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Engineers strive to achieve creative and inventive solutions to a design problem by searching for the 'best' solutions possible. What is this ‘best’ solution? It is the attempt by engineers to produce a solution which will satisfactorily perform the required functions, utilizing a minimum of materials, to be built at minimal cost, to be aesthetically pleasing, etc. In practice, an optimal solution has a balance of ideal aims and practical limitations, i.e. to get the best of both world.
Men are not Perfect.
Man eat to live. Men suffer from heat and bad weather. Men sweat. Men have sexual urges? What can we conclude from this ? Men have many weaknesses but they still aspire for the perfect life. And so they use their resources to design for better life. Man need to grow food to eat so men design farming tools to help in the field. Men are not impervious to heat so men design air-con system. Men are so susceptible to bad weather and so they need home and shelter. Imagine what happen to the deodorant industry if man do not sweat. Which industry will collapse if sexual tendencies are removed from man?
Why MAN design?
Human shortcomings are the reason why man design. It is to fulfill certain requirement that can be due to their needs or desires. To improve their life, they need to improvise their equipments and tools to the desired level to help them overcome the shortcomings easily and quickly. Initially it is for their own use but later they start thinking about merchandising the new and improved products for profits. As man masters the technique of specialization, newer and better items are designed. With better tools and equipments, the design can be fabricated at larger quantity and at shorter time. Eventually tradings occurs as man started to share the improved items for higher profits.
The Design Process To achieve effective solutions to design challenges. STEP 1 Task Method of Approach Recognition of Needs All design starts with a need that. The Needs could be due to some vague response ta a discomfort or could come from a thorough market study. PRELIM DESIGN REPORT Make product survey. The resulting document is usually a briefly defined statement called the Design Brief. Make a list of all the needs and categorize them according to objectives or purposes. The products and processes created by engineering design are a direct response to specific needs of society. specific discussion. The process can be examined by reference to actions performed by designers from initial evaluation to a final solution. A brief anatomy of the design process is discussed below. See Ref 01A : Ref 01B : PRELIMINARY DESIGN PROCESS Page 2 . will fit an existing market or create its own market. be sensitive to comments and recommendation of potential or existing users. The needs may be for a new products or just an improvement of an existing design that is less than ‘perfect’. a systematic method is employed by engineers in solving the problem. It explains the need and how it is selected. when satisfied.
Extensive literature research is a must to grasp the actual problem and and in some intances to find its solution. See Ref 02A : Ref 02B : Ref 02C : Make a list of the problem requirements. This is a list of the thing to be designed. and general factors affecting the problem. Your thinking should be sufficiently broad to allow for unique and creative solutions. limitations.e. outputs and constraints (limits). much of the design.e. Instead. Therefore a detailed set of statement is required to bound the problems and limit its scope and identifying the basic facts pertaining to these problems. engineers' effort is identifying the problem in broad terms.STEP 2 Task Method of Approach Definition of Few engineering problems Problem are sharply defined with clearly specified Specify goals. needing constraints direct straightforward and limits of solution. requirements. specifying inputs. i. DESIGN SPECIFICATION REPORT . i. requiring wide-ranging or multi-level solution. The problems and solutions are categorized and listed in the Design Specifications.BAD DESIGN SPECIFICATION REPORT – GOOD DESIGN SPECS – HOW TO WRITE ONE? Page 3 . Record your thinking process on paper so that no ideas are lost or overlooked.
‐ Do not develop a single idea only at this stage. ‐ Record and preserve all of your sketches and notes regardless of their apparent lack of merit. Sketches should be produced at this stage. See Ref 03A : BRAIN STORMING SESSION (PG 17) Page 4 . Many appropriate explanatory notes. it is advantageous of ideas called " brainstorming.STEP 3 Task Method of Approach Preliminary Ideas Several people working together After the Design could profit from a free interchange Specifications have been produced." to determine as many design ‐ Make rough sketches with the solutions as possible.
the designer should be receptive to new approaches. angles. At this stage. Begin to give considerations to materials.STEP 4 Task Method of Approach Problem Refinement Select several of your best preliminary ideas for further development and refinement so that they may be evaluated more fully. Pick the few best ideas and make Detailed Sketches that will enable you to determine sizes. and engineering principles. solution is specific and technical. and other information necessary for further analysis. cost. Page 5 . clearances. However. manufacture.
A normally subjective decision can be quantified into an objective decision by using the Matrix Evaluation Chart. Select the best design for implementation. Sometimes the best features of the preliminary designs can be combined to produce a better final design. Therefore.STEP 5 Task Method of Approach Analysis & Decision The best decision must be selected on the basis of the information previously gathered. Develop an outline of advantages and disadvantages of each design to aid in the decision process. it is often necessary to reevaluate the preliminary ideas in search for the best solution. Page 6 .
STEP 6 Task Method of Approach Engineering Analysis & Optimization Engineering Analyses must be performed to determine whether the system performance is sufficient. Usually this means getting the minimum configuration that meet the limit and constraints set earlier but quite often a compromised decision or break-even situation is necessary and more practical in producing a better final design. by determining the best dimensions for the design. Page 7 . Perform all necessary engineering calculations to select the best dimensions for the design.
the design should be displayed either by creating a 3D model or by creating mockup. Page 8 . Check for forms or functions that are considered impractical or excessive. After creating production drawings. The building of mockup. For certain products. model or prototype are costly and time consuming. scaled model or prototype. This is less expensive and had certain flexibility that can assist visualization.STEP 7 Task Method of Approach Visualization Prepare a model (physical or simulated). aesthetic value can be assessed. Computer 3D simulation may be used to illustrate the shape and function of the design.
Check for various engineering limits of the design and look for possible failures. Specific mathematic models that describe the physical performance of the designed components can also be used on components in the design. However. Computer solutions are currently used as ‘first time’ assessment of the design. A redesign may be needed if the design fails. Scaled models and full-size prototype are real-life form of the design that can be tested. computer simulation can be utilized to predict possible failures. The use of various computer software for dynamic simulation and finite element analysis had greatly reduce the time needed for testing.STEP 8 Task Method of Approach Evaluation Evaluation is the final proof of a successful design and usually involve the testing of a prototype. Page 9 . Final assessment involves actual testing of the prototype.
Many vendors also supply very good design handbooks that enable you to choose the right product for an application you have in mind. Even though vendors of standard parts may be located far away from your place of business. There are several excellent sources of this type of information. Page 10 . This might even include on-site help or free consulting recommendations about the application of their products and parts. It will acquaint you with the modes of failure as well as the critical parameters that need to be considered when utilizing such standard parts. For those standard parts that you find yourself using repeatedly.GETTING INFORMATION FINDING AND USING INFORMATION IN MACHINE DESIGN Although you may be capable of designing your own machine parts. most use toll-free numbers for information and for orders. parts acquired in this way are of high quality and allow the designer to utilize the knowledge and experience of specialists who have based their entire careers on producing optimum parts for a very reasonable cost. it should be noted that often the design process involves specifying and using standard parts that are designed and sold by companies who specialize in the manufacture of machine parts.Literature Research . Usually. Many also have local representatives in your community who are knowledgeable and willing to assist you with information. The information in this text will enable you to utilize and understand the terminology of standard parts. you may want to develop your own mini-library of catalogs and specifications. The issue then is how to obtain information about the availability of standard parts and the vendors that supply these. Libraries of Catalogs and Specifications Most companies that are engaged in machine design maintain their own product catalog library. Frequently these vendors will be able to provide you with highly detailed technical information on the optimum application of their products.
Whether browsing infant flotation devices or computerized pet toys. Although this site may appear complex to beginners.uspto.S. Thus.htm http://www. A Book titled “Patent Searching Made Easy”. Although information on media is much easier to use than a paper library.Catalog Services on Microfilm / Microfiche and CD Rom Some companies make a business of compiling catalogs and specification sheets of machine parts and then making these available on some type of media that enables the user to quickly access the information that he or she needs. Patent Search Other than reviewing existing patents to avoid infringements. and then.virtualpet.com/industry/howto/psearch.htm Page 11 . this book explains step by step how to use an Internet browser to search U. Written by inventor David Hitchcock. These information organizations often provide regular updates of their materials so that you can be reasonably sure that you are getting the most recent information about standard parts. using that classification. http://www. patents.gov. the size of your company and the extent to which they use standard parts will determine if the use of an information service is economically justified.ipo. the inventor can quickly tell by searching over the Internet whether he or she is in the running to be "the first.htm http://www. find all relevant patents issued within that class. this site is also a good source of informations on existing designs. It discusses how to classify an invention properly." A few web site to visit is listed below. it became a very useful reference once a designer learnt to use. the services of such information companies can be expensive.gov/main/patents.uk/home.
The Internet More and more manufacturers of standard machine parts are beginning to place home pages on the Internet. Some of these publications can be obtained on request or found in company libraries. These Page 12 . Some companies are even putting their entire catalogs on-line. consider the RS Components. Almost any type of web browser can be used to search for gears.000 products and services. Most web pages now have telephone numbers to call to obtain further information and catalogs. As an example of what one of these references might include. The show is often combined with workshops and seminars that should be well worth a trip to this event. university libraries as well as public libraries. which provides a listing of over 20. These can be an extremely valuable source of information and contacts. Trade Shows Trade shows either at the regional or national level are an excellent opportunity for you to collect catalogs and to talk face-to-face with sales representatives of those companies that provide the standard parts that you may need to use. many communities now have special yellow pages that are designed for use by industrial organizations. such as RS Components. roller chains. and are updated on an annual basis. bearings. provide an encyclopedia-like library reference that lists companies that manufacture and sell standard parts. Product Registers Product registers. Many of these magazines have reader service cards that you can use to request information. Trade Publications and Magazines Most trade publications and magazines that deal with topics relating to machine design have extensive advertisements that will give you the names of companies that manufacture and sell standard parts. etc. and Design News. Chilton's Product Design and Development. One of the best things about the use of trade magazines is that the extensive advertisements that they contain enables the publisher to provide these to you for a very low cost or even for free. The most often read trade magazines by machine designers are Machine Design. Special Yellow Pages of Suppliers Although your local yellow pages will likely provide you with sources of standard machine parts.
Two questions come to mind. It would be well advised for engineers to become acquainted with the use of standards and to incorporate this information into their professional activities. In like manner. 2. FMM and few governmental bodies. Who sets the standards? Where can information be obtained about these standards? The most logical groups to set standards are the two closest to the products . engineers from the manufacturing companies have a strong economic interest in seeing that their products have the widest possible use in the engineering marketplace.the manufacturers and the users. it is not uncommon to encounter codes and standards that are in place to assist the designer as well as the consuming public. Other reference for standards is the IEM. The Malaysian National Standards System is presently administered by SIRIM Bhd. Companies may subscribe to membership in SIRIM and may purchase copies of standards from this organization or from other organizations that provide standards. Page 13 . These standards specify factors of safety and provide design guidelines for safe practice particularly in the case of designs where public safety is at stake.are listed alphabetically by product name and the listings are organized in order to allow you to identify products easily. 1. Engineers from the user community have a strong interest in seeing that the standard specifications for design of engineering products are written in a way that will provide maximum utility and maximum safety for the consuming public. national committees of engineers are often brought together under the auspices of engineering professional societies or trade organizations to establish and to document national standards that are acceptable to all sectors. For this reason. Literature Research RECOGNIZED STANDARDS RECOGNIZED STANDARDS FOR DESIGN As one undertakes the design of machine parts.
Page 14 . Keep on the topic. Get the proper environment and be sure everyone understood the topic clearly. ii. the results obtained are off-target. Keep moving. Stay focus Brainstorming 2 a) Stage 1: Generate. Be positive. Listed below are the stages in Brainstorming to consider for your own group sessions.Brainstorming 1 This technique is strongly recommended in the Engineering Design process. Adapt or add to existing ideas. Be open. No idea is excluded. Be creative. iv. The group leader should be firm in this session to ensure the group did not lose focus. It is important that everyone get involved and have the proper attitude ! Setup Needed Occasionally. iii. No criticism or analysis at this point. Everyone should : i. the topics get waylaid a bit – although the discussion seems related to the topic but at the end. The brainstorming session may get too hot if not properly controlled.
Analyze the existing ideas. Stage 4: Pick one idea. Reevaluate all aspects of each. Build up ideas to workable form. Feel free to redo this process with different problems that may occur. Stage 5: Follow through with the idea. Decide feasibility. Attempt to foresee problems. Produce scenarios for each idea. Choose 3 ideas to develop. Brainstorming 3 Base evaluation on Stage 2 criteria. Decide applicability. Criticize constructively.Stage 2: Narrow down the ideas. Discuss choices and agree upon one. Stage 3: Develop the ideas. Page 15 . Make working adaptations as needed. Weigh pros and cons of each idea. Compare ideas from Stage 3.
6. your group name or number. A Table of Contents with sections 1 through 9. 1. II. III. While the look of project reports vary from team to team. Introduction Design Process Design Selection Design Description Design Features Prototype Operations and Maintenance Procedure Cost Breakdown Project Schedule 10. contact number and e-mail links of each group member. A team picture with the names. and the date. 8. 7. the group leader’s name. 9. and implementations are documented by design teams. I. The report should begin with a main page which includes the following: • • The project title. 3. the contents of design reports follow a structure that's quite consistent across the entire field of Engineering Design. Project Summary Below are expanded descriptions of each section of the design project report. 2. An abstract for the report (less than 150 words). Design teams are required to adopt this structure to produce their own formal design project reports.Report Guidelines Design project reports are one of the primary vehicles through which design ideas. 5. procedures. 4. the course and section numbers. Page 16 .
How did you pick your design over the alternatives you'd developed? Provide links to other designs that you considered. Describe the design approach that your group selected. How did you define the functions and sub-functions of your design. Discuss the limitations or weaknesses of your design. Describe how you performed your analysis. Prototype / 3Dmodel • • Page 17 . Identification of Needs consists of briefly defined statement of problems before Design Briefs & Design Specs. Design Features • • • • List and discuss the features of your design. including any data that influenced the design's performance. o Provide only the views that best communicate your design. Discuss the process you went through in selecting your main design. Include images of the prototype/model with appropriate labels and notes Provide detailed results of your analysis and testing. Note: o Design Process (at least 3 concepts each) • • • • Design Selection • • • • Design Description Provide detailed 3-D drawings of your design prototype complete with appropriate labels and notes. Refer to any drawings you created that support or enhance the design ideas you are trying to communicate. How did you solve the design problems to produce the design concepts. Include any testing results you collected to optimize the performance.Introduction • Discuss the problem statement your group has developed and the approach you've taken to solve the problem. Discuss the process you went through in developing your design. The initial step.
e.Operations and Maintenance Procedures • Provide a short guide that would enable someone to operate and maintain your design without further instruction. and also how you would overcome the current weaknesses in the future). Remember that the report should be like a professional document. Use proper grammar and correct spelling. Cost Breakdown for the Project • Project Schedule • Project Summary • IV. Include the last revision of the project schedule you've been maintaining throughout. Page 18 . Describe how the prototype could be implemented in an industrial setting. Substantiate your discussion with insights and arguments. Note: o Use images to enhance this description when appropriate. Distill the essence of the design (i.. Make your points concisely in well-ordered paragraphs. Briefly describe the scheduled events. and be sure to proofread the report. List the name and respective cost of each item used for developing the prototype. • • • • Expectations Graphics used in the pages must be of high quality and effective in presenting the design. explain the uniqueness of the design and its strengths. Include in each listing a brief description of how that item is used.
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