ira, Gershwin successfully melded jazz and popular music with classical forms, most famously the Rhapsody in Blue (1924), the Concerto in F for Piano and Orchestra (1925), and the folk opera Porgy and Bess (1935), based on a story by DuBose Heyward. Gershwin's first major hit was 1919's "Swanee," sung by Al Jolson, and his 1931 musical Of Thee I Sing was the first to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Gershwin died of a brain tumor at age 38. John Cage (1912-1992). An American student of Arnold Schoenberg, Cage took avant-garde to a new level, and may be considered a Dada composer because he believed in aleatory, or "chance" music. His Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951) used twelve radios tuned to different stations; the composition depended on what was on the radio at that time. The following year's 4'33" required a pianist to sit at the piano for that length of time and then close it; audience noise and silence created the "music." Cage also invented the "prepared piano," where he attached screws, wood, rubber bands, and other items to piano strings in order to create a percussion sound. Ralph Vaughan Williams (RAIF) (1872-1958). Best known for reviving the Tudor style and folk traditions in English music, as exemplified in his Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis (1909). Vaughan Williams completed nine symphonies, the foremost his Second (London) in 1914; other principal symphonies included the First (Sea), Third (Pastoral) and Seventh (sinfonia antarctica). His orchestral work The Lark Ascending was based on a George Meredith poem, while Sir John in Love (1924) was a Shakespearean opera that featured the "Fantasia on Greensleeves." Hugh the Drover and The Pilgrim's Progress are other major Vaughan Williams operas. Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943). A highly skilled pianist and conductor, Rachmaninoff twice turned down conductorship of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He failed to reap the monetary benefits of his early pieces (notably the C-Sharp Minor Prelude of 1892), because he sold them cheaply to a publisher. Treated by hypnosis in 1901, Rachmaninoff began a productive period with his Second Piano Concerto (known affectionately by Julliard students as "Rocky II") and the symphonic poem The Isle of the Dead (1909). He moved to the U.S. in 1917, after the Bolshevik Revolution. There his output decreased, though he did complete the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini in 1934.

11. Hanuman Son of the wind god Vaayu and Queen Anjana, Hanuman has a human body with a monkey's head. As
a boy he swallows the sun (mistaking it for a piece of fruit); the angry Indra whips him with a thunderbolt. In response the wind god Vaayu refuses to breathe air into the world, prompting Indra to apologize and the other gods to bestow immortality and shapeshifting ability on Hanuman. He figures prominently in the Ramayana, where he flies to Lanka to tell Sita that Rama will rescue her from Ravana. 12. Agni Part of a trinity with Surya (the sun) and Vaayu (the wind), Agni can be brought to life by rubbing two sticks together. Since Agni is responsible for sacrificial fires, he is the patron of priests. He has a red body, two heads, three legs, four arms, and seven tongues; he often carries a flaming javelin. In the Mahabharata, Agni's grandfather is one of seven great sages; with the help of Krishna, he devours the Khandav forest You Gotta Know These Trojan War Heroes Greeks 1. Agamemnon The king of Mycenae, Agamemnon shares supreme command of the Greek troops with his brother, Menelaus. An epithet of his, "king of heroes," reflects this status. As a commander, however, he often lacks good public relations skills, as shown by his feud with Achilles (book 1) and by his ill-considered strategy of suggesting that all the troops go home (book 2). Upon his return home, Agamemnon is murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus. 2. Menelaus The king of Sparta, Menelaus is the husband of Helen, the cause celebre of the war. He tries to win Helen back by fighting Paris in single combat but Aphrodite carried Paris off when it seems that Menelaus will win. Despite his notionally equal say in commanding the troops with his brother Agamemnon, in practice Agamemnon often dominates. 3. Achilles This "swift-footed" warrior is the greatest on the Greek side. His father is Peleus, a great warrior in his own right, and his mother is Thetis, a sea nymph. The consequences of Achilles' rage at Agamemnon for confiscating his geras (prize of honor) are the subject of the Iliad. Achilles kills Hector, but is killed by a poisoned arrow in the heel, the only vulnerable place on his body. 4. Patroclus Achilles' foster brother and closest friend. Although Patroclus is a formidable hero, he is valued for his kind and gentle nature. Patroclus is killed by Hector while wearing the armor of Achilles. 5. Ajax This prince of Salamis is the son of Telamon. He once fights all afternoon in single combat with Hector; since neither one can decisively wound the other, they part as friends. Ajax's most glorious achievement is fighting the Trojans back from the ships almost singlehandedly. He commits suicide after the armor of Achilles is awarded to Odysseus rather than to himself. 6. Diomedes In his day of glory, Diomedes kills Pandarus and wounds Aeneas before taking on the gods. He stabs Aphrodite in the wrist and, with Athena as his charioteer, wounds Ares in the stomach. Along with Odysseus, he also conducts a successful night raid against King Rhesus. 7. Odysseus This son of Laertes is known for his cleverness and glib tongue. His accomplishments include a successful night raid against King Rhesus, winning the armor of Achilles, and engineering the famous Trojan Horse. His ten-year trip home to Ithaca (where his wife, Penelope, awaits) is the subject of the Odyssey. 8. Nestor, king of Pylos, is too old to participate in the fighting of the Trojan War, but serves as an advisor. He tells tales of "the good old days" to the other heroes. Trojans 1. Hector The son of Priam and Hecuba, he is probably the noblest character on either side. A favorite of Apollo, this captain of the Trojan forces exchanges gifts with Ajax after neither can conquer the other in single combat. He kills Patroclus when that Greek goes into battle wearing the armor of his friend, Achilles. Killed by Achilles to avenge the death of Patroclus, he is greatly mourned by all of Troy. Funeral games take place in his honor. 2. Paris (sometimes called Alexander) Also the son of Priam and Hecuba, he is destined to be the ruin of his country. He fulfills this destiny by accepting a bribe when asked to judge which of three goddesses is the fairest. When he awards Aphrodite the golden apple, Aphrodite repays him by granting him the most beautiful woman in the world; unfortunately, Helen is already married to Menelaus. Known less for hand-to-hand fighting than for mastery of his bow, he kills Achilles with an arrow but dies by the poisoned arrows of Philoctetes. 3. Priam The king of Troy and son of Laomedon, he has 50 sons and 12 daughters with his wife Hecuba (presumably she does not bear them all), plus at least 42 more children with various concubines. Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, kills him in front of his wife and daughters during the siege of Troy. 4. Hecuba (or Hecabe) The wife of Priam, she suffers the loss of most of her children but survives the fall of Troy. She is later turned into a dog. 5. Andromache The wife of Hector and mother of Astyanax, she futilely warns Hector about the war, then sees both her husband and son killed by the Greeks. After the war she is made concubine to Neoptolemus and later marries the Trojan prophet Helenus. 6. Cassandra This daughter of Priam and Hecuba has an affair with the god Apollo, who grants her the gift of prophecy. Unable to revoke the gift after they quarrel, Apollo curses her by preventing anyone from believing her predictions. Among her warnings is that the Trojan horse contains Greeks. After Troy falls she is given to Agamemnon, who tactlessly brings her home to his wife Clytemnestra. Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus then kill Agamemnon and

two serpents from the sea crush both him and his two young sons. Knocked unconscious by a large rock thrown by Diomedes. That bloodline is the basis of Julius Caesar's claim to have descended from Venus. ." he says (according to Vergil). "I fear the Greeks. this priest of Apollo shares Cassandra's doubt about the merits of bringing the Trojan horse into the city." Later. even bearing gifts. His son Iulus founds Alba Longa. while sacrificing a bull. He succeeds the late Hector as Trojan troop commander and survives the fall of Troy. 7. 8. The death of Laocoon is often blamed on Athena (into whose temple the serpent disappeared) but more likely the act of Poseidon.Cassandra. Laocoon Yet another son of Priam and Hecuba. Aeneas This son of Aphrodite and Anchises often takes a beating but always gets up to rejoin the battle. a fierce Greek partisan. leaving Agamemnon's son Orestes (egged on by sister Electra) to avenge the deaths and kill Clytemnestra and Aegisthus. he is evacuated by Aphrodite and Apollo. ultimately settling in Italy. near the site of Rome. "Timeo danaos et dona ferentes.

when she took four straight major finals against Venus. but the sisters have taken the game to new levels and to more people. Open). 5. in front of over 30. she amassed 62 Grand Slam titles. Riggs's nemesis. Opens in both 2000 and 2001. Open in 1997. Billie Jean King called Court "The Arm" because of her long reach. but that changed in 2002. 1974 was the first of a record 13 straight years in which she won a major . in 1928 becoming the first player to win three Grand Slams in one season. Serena now has six majors to Venus's four. is best known for advancing women's athletics. Randy Moffitt. Margaret Smith Court (1942-present)..S. Court did defeat King. For a long time Serena could not beat her older sister. while Venus also designs interiors. 24 of them in singles (3 Wimbledon. 22 of 32 times. taking 21 singles championships overall that year. prize money for women was paltry. reaching the final of the U. so she co-founded the Virginia Slims Tour. Her records themselves are impressive: 12 Grand Slam singles wins (including six Wimbledons) and 20 overall Wimbledon titles. 5 U. In all. She retired in 1977 and became a lay minister. At the time. Wills's play contrasted with that of the other great woman of the era. though they met only once (as Lenglen turned pro).out of 22 entered . the emotional Suzanne Lenglen of France. Serena won a Grand Slam before Venus did (1999 U. and in 1971 became the first female athlete to earn \$100. however.Grand Slam. The most prolific winner. California and coached from an early age by father Richard. pitched for the San Francisco Giants. On the side. between 1927 and 1932 she did not even drop a set! She won 19 major singles crowns . and 11 in her native Australia). Helen Wills Moody (1905-1998).S. both are fashion designers. six U.000 in a year.S. but Venus hit #1 by sweeping Wimbledon and the U. Her brother. Billie Jean King (1943-present).S. A California native nicknamed "Little Miss Poker Face" because her expression rarely changed on the court.including eight Wimbledons. 6. Born in Compton. She was married to British tennis player John Lloyd for eight years. aided by her height of nearly six feet. 7. Althea Gibson and Arthur Ashe may have preceded them as trailblazing African-American players.000 at the Astrodome. she herself reached a #4 world ranking in 1960 and turned pro eight years later.S.. Nonetheless. Venus and Serena Williams (1980-present and 1981-present). she whipped Bobby Riggs in the "Battle of the Sexes. and four French championships. male or female. In 1970 she became the second woman (after Maureen Connolly) to win the Grand Slam. Two years later. Evert took 18 Grand Slam singles titles. With her 2003 win at Wimbledon. but they divorced in 1987. Martina Navratilova. less impressive was her 1973 loss to 55-year old Bobby Riggs.several of them hard fought against her rival. Wills dominated her competition. and was the first female player to win \$1 million in her career. Wills also swept the singles and doubles gold medals at the 1924 Paris Olympics . King. 5 French. and she then wed Olympic skier Andy Mill. 4." King retired in 1983. but not before winning a singles tournament at age 39. Venus broke through first.

while in 1977 he published the lighter. Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957. Asturias left his native Guatemala in 1923 to study in Paris. but in 1962 he completed the influential story collection Labyrinths. A prominent poet and essayist. 5. 7. he fought briefly for the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War. Nobel 1945). a disorder inherited from his father had taken Borges's eyesight. at age three she moved to her mother's native Chile. As a penniless consul in Burma in the 1930s. and his 584-line poem The Sun Stone deals with the planet Venus. and The General in His Labyrinth. Vargas Llosa ran for president of Peru in 1990 but was defeated by Alberto Fujimori. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986. Cuba). He died of cancer days after his friend Salvador Allende was executed. While attending military school in Lima. he met a circle of avant-garde poets in Spain. Conversation in the Cathedral (1969) was Vargas Llosa's serious take on living under the dictatorship of Manuel Odría. where he wrote essays on Walt Whitman. One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967). when she published The House of the Spirits. 6. Other prominent novels include In Evil Hour. Love in the Time of Cholera. autobiographical Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter. Argentina). a magic realist work that chronicles several generations of the Trueba family. Guatemala. Martí fought tirelessly for Cuban independence. His Ill-Omened Friendship (1885) is considered the first Spanish modernist novel. 4. Gabriel García Marquez (1928-present. she served as a diplomat both in the United States and Europe. The Time of the Hero. He published the poetry collection Luna silvestre at age 19. Born Neftalí Reyes. The town played a prominent role in many of García Marquez's works. A native Chilean. he adopted the surname of the 19th century Czech poet Jan Neruda. Borges learned that language before he learned Spanish. he wrote the surrealist collection Residence on Earth. A newspaper journalist in the 1950s. Vargas Llosa wrote the play The Escape of the Inca (1952). He served in the Chilean senate in the 1940s. He most famous novel. about soap operas. Her formal literary career began at age 40. he settled in New York for the last fifteen years of his life. José Martí (1853-1895. though government opponents forced him into exile over his Communist views. The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950). By his fifties. 2. Paz supported leftist causes in Mexico. Another prose work. Colombia. Pablo Neruda (1904-1973. and his poetry collections include Our America and Simple Verses. While studying in Los Angeles. which detailed Allende's care for her terminally ill daughter. who inspired him to write about Mexico and its Native American/mestizo heritage in his pivotal essay collection. A successful news reporter in her twenties. Imprisoned at age sixteen and exiled from the island several times. his birthplace of Aracataca was the model for the fictional town of Macondo. and the threat of Latin American economic dependence on the United States. Peru). The master of magic realism. was a satire against the oppressive Guatalemalan dictatorship. Nobel 1967). Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-present. Mexico. an important symbol to the Aztecs. El señor presidente (1946).You Gotta Know These Latin American Authors 1. Octavio Paz (1914-1998. Asturias also completed a trilogy that blasted exploitation by . Actually born in Peru. collected in A Universal History of Infamy (1935). which inspired him to found the ultraismo movement and publish the collection Fervor of Buenos Aires (1923) when he returned to Argentina. One-quarter English. Gabriela Mistral (see below) was the head of his school in the small city of Temuco. Desolation (1922). Martí was killed in a skirmish at Dos Ríos while participating in an invasion with other Cuban exiles. García Marquez exposed a naval scandal (chronicled in The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor). Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair. Isabel Allende (1942-present. she wrote "Sonnets of Death" (1914) after the suicide of her fiancé. The first Latin American to win the Nobel Literature Prize. Ficciones (1944). the poem "Guantanamera" was the inspiration for several songs. such as Leaf Storm and his seminal novel. Nobel Prize for Literature 1982). Mistral was actually named Lucila Godoy Alcayaga. While working in a library. There he discovered Mayan mythology. 9. setting up a dictatorship. Best known as a poet and a revolutionary. 8. Chile). At first a prominent educator. but took her pen name from the Italian and French poets Gabriele D'Annunzio and Frédéric Mistral respectively. Paz observed flamboyantly dressed Mexican-American pachucos ("zoot-suiters"). and translated the Popol Vuh into Spanish. Chile. and The Aleph (1949). the theme would pervade his work. 1923 saw the publication of Neruda's best-known work. Langston Hughes translated a portion of Mistral's poetry into English just after she died. Jesse James. Nobel 1971). 3. In the Light of India (1997). a depiction of Simón Bolívar's final years. Miguel Asturias (1899-1974. Educated in Europe during World War I. Other important works include The War of the End of the World and A Fish in the Water. she and her family fled to Venezuela after General Augusto Pinochet deposed and executed her uncle Salvador Allende. such as 1963's Mulata de tal. Crossing the Andes on horseback inspired his epic Canto general (1950). Nobel 1990). Chile. which discusses his political career. but the harsh treatment he received there was the basis for his best-known novel. which details the decline of the Buendía family over seven generations. Those sonnets later appeared in her most famous collection. which led to diplomatic appointments. reflected Paz's part-(East) Indian heritage. Borges developed his greatest short stories. Other works of fiction include the short-story collection Eva Luna (1989) and Paula (1995).

Fuentes has often dealt with the betrayed ideals from the Mexican Revolution of 1910. based on the CIA-led overthrow of president Jacobo Arbenz's liberal government. the subject of both his first novel. Other notable novels include Terra nostra.10. the American-led United Fruit Company. Mexico). Though born into a well-to-do family. and his most successful book. Carlos Fuentes (1928-present. The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962). and the short-story collection Weekend in Guatemala (1956). and The Old Gringo. Fuentes has also penned absurdist plays and essay collections on Mexican and American art and literature . which portrays Ambrose Bierce's last days in Mexico. set during the reign of King Philip II of Spain. Where the Air is Clear (1958).

B. Hooker took a force of 134. Only George Thomas (the "Rock of Chickamauga") saved Rosecrans from annihilation. he died of pneumonia eight days later. Lincoln called on "Fighting Joe" Hooker to command the Union army. at Chickamauga (in Georgia).000 and Lee retreated to Virginia. 11. That night. Grant met Lee at Cold Harbor (June 3). in the "Battle Above the Clouds. where the Union mowed down one-third of his 15. Hooker took Lookout Mountain in the southwest. a cannonball blast hit the Chancellor House. 17. 12. 13. The following morning. McPherson drove Johnston from Jackson. Stuart was supposed to monitor Union movement with his cavalry but strayed so far east of Gettysburg that his force did not return (exhausted) until the second day. Grant moved south to lay siege to this railroad hub. Lee. Chancellorsville (May 1-4. but could not drive the Southerners out of Vicksburg. Although the South maintained the city. Jackson moved around Hooker and counterattacked the Union flank on May 2.10." The trenches in which much of the fighting took place were similar to those later seen in World War I. allowed Grant. forcing him into a siege position at Chattanooga. along with Longstreet. Pemberton finally surrendered his men. A. Thomas ran right over the Southern force at Missionary Ridge.000 Northerners fell. The first clash between Grant and Lee. On November 24. Outnumbered 71. Low on supplies. this "Battle of the Crater" killed many defenders. where Southern leaders A. knocking Hooker unconscious. Chattanooga Campaign (September-November 1863). but with great cost. The Confederates lost 20. but with the entire campaign he severely reduced Confederate strength in a war of attrition. on the final day Lee ordered an attack on the center. however. J. and Richard Ewell. Johnston withdrew east. At Spotsylvania Court House. Hill.000 and provoked Lee and Jackson's 60.000 to 20. this series of conflicts started with the Battle of the Wilderness (50 miles northwest of Richmond).P.000 men to Lee's 1. 14. 25 miles from Richmond. George Meade replaced Hooker as leader of the Union side. 1864).P. and the Union scored a victory at Champion's Hill two days later. Hill and Ewell held the line. Casualties for the North outnumbered those of the South. while Jackson was on reconnaissance. George Pickett led his famous "charge" through open fields. Victory for the South.000 men.000 men into battle. his own men mistook him for a Northerner and shot him. as Stonewall Jackson lost his life. Bragg and Longstreet turned the tables by whipping Rosecrans. so Grant laid siege to the town. 14 miles southwest of Petersburg. 1863). Welldeveloped railroad networks. and over 17.500 and withdrew across the James River. Gettysburg (July 1-3.000 to 13.June 12.April 1865).000. led the southern Pennsylvania attack. After Cold Harbor. Meade assaulted Lee's men. Union troops led by John Sedgwick then retreated. securing Tennessee for the North." The next day. Grant finally destroyed the Confederate right flank at Five Forks (April 1-2). he lost 7. effectively ending the Civil War . This marked both the farthest northward advancement by the Confederacy and the turning point that led to its defeat. its supplies ran thin in the winter of 1865. but they repelled Meade at the "Bloody Angle.E. Petersburg Campaign (June 1864 . 1863). Mississippi on May 14. Pennsylvania coal miners detonated four tons of powder in a tunnel underneath the Confederate line. Hooker. On July 30. Advancing within ten miles of Richmond. and Sherman to bring reinforcements. Ten days later. It began when Union General William Rosecrans forced Confederate commander Braxton Bragg out of the city on September 9. This resounding defeat led to Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House one week later.000 and on the brink of starvation. Southern forces drove Northerners through the town but could not secure key positions at Cemetery Ridge and Little and Big Round Tops. Wilderness Campaign (May 5 .

similar to Doric). and Composite (mixture of Ionic and Corinthian). "The Waste Land" The five parts of T. 5. Teams should be able to find the derivative. 3. Calculus. Vectors.30 = ) 1. multiply. Sword. These are called Pythagorean Triples and the simplest ones are 3-4-5. if a square has a diagonal that is 30% longer than another square. or power. etc. The first three were attacked by British and Canadian forces while the latter two were assaulted by American troops." "The Fire Sermon. Juno. Pythagorean Triples. for his idealistic poetry). Plane Figures. 1. Teams should be able to calculate the areas of triangles (especially equilateral triangles). divide. and Henri Dunant and Frédéric Passy (peace. 4. 15-20-25. Similar reasoning applies to perimeters. and converting complex numbers to magnitudeangle form. 11. Divisibility Rules. integral. For instance. and critical points of polynomial. slope-at-a-point. the most important things to know are the basic sets of integers that satisfy the Pythagorean Theorem (a2 + b2 = c2) and could be the side lengths of a right triangle. 3. Note that any multiple of a Pythagorean Triple is also a Pythagorean Triple so that 6-8-10. Solids. the other three originated with the Greeks. multiply. Teams should be able to quickly apply the divisibility rules for small integers (2 through 11) to large integers. subtract. 5-12-13. respectively). Complex Math. Teams should be able to calculate the volume and surface area of simple geometric figures including the sphere. Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (chemistry. Nobel Prize Winners The five original winners of Nobel Prizes (1901) were Wilhelm Röntgen (physics. rhombi. and converting from one base to another. local extrema. metaphase. diameters.69 times as great (69% greater). hemisphere. Teams should be able to quickly add. and find the roots of low-degree polynomials. Similar Figures. and add. Ionic (fancier. graphing complex numbers. Cesar Cui (1835-1918). parallelograms. economics. 6. particularly two-by-two ones. difference. Mily Balakirev (1837-1910). used for the Parthenon). Alexander Borodin (1833-1887). Permutations. S. find the angle between. Emil Adolf von Behring (physiology or medicine. for laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure)." They are Modest Mussorgsky (1839 -1881). Teams should be familiar with basic operations of logarithmic math: simplifying the logarithm of a product. but it still sometimes finds its way in. Polynomial Math. and 300-400-500 are also ones by virtue of 3-4-5 being one. They are the Doric (simple. 7. Mitosis The five stages of the biological process of mitosis (the production of new body cells from existing ones) are interphase. and invert matrices. prism. 12. and 8-15-17. and telophase. Matrices. for the discovery of X rays). 5. cone.). Teams should be able to compute the number of permutations and combinations of n objects taken m at a time. for his serum therapy remedy for diphtheria). Eliot's 1922 masterpiece "The Waste Land" are "The Burial of the Dead. 9. pyramid. . They should also have memorized the first eight (or so) values of the factorial function to make this easier." "A Game of Chess. D-Day The codenames for the five beaches attacked in Operation Overlord on D-Day are Gold." and "What the Thunder Said. The Mighty Handful Five nationalist Russian composers are often referred to as "The Mighty Handful" or "The Five. Logarithms. the dot product of. cylinder. Every team should be able to add.You Gotta Know These Computation Areas This You Gotta Know article is devoted to twelve computational areas that will help the most in solving the sorts of math questions that come up in NAQT invitational series. Almost certainly. anaphase." a term that primarily refers to the design of the columns used in the building. and the cross product of two vectors. Every team should be able to find the length of a vector. side lengths. Tuscan (plain. 4. Corinthian (baroque. 2. 1. NAQT's collegiate sets tend to have very little computation and much of that is in the context of a specific field (physics. fluted with acanthus-like leaves for capitals). take the determinant of. trapezoids. 7-24-25. Interphase is not technically a part of mitosis. and circles using different angles and lengths. basic operations on complex numbers. prophase. The areas of similar figures are related by the square of any corresponding length and the volumes are related by the cube of any corresponding length. fluted with scrolls on their capitals). for founding the International Red Cross and the first French peace society. it has an area that is (1. subtract. factor. transpose. subtract. and parallelepiped. and other common functions These ten topics are connected by only two things: There are five answers in each set and they all come up repeatedly in quiz bowl. chemistry. and Omaha. Teams should be familiar with the symbol i representing the imaginary square root of -1. Orders of Architecture There are five classical "orders of architecture. Utah." 2. trigonometric.30 x 1. The latter two orders are Roman developments. 8. Sully Prudhomme (literature. 6. and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908). and so forth." "Death By Water. 10.

7. They are the declaration of faith (Shahadah). From lowest to highest energy of the final level. Brackett. three-dimensional shapes with congruent regular polygons for sides. 10. Platonic Solids There are only five regular polyhedra. and Walter Johnson. cube (6 square sides). Honus 8. Spectral Lines Hydrogen produces an infinite series of spectral lines. octahedron (8 triangular sides). are the tetrahedron (4 triangular sides). The first five of those series are named after scientists who observed them before it was known that they were actually examples of the same phenomenon. Balmer. and Pfund series. Pillars of Islam Islam has five fundamental tenets of religious life. giving charity to those in need (Zakat). Babe Ruth. Paschen. and icosahedron (20 triangular sides). Only the Balmer series exists in the visible spectrum. dodecahedron (12 pentagonal sides). they are known as the Lyman. Wagner. Cooperstown The first five members elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame were Ty Cobb. fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm). Christy Mathewson. . prayer (Salat). a group known as the Pillars of Islam. known as the Platonic solids. and the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) to be performed once in each adherent's lifetime 9. These.

GA. the sweltering Georgia heat and organizational problems made these Games a veritable nightmare. But a still-unsolved bombing in Centennial Olympic Park that killed one person and injured one hundred that remains the Games' most memorable event. the former in a world-record 19. Carl Lewis got his ninth gold by winning the long jump for the fourth consecutive Games. only to be plagued by rumors of steroid use. 1996) In what have been called "The Coke Games. July 25 . 1996 Summer (Atlanta.32 seconds .10." due to their exceptional commercialization in the city of Coke's business headquarters. Irish swimmer Michelle Smith won three gold medals in the pool.August 8. United States. while American sprinter Michael Johnson became the first man to win the 200-meter and 400-meter races.

1871 44 1845 41 1784 35 1944 35 1741 30 1775 30 1791 29 1804 28 1787 28 1913 28 1905 26 1869 26 1896 26 1904 26 1851 25 1830 25 1791 23 1918 21 1805 21 1808 21 1843 21 1725 21 1928 19 1853 19 1909 19 1894 19 1893 18 1936 18 1804 18 1790 18 1874 17 . so teams should be prepared for questions on their style. performance. instrumentation.You Gotta Know These Musical Works The following table lists the fifty most-frequently referenced works of music in NAQT questions as of November 17. 2002. program. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. key. lyrics. and circumstances of creation. Rank Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Aida Carmen The Marriage of Figaro Appalachian Spring Messiah The Barber of Seville London Symphonies William Tell Don Giovanni The Rite of Spring Salome Boris Godunov La Bohème Madama Butterfly Rigoletto Symphonie fantastique The Magic Flute The Planets Fidelio Pastoral Symphony The Flying Dutchman The Four Seasons Bolero La Traviata The Song of the Earth Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun Symphony Pathetique Carmina Burana Eroica Cosi fan tutte Pictures at an Exhibition Genre Opera Opera Opera Ballet Oratorio Opera Symphony Opera Opera Ballet Opera Opera Opera Opera Opera Symphony Opera Composition Opera Symphony Opera Concerto Composition Opera Symphony Composition Symphony Cantata Symphony Opera Composition Creator Giuseppe Verdi Georges Bizet Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Aaron Copland Geroge Frideric Handel Gioacchino Rossini Franz Josef Haydn Gioacchino Rossini Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Igor (Fyodorovich) Stravinsky Richard (Georg) Strauss Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Giuseppe Verdi (Louis-)Hector Berlioz Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gustav Holst Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Antonio Vivaldi (Joseph) Maurice Ravel Giuseppe Verdi Gustav Mahler (Achille-)Claude Debussy Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Carl Orff Ludwig van Beethoven Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Modest (Petrovich) Mussorgsky Date Freq. While you really gotta know their creators.

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 The Nutcracker Porgy and Bess Turandot Falstaff Symphony from the New World Peter and the Wolf The Star-Spangled Banner Moonlight Sonata Lohengrin Hungarian Rhapsodies Rhapsody in Blue Jupiter Symphony Amahl and the Night Visitors Spring Symphony Don Juan A German Requiem Symphony of a Thousand Rodeo Swan Lake Ballet Opera Opera Opera Symphony Composition Song Sonata Opera Composition Composition Symphony Opera Symphony Tone poem Sacred choral work Symphony Composition Ballet Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky George Gershwin Giacomo (Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria) Puccini Giuseppe Verdi Anton Dvorák Sergei (Sergeyevich) Prokofiev Francis Scott Key (lyrics). music traditional Ludwig van Beethoven (Wilhelm) Richard Wagner Franz Liszt George Gershwin Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Gian-Carlo Menotti Robert (Alexander) Schumann Richard (Georg) Strauss Johannes Brahms Gustav Mahler Aaron Copland Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1892 17 1935 17 1762 17 1893 17 1893 17 1936 17 1814 17 1801 16 1850 16 1846 15 1924 15 1788 15 1951 15 1841 15 1888 15 1868 15 1907 15 1942 15 1877 14 .

r. 1189-1199) House of Plantagenet. 11. he dissolved Parliament over the issue in 1681 and refused to prevent his brother James from succeeding him. He fought two lackluster wars against the Dutch. 1660-1685) House of Stuart. and died while defending his possessions in Aquitaine. Henry II (1133-1189. had it been real and not fabricated by Titus Oates. His wife Catherine of Braganza produced no legitimate heirs. While Cromwell ruled the Commonwealth. While king he developed the common law and due process. Third son of Henry II. Richard forgave John and made him his successor. but fought with Thomas (à) Becket over submission to the Pope. he translated Boethius. 13. Charles II (1630-1685.10. John Lackland (1167-1216. John was also weak as a fighter. as French King Philip II routed him at Bouvines in 1214. did feature heavy favoritism toward Catholics. r. in addition. 15. Henry had Becket executed in 1170 but performed penance at Canterbury. James II (1633-1701. deposing James in the bloodless Glorious Revolution. an event that marked the beginning of the development of the British constitution. r. 1154-1189) House of Plantagenet. 871-899) Saxon House. Exiled to Louis XIV's court. The 1678 Popish Plot against Charles II would have elevated the Roman Catholic James to the throne. he expelled the rival Danes from the Mercian town of London in 886. 14. Actually just the King of Wessex in southwestern England. r. Charles used the Declaration of Breda to restore himself to the English throne. winning many victories in the Holy Land. 12. and the Venerable Bede's works into Anglo-Saxon. however. but this "Merry Monarch" has as many as 14 illegitimate children. After Cromwell died. He went on the Third Crusade to Jerusalem. Alfred the Great (849-899. Alfred also kept England from the worst of the Dark Ages by encouraging his bishops to foster literacy. Though he tried to seize the crown from his brother Richard while the latter was in Germany. he made an attempt to regain his crown in 1690 but was routed at the Battle of the Boyne. Richard I (the Lion-Hearted) (1157-1199. Charles was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. and invaded England the following year. 1199-1216) House of Plantagenet. Eleanor and his four sons conspired with French king Philip II against Henry on several occasions. but on his way back was captured and ransomed by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI. r. r. and needed protection from Louis XIV through the Treaty of Dover. The son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda. Tolerant of Catholics. so much so that Protestants invited James's son-in-law William of Orange to rule England. Excommunicated by the Pope for four years for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury. A year later. England's barons forced John to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede. James's three years. He also fought Philip II in Normandy. . eventually conquering most of the Danelaw territory. he married Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152. forcing Stephen of Blois to acknowledge Henry as his heir. Augustine. he spent only five months of his reign in England. 1685-1688) House of Stuart.

Norns The goddesses of destiny. and wields the hammer Mjolnir. 10. 7. Verdandi (or Verthandi). Hel (the ruler of the underworld). joy. represented as the three sisters Urd (or Wyrd). death. he is the god of light and guardians. Ymir A primordial giant who formed in the void of Ginnungagap from fire and ice. His senses are so sharp. and Sleipnir. 2. but lives with the Aesir as a hostage. and had to give away his magic sword to win the hand of the giantess Gerda. and rain. He travels in a chariot drawn by the golden boar Gullinbursti. Frey (or Freyr) The son of Njord.You Gotta Know These Norse Gods and Goddesses 1. and his special nemesis is the Midgard Serpent. poetry. Freya The daughter of Njord and twin sister of Frey. she is also a Vanir hostage living with the Aesir. horses. his many pranks include duping Hoder into killing Balder. but lives with the Aesir and is Odin's blood-brother. so Frigga extracted promises from everything not to harm Balder. and the necklace Brisingamen. and often works at her loom spinning clouds. sun. He dreamed of his own death. pierced by his own spear. and motherhood. he is the god of light. passion. After killing Balder he was chained to three boulders with snakes dripping poison onto him. Frigg (or Frigga) The wife of Odin. his possessions include the magic ship Skidbladnir. She is the goddess of the sky. and beauty. One of the most popular of the Norse gods. He hung himself for nine days on the world tree Yggsdrasil. He is one of the Vanir. The goddess of love. but she skipped mistletoe. her possessions include a cloak that allows her to turn into a falcon. Odin (or Wodin or Wotan) The All-Father. and traded one of his eyes for a drink from Mimir's well to gain wisdom. and Tyr. and twin brother of Freya. He was killed by Odin and his brothers. Hoder. who used his body to construct most of the universe. Heimdall The son of nine sisters. Balder (or Baldur) The fairest of the Aesir. 9. he is the god of thunder. Loki tricked Balder's blind brother Hoder into killing him with a spear of mistletoe. He is a god of war. 6. The god of fertility. he can see 100 miles by night or day and hear grass growing. the principal group of Norse gods. Loki He's actually giant-kin. and human fertility. weather. 4. Hermod. The counterparts of the Greek Fates. the rainbow bridge into Asgard. he travels in a chariot pulled by two goats. the Midgard Serpent Jormungandr. and rides the eight-legged horse Sleipnir. and knowledge. marriage. and mother by him of Balder. He gave birth to the frost giants and created the primordial cow Audhumla. She travels in a chariot drawn by two cats. to gain knowledge. He is married to Sif. and Skuld. He guards Bifrost. he is the leader of the Aesir. The god of fire and trickery. 8. Thor A son of Odin and the giantess Jord. and crops. 3. a second group of Norse gods. His children include the wolf Fenrir. they tend the Well of Fate at the roots of Yggdrasil . wisdom. He will call the Aesir into battle at Ragnarok with his horn Gjall (or Gjallerhorn). 5.

human parasites include hookworms and the causative agents of elephantiasis. 7. now extinct). pillbugs). or leeches. both Latin names (Mollusca) or Anglicized names (molluscs) are acceptable for a given taxon.You Gotta Know These Phyla Plant. as well as the mostly terrestrial Oligochaeta (including the earthworms. and Portuguese man-o-war (which is actually an aggregation of colonial cnidarians). 1 species) The most recently named phylum. estimates of actual diversity vary but go as high as 9 million species) The most diverse and successful animal phylum on earth (incorporating about 75% of all described animal species). Most are hermaphroditic. algal. 5. 6. 1. and collect food particles via the sweeping motions of flagellated cells called choanocytes [koh-ANN-oh-sites]. barnacles. As the name implies. so that the space between the digestive tract and the body wall is filled with tissue. . Arthropods are often divided into four subphyla: Uniramia (insects. numbers represent an estimate of the number of species that have been named. Taxonomists do not always agree on the usage of even the most common terms. crayfish. Annelid classes include the marine Polychaeta. or will lump or split groups in different ways. the Arthropoda are characterized by jointed legs and a chitinous exoskeleton. It is believed to be closely related to the marine phyla Entoprocta and Ectoprocta (Bryozoa). its only known member is Symbion pandora.e. Annelida (AN-el-LEE-dah. blood vessels. they are generally flat-bodied. and are sometimes classified separately from other animals because of their asymmetric bodies and lack of distinct tissues. Familiar groups within the Mollusca include the classes Gastropoda (slugs. 8. 10. 2. octopi). and some can inflict painful stings on swimmers. and. trichinosis. Unless stated otherwise. Crustacea (shrimps. Arthropoda (ar-THROP-oh-dah or AR-thro-POE-dah. and Trilobitomorpha (the trilobites. and fungal "phyla" are often referred to as "divisions. This phylum includes parasites such as the tapeworms and flukes. but unlike annelids. thorax. 15. the cnidarians develop from a diploblastic (two-layered) embryo. They include both free-living and parasitic species. 11. in some classes. sea spiders. which are not discussed here. lobsters. with a muscular foot and an internal visceral mass.500 species) The annelids are segmented worms and represent the first lineage of truly eucoelomate (having a body cavity lined with mesoderm-derived tissue) animals.000 species) The sponges are all water-dwellers (98% marine. they are segmented. They have a true head and brain. Cnidaria (nih-DARE-ee-ya. Lumbricus) and the mostly-aquatic Hirudinea. crabs. all estimates are probably low. Body plans within this phylum are diverse. so other sources may have slightly different versions of these phyla. They are pseudocoelomate. but the body cavity is not lined with tissue derived from the mesoderm (middle embryonic layer). non-parasitic) organisms such as the planarians.. centipedes. millipedes). but the digestive system has only one opening that functions as both mouth and anus. their segments are usually fused into larger body parts with specialized functions (such as the head. for capturing prey. unless the question states otherwise. and river blindness. Nematoda (NEM-ah-TOE-dah. the three tissue layers are concentric.000 species) The molluscs are second in diversity only to the arthropods. Soil nematodes may be crop pests. a tiny invertebrate first identified in 1995 when a Danish biologist found specimens on the mouthparts of a Norwegian lobster. Cycliophora (CY-clee-oh-FORE-ah. jellyfishes. Like annelids. and have two separate tissue layers and radial body symmetry.000 species) Also called Coelenterata [se-LEN-ter-AH-tah]. 4. hermaphroditism. Mollusca (mol-LUS-kah. 15. Estimates of phylal diversity vary. a small coelom and a large hemocoel that functions as an open circulatory system. oysters. and Cephalopoda (nautilus." Some taxonomists also extend this usage to bacteria. snails). usually bell-like medusa and the sessile polyp. There are two fluid-filled body cavities derived from mesodermal tissue. All cnidarians have nematocysts.000 species described.000 species) The roundworms are unsegmented worms that live in a variety of habitats. Chelicerata (arachnids. 2% freshwater). or stinging cells. 3. scallops). Under NAQT rules. secreted by the mantle. while others are beneficial predators on other plant pests. squids. corals. Bivalvia (clams. their body cavities are lined with tissue derived from the embryonic mesoderm. Because many invertebrates are inconspicuous. Some textbooks and other publications will use alternate names or spellings to describe taxonomic groups. as well as free-living (i. and abdomen of an insect). the mobile. and are acoelomate (lacking a true body cavity). Characteristics of annelids include nephridia (kidney-like structures). They have bilateral body symmetry. over 800. Many cnidarians have two life stages. Platyhelminthes (PLAT-ee-hel-MIN-theez. 5. but general characteristics include a soft body covered by a thin mantle. Porifera (pore-IH-fer-ah. Many molluscs have a shell composed of calcium carbonate and proteins. while others advocate replacing the term "division" with "phylum" for all organisms. sea anemones.000 species) The flatworms are the most primitive phylum to develop from a triploblastic (three-layered) embryo. Examples include the hydras. The nematode species Caenorhabdis elegans is a common subject in genetics and developmental-biology labs. 50. Note that spelling and pronunciation are not completely standardized in the taxonomic world. They are sessile (immobile) except in early dispersing stages. horseshoe crabs).

have varying degrees of bilateral symmetry. 44.500 species) Characteristics of this phylum include an endoskeleton composed of many ossicles of calcium and magnesium carbonate. like sea cucumbers. a true head is absent. a notochord. . a ring canal around the esophagus. Cephalochordata. the most diverse subphylum). sea urchins. Others. Chordata (kor-DAH-tah. and a dorsal hollow nerve cord. the lancelets. the sea squirts. Defining traits of chordates include pharyngeal gill slits. In the echinoderm body plan. a post-anal tail. and the true vertebrates (Vertebrata. a water vascular system (WVS). the anatomical terms oral (mouth-bearing) and aboral (away from the mouth) are used to describe orientation of the body surfaces. Feeding adaptations include particle feeding through the WVS. and locomotion by tube feet connected to the WVS. The lancelet Amphioxus (Branchiostoma) is often used as a demonstration organism in biology labs 10.000 species) Our home phylum is divided into three subphyla: Urochordata. Unique to echinoderms is the five-fold radial symmetry obvious in sea stars (seafish). and a scraping device called Aristotle's lantern (sea urchins).9. Echinodermata (ek-KY-no-der-MAH-tah. and sea lilies. everting the stomach to engulf prey (sea stars). 6. In vertebrates. some of these structures are found only in embryonic stages.

and 23 years later became the oldest champion with a final round 65 in 1986." he was the first great pro golfer. Gene Sarazen (1902-1999) Born Eugene Saraceni. Hogan. this South African has won nine majors. 4. but Nelson is best known for having the single most dominant year in golf history. as his fans were known as "Arnie's Army. and three British Opens. At the 2000 U. PGA Championship. Woods won three straight U. five PGA Championships. appearing in over 2.S. Gary Player (1935-present) The most successful non-American golfer in history. Open. In 1997 Woods became the youngest ever to win the Masters--by a whopping 12 strokes. winning the PGA Championship in 1922 and 1923. Nicknames include "The Black Knight" for his dress and "Mr.S.S. After each. Jones never turned pro.S. 8. Nelson was so even-tempered and mechanically sound that the USGA named its mechanical club and ball-testing device. Arnold Palmer (1929-present) A native of Latrobe." he won seven major professional championships between 1942 and 1954. when he won by 15 strokes. a tournament he won five times between 1975 and 1983.S. he carded an albatross (three under par) from the fairway of the Par-5 15th hole to force a playoff. giving him seven major pro titles. but he is known more for the one he never won: the U. After that season." after him. including four U." he won the U. Lee Trevino (1939-present) Nicknamed "Supermex" for his Mexican-American heritage. where he won the 2001 Senior PGA Championship. and the 2001 Masters.S.You Gotta Know These Golfers 1. winning four more majors. Walter Hagen (1892-1969) Nicknamed "The Haig. 3. 10. Sam Snead (1912-2002) No golfer has won more PGA Tournaments than Snead's 81. a feat no one has come close to matching. Junior Amateurs. and the PGA Championship twice each. including four straight from 1924 to 1927. Woods. Open. Amateurs. as well as the U. Open. Jones retired from golf to practice law. when he won. Hagen won eleven majors . he not only became the first non-American to win that tournament in 45 years. Tiger Woods (1975-present) Born to an African-American father and a Thai mother. Amateurs (1994-1996). and British Open. Open crown in 1965. Watson's greatest achievements were at the British Open. Open. though mostly on the Senior Tour. and still competes occasionally on the regular PGA Tour. winning the Senior PGA Open in 1980 and 1981. including 11 consecutive tournaments. In the 1960s and '70s he won a record six Senior PGA Championships. (Robert Tyre) "Bobby" Jones (1902-1971) An Atlanta native. 7. including six Masters. and was the 1961 NCAA champion at Ohio State. he came to prominence in the early 1920s. Nicknamed "Slammin' Sammy. He took eight major championships overall. his second PGA in 1984 at age 44. he won nine majors overall (six after the accident). He took his first major the following year at the U. the British Open. including four Masters. Amateur and Open Championships.S. and was the first golfer to earn one million dollars on the PGA Tour. though.S. 6. Woods began a remarkable run of four straight major championships: British Open (by eight strokes.S.S. 5. he appeared on "The Mike Douglas Show" with a golf club at age two. 12. and Gene Sarazen) to win all four modern Grand Slam events. Amateur twice (1959 and 1961). Sarazen became the first golfer to complete the modern career Grand Slam. U. including four U. Byron Nelson (1912-present) He won five major championships overall. Pennsylvania." He won seven majors. When Player took his only U. In 1945 he won a record 18 tournaments in 30 starts. Fitness" for his devotion to exercise. In 1953 he accomplished a feat matched only by Tiger Woods: winning three modern major championships in one season: the Masters. Open. where Trevino was struck by lightning on the golf course. That last win was most impressive because it came after the 1975 Western Open. Nicklaus is still somewhat active on the Senior PGA Tour. beating Arnold Palmer on Palmer's home course. Opens. 9.S. Tom Watson (1949-present) He became the major rival to Jack Nicklaus in the second half of the Golden Bear's career. He has a record 18 major pro championships overall. but he also became one of three (now five) golfers (along with Nicklaus. 11. Later Palmer became one of the stars of the Senior Tour. Open in 1922. but helped design a golf course in Augusta. A five-time PGA Champion. At the 1935 Masters. Palmer made golf popular with the masses. 2. Trevino came from a poor Dallas family and served in the Marines. In 2002 he played in his last competitive Masters. making him the youngest ever to complete the career Grand Slam). Georgia that became the permanent site of the Masters in 1934. Jack Nicklaus (1940-present) Nicknamed "The Golden Bear. when Sarazen returned to form. and as a golf course architect. In 1939 Snead led the Open for 71 holes but lost on the last hole when he took an eight. Bobby Jones and Walter Hagen then dominated golf until the early 1930s. Woods added a third Masters in 2002. but came from nowhere to win the 1968 U. and the greatest amateur golfer of all time.S.S. Open. but won thirteen major championships in eight years. four U.S. Ben Hogan (1912-1997) The PGA Tour's leading money winner from 1940-42 and in 1946 and 1948. In 1930 he won what was then considered the Grand Slam. taking both the British and U. Hogan rose to the top of his game. Opens.S. He won six majors: the U. and he amassed 135 victories worldwide.500 exhibitions. the "Iron Byron. two events interrupted his playing career: service in World War II and a near-fatal 1949 head-on car accident. and then became the only golfer to win three straight U. Nicklaus became the youngest Masters champion at the time in 1963.

S. and he was known most for his showmanship and his ability to recover from poor shots with spectacular ones. Ryder Cup team six of the first seven times the event was held .overall. Hagen captained the U.

Boris died in the midst of growing unrest and is now best known as the subject of a Pushkin play and a Mussorgsky opera. near the end of the Time of Troubles. a zemskii sobor elected the 16-year-old Michael Romanov as the new tsar. Nevertheless. and was elected tsar when Fyodor died in 1598. ruled 1613-1645) In 1613. But Boris was rumored to have arranged the murder of Fyodor's brother Dmitrii. his election marked the return of relative stability and the succession of the Romanov dynasty . Michael was a grandnephew of Ivan the Terrible's "good" wife Anastasia and the son of a powerful churchman named Filaret (who soon became patriarch). Michael (1597-1645. he has usually been seen as a nonentity dominated by Filaret and other relatives.10. and the first of several "False Dmitriis" launched a revolt against him. as tsar. became regent under Fyodor.

Rank Title 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 The Arnolfini Wedding The Birth of Venus Perseus With the Head Of Medusa The Persistence of Memory The Kiss Mona Lisa Liberty Leading the People David Last Supper The Thinker School of Athens The Death of Marat Luncheon on the Grass American Gothic Arrangement in Grey and Black. so teams should be prepared for questions on their materials. design.You Gotta Know These Artistic Creations The following table lists the thirty most-frequently referenced works of visual art in NAQT questions as of May 7. 21 20 20 18 18 17 17 17 16 16 14 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 12 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Sculpture Benvenuto Cellini Painting Salvador (Felipe Jacinto) Dalí (y Domenech) Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Painting Leonardo da Vinci Eugene Delacroix Sculpture Michelangelo (Buonarotti) Painting Leonardo da Vinci Sculpture (René-François-)Auguste Rodin Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Raphael Jacques-Louis David Édouard Manet Grant Wood James (Abbott) McNeill Whistler Sculpture Constantin Brancusi Building Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Painting Frank Lloyd Wright John Constable Edward Hopper Diego (Rodríguez de Silva y) Velázquez Thomas Gainsborough Marc Chagall Edvard Munch Pablo Picasso y Ruiz Pablo Picasso y Ruiz Sandro Botticelli (Oscar-)Claude Monet Gustave Courbet Sculpture Donatello Sculpture Gianlorenzo Bernini . depicted action. 1440 1646 Freq. 1: The Artist's Mother Bird in Space Fallingwater The Hay Wain Nighthawks Las Meninas The Blue Boy I and the Village The Scream Guernica Les Demoiselles d'Avignon Primavera Impression: Sunrise Burial at Ornans David The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa Genre Painting Painting Creator Jan van Eyck Sandro Botticelli Date 1434 1480 1563 1931 1886 1500 1830 1504 14951498 1880-1 1509 1793 1863 1930 1871 1919 1936 1821 1942 1656 1770 1911 1893 1937 1907 1478 1872 1849-50 c. 2002. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. No. technique. While you really gotta know their creators. and circumstances of creation.

in failing to achieve this sense of completeness. in particular. preoperational. shelter. ego (rational thought)." "introversion. which used the technique of "free association" to identify fears and repressed memories. they developed "inferiority complexes" that inhibited their relations with successful people and dominated their relations with fellow unsuccessful people. Erik Erikson (German-born American. esteem. the need for "self-actualization. in fact. 1878-1958) John Watson was the first prominent exponent of behaviorism. how different societies create different traditions and ideas to accommodate the same biological needs.You Gotta Know These Psychologists 1. Carl Jung (Austrian. that introduced his theory of the "hierarchy of needs" (food. arguing that psychology could be completely grounded in objective measurements of events and physical human reactions. Quiz bowlers should be familiar with "anima. 6. Skinner (American. but questions about him are more often classified as "psychology" than "biology" by question writers. he was the first to perform rigorous studies of the way in which children learn and come to understand and respond to the world around them. Guided by his ideas. and superego (moral and social conscience). Motivation and Personality and Toward a Psychology of Being. Skinner was one of the leading proponents of behaviorism in works like Walden II and Beyond Freedom and Dignity. His most famous works are The Language and Thought of a Child and The Origins of Intelligence in Children. He separated the psyche into the id (illogical passion). he is mainly remembered for his experiments on "obedience to authority" that he performed at Yale in 1961-1962. Alfred Adler (Austrian. even though the bell itself is inedible and has no intrinsic connection with food. He went on to create the movement of "analytic psychology" and introduced the controversial notion of the "collective unconscious"--a socially shared area of the mind." "animus. He won the Nobel Prize in 1904 for Physiology or Medicine for unrelated work on digestive secretions. 3. He is most famous for his theory of four stages of development: sensorimotor. He argued that many problems were caused by mental states rather than by biochemical dysfunction--a purely materialist viewpoint then in vogue." all terms that occur frequently in questions on Jung. and formal operational. friends." and "archetypes. 1896-1980) Jean Piaget is generally considered the greatest figure of 20th-century developmental psychology. He argued that all human actions could be understood in terms of physical stimuli and learned responses and that there was no need to study--or even believe in--internal mental states or motivations. His best known works are The Interpretation of Dreams and The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. concrete operational. Jean Piaget (Swiss. and colleagues that support them and allow them to accomplish things on which they place value. he trained animals to perform complicated tasks including teaching pigeons to play table tennis. the salivation of a dog at the sound of the bell that presages dinner. B. 2. Stanley Milgram (American.) and its pinnacle." 4. 1875-1961) Carl Jung was a close associate of Freud's who split with him over the degree to which neuroses had a sexual basis. He is largely remembered for his idea of the "conditioned reflex. 9. 1904-1990) B. 5. Ivan Pavlov (Russian 1849-1936) Ivan Pavlov was more of a physiologist than a psychologist. 1933-1984) Though he did the work that created the idea of "six degrees of separation" and the "lost-letter" technique. F. a theory given the general name of "individual psychology. . 1856-1939) Sigmund Freud founded the extremely influential discipline of psychoanalysis. The lowest unmet need on the hierarchy tends to dominate conscious thought. F. Watson (American." "extroversion. He created a notable eight-stage development process and wrote several "psychohistories" explaining how people like Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi were able to think and act the way they did. love. Adler argued in The Neurotic Constitution that neuroses resulted from people's inability to achieve self-realization. Abraham Maslow (American." for example. His most famous experiment involved conditioning an eleven-month-old boy to be apprehensive of all furry objects by striking a loud bell whenever a furry object was placed in his lap. 7. he codified its tenets in Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology. etc. John B. 8." Self-actualized people are those who understand their individual needs and abilities and who have families. doing so could be harmful. 1870-1937) Alfred Adler was another close associate of Freud who split with him over Freud's insistence that sexual issues were at the root of neuroses and most psychological problems. 1902-1994) Erik Erikson is best known for his theories on how social institutions reflect the universal features of psychosocial development. Sigmund Freud (Austrian. 1908-1970) Abraham Maslow is principally known for two works. 10. Milgram found that two-thirds of his subjects were willing to administer terrible electric shocks to innocent. though many others come up frequently in quiz bowl. protesting human beings simply because a researcher told them the experimental protocol demanded it.

The Bible was excluded from this list because its total would swamp the other work. so teams should be prepared for questions on their characters. 64 54 46 45 43 42 41 41 41 40 36 35 35 35 34 34 33 33 33 33 32 32 32 31 31 31 31 31 30 30 30 29 29 . While you really gotta know their authors. 2002. settings. Title Hamlet The Tempest Iliad Moby-Dick Macbeth Candide Faust Othello A Midsummer Night's Dream Pride and Prejudice The Merchant of Venice The Great Gatsby The Scarlet Letter The Canterbury Tales Pilgrim's Progress King Lear Odyssey The Divine Comedy Romeo and Juliet Billy Budd: Foretopman Vanity Fair Paradise Lost Julius Caesar Little Women Twelfth Night A Doll's House Aeneid Our Town Much Ado about Nothing War and Peace Long Day's Journey Into Night For Whom the Bell Tolls Jane Eyre Genre Drama Drama Poem Novel Drama Novel Poem Drama Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Poem Religious Drama Poem Poem Drama Novel Novel Poem Drama Novel Drama Drama Poem Drama Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Author William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Homer Herman Melville William Shakespeare Voltaire Johann Wolfgang von Goethe William Shakespeare William Shakespeare Jane Austen William Shakespeare F(rancis) Scott (Key) Fitzgerald Nathaniel Hawthorne Geoffrey Chaucer John Bunyan William Shakespeare Homer Dante Alighieri William Shakespeare Herman Melville William Makepeace Thackeray John Milton William Shakespeare Louisa May Alcott William Shakespeare Henrik (Johan) Ibsen Virgil Thornton (Niven) Wilder William Shakespeare Leo (or Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoi) Tolstoy Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill Ernest (Miller) Hemingway Charlotte Brontë Date 1601 1611 8th century BC 1851 1606 1759 1808 1622 1595 1813 1596 1925 1850 1387 1678 1605 8th century BC 1314 1594 1891 1848 1667 1599 1868 1601 1879 19 BC 1938 1598 1865 1956 1940 1847 Freq. these are also some of the works about which more substantive questions are written. and circumstances of creation.You Gotta Know These Works of Literature The following table lists the hundred most-frequently referenced works of literature in NAQT questions as of May 7. plots.

431 BC 1859 1922 1959 1960 1847 1929 1947 1593 1916 1714 1797 1961 1922 1955 1951 1957 8th century 1600 1898 1937 1926 1798 1819 1820 1850 1861 1967 1852 1901 29 29 29 29 28 28 28 28 27 26 26 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 Short Story Joseph Conrad Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Poem Poem Victor(-Marie) Hugo Edward (Franklin) Albee Upton (Beall) Sinclair George (Eric Arthur Blair) Orwell Fyodor (Mikhaylovich) Dostoyevsky Euripides Charles (John Huffam) Dickens James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce Lorraine Hansberry Harper Lee Emily Brontë Ernest (Miller) Hemingway (Thomas Lanier) "Tennessee" Williams William Shakespeare Carl Sandburg Alexander Pope Samuel Taylor Coleridge Joseph Heller T(homas) S(tearns) Eliot Vladimir (Vladimirovich) Nabokov J(erome) D(avid) Salinger Jack Kerouac Anonymous William Shakespeare Henry James John (Ernst) Steinbeck Ernest (Miller) Hemingway William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge John Keats Walter Scott Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Gabriel García Márquez Harriet Beecher Stowe (Joseph) Rudyard Kipling The Rime of the Ancient Mariner Poem Catch-22 The Waste Land Lolita The Catcher in the Rye On the Road Beowulf The Merry Wives of Windsor The Turn of the Screw Of Mice and Men The Sun Also Rises Lyrical Ballads Ode on a Grecian Urn Ivanhoe David Copperfield Great Expectations One Hundred Years of Solitude Uncle Tom's Cabin Kim Novel Poem Novel Novel Novel Poem Drama Novel Novel Novel Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel .Anna Karenina Heart of Darkness Les Misérables Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? The Jungle 1984 Crime and Punishment Medea A Tale of Two Cities Ulysses A Raisin in the Sun To Kill a Mockingbird Wuthering Heights A Farewell to Arms A Streetcar Named Desire The Taming of the Shrew Chicago The Rape of the Lock Novel Leo (or Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoi) Tolstoy 1877 1902 1862 1961 1906 1948 1866 c.

Aldous (Leonard) Huxley John (Ernst) Steinbeck Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson Ivan (Sergeyevich) Turgenev George Bernard Shaw Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Arthur Miller Alexandre Dumas (père) Willa (Sibert) Cather James (Augustine Aloysius) Joyce Marcel Proust Henrik (Johan) Ibsen William Shakespeare Theodore (Herman Albert) Dreiser Jane Austen Daphne du Maurier Eugene (Gladstone) O'Neill Robert Penn Warren Anton (Pavlovich) Chekhov 1953 1604 1838 1896 c. Jr. 458 BC 22 22 22 21 21 21 200 BC to AD 200 21 1956 1833 1726 1969 1932 1939 1883 1862 1912 1774 1949 1845 1918 1939 1913 1867 1599 1925 1811 1938 1931 1946 1904 21 21 21 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 .A Clockwork Orange The Crucible Measure for Measure Oliver Twist The Seagull Oresteia Bhagavadgita Howl Eugene Onegin Gulliver's Travels Slaughterhouse Five Brave New World The Grapes of Wrath Treasure Island Fathers and Sons Pygmalion The Sorrows of Young Werther Death of a Salesman The Count of Monte Cristo My Antonia Finnegans Wake Remembrance of Things Past Peer Gynt As You Like It An American Tragedy Sense and Sensibility Rebecca Mourning Becomes Electra All the King's Men The Cherry Orchard Novel Drama Drama Novel Drama Series Religious Poem Poem Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Drama Novel Novel Novel Novel Drama Drama Novel Novel Novel Drama Novel Drama Anthony (John Anthony Burgess Wilson) Burgess 1962 Arthur Miller William Shakespeare Charles (John Huffam) Dickens Anton (Pavlovich) Chekhov Aeschylus Unknown Allen Ginsberg Aleksandr (Sergeyevich) Pushkin Jonathan Swift Kurt Vonnegut.

as the models for the two figures. Christina's dress. Upon returning to his studio. Mystery and Melancholy of a Street by Giorgio de Chirico. and it was named to the National Register of Historic Places for its place in Christina's World. and Time Transfixed by Rene Magritte. Wood painted his most famous work after a visit to Eldon. where it was submitted for a competition by Wood upon its completion in 1930 (Wood won a bronze medal and a \$300 prize).10. Red Room by Henri Matisse. . American Gothic is among the most familiar regionalist paintings. The Olson house was the subject of many Andrew Wyeth paintings for 30 years. The Twittering Machine by Paul Klee. It hangs at the Art Institute of Chicago. American Gothic. by Grant Wood. The pitchfork and the clothing were more typical of 19th-century farmers than contemporary ones. Even by Marcel Duchamp. Iowa. Byron McKeeby. Two notable painting series are the Woman series of Willem de Kooning and the White on White series by Kasimir Malevich. the incomplete Man at the Crossroads by Diego Rivera. he used his sister Nan and his dentist. when he saw a Carpenter Gothic style house with a distinctive Gothic window in its gable. The Kiss by Gustav Klimt. Dr. and it is said to be the most parodied of all paintings. Among the many other notable individual paintings are The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors.

gained the Republican nomination. 10. intimidation of vote recounters in Miami-Dade County. and Florida became the center of attention. and after Robert F. 9. Other notable election events include Polk's win as a "dark horse" candidate in 1844. Ballot confusion in Palm Beach County. Wallace's presence may well have tipped the election to the Republicans. Nixon would go on to lose the 1962 California gubernatorial race (occasioning his famous statement. and absentee ballots throughout Florida became significant issues. Richard Nixon. Alabama governor George Wallace ran as the American Independent candidate. gradually returning from political obscurity over the past six years.White's notable The Making of the President series began with the 1960 election. 2000. the Democratic nomination went to Hubert Humphrey. while Wallace won nearly ten million votes. but a recount would not have been feasible. as Americans had to hear about butterfly ballots. and Clinton's win in 1992 .) Voting irregularities in Texas and Illinois (especially in Richard Daley's Chicago) led to allegations of fraud. would hold the presidency for all but four years through 1992. Ralph Nader of the Green Party won an important 2. hanging chads. Wilson's narrow victory in 1916. and Nixon did not press the issue.7% of the vote. it is sure to be a long-term staple of history questions. Reagan's victory in 1980. Cleveland's loss in 1888 despite winning the popular vote. becoming the last third-party candidate to win multiple electoral votes. New Mexico and Oregon were initially too close to call but went to Gore. 1968: After Lyndon Johnson declined to run for re-election. FDR's defeats of Hoover in 1932 and Willkie in 1940. after being out of power for 28 of the last 36 years. and Florida Secretary of State Katharine Harris for the next five weeks. Nixon edged Humphrey by half a million popular votes and a 301-191 electoral count. Gore officially conceded the election on December 13. 2000: The closest election in American history. Kennedy was killed in California. who. while Pat Buchanan of the Reform Party placed fourth. Al Gore won the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a final count of 271-266 (one Gore elector abstained). "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more").

Rather than craters. 8. Those measurements are difficult because of Titan's major characteristic: It is the only satellite to have a substantial atmosphere. but this awaits more accurate measurements. but its surface is heavily cratered. Europa (Jupiter) One of the Galilean moons. Deimos was likely an asteroid brought into Mars' orbit after being disturbed by Jupiter. 2. characters). and believed to have water ice. calderas. and argon (trace). ranging from 1. It resembles Io. which is actually "SHAHR-en". a tenuous nitrogen-methane atmosphere. Titan's atmosphere. and an asteroid belt). Charon's surface is believed to be water ice. Io (Jupiter) Like Europa. the Queen of the Fairies. in honor of Charlene Christy.6 million. rich in carbon. 9. its structure is about half water ice. then cooled surface first. half rock. Triton is also unusual for its retrograde orbit. however. grooved regions. Io is dotted with active volcanoes. but the two show the same face toward each other at all times. Its expected pronunciation of "KAIRen" is not the correct one. Its surface. where ice appears to have melted and filled in. 6. These grooves indicate tectonic activity. Once ice had formed. Ganymede. 4. This position also means it will either impact Mars or break into a ring in around 50 million years. Titan might be the largest satellite in the solar system. Like Phobos. and Io). Additionally. indicating longterm tectonic stability. Deimos and Phobos (Mars) Named for two sons of Ares and Aphrodite. This action strips material from Io. Io (named for a lover of Zeus) is primarily formed of silicate rock. it is thought to have a three-layer structure of a molten iron core. 7. Unlike the Earth's moon. freezing forced surface cracks which formed the valleys. The eruptions are believed to consist of sulfurous compounds that comprise Io's thin atmosphere. Ganymede (Jupiter) The largest satellite in the solar system. Earth. Phobos orbits closer to the planet and has as its most prominent feature the crater Stickney (Hall's wife's maiden name). Titania is named for Oberon's wife. and a southern hemisphere "ice cap" of nitrogen and methane. 5. Some craters have dark floors that could possibly indicate post-impact upwellings of water. Based on the observations of the Galileo spacecraft. mixed with lighter. Nereid (named for the daughters of Nereus and Doris) has the most eccentric orbit of any known satellite. and the outermost of its large satellites. However. Its significant atmosphere. about twice per Martian day. 10. The most striking feature of the surface is a series of dark streaks that may be due to geysers or volcanic eruptions. is unlike any other satellite. silicate mantle. also makes it unique among satellites. and to a degree. Oberon (Uranus) Named for the King of the Fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream (all of Uranus' satellites are named for literary. Large faults are visible across its southern hemisphere. which indicates that it was not part of the natural formation of Neptune's other moons. One theory regarding this is that it began as a liquid. as Io orbits it is heated electrically from currents produced by Jupiter's magnetic field. Phobos and Deimos (Greek for "fear" and "panic") are the two moons of Mars and both were discovered in 1877 by Asaph Hall. the interior. Its surface is an odd mix of craters and valleys. rather than mythological. and ice exterior. Charon (Pluto) Named for the mythical boatman of the Greek underworld. The relative sizes of the two bodies has led some to call Charon and Pluto a double planet system. dark. Deimos is the smallest moon in the solar system. a mix of nitrogen (80%). this Galilean moon is larger than Mercury. in its composition of silicate rocks. it rises in the west and sets in the east. It was discovered two days before Phobos. and is the largest of the Uranian satellites. The largest moon relative to the size of its orbiting planet. The oddity of this orbit indicates it is likely a captured asteroid. Deimos is heavily cratered. it is coated in a thin layer of ice. producing a radiation field and increasing Jupiter's magnetosphere. and other signs of geological activity.You Gotta Know These Planetary Moons 1. wife of Jim Christy. but has only half its mass.3 million kilometers to 9. Oberon is both the second largest of Uranus' satellites. There is the possibility of an active sea of liquid water beneath the surface. highly cratered regions. which tends to alternate polar and equatorial regions facing the sun . Titan (Saturn) The largest of Saturn's satellites. Like all large Uranian moons. methane (20%). Titania (Uranus) Another of Herschel's discoveries. its discoverer. This ice layer may also provide a thin atmosphere as hydrogen and oxygen are released when the planet is exposed to sunlight. The tremendous activity is due to tidal warming from the gravity of Jupiter and other satellites. Its surface is marked by older. Charon not only is in synchronous orbit with Pluto. It also features seismic activity in the form of ice volcanoes. 3. which causes it to be exceedingly smooth. Triton (Neptune) By far the largest of Neptune's satellites. This is due to it being below the radius for synchronous orbit. Nereid (Neptune) Discovered by Gerard Kuiper (who also discovered Miranda. discovered in 1610 by Galileo (the others are Callisto. All of these may be caused by Triton's odd rotational axis. but Ganymede does not appear to have undergone recent tectonic shifts. This also accounts for the appearance of some craters.

was dreadfully conceited. they left a great deal to be desired." . . . but . . . His early works are filled with insanity. will inevitably suffer and come to a bad end. . . She thought herself so clever and littered her writings with Chinese characters. trying to capture every moment of interest. and won him the Akutagawa award while he was still a student. . abuse. and violence. * Lady Murasaki wrote of Sei Shonagan: "Sei Shonagan . . are bound to look ridiculous and superficial. here is one who has managed to survive this far without having achieved anything of note. This You Gotta Know article was contributed by Stephen Webb. but his later works (including A Personal Matter (Kojinteki-na taiken) and The Silent Cry (Man'en gannen no futtoboru)) reflect the experience of being the father of a brain-damaged child. His fiction centers on the alienation following Japan's surrender and his political writings focus on the search for cultural and ideological roots. and people who have become so precious that they go out of their way to be sensitive. . Those who think of themselves as being superior to everyone else . however slight. . . perverse sex.POW. .

3. "addressed" with carbohydrate tags. and packaged in vesicles for delivery. . Vacuoles Found mainly in plants and protists. 1. Mitochondria The "mighty mitos" are the powerhouses of the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) The ER is a network of tube-like membranes continuous with the nuclear envelope that comes in rough (with ribosomes) and smooth (without ribosomes) varieties. functional protein structures. Chloroplasts Found only in plants and certain protists. 7. and it has its own DNA and ribosomes in the stroma. Cilia/Flagella Cilia and flagella are important organelles of motility. processes that produce energy for the cell in the form of ATP. the chloroplast contains the green pigment chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis. chemically modified. whip-like structures. Commonly seen within the nucleus are dense bodies called nucleoli. lipids." which fits their function as organized structures found within cells that allow the cell to survive. which are stacks of single membrane structures called thylakoids on which the reactions of photosynthesis occur. They consist of several RNA and protein molecules arranged into two subunits. Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles that are the site of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Nucleus The nucleus is the "command central" of the cell because it contains almost all of the cell's DNA. In eukaryotes. Golgi Apparatus The stack of flattened. proteins undergo modifications and folding to yield the final. Chloroplasts contain grana.You Gotta Know These Organelles The word "organelle" comes from the Latin for "little organ. while cilia are short hair-like projections. Flagella are long. centrioles are paired organelles with nine sets of microtubule triplets in cross section. Ribosomes read the messenger RNA copy of the DNA and assemble the appropriate amino acids into protein chains. the nucleus is surrounded by a selectively-permeable nuclear envelope. They are important in processing the contents of vesicles taken in from outside the cell." Here proteins from the ribosomes are stored. 4. Lysosomes Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes that break down proteins. It is crucial to maintain the integrity of the lysosomal membranes because the enzymes they contain can digest cellular components as well. which allow the cell to move. Centrioles Not found in plant cells. 2. which are suspended in a fluid called the matrix. The DNA appears as chromatin through most of the cell cycle but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell is undergoing mitosis. 9. Like the mitochondrion. 10. a chloroplast is a double-membrane-bound organelle. 5. In the ER. Contractile vacuoles are important for freshwater protists to rid their cells of excess water that accumulates because of salt imbalance with the environment. carbohydrates. and nucleic acids. 6. which contain ribosomal RNA. 8. which encodes the information needed to make all the proteins that the cell uses. or translation. vacuoles are liquid-filled cavities enclosed by a single membrane. They are important in organizing the microtubule spindle needed to move the chromosomes during mitosis. The inner membrane of a mitochondrion forms folds called cristae [KRIS-tee]. Both contain a 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules in cross section and are powered by molecular motors of kinesin and dynein molecules. The mitochondrial matrix contains DNA and ribosomes. folded membranes that forms the Golgi apparatus acts as the "post office of the cell. They serve as storage bins for food and waste products. Ribosomes Ribosomes are the machines that coordinate protein synthesis.

he was instrumental in organizing France's bid for the 1998 World Cup. Injuries have plagued him over the past few seasons. 10.html." One of the FA Premiership's finest midfielders. He also led his French national side to triumph in the Euro 1984. he was expected to star in the 1998 World Cup. In 1998. In as much as that football is the world game. nor is it a ten most influential. he was named runner-up for both the 1999 European Footballer of the Year and the 1999 World Footballer of the Year. better known as "Posh Spice. both triumphs for the French national side. when healthy. including his now infamous booking against rival Argentina in World Cup '98. the tragic game at Heysel (Belgium) against Liverpool in which 39 Italian supporters were fatally crushed in the stands. we feel comfortable with those five along with four modern players and the first English player to be knighted . David Beckham (1975-)(England-Midfielder) Midfielder for Manchester United FC. he is still among the world's elite players. where he has helped the Turin side win two Serie A titles. Ronaldo was twice World Footballer of the Year. While he was on the Brazil squad that won World Cup `94 in the US. but." which can be found at: http://www." helping the Red Devils secure the FA Cup (Open Cup competition for all English sides). After his retirement in 1987. winning the Golden Ball Award as tournament MVP. winning those honors in 1997 (while with FC Barcelona) and 1998 (with Inter). He also helped guide Manchester United to the rare 1999 "Treble. setting the Euro scoring record. a unique achievement as well as leading Juventus to its only European Cup triumph. FIFA named its "Team of the Century. 9." the 1998 World and European Footballer of the Year as an all-around player is France's midfield. 8. and his obscene gesture to English fans at the opening game of Euro 2000. we readily acknowledge that this list is by no means a ten greatest players list. Zinedine Zidane (1972-) (France) Known the world over as "Zizou. His results with the English national side have been mixed. That MVP performance was tarnished slightly by a poor showing (one blamed by the media on a supposed allnight session of "Tomb Raider" on PlayStation) that kept Brazil from its fifth title. Carling FA Premiership Title (regular season champion of England's top division) and UEFA Champions' League (championship for national league champions of UEFA countries). As five of the 11 players on the list are also on this list.straight year. Like fellow French legend Platini. Zidane was a critical player in the World Cup '98 (he scored a pair of header goals in the final against Brazil) and Euro 2000 (a game-winning overtime penalty kick in the semi-finals against Portugal). These three titles made ManU only the fourth team (and first English team) to accomplish the feat. Ronaldo (Ronaldo Luiz Nazario da Lima) (1976-) (Brazil-Forward) Currently with Inter Milan of Italy's Serie A. known as much for his talent as his marriage to Victoria Adams. where he helped Brazil to the Finals. Zizou plays for Italian side Juventus.com/ipsa/A0765272.infoplease.

John Kenneth Galbraith (1908. he is strongly associated with the ideals of laissez-faire government policy. the first systematic school of economic thought. He is most famous for The General Theory of Employment. He also put forth the so-called iron law of wages. which judged most of classical economic analysis to be a special case (hence "General Theory") and argued that the best way to deal with prolonged recessions was deficit spending. Conservative thinker famous for his advocacy of monetarism (an revision of the quantity theory of money) in works like A Monetary History of the United States. Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) American economist (of Norwegian heritage). 8. and elasticity. Marx's principal contribution to economic thought was extending the labor theory of value to its logical conclusion. Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) French economist. quasi-rent. Karl Marx (1818-1883) German economist. appeared in Das Kapital (1867. 1867-1960 (1963). all fundamental concepts in introductory macro. we will add that Irving Fisher is probably underrepresented in quiz bowl with respect to his importance. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) British economist and social philosopher. 1894). the relationship between profits and wages) but also for exhaustively examining the necessity of private property in his Principles of Political Economy (1848). Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish philosopher and economist. We were surprised to see Thomas Malthus on their list as his lasting contributions to economic thought are not thought to be very great. as it is. and social philosopher. that said. 2. his liberal popular writings like The Affluent Society and The New Industrial State (with their emphasis on public service and the limitations of the marketplace) ensure his coming up again and again. his theory of surplus value. David Ricardo (1772-1823) English economist. Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) English economist. Veblen is primarily remembered for his The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) that introduced phrases like "conspicuous consumption. introduced the notions of consumer surplus. 4." He is remembered for likening the ostentation of the rich to the Darwinian proofs-of-virility found in the animal kingdom.) American economist. Interest and Money (1936).You Gotta Know These Economists 1. Quesnay was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats." This work more-or-less singlehandedly founded the Classical school of economics. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissezfaire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth. 9.and microeconomics. 5. 7. Milton Friedman (1912. With respect to quiz bowl. Galbraith probably wouldn't make this list if contributions to economic theory were all that mattered. 1890's Principles of Economics. 10. Do you want another opinion? The San Francisco Federal Reserve Bank has its own list of the Great Economists to which you can compare and contrast. Mill is mainly known today (in economic circles) for his work extending the ideas of Ricardo in Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844) (for example. he caused an enormous contemporary stir with his pessimistic predictions of omnipresent starvation in 1798's Essay on Population which does come up quite frequently. along with his defense of economic materialism. he is basically remembered as the author of An Inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) and as the creator of the metaphor of the "invisible hand. demand curves. John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) English economist. which introduced more-or-less modern notions of comparative advantage and its theoretical justification for unfettered international trade. 1885. Ricardo is best known for Principles of Political Economy and Taxation.) Canadian economist. historian. 6. Though he wrote on nearly every subject of moral and social philosophy. Marshall's magnum opus. This theory.Copyright 2010 . 3.