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Uploaded by E Frank Cornelius

The author spoke about this paper at the 789th Meeting of the American Mathematical Society held at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, Massachusetts, October 16-18, 1981. Abstracts Amer Math Soc, vol. 2, no. 6 (October 1981), 486. The paper, although interesting, is largely expository and has not been published. It was intended as an expansion of the ideas contained in section 5 of the author’s paper, “Characterization of a Class of Torsion Free Groups in Terms of Endomorphisms”, Pacific J Math, 79, no. 2 (1978), 341-355. Note that the paper was in fact received by the Pacific Journal on February 5, 1974. Pacific J Math, 85, no. 2 (1979), 501.

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CARDINALITIES OF CHAINS OF SETS
E. F, Cornelius, Jr.
0.0. Introduction: The additive group of rational numbers, Q
which itself is countable with cardinality w, , contains an un-
x
countable chain with cardinality 2°
, of non-isomorphic subgroups.
The principle which underlies this remarkable phenomenon can be
extended to sets with arbitrarily large cardinalities. If A is
a set with infinite cardinality m, then A contains a chain with
cardinality > m, of subsets, the relative complements of which
have cardinality m. This result can be utilized to construct
groups with large cardinalities, which have chains analogous to
those of Q , of subgroups. Any well-ordered chain of subsets
of A has cardinality at most m, but if an equivalence
relation is defined on the subsets of A under which two sub-
sets are equivalent if their relative complements have cardinality
m,
of equivalence classes. We thus obtain the complete solution to
a problem in classical infinitary combinatorial set theory, the
countable case of which was solved by W. Sierpinski in 1945.
‘The least upper bound for the order types of well-ordered chains
of equivalence classes is shown to be a regular initial ordinal
and the collection of order types of maximal well-ordered chains
of equivalence classes is shown to be cofinal in the set of all
such order types. Under various versions of the generalized
continuum hypothesis, chains have cardinality 2™
, the cardinalityof the power set of A. Finally, classical results on almost
disjoint sets are obtained as by-products of the study of chains.
1.0. Background: Recall from the theory of torsion-free
abelian groups that a height is a function from the set of
primes to the set of non-negative integers U(#) , which
is used to denote the divisibility of the elements of a group.
If hy and hy are heights, hy ## Documents Similar To Cardinalities of Chains of Sets

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