This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, venereal diseases) are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States today. STDs are sometimes referred to as sexually transmitted infections, since these conditions involve the transmission of an infectious organism between sex partners. More than 20 different STDs have been identified, and about 19 million men and women are infected each year in the United States, according to the CDC (2010). Depending on the disease, the infection can be spread through any type of sexual activity involving the sex organs, the anus, or the mouth; an infection can also be spread through contact with blood during sexual activity. STDs are infrequently transmitted by any other type of contact (blood, body fluids or tissue removed from an STD infected person and placed in contact with an uninfected person); however, people that share unsterilized needles markedly increase the chance to pass many diseases, including STD's (especially hepatitis B), to others. Some diseases are not considered to be officially an STD (for example, hepatitis types A, C, E) but are infrequently noted to be transferred during sexual activity. Consequently, some authors include them as STD's, others do not. Consequently, lists of STD's can vary, depending on whether the STD is usually transmitted by sexual contact or only infrequently transmitted. STDs affect men and women of all ages and backgrounds, including children. Many states require that Child Protective Services be notified if children are diagnosed with an STD. STDs have become more common in recent years, partly because people are becoming sexually active at a younger age, are having multiple partners, and do not use preventive methods to lessen their chance of acquiring an STD. People can pass STDs to sexual partners even if they themselves do not have any symptoms. Frequently, STDs can be present but cause no symptoms, especially in women (for example, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea). This can also occur in some men. Health problems and long-term consequences from STDs tend to be more severe for women than for men. Some STDs can cause pelvic infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which may cause a tubo-ovarian abscess. The abscess, in turn, may lead to scarring of the reproductive organs, which can result in an ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy outside the uterus), infertility or even death for a woman. Human papillomavirus infection (HPV infection), an STD, is a known cause ofcancer of the cervix. Many STDs can be passed from a mother to her baby before, during, or immediately after birth. Because the method of becoming infected is similar with all STDs, a person often obtains more than one pathogenic organism at a time. For example, many people (about 50%) are infected at a single sexual contact with both gonorrhea and chlamydia.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Causes
Depending on the disease, STDs can be spread with any type of sexual activity. STDs are most often caused by viruses and bacteria. The following is a list of the most common STDs, their causes and other
infections (see STDs with asterisk mark*) that may be transmitted on occasion by sexual activity, but are frequently not considered primarily to be an STD by many investigators: STDs caused by bacteria Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhea) Granuloma inguinale (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) Lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia trachomatis) Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) STDs caused by viruses Genital herpes (herpes simplex virus) Genital warts (human papillomavirus virus [HPV]) Hepatitis B and D, and infrequently, A*,C*,E* (hepatitis viruses, types A-E) HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV virus]) Molluscum contagiosum* (poxvirus) STD caused by protozoan Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) STD's* caused by fungi Jock itch (Tenia cruris)* Yeast infections* (Candida albicans) STD's caused by parasites Pubic lice or crabs (Pediculosis pubis) Scabies* Sarcoptes scabiei
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Symptoms
Common STDs have a variety of symptoms (if symptoms develop at all) and many different complications, including death. Symptoms of STDs caused by bacteria Chancroid Symptoms Are not common in the United States but common in developing countries. Symptoms include painful ulcers on the genitals. Can be confused with syphilis or herpes Is treatable with antibiotics Chlamydia symptoms Most common of all STDs caused by bacteria. Cause no symptoms in about 80% of women and 50% of men When symptoms are present, commonly there is discharge from the vagina or the penis, and burning or pain during urination. Is transmitted through vaginal, oral, or anal sexual contact Ectopic pregnancy and infertility for women are potential serious complications. Is treatable with antibiotics Gonorrhea symptoms Discharge from the vagina or the penis Over 50% of infected women have no symptoms, but they can still transmit the disease to others. Painful urination Ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility for women, Fitzhugh-Curtis syndrome (perihepatitis) and death are potential serious complications. Is treatable with antibiotics Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) symptoms Not common in the U.S. Symptoms are painless genital ulcers in the groin area.
Is treatable with antibiotics, usually for three or more weeks Lymphogranuloma venereum
Not common in the U. S. Symptoms are abscesses (buboes) in the groin, rectum or other areas; fistulas that drain pus may occur and are treatable with antibiotics. Syphilis
Symptoms are mild and often go undetected initially Starts with a painless genital ulcer that goes away on its own Rash, fever, headache, achy joints Is treatable with antibiotics More serious complications associated with later stages of the disease if undetected and untreated Symptoms of STDs caused by viruses Genital herpes
Recurring outbreaks of blister-like sores on the genitals Can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during birth Reduction in frequency and severity of blister outbreaks with treatment but not complete elimination of infection. Can be transmitted by a partner who has herpes even if no blisters are present. Genital warts
Caused by a virus related to skin warts, human papillomavirus (HPV) Small, painless bumps in the genital or anal areas (sometimes in large clusters that look like cauliflower) Various treatments available (for example, freezing or painting the warts with medication) Vaccines are available against the most common types of HPV Hepatitis
Hepatitis B and D are most often associated with sexual contact, hepatitis A, C, E are less frequently transmitted by sexual contact.
The average time from infection to the development of symptoms related to immunosuppression (decreased functioning of the immune system) is 10 years. No current cure but medications are available to slow disease progression. Only 50% of acute infections with the hepatitis B virus produce symptoms. treated with some topical creams Often cryotherapy (freezing) or surgical removal is performed Symptoms of STDs caused by protozoan Trichomonas . sexual transmission is believed to be responsible for 30% of the cases worldwide. the infection clears. Severe complications in some people. and death. Immunizations are available to prevent hepatitis B. Treatments are available and remission is possible with some aggressive medications. The hepatitis B virus can cause both an initial (acute) and a chronic form of liver inflammation. and in most people (90%-95%). andcough may occur a few weeks after contracting the virus initially. usually by direct skin to skin contact Self-limited over months to years. weight loss. or fever lasting several weeks. for hepatitis B. Both may be transmitted via contact with blood. night sweats. Molluscum contagiosum Small (2-5mm) raised areas (papules) on the skin Contagious. Fatigue. including cirrhosis and liver cancer may occur in a small percent of individuals infected with HBV. The initial phase of infection lasts a few weeks. headaches. HIV/AIDS Spread primarily by sexual contact and from sharing IV needles Can be transmitted at the time a person becomes infected with other STDs No specific symptoms or physical signs confirm HIV infection. Serious complications of AIDS include unusual infections or cancers. fever. Acute infection can cause yellowish skin and eyes. tired (flu-like symptoms). chills. achy. intellectual deterioration (dementia).
or furniture Is treated with creams When to Seek Medical Care A medical examination may be necessary if a person believes he or she may have an STD or if he or she may have been exposed to someone with an STD. towels. Frothy vaginal discharge with a strong odor Treated with antibacterial/antiprotozoal medicines Symptoms of STDs* caused by fungi Jock itch (genital itching or Tenia cruris)* (not always an STD) Itchy groin skin. sometimes has a reddish color Is treated with topical antifungal medicines Yeast infection (Candidiasis)* (not always an STD) Cheese-like vaginal discharge or whitish exudates sometimes with a reddish hue to the skin. and combing Scabies Skin infestation caused by a tiny mite Highly contagious Intense itching is the primary symptom. Is treated with topical antifungal medicines in most cases Symptoms of STDs caused by parasites Pubic lice Very tiny bugs that are found in pubic hair. anti-lice agents. Being seen by a doctor as soon as possible after . it may occur around the foreskin of infected males. sometimes referred to as "crabs" Can be picked up from clothing or bedding First noticed as itching in the pubic area Are treatable with creams. infested sheets. common symptoms are itching and burning sensation of the vagina or penis. which worsens at night Spread primarily by sexual contact or from contact with skin.
other tests require a few days before a person may obtain the results (for example. Next Steps Follow-up Sometimes people with STDs are too embarrassed or frightened to ask for help or information. or be passed to a baby. Often. or if it will be a couple of days before the individual can be evaluated by a doctor. . For treatment of individual STD types. a fever develops with other symptoms. Some STDs. If diagnosed with an STD. Exams and Tests Some STDs can be diagnosed without any tests at all (for example. the reader is urged to click on the individual disease listed above. these infections can easily spread to others and can have serious complications. Medical Treatment The treatment of an STD varies depending on the type of STD. such as genital herpes and HIV (which leads to AIDS). follow these guidelines: Seek treatment to stop the spread of the disease. pubic lice). Some STDs require a person to take antibiotic medication either by mouth or by injection. be spread to others. Other STDs require a blood test or a sample of any unusual fluid (such as an abnormal discharge from the vagina or the penis for gonorrhea or chlamydia) to be analyzed in a lab to help establish a diagnosis. Some tests are completed while a person waits. other STDs require a person to apply creams or special solutions on the skin. The sooner a person seeks treatment and warns sexual partners about the disease. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Treatment Self-Care at Home Home treatment of STDs is not recommended because prescription medications are usually necessary. However. most STDs are easy to treat. only controlled with medication. reexamination by a doctor is necessary after the treatment to confirm that the STD is completely gone. the less likely the disease will do permanent damage. Go to a hospital's emergency department in these circumstances if: an STD problem worsens. syphilis).exposure to an STD is important. cannot be cured.
and prevention. Delay having sexual relations as long as possible. and infrequently. follow-up tests are important so comply with the instructions given by the health care practitioner. In addition. including infertility and problems in newborns infected by their mothers during pregnancy such as blindness. Avoid sexual activity while being treated for an STD. some STDs can cause other. Outlook Most of the common STDs can be cured with treatment. Learn the symptoms of STDs. death. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B are available and effective. Consult a doctor with specific needs and any questions about reinfection. once thought to protect against STDs as well as to prevent pregnancy. Avoid douching because it removes some of the natural protection in the vagina. The younger people are when they become sexually active. In addition to the discomfort of the infection. The risk also increases with the number of sexual partners. they can reduce the risk of developing an STD in these ways: Practice abstinence (refrain from sex entirely) or be in a monogamous relationship (both sexual partners are each other's only sexual partner). Do not rely on it. bone deformities. even if symptoms stop before all of the prescribed medication(s) are taken. Sometimes. Prevention The best way to prevent STDs is to avoid sexual contact with others. HIV can only be slowed. mental retardation. Notify sexual contacts and urge them to have a checkup. and may cause death. The spermicide nonoxynol-9. not eliminated. Take all of the prescribed medication. long-term problems. Correctly and consistently use a male latex condom. the higher the lifetime risk for contracting an STD. has been proven to be ineffective for disease prevention. condoms are only about 90% effective in preventing STDs Have regular medical checkups even if you do not have symptoms of an STD. If people decide to become sexually active. sexual partner notification. . more serious.
If symptoms do occur. about 5% of the population is estimated to be infected. or bleeding between menstrual periods. Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner. which can cause rectal pain. Among sexually active adolescent females. The infection is transmitted in 2 ways: From one person to another through sexual contact (oral. It is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States.Chlamydia Overview Chlamydia is a bacterial infection disease transmitted when people have sexual relations. they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure. nausea. the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the urethra (urine canal). Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating. Chlamydia can cause pneumonia or serious eye infections in a newborn.) . anal. especially among children born to infected mothers in developing countries. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis. From mother to child with passage of the child through the birth canal. or vaginal). Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon. If the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry fertilized eggs from the ovaries to the uterus). In women. What Are the Symptoms of Chlamydia in men and women? Chlamydia is known as a "silent" disease because the majority of infected people have no symptoms. some women still have no signs or symptoms. Infection with chlamydia is most commonly found among the following groups: Young adults (24 years and younger) People living in urban areas African Americans Those with lower social and economic status Chlamydia Causes Chlamydia is an infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. others have lower abdominal pain. or bleeding. pain during intercourse. about 10% are infected. Chlamydia Symptoms in Women No symptoms in 70% to 80% of cases (One study found that 3% of a sample of young adults 18 to 35 years of age had untreated chlamydia. fever. discharge. low back pain.8 million affected individuals each year. Among adults. with over 2. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.
Discharge from the penis Pain. Fever. Estimates of those with no symptoms range from 25% to 50% of infected men. Women: Pelvic inflammatory disease is a serious medical condition. abdominal pain. burning during urination Inflammation or infection of a duct in the testicles. . which occurs in 10% to 15% of untreated cases and can lead to sterility. When to go to the hospital Chlamydial infections can develop into serious medical conditions if not treated. a sexual partner is informed about a chlamydial infection. men who are infected may not show symptoms. and this is the first indication of the presence of the disease. Most often. All partners of an infected person should be treated to prevent the spread of the infection back and forth. tenderness or pain in the testicles When to Seek Medical Care Call your doctor if you experience any of the following: Fever Abdominal pain Discharge from the penis or vagina Pain with urination Pain during intercourse Frequent urination Sexual contact with an infected person. and vaginal discharge can be symptoms of this disease. Bleeding after sexual relations or betweenmenstrual periods Lower abdominal pain and burning pain during urination Discharge from the vagina Chlamydia Symptoms in Men Like women. Women with these symptoms need to go to a hospital's emergency department immediately for treatment.
pus from the vagina or penis. even if you're feeling fine and symptoms go away. BioTab). Follow-up Finish the entire course of antibiotics your doctor prescribes. Chlamydia Prevention Use latex condoms when having sexual intercourse. such asdoxycycline (Atridox. They should be treated or tested so the infection is not passed back and forth. You may also be tested for other sexually transmitted diseasesbecause many patients with chlamydia also have other infections such as gonorrhea ortrichomonas. Chlamydia Treatment Chlamydia Medications The health care practitioner may prescribe a single-dose antibiotic. Having the infection once does not confer immunity to repeat infection. Be retested if your symptoms continue or you think you have been reinfected. such as azithromycin(Zithromax). taken as a pill. Men: Fever. to be taken as a pill twice a day for a week. On the other hand. the doctor may choose an antibiotic. Notify any and all sexual partners of infection. Use latex condoms during sexual intercourse. Up to 95% of people will be cured after one course of antibiotics. and fever could indicate an infection. and painful urination may signal an infection. Men with these symptoms need to go to a hospital's emergency department immediately for treatment. Diagnostic Tests Diagnostic tests may be ordered that may include looking at samples of the discharge under a microscope or obtaining cultures to identify the disease-causing bacteria. . which may involve inflammation of the testicles. Physical Examination Tenderness for women in the area of the sex organs. Some diagnostic tests may include obtaining cultures or sending urine to the laboratory to determine if you are infected. Chlamydia Diagnosis The health care practitioner will conduct the following exams and tests. discharge from the penis.
Carriers can transmit the disease without having any symptoms of an active infection. More common in men. . HSV-1 can cause genital herpes infections through oral sexual contact. those with less education. The highest rates of infection are seen among the poor. Avoid sexual contact with high-risk partners. Less often. however. Up to one-fourth of sexual partners will be reinfected because the partner wasn't treated. It is transmitted from one person to another during sexual activity. Treat infected sexual partners or have them tested before having sexual relations. o Complications if not treated: Ten percent to 40% of women will develop pelvic inflammatory disease. there are medications that can be prescribed to treat outbreaks and minimize the symptoms. Women may develop chronic pelvic pain and become sterile due to blockage of the Fallopian tubes that allow the egg to be transported from the ovary to the women's womb. largely because it is so contagious. Most genital herpes infections are caused by HSV-2. Genital herpes causes blisters or groups of small ulcers (open sores) on and around the genitals in both men and women. Genital Herpes Causes Genital herpes is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). those usingcocaine. with approximately one million new infections each year. Men may experience painful swelling of the testicles. There are two types: HSV-1 and HSV-2. some may develop sexually acquired reactive arthritis or Reiter syndrome. Genital herpes is extremely widespread. HSV-1 is the usual cause of what most people call "fever blisters" in and around the mouth and can be transmitted from person to person through kissing. chlamydial infections can be cured 95% of the time. highly infectious disease caused by a virus. At least 45 million Americans are infected with the genital herpes virus. Chlamydia Prognosis Treated with antibiotics. As many as 80%-90% of those infected fail to recognize genital herpes symptoms or have no symptoms at all. and those with many sexual partners. The genital sores caused by either virus look the same. Genital herpes cannot be cured. o o o Genital Herpes Overview Genital herpes is a common. 5% of women with pelvic inflammatory disease will develop a form of liver disease (perihepatitis).
Herpes infections may be painless or slightly tender. Genital herpes infections look like small blisters or ulcers (round areas of broken skin) on the genitals. but they commonly occur inside the vagina where they can cause discomfort or vaginal discharge but cannot be seen except during a doctor's examination." Usually the blisters form first. however. genital herpes sores (lesions) usually appear on or around the penis. headaches (may be severe). and the blisters or ulcers tend to be grouped into "crops. vaginal discharge or painful urination. In these individuals genital herpes is still contagious. But as many as 90% of those infected fail to recognize the symptoms or have no symptoms at all. particularly with the first episode including: fever. the lesions may be visible outside the vagina. First outbreak of genital herpes The first genital herpes outbreak is usually the most painful. Any type of skin-to-skin contact. Genital Herpes Symptoms Signs of genital herpes tend to develop within three to seven days of skin-to-skin contact with an infected person. Symptoms may last for two to four weeks. and the initial episode may last longer than later outbreaks. Furthermore. Genital herpes is spread by direct contact with an infected person. The ulcers or blisters may also be found anywhere around the genitals (the perineum) and in and around the anus. nonetheless. and they may have additional outbreaks. however. there is strong evidence that people with herpes can transmit infection even while their disease appears to be inactive and no sores can be visibly seen. Each blister or ulcer is typically only 1 to 3 millimeters (1/32 inch to 1/8th inch) in size. Many people remember having an episode of genital herpes when it occurs. the blisters or ulcers can be very tender and painful. then soon open to form ulcers. Sexual intercourse and oral sex are the most common methods of spreading genital herpes. muscle aches. It is not clear whether these people never had an initial herpes outbreak or whether they never noticed a mild infection. Location of genital herpes In men. is capable of spreading herpes. and . In women. In some people. Note: People with herpes may spread the disease even if they do not realize they have an infection. Some people develop other signs of genital herpes infection.
and other organs. If an individual has had a genital herpes outbreak before. Later outbreaks of genital herpes If the disease returns. A pregnant woman with signs or symptoms of genital herpes must inform her doctor as soon as possible. discuss options for preventing further outbreaks with a doctor. or extremefatigue. genital herpes outbreaks rarely require hospital visits. lungs. Some people can become quite ill from genital herpes infections. People with severe medical illnesses (particularly HIV or AIDS) may become very ill from genital herpes infections. This is due to irritation and inflammation of the nerves leading to the infected area of skin. particularly if the diagnosis of genital herpes has not been previously diagnosed. When to Seek Medical Care With an initial outbreak. Later outbreaks rarely need immediate medical attention. later outbreaks generally have much less severe symptoms. The herpes virus may quickly spread to the brain. swollen and tender lymph nodes in the groin (these swell as the body tries to fight the infection). The condition is particularly contagious during this period. Although genital herpes infections generally are not medical emergencies. it is advisable go to a hospital's emergency department to have medical treatment started. In otherwise healthy people. treatment is more effective when it is started within the first few days of the outbreak. Prompt medical therapy may reduce the risk of transmitting the disease to newborn children by exposure in the birth canal. shortness of breath. Many people with recurrent disease develop pain or a tingling sensation in the area of the infection even before any blisters or ulcers can be seen. These are signs that an outbreak is about to begin. Exams and Tests . he or she should seek the care of a doctor as soon as possible. People with severe underlying medical problems (particularly HIV or AIDS) are at higher risk of severe illness if the disease is untreated. If an individual is experiencing an initial episode of genital herpes and cannot be seen by a regular doctor within the first few days of the illness. he or she should go to the hospital for evaluation. These individuals should contact a doctor immediately upon noticing genital herpes sores. If an individual has a high fever. if an individual has signs or symptoms of a genital herpes infection. severe headache. Individuals in this situation should seek prompt medical attention for genital herpes outbreaks and go to a hospital if there is any sign of illness other than sores on the genitals. even though the skin still appears normal.
) if helpful. acetaminophen (Tylenol and others). These types of tests generally require at least a few days. loose fitting cotton clothing. take aspirin. and valacyclovir (Valtrex). wear comfortable. Medications Treatment with medication is effective in shortening the initial outbreak of the infection. Examples of these antiviral medications include: o o o acyclovir (Zovirax). Motrin. A number of types of tests may be ordered to establish the diagnosis. not use perfumed or antibacterial soaps. Doctors may also take a swab of the sore and send the swab to the laboratory to see if the virus is present. Nuprin. The patient's doctor may extend the course of therapy if ulcers have not healed in 10 days. etc. blood tests to confirm the presence of an immune response to the herpes virus may be ordered. feminine deodorant. which makes the irritation more uncomfortable. Genital Herpes Treatment Self-Care at Home Individuals infected with the genital herpes virus should: avoid excessive heat or sunlight. and use cool cloths on the affected area if it soothes the pain. All should be taken for 7-10 days. . and using antibodies to the genital herpes virus to demonstrate the presence of the virus in clinical specimens. These antiviral medications vary in cost and how often they should be taken. and makes any later outbreaks less severe. In some cases. polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate the genetic material of the virus. There are similar antiviral drugs available for the treatment of genital herpes infection. including: a culture of the virus. or douches. lowers the chance that the infection will come back.Many doctors will begin treatment based only on the appearance of the sores. famciclovir (Famvir). or ibuprofen (Advil. if the sores seem typical of herpes.
and valacyclovir are all used to treat recurrent disease. nothing needs to be done if the partner has no signs of developing a genital herpes infection. even if they have received medical treatment. famciclovir. safe sex practices (use of a condom) should be used between disease outbreaks to lessen the chance of spreading disease to a sexual partner. a few individuals who have frequent outbreaks (generally over six recurrences per year) can only control the outbreaks by taking medication every day. Prevention People with genital herpes outbreaks are highly contagious. For preventing later genital herpes outbreaks. This is known as suppressive therapy. Suppressive therapy has been shown to decrease the frequency of genital herpes recurrences by 70%-80% in those who have frequent recurrences. Even the use of a condom does not prevent the spread of disease because not all sores are covered by the condom. For this reason. Most people (85%) with genital herpes will have recurring outbreaks . Generally. Individuals with questions or concerns about living with genital herpes should be discussed with his or her doctor.sometimes 6 to 10 a year. people with recurring infections also may benefit from the antiviral medications. and many individuals taking this treatment report no symptomatic outbreaks. Next Steps Follow-up Anyone diagnosed with genital herpes must disclose their diagnosis with sexual partners. Anyone with active disease should avoid any sexual contact when sores are present. Recurrences are likely to have less severe symptoms and sores usually last a shorter period of time. For More Information People with genital herpes are naturally concerned about the implications of the disease and how it might distress their sexual partner or partners. Although the chance of spreading disease is greatest when sores are present. people who have had genital herpes may always be contagious to some degree. Some people with genital herpes find it difficult to cope with a disease that tends to recur and interfere with their lifestyle. Treatment is started when therecurrence first begins and continues for five days. The virus usually lives (in an inactive form) in an infected person throughout their lifetime. For continuous prevention. The virus can become active and be transmitted to a sexual partner even when the skin appears completely normal. Acyclovir. Seek further information and support from various health-serving organizations such as these: . These partners should be advised to seek medical attention if they develop any signs of the illness. Outlook Treatment of genital herpes does not cure the disease.
31. The warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Over 100 types of HPVs have been identified.m. Generally. and these HPV types are considered "low risk. In children younger than three years of age. which occur during sexual activity. Genital warts affect both men and women and can occur at any age.m. and 45 are other known "high risk" virus types. the presence of genital warts in children should raise the suspicion for sexual abuse. Genital warts are sometimes referred to as condyloma acuminata or venereal warts. Common warts are not the same as genital warts and are caused by different HPV types that infect the skin. a latency (quiet) period of months to years may occur. High-risk HPV types are also referred to as oncogenic HPV types. Once cells are invaded by HPV. about two-thirds of people who have sexual contact with a partner who has genital warts develop them within three months. to 9:00 p. about 40 of these types have the potential to infect the genital area. They represent the most common sexually-transmitted disease caused by a virus. Other HPV types are known causes of premalignant changes and cervical cancers in women. HPV-16." meaning they have a low cancer-causing potential. About 90% of genital warts are caused by two specific types of the virus (HPV-6 and -11). There is around a 60% risk of getting the infection from a single sexual contact with someone who has genital warts. EST) American Social Health Organization. STD & TB Prevention. during which there is no evidence of infection. The viral particles are able to penetrate the skin and mucosal surfaces through microscopic abrasions in the genital area. Genital Herpes National Herpes Hotline (919) 361-8488 (8:00 a. 18.o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV is believed to cause 100% of cases of cervical cancer. Up to 20% of people with genital warts will have other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Infection with genital warts may not be obvious. Genital warts are highly contagious. HPV types 16. Herpes Resource Center o o Genital Warts (HPV) Overview Genital warts are flesh-colored or gray growths found in the genital area and anal region in both men and women. genital warts are thought to be transmitted by nonsexual methods such as direct manual contact. Genital Warts Causes (HPV) Genital warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Nevertheless. . National Center for HIV. Most patients with genital warts are between the ages of 17-33 years. one of the "high-risk" types. is responsible for about 50% of cervical cancers.
raised masses with a surface that can be smooth (on the penile shaft) or rough with many fingerlike projections (anal warts). Most lesions are raised. Rarely. or due to itching. and discharge. scrotum. see a health care practitioner and discuss treatment options. When to Seek Medical Care If you have genital warts.) Warts in more than one area are common. . Sometimes lesions may be hidden by hair or in the inner aspect of the uncircumcised foreskin in males. itching. or vaginal discharge. Specific descriptions In men.39 inches) when many warts join together.penis. Genital Warts Symptoms (HPV) Although genital warts are painless. cervix. itching. but some may be flat with only slight elevation above the skin surface. Warts that obstruct the urethral opening and don't allow you to urinate are an emergency and should be treated as soon as possible. Bleeding warts that cannot be controlled with direct pressure should be seen by a health care practitioner. The size may range from less than one millimeter (1 mm = 0. In women. Lesions visible on the outer genitals warrant a thorough examination of the vaginal canal. Others may appear pearly. and having sex at an early age. multiple sex partners. women may experience bleeding after sexual intercourse. cauliflower-like. genital warts have a similar appearance and usually occur in the moist areas of the labia minora and vaginal opening. Men and women with genital warts will often complain of painless bumps. size. and anorectal area. they may be bothersome because of their location.039 inches) across to several square centimeters (1 cm = 0. The warts can appear as soft. There may be a history of previous or concurrent sexually transmitted diseases(STDs). Rarely. Genital warts are indirectly associated with use of birth control pills due to increased sexual contact without the use of barrier protection. genital warts can infect the urethra. bleeding or urinary obstruction may be the initial problem when the wart involves the urethral opening (the opening where urine exits the body. or rough with a slightly dark surface. Most vaginal warts occur without symptoms. and rectal area. Genital Warts Diagnosis Diagnosis is often based on findings from the history and appearance of the genital warts.
which can result in bleeding. and potentially infectious viral particles in the air caused by the laser plume. Medications . Magnification of the area (colposcopy) using a scope may be necessary to see the lesions. Of note. Medical Treatment There is no single effective cure for removal of genital warts. It is important. avoid touching them. It may require local." It is an excellent first-line treatment because response rates are high with few side effects. regional. Special laboratory tests can also be used to confirm the presence of HPV infection. The laser physically destroys the HPV-induced lesion. Cryotherapy: This technique freezes the wart using liquid nitrogen or a "cryoprobe. It can be done in the office with local anesthesia. scarring. however. It also is not possible to eliminate infection with human papillomavirus once it has occurred. Take the necessary precautions to prevent trauma to the area. Do not pick or squeeze the warts. Electrodesiccation: This technique uses an electric current to destroy the warts. In females. to recognize that the warts exist. A routine Pap smear should always be done in order to look for evidence of HPV infection and abnormal cells on the cervix. or general anesthesia. This technique involves the application of 5% acetic acid solution to the area of suspicion for about 5-10 minutes. Disadvantages include high cost. lesions are only visible with an enhancing technique called acetowhitening. Laser treatment: This treatment is used for extensive or recurrent genital warts. no treatment is 100% effective in eliminating warts and preventing them from coming back in all patients. a colposcope may be used to look for lesions in the vaginal canal and on the cervix. Infected areas will turn white. A number of treatment options exist. the resulting smoke plume may be infectious. increased healing time. Be careful to prevent transmission to a sexual partner. Genital Warts Treatment (HPV) Self-Care at Home Because genital warts essentially have no symptoms other than their appearance. A biopsy can be performed if the lesion appears unusual or recurs after treatment. there is little need for home treatment. Sometimes. Genital warts may go away on their own in about 10%-20% of people over a period of three to four months. however. Because the warts themselves are infectious.
Surgery Cutting the warts away can be done as an office procedure with local anesthesia. 11. it is less effective in those who have already been infected with HPV. Cervarix. 16. the response is often incomplete and recurrence is higher and it may cause pain and burning. It is currently recommended for both males and females aged 9 to 26 years. Podofilox (Condylox) can be topically applied at home and has a highercure rate than podophyllum resin. Trichloroacetic acid or bichloracetic acid is topically applied. Podophyllum resin (Pod-Ben-25. and 18) in women who have had no previous exposure to the virus. Studies are underway to determine whether the vaccine is safe and effective in older women and in males. can cause burning and irritation. Podofin) is topically applied by a health care practitioner. . Because no treatment is 100% effective. Follow-up Complete the necessary treatment as outlined by your health care practitioner. If the genital warts are not successfully treated with the initial therapy. which causes genital warts and some cancers whenever possible. and has many side effects. has been approved by the FDA for females aged 10 to 25 years. Surgical destruction or excision has been more effective in eradicating genital warts than medical therapies. However. Transmission of genital warts can be decreased if condoms are used and the infected individual refrains from sexual activity until therapy is completed. It is usually done when the warts are small in size and number. however. Genital Warts Prevention In 2006. Interferon alpha-n3 (Alferon N) is an injection used for warts that do not respond to other therapies.Several medications exist for treating genital warts and can be used as an alternative to other treatments. has a long treatment time. Women with genital warts should see their doctor for a routine Pap smear and investigation for HPV infection of the vaginal canal and cervix. This vaccine has been shown to be safe and 100% effective in preventing infection with the four most common HPV types (6. Imiquimod (Aldara) is applied as a cream and local skin irritation is a common side effect. Another vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18. Podofilox also is useful for prevention. but it carries a relatively high recurrence rate of 25%55%. 5-Fluorouracil (Efudex) is applied as a cream. the individual will need to follow-up with a doctor or a dermatologist to discuss options for alternative treatment. an HPV vaccine (Gardasil) was approved by the FDA. however. it is important to prevent the spread of HPV. and it does not protect against all types of HPV infection. it has many side effects.
Synonyms and Keywords genital warts. The papillomas or warts appear and spread quickly. Once the infection becomes chronic. This infection has two possible phases. Cervarix Hepatitis B Overview Hepatitis B is an infectious hepatitis caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV).sexually transmitted disease. or in sites that are missed by the treatment used Deep lesions or lesions that cannot be detected Genital warts often appear or increase in number during pregnancy. Affected individuals notice symptoms approximately 1 to 4 months after exposure to the virus. venereal warts. In most people with acute hepatitis. and warts in these locations tend to bleed easily.Genital Warts Outlook In many cases. it may never go away completely. infection with multiple HPV types is possible Potentially long incubation time of HPV Persistence of the virus in the surrounding skin. 1. HPV vaccine. is that newborns may become infected during passage through an infected birth canal. recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. . 2. Acute hepatitis B refers to newly acquired infections. condylomaacuminata. sometimes dangerously blocking the child's airway. RRP. The presence of genital warts may make vaginal delivery difficult if they are in the cervix or vagina. HPV can cause a very serious condition in children called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). This is a life-threatening disease of the respiratory tract. The real danger. 1) acute and 2) chronic. symptoms resolve over weeks to months and they are cured of the infection. Chronic hepatitis B is an infection with HBV that lasts longer than 6 months. in the hair follicle. However. The warts often disappear on their own after pregnancy. human papillomavirus. a small number of people develop a very severe. STD. Reappearance of abnormal cells on the cervix of women is not altered by treatment of their sexual partners. Dormant infections may also become activated. Gardasil. genital warts fail to respond to treatment or come back even after an removal. Recurrence rates of genital warts are greater than 50% after one year and have been attributed to the following factors: Recurrent infection from a sexual partner. HPV. however. life-threatening form of acute hepatitis called fulminant hepatitis.
Chronic hepatitis B also can lead to a type of liver cancer known as hepatocellular carcinoma. helps with digestion. Only about 5% to 10% of adults infected with HBV go on to develop chronic infection. When this occurs. Children are at much higher risk for chronic infection. 000 deaths each year. Semen.4 million Americans are chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. Use of the vaccine has resulted in an 82% decrease in the number of new infections reported in the United States each year. The good news is that infection with HBV is usually preventable because there is an effective vaccine. the liver can no longer carry out its normal functions and may fail completely. The virus may be transmitted when these fluids come in contact with broken skin or a mucous membrane (in the mouth. The liver is an important organ that filters toxins out of the blood. Worldwide. a condition traditionally associated withalcoholism but one that is also caused by chronic active hepatitis B infection. of whom. inadvertent needle sticks experienced by healthcare workers. About 800. Scarring of the liver is called cirrhosis. These people do not develop symptoms.Approximately 90% to 95% of infected adults are able to fight off the virus so their infection is cured. The remaining one third develop "active" hepatitis. which contain small amounts of blood. Hepatitis B Transmission and Causes The hepatitis B virus is known as a blood-borne virus because it is transmitted from one person to another via blood or fluids contaminated with blood. genital organs. and makes substances that fight infections and control bleeding. People who are at an increased risk of being infected with the hepatitis B virus include the following: . The liver has an incredible ability to heal itself. stores energy for later use.000 to 1. and the disease causes about 3. Another important route of transmission is from an infected mother to a newborn child. About two-thirds of people with chronic HBV infection are chronic carriers. which occurs during or shortly after birth. The only treatment for liver failure is liver transplant. about 350 million people are chronic carriers of HBV. or rectum) of an uninfected person. more than 620. About 15% to 25% percent of people with chronic hepatitis B die of liver disease. a disease of the liver that can be very serious.000 die from liver-related disease each year. In the United States. even though they harbor the virus and can transmit it to other people. and saliva that is contaminated with blood also carry the virus. Any of these conditions can be fatal. Up to 90% of infected young children will fail to clear the virus from their bodies and go on to develop chronic infection. Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world. or contact with blood through other means. but long-term inflammation caused by HBV can result in permanent damage. hepatitis B is largely a disease of young adults aged 20-50 years. Direct contract with blood may occur through the use of dirty needles during illicit drug use.
Common symptoms of hepatitis B include: Appetite loss Feeling tired (fatigue) . Adults are more likely to develop symptoms than children. caregivers. and family members Health care workers who are stuck with needles or other sharp instruments contaminated with infected blood Infants born to infected mothers In some cases. Men or women who have multiple sex partners. symptoms usually develop within 1 to 4 months after exposure to the virus. especially if they don't use a condom Men who have sex with men Men or women who have sex with a person infected with hepatitis B virus People with other sexually transmitted diseases People who inject drugs with shared needles People who receive transfusions of blood or blood products People who undergo dialysis for kidney disease Institutionalized mentally handicapped people and their attendants. the source of transmission is never known. You cannot get hepatitis B from the following activities: Having someone sneeze or cough on you Hugging someone Handshaking a persons hand Breastfeeding your child Eating food or drinking water Casual contact (such as an office or social setting) Hepatitis B Symptoms Half of all people infected with the hepatitis B virus have no symptoms and may never realize that they have been infected. The initial symptoms are often similar to the flu. For those who do get sick.
lethargy. Nausea and vomiting Itching all over the body Pain over the location of the liver (on the right side of the abdomen. fulminate hepatitis is rare. extreme sleepiness or hallucinations (hepatic encephalopathy) Sudden collapse with fatigue Jaundice Swelling of the abdomen Prolonged nausea and vomiting can cause dehydration. Fulminate hepatitis is a severe form of acute hepatitis that can be life-threatening if not treated right away. Individuals with dehydration may notice these symptoms: Extreme weakness Confusion or trouble concentrating Headache Lack of urination Irritability Symptoms of liver damage may include the following: Fluid retention causing swelling of the belly (ascites) and sometimes the legs Weight gain due to ascites Persistent jaundice . Fortunately. The symptoms of fulminate hepatitis develop very suddenly and may include: Mental disturbances such as confusion. under the lower rib cage) Jaundice (a condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes turn yellow in color) Dark urine (the color of cola or tea) Pale-colored stools (grayish or clay colored) Many types of acute viral hepatitis such as hepatitis A and hepatitis C have symptoms that are indistinguishable from hepatitis B.
If a patient is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B. or rectum. weight loss. You should also contact your health care practitioner if you think you may have been exposed to the hepatitis B virus. and viral DNA ('viral load'). Other tests may be ordered to rule out other medical conditions. or if you are pregnant and think you have been exposed to hepatitis B inform health care practitioner right away. wasting Vomiting with blood in the vomit Bleeding from the nose. antibodies against the virus. If you have chronic hepatitis B infection and think you might be pregnant.blood electrolytes may also be checked to ensure that the patient's blood chemistry is in balance. development of coma) When to Seek Medical Care Call your health care professional if you have any of the following: Nausea and vomiting that does not go away in 1-2 days The inability to keep down liquids A high fever or fever that persists more than 2 days Yellow skin or eyes Dark-colored urine (like tea or cola) Pain in the abdomen. Blood tests for HBV are often done when routine blood work shows abnormal liver function tests or in patients who are at an increased risk for exposure. If a patient has had a large amount of vomiting or has not been able to take in liquids. . For severe symptoms including confusion or delirium go to a hospital emergency department. These tests can detect pieces of the virus in the blood (antigens). X-rays and other diagnostic images are needed only in very unusual circumstances. mental confusion. or blood in the stool Hepatic encephalopathy (excessive sleepiness. Blood tests can help determine how active the infection is and whether there has been damage to the liver. they will need regular visits to their health care practitioner. mouth. Loss of appetite. Hepatitis B Diagnosis Hepatitis B infection is diagnosed with blood tests. and in advanced stages.
Liver biopsy: This involves removal of a tiny piece of the liver. even those that are over-the-counter. check with your physician to see if the doses should be adjusted or if the medication should be temporarily discontinued. gelatin. Avoid prolonged. It is usually done by inserting a long needle into the liver and withdrawing the tissue. vigorous exercise until symptoms start to improve. etc) Medical Treatment Acute hepatitis B infection Acute hepatitis B infection is not treated with antiviral medications. Although. It may take some time for your energy level to return to normal. Other tests include: CT scan or ultrasound: These diagnostic imaging tests are used to detect the extent of liver damage and may also detect cancer of the liver caused by chronic hepatitis B. and fruit juices may be better because they also provide calories. and liver damage may impair the body's ability to metabolize these drugs. If you are on prescription medications. sharing needles. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. If a person has chronic hepatitis B. Individuals with chronic HBV should avoid alcohol for the rest of their lives. Call your health care practitioner for advice if your condition worsens or new symptoms appear. A biopsy may be done to detect the extent of liver damage or to evaluate how well a treatment is working. If very severe. Avoid drinking alcohol until your health care practitioner allows it. sports drinks. symptoms such as vomiting or diarrheaare present. Some medications depend on the liver.Blood tests alone may not be enough to guide treatment in chronic HBV. Avoid any activity that may spread the infection to other people (sexual intercourse. the affected person may require treatment to restore fluids and electrolytes. broth. Take it easy. frozen ice treats (such as Popsicles). they should see their health care provider regularly Self-Care at Home The goals of self-care are to relieve symptoms and prevent worsening of the disease. Hepatitis B Treatment Acute hepatitis B usually resolves on its own and does not require medical treatment. There are no medications that can prevent acute hepatitis B from becoming chronic. . Ask your physician before taking any medications. Try to eat a diet that provides adequate nutrition. The tissue is examined under a microscope to detect changes in the liver.
the interval between diagnosis and starting treatment is quite variable. and. For those who do. replicating (multiplying) virus in the blood and liver.S. They reduce the ability of the virus to reproduce in the body and give the liver a chance to heal itself. Regularly measuring the amount of HBV DNA ('viral load') in the blood gives your physician a good idea of how fast the virus is multiplying. but they do reduce the damage caused by the virus. often in consultation with a specialist in diseases of the digestive system (gastroenterologist) or liver (hepatologist). It is reserved for people whose infection is most likely to progress to active hepatitis or cirrhosis. Pegylated interferon alfa-2b (Pegasys®) Pegylated interferon is used alone or in combination with other medications. People with mild symptoms can be cared for at home. HBV DNA tests. Pegylated interferon slows the replication of the virus and boosts the body's immune system to fight the infection. These drugs are not a cure for hepatitis B. Although these medications are similar in some ways. . Talk to your health care practitioner about the best medication for you. The treatments now in use are classified as antiviral drugs. because they try to stop the virus from multiplying. do not work in all individuals with the disease. Antiviral therapy is not appropriate for everyone with chronic HBV infection. while the best therapy known for chronic hepatitis B. There are several antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B approved by the U. liver biopsies after a complete history and physical examination. a doctor may prescribe IV fluids to help them feel better. Antiviral agents. New drugs are always being tested and treatment recommendations are subject to change. they differ in other important ways. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Hepatitis B Medications All of the following medications described that are used to treat chronic hepatitis B are antiviral medications. Medications may also be used to control these symptoms. It works best in people who have relatively low levels of HBV DNA (low viral load). Chronic hepatitis B infection The degree of liver damage is related to the amount of active. frequently. If the infected person is dehydrated from vomiting or diarrhea. Many people never reach this point. Decisions to start medications for treatment of hepatitis B are made by the patient and health care practitioner. The decision to treat is guided by results of liver function tests. Treatment is usually started when blood tests indicate that liver functions are deteriorating and the amount of replicating HBV is rising.
Treatment is often given for 48 weeks. reduced blood cell counts. a health care practitioner will discuss the risks and benefits with them.Telbivudine (Tyzeka®) and tenofovir (Viread®). side effects are so severe that they cannot continue taking the medication. lamivudine (Epivir-HBV®. NAs reduce the amount of virus in the body. HBeAg is detected by a blood test and indicates that the virus is actively multiplying. Obviously. Between 20% and 90% of patients may have levels reduced so far that they become undetectable. Heptovir®. NAs do not cure the infection. Rarely. Side effects are less common than with pegylated interferon. Liver function tests and HBV DNA tests are used to check how well the treatment is working. The side effects are similar to having the flu. because it can make the liver damage worse. Interferon appears to stop the liver damage in up to 40% of people although relapse is possible. NAs are associated with a severe flare of hepatitis that can be serious or fatal.entecavir (Baraclude®). Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are compounds that mimic normal building blocks for DNA. but pegylated interferon requires regular shots (injections) while other medications are taken orally. Heptodin®). Relapse is possible even in patients who have had a good response to treatment. this is a broad range. It also depends on the availability of a matching donor liver. Hepatitis B Other Therapy . Surgery There is no surgical therapy for hepatitis B. it is unable to make new viral particles. HBV may become resistant to NAs over time. Pegylated interferon has unpleasant side effects in many people. If liver damage is so severe that the liver starts to fail. For many people. Pegylated interferon usually is not given to people whose liver damage has progressed to cirrhosis. The higher success rates are achieved in patients who do not have "hepatitis B e antigen" (HBeAg). Liver transplant is a major process and surgery with an extended recovery period. If liver transplant becomes a possibility for an individual. liver transplant may be recommended. When the virus tries to use the analogues. and increased levels of lactic acid in the blood. Examples of these agents include adefovir (Hepsera®). which is shorter than for other medications. NAs have been associated with changes in body fat distribution.
Nabi-HB) is given along with the hepatitis B vaccine to unvaccinated people who have been exposed to hepatitis B. Southeast Asia. People who are in prison People who live or work in residential facilities for developmentally disabled persons People who inject illegal drugs People with chronic liver disease such as hepatitis C People who have multiple sex partners or have ever had a sexually transmitted disease Men who have sex with men Persons with HIV People who have a sexual partner who is an HBV carrier.No herbs. Eastern Europe. It is safe and works well to prevent the disease. Recombivax HB). and the Amazon River basin of South America. the Middle East. . Hepatitis B immune globulin (BayHep B. A total of 3 doses of the vaccine are given over several months. the Pacific Islands. Hepatitis B vaccine is also produced as a combination product which includes othercommon childhood vaccinations. At this time. This includes most areas of Africa. regardless of risk factors. China and Central Asia. or other alternative therapy is known to work as well as antiviral medication in slowing HBV replication and promoting liver healing in hepatitis B. The following groups should be vaccinated for hepatitis B: All children younger than 19 years. Hepatitis B Vaccine There is a vaccine against the hepatitis B virus (Engerix-B. supplements. Household contacts of persons who are carriers of HBV.especially those born to mothers who are infected with HBV All health care and public safety workers who may be exposed to blood People who have hemophilia or other blood clotting disorders and receive transfusions of human clotting factors People who have end-stage renal diseaseincluding those who require hemodialysisfor kidney disease Travelers to countries where HBV infection is common. no specific herb or herbal preparation is recommended. This can reduce the number of shots that a child needs at a single visit. Anyone who wants to be vaccinated. including all newborns .
The individual will also be given a vaccine against hepatitis A. Health care workers should follow standard precautions and handle needles and sharps safely. or with periods of improvement followed by worsening of symptoms. Chronic hepatitis B is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. These include close contacts of people with HBV infection. condoms are not 100% effective at preventing transmission. this is a rare cancer. . Hepatitis B Prevention In addition to the hepatitis B vaccine. Others have a more prolonged disease course with very slow improvement over several months. If the person develops chronic hepatitis B. Fortunately. use disposable gloves. If these tests indicate that the virus is actively damaging the liver. but even when used correctly. etc. don't share needles or other equipment. they will need periodic examinations and blood tests on an ongoing basis. a health care practitioner will draw blood and examine the person periodically to see if the infection is resolving. which is an unrelated virus that may cause severe liver disease in people who already carry hepatitis B. Giving the immune globulin and the vaccine together in these situations prevents transmission of the disease in 80% to 90% percent of cases. practice safe sex. You can become infected if the artist or person piercing you does not sterilize needles and equipment. Think about the health risks if you are planning to get a tattoo or body piercing. other ways to protect yourself from HBV infection include: If you are sexually active. If you are pregnant or think you might be pregnant. or wash hands properly. such as a razor. Follow-up If an individual has acute hepatitis B. the health care practitioner may suggest a liver biopsy or begin antiviral therapy. although it is not clear if this screening improves survival. fingernail clippers. If you inject drugs. and infants born to mothers infected with HBV. toothbrush. Correct use of latex condoms can help prevent transmission of HBV. A blood test can be used to detect a marker for this cancer or the cancer can be detected by abdominal ultrasound. health care workers who are exposed to HBV-contaminated blood. Men who have sex with men should be vaccinated against both hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Hepatitis B Prognosis Some people rapidly improve after acute hepatitis B. tell your health care practitioner if you have any of the risk factors for HBV infection. Persons with chronic hepatitis B are usually screened periodically (every 6 to 12 months) for hepatocellular carcinoma. Don't share anything (including grooming products) that might have blood on it.
Hepatitis can also be caused by exposure to alcohol. o Sharing of contaminated needles among IV drug users is the most common mode of transmission. Using a needle to inject recreational drugs. chemicals. o Transfusion with infected blood or blood products. HCV is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in theUnited Statesand the most common cause of chronic viral hepatitis.A small group of people (about 1% of infected people) suffer rapid progression of their illness during the acute stage and develop severe liver damage (fulminate hepatitis). This inflammation can be caused by infection. Hepatitis C Causes HCV is not related to the other viruses that cause hepatitis. This may occur over days to weeks and may be fatal. as many as half of them do not know they have the infection. About 4 million people in the United States have antibodies to HCV. If the inflammation is not reversed. Like the other hepatitis viruses. liver cancer. and liver cancer. short term) viral hepatitis and half of all cases of cirrhosis. Inflammation of the liver caused by infection with HCV is referred to as hepatitis C. At least 75% of people infected with hepatitis C develop chronic hepatitis C. the only treatment is liver transplantation. and death. Hepatitis C Overview Hepatitis is a general term that means inflammation of the liver. Transfusion of blood or blood products before 1992 is a risk factor for hepatitis C. or transplantation have dropped to almost zero since then. The hepatitis C virus is transmitted mainly by contact with blood or blood products. poisons. long term) and can cause chronic liver disease. it is contagious. it becomes chronic (ongoing. hemodialysis. hemodialysis. and other toxins. In 1992. >Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the many viruses that can cause inflammation of the liver. however. meaning they have been infected with the virus at some point. even onceseveral years ago. or transplantation of organs from infected donors was once a common mode of transmission butis now rare. cases of hepatitis C related to transfusion. end-stage liver disease. or by other diseases. which can be serious or even fatal. Other complications of HBV include development of a chronic HBV infection. Blood and blood products are now tested to ensure that they are not contaminated. It is believed to be the cause of about 15-20% of all cases of acute (new. Less common causes of HCV transmission include the following: . certain medications. Hepatitis C is an increasing public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. As a result. People with chronic HBV infection are at further risk for liver damage (cirrhosis). is a risk factor for hepatitis C. a test became available for checking blood for HCV. If the disease progresses to the point at which the liver begins to fail (end stage liver disease). liver failure.
As this happens. Cirrhosis is a condition in which healthy liver tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue. you may notice the following symptoms: o Fatigue or weakness o Confusion or difficulty concentrating o Headache o Not urinating o Irritability Chronic hepatitis C can lead tocirrhosis of the liver in many people. o Nausea o Vomiting o Diarrhea o Loss of appetite o Fatigue o o o o Pain over the liver (on the right side of the abdomen. In those who do. The risk of developing HCV infection after a needle stick is about 5-10%. the symptoms usually come and go and are mild and vague. Some people describe the symptoms as beingflulike.symptoms may not appear for10-20 years. legs. The source of transmission is unknown in about 10% of people with acute hepatitis C and in about 30% of people with chronic hepatitis C. If you have been vomiting repeatedly. the damage may be very serious. just under the rib cage) Jaundice . The symptoms may last a few weeks or months. Needle sticks with HCV-contaminated blood: This is mostly seen in health care workers. Symptoms of cirrhosisinclude the following: o Fluid retention causing swelling of the belly (ascites). Hepatitis C Symptoms Although hepatitis C damages the liver. being near. or lose its ability to carry out its normal functions. Unfortunately.followed byscarlike hardening. or whole body o Persistent jaundice . You can get the disease by sharing a razor. Even then. These symptoms typically develop 5-12 weeks after exposure to HCV. A minority of people have symptoms during the early acute phase of the infection. or other such items with an infected person. by the time symptoms appear.o o o From mother to infant atthe time of childbirth Through sexual intercourse with an infected person: Having multiple sex partners is a risk factor.A condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes turn yellow Dark-colored urine (may look like cola or tea) Stoolsbecome pale in color (grayish or clay colored) Prolonged nausea and vomiting can causedehydration. nail clippers. 80% of people with the disease do not have symptoms. the liver gradually begins to fail. or touching someone with the disease. or even longer. Eventually. a condition traditionally associated with alcoholism. You cannot get hepatitis C by living with. symptoms develop.
Youhave pain in your abdomen (belly). The laboratory will be able to determine whether you have been exposed to HCV and certain other hepatitis viruses. or hallucinations (hepatic encephalopathy) When to Seek Medical Care Call your health care provider in any of the following situations. Tests are also available to identify which of the 6 known strains (genotypes)of the virus is causing the infection. If you cannot reach your health care provider. You are becoming confused. Exams and Tests Your health care provider will interview you about your illness. You have nausea and vomiting that does not go away in 1-2 days. or if you have any of the following symptoms. or difficult to awaken. lethargy. such as the kidneys. Your skin or eyes turn yellow. go to a hospital emergency department without delay. you will have blood drawn. This can help determine the best treatment plan. wasting Vomiting with blood in the vomit Mental disturbances such as confusion. Other tests will probably be done to check the effects of the infection on other body systems. You won't have the antibody unless you have been infected with HCVunless the test was performed so soon after exposure that your immune system did not have time to make the antibody. Several tests are available for this. or your urine is dark-brownish in color. If your doctor determines that you may be at risk for contracting hepatitis. Antibodies are substances made by your body's immune system to defend against a specific infection. You have other medical problems and think that you might have hepatitis. . extreme sleepiness. You will be asked about your symptoms and about any exposures to hepatitis viruses. but the most widely used test detects antibodies to these viruses. You are vomiting and cannot keep down any fluids. You think that you might have been exposed to someone with hepatitis or think that you might be at risk for any reason. weight loss. You are having severe pain or high fever. The laboratory will also do several tests to determine how well your liver is functioning. He or she will probably want to see you. delirious.o o o o o o Fatigue Disturbances in sleeping Itchy skin Loss of appetite.
or psoriasis Low bloodhemoglobin level(anemia) or blood cell counts Cirrhosis that is severe enough to cause symptoms such as jaundice. vigorous exercise until symptoms start to improve. Hepatitis C Treatment Self-Care at Home If you have symptoms. or mental disturbances Medications . PEG-Intron). If you are experiencing significant nausea and vomiting. Avoid medicines and substances that can cause harm to the liver such asacetaminophen (Tylenol) and other preparations that contain acetaminophen. and hard liquor. you can be cared for at home. systemic lupus erythematosus. Take it easy. including beer. Decisions to start medications for treatment of hepatitis C are usually made in consultation with a gastroenterologist or liver specialist (hepatologist). wasting. It is not necessary for diagnosis but gives useful information about the stage of disease (the amount of liver damage that has already occurred). Depression and certain other mental and neurologic disorders Active alcohol or drug abuse Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. then you may be hospitalized. get plenty of rest. wine. fluid retention that causes swelling. Do not drink alcohol of any kind. If you have had a large amount of vomiting or have not been able to take in liquids. on results of tests for HCV and liver biopsy. Certain medical conditions preclude the use of interferon. Avoid prolonged. If your symptoms are well controlled. Liver biopsy is the ultimate test in hepatitis C. The treatment that has shown the most promise in chronic hepatitis C is an agent called pegylated interferon alpha (Pegasys. your health care provider may prescribe IV fluids to help you feel better. If dehydration or other symptoms are severe or if you are showing signs of confusion or delirium. your blood electrolytes will be checked to see if they are in balance. This agent is often combined with an antiviral drug called ribavirin (Virazole). Medical Treatment If you are dehydrated. you will receive medicines to help control these symptoms. The decision is based on the results of lab tests of liver function. and on the person's age and general medical condition. these measures will help you feel better faster.
persons taking interferon must practice effective birth control during treatment and for at least 6 months afterward. ribavirin has little effect on HCV. The duration of treatment depends on the strain (genotype) of the virus. This occurs in about 55% of people treated with combination therapy and about 15% of people treated with interferon alone. PEG-Intron) is given only once a week and maintains a steady level in the blood between doses. For genotype 2.Interferon alpha (Intron A): Interferon is a protein that the body makes naturally in response to viral infections in orderto fight the infection. Because interferon can be harmful to an unborn child. By itself. the pegylated formulation is more effective against HCV. During treatment. The side effects range from mild to debilitating. It also has other actions in the body and has been used to treat a variety of diseases such as leukemias. Common side effects include the following: Fatigue Lowhemoglobin levelin the blood (anemia) or low blood cell counts Muscle aches Nausea and vomiting . Ribavirin (Virazole): Ribavirin is like an antibiotic for certain viruses. The side effects often get better over time as treatment continues. The level of HCV RNA goes down to nearly zero during treatment in about 70% of people. Treatment is followed by a period of no treatment in which the person's response to the treatment is checked. The combination of interferon alpha and ribavirin works betterthan interferon alone. Ribavirin is usually given with interferon unless there is a particular reason not to give it to a specific individual. If they are severe enough. though. kidneys. This is a considerable advantage because interferon has to be taken by shot and has many side effects.other types of cancers. Treatment is considered successful if the RNA level remains near zero for at least 6 months after treatment. the person may have to stop taking one or both drugs. Side effects of interferon can be bothersome in some people. you will have blood drawn every few weeks to test the effects on your liver. The drug had to be given several times a week. It has to be taken every day in 2 doses but is a pill rather than a shot. Pegylation describes a chemical process that makes the interferon last longer in the body. The pegylated type(Pegasys. More importantly. andmultiple sclerosis. or take a lower dose. but interferon increases its potency. Levels of the older type of interferon were difficult to regulate in the body. although side effects are common. the treatment is only for24 weeks. and blood. Lower doses generally do not work as well against the disease. This is measured by the amount of HCV RNA (similar to DNA) in the person's blood. Sometimes the symptoms are described as being like having the flu. Most people tolerate these drugs fairly well. the treatment is given for 48 weeks. For genotype 1 and 4.
The active ingredient in milk thistle is thought to be a substance called silymarin. the only treatment thatwill cure the problemis liver transplantation. Other herbs that may have a positive effect arelicorice and ginseng. Other Therapy A significant number of people with hepatitis C cannot take interferon and ribavirin or cannot tolerate the side effects. however. Like interferon. These herbs are thought to promote liver health and to boost the body's ability to fight the infection. Milk thistle has not been studied specifically in people with hepatitis C. ribavirin can be harmful to an unborn child. Mild fevers Depression Irritability Headaches Weight loss Interferon can have other. Milk thistle is available as capsules but not as tea. results are not conclusive. . In others. Alternative therapies now in use for hepatitis C include several different herbs. It should be emphasized that none of these alternative and complementary therapies has been proven to work in any scientific study. others did not. but it has been tested in people with cirrhosis and in people with chronic hepatitis. The side effects of ribavirin can be severe enough that the person has to switch to interferon-only therapy. some studies showed a positive effect. You should discuss these with your health care provider before starting treatment. They are not recommended by any medical authority as an alternative to interferon and ribavirin in people able to take these medications. The most promising complementary therapy is milk thistle. Extreme care should be taken with licorice. Studies done in animals suggest that silymarin may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and promote liver health in various ways. the drugs simply don't work on the virus. Common side effects include the following: Fatigue Anemia Irritability Itching Skin rash Sinus congestion and cough urgery For end-stage liver disease. Unfortunately. as it can cause high blood pressure or even heart failure or cardiac arrest(heart stopping) if taken at too high a dose. less common side effects. Research is ongoing to find other therapies for these people. and persons taking ribavirin must practice effective birth control during treatment and for at least 6 months afterward.
healthy diet. Aleve. the manufacture and contents of these products is not standardized in the United States and is not regulated by any government body. Avoiding alcohol and drugs that can damage the liver may help slow the rate of progression of the disease. If you have symptoms. At least 75% of people infected with HCV develop chronic hepatitis. The best means of preventing transmission of HCV is to preventcontact withinfected blood and organs and to avoid high-risk sexual behavior such as multiple partners and anal contact. Take herbal products and supplements with as much care as you would take any medicine. These include ginger (to reduce nausea) and St. The better you take care of yourself. and30%of these people go on to developcirrhosis. Eat a varied. Just because herbs are natural products does not mean they are always safe or helpful. Chronic liverdisease because of hepatitis Ccauses 10. Prevention Right now. Next Steps Follow-up Follow all instructions that your health care provider gives you. Outlook Hepatitis C varies greatly in its long-term effects. Talk to your health care provider if you are taking any herbs or supplements or are considering taking any. Avoid alcoholic beverages and medicines such asnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (like Brufen. John's wort(to relieve depression). Some people never develop severe complications of the disease. Cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis C can lead to liver failure. avoid prolonged or vigorous physical exercise until your symptoms improve. If symptoms worsen at any time.Other herbs may be taken as complementary therapy to help relieve the side effects of interferon. . Like all herbal preparations. there is no vaccine for the prevention of HCV transmission. contact your doctor. If damage is severe. Advil)that can be harmfulin people with liver disease. The potency and purity vary from product to product and are not predictable. Drink plenty of water and other noncaffeinated fluids to stay well hydrated. liver transplantation is the only treatment. take part in some physical activity daily. the more likely you will be one of the many individuals who do well for many years.000 deaths each year in the United States. and get plenty of rest. A healthy lifestyle is more important than ever.
S. the joints. The scourge of HIV has been particularly devastating in sub-Saharan Africa. the blood or bone marrow. and the proportion is rising. After getting into the body. the virus kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. It is one of a group of viruses known as retroviruses. AIDS stands for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the United States. it is important to understand the meanings behind these terms: HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus. Intravenous drug use contributes to the remaining cases. approximately one-third of new diagnoses appear to be related to heterosexual transmission. There is good news on one front. 85% of HIV transmission is heterosexual. Infections in women are increasing. In the United States. as well as establishing uniform testing guidelines for blood products. or the kidneys. but infection rates in other countries remain high. Worldwide. and an estimated 25 million have died from this disease. These may affect the skin and connective tissues of the body. . 42% of people with HIV are women. In the United States.S. New HIV infections in U. It is caused by HIV and occurs when the virus has destroyed so much of the body's defenses that immune-cell counts fall to critical levels or certain life-threatening infections or cancers develop. children have fallen dramatically. Male-to-male sexual contact still accounts for approximately half of new diagnoses in the U. Here are a few key points about the disease: Globally. This is largely a result of testing and treating infected mothers. Approximately 40 million people are currently living with HIV infection. but eventually the HIV wins out and progressively destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers. The body tries to keep up by making new cells or trying to contain the virus. A small number of people with hepatitis C develop complications outside the liver. Cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis C may lead to liver cancer. approximately 1 million people are currently infected. it is likely that a higher proportion of recent infections are due to heterosexual transmission. approximately 25% of new diagnoses are in women. In order to understand HIV and AIDS. Because the diagnosis may occur years after infection. the muscles. HIV/AIDS Overview HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection has now spread to every country in the world.
Very rarely. penis. HIV frequently spreads among injection-drug users who share needles or syringes that are contaminated with blood from an infected person. sharing towels and bedding. Women can transmit HIV to their babies during pregnancy or birth. gonorrhea. The virus can enter the body through the lining of the vagina. when infected maternal cells enter the baby's circulation. such as syphilis. Donors are now tested for HIV to minimize this risk. HIV spreads through transfusion of contaminated blood or blood components. They complain of fever. These symptoms usually disappear on their own . vulva. telephones. usually by injecting infected cells or semen. Blood products are now tested to minimize this risk. chlamydial infection. HIV can be spread in health-care settings through accidental needle sticks or contact with contaminated fluids. or toilet seats. or mouth during sex. or bacterial vaginosis. Most commonly. and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. Many people do not develop symptoms after they first get infected with HIV. HIV infection is spread by having sex with an infected partner. The virus does not spread through casual contact such as preparing food. HIV/AIDS Symptoms and Signs Many people with HIV do not know they are infected. are more likely to acquire HIV infection during sex with an infected partner. unless it is contaminated with blood. There are several possible ways in which the virus can enter. If tissues or organs from an infected person are transplanted. headache. tiredness. the recipient may acquire HIV. rectum.genital herpes. Others have a flu-like illness within several days to weeks after exposure to the virus. or via swimming pools.HIV/AIDS Transmission HIV is transmitted when the virus enters the body. People who already have a sexually transmitted disease. The virus is also unlikely to be spread by contact with saliva.
Sometimes. o During this period. when the body begins losing its ability to fight infections. The infections that happen with AIDS are called opportunistic infectionsbecause they take advantage of the opportunity to infect a weakened host. After that. This state may last from a few months to more than 10 years. Once the CD4 cell count falls low enough. AIDS is the later stage of HIV infection. o brain infection with toxoplasmosis which can cause trouble thinking or symptoms that mimic a stroke. o widespread infection with a bacteria called MAC (mycobacterium avium complex) which can cause fever and weight loss. an infected person is said to have AIDS. o The virus destroys the cells that are the primary infection fighters. o Even though the person has no symptoms. the person feels normal and has no symptoms. the diagnosis of AIDS is made because the person has unusual infections or cancers that show how weak the immune system is. a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells. The infections include (but are not limited to) o pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis. . The progression of disease varies widely among individuals. he or she is contagious and can pass HIV to others through the routes listed above. This asymptomatic phase often lasts for years.within a few weeks. the virus continues to multiply actively and infects and kills the cells of the immune system. which causes wheezing.
When to Seek Medical Care If you have engaged in unprotected sex outside of a mutually monogamous relationship or shared needles while using drugs. If you are pregnant and infected with HIV. severe chest orabdominal pain. A weakened immune system can also lead to other unusual conditions: o lymphoma in (a form of cancer of the lymphoid tissue) the brain. People known to have HIV infection or AIDS should go to the hospital any time they develop high fever. cough. generalized weakness. severe diarrhea. which can cause fever and trouble thinking. There are three main types of tests that are commonly used: (1) antibody tests. Early detection and treatment of the infection can slow the growth of HIV. you may be able to reduce the risk to your unborn child by getting treatment early. . confusion. severe headache. o widespread diseases with certain fungi like histoplasmosis. You can also avoid infecting others if you know that you have the disease. or purple spots that develop on the skin or in the mouth. In addition. seizures. HIV/AIDS Diagnosis HIV infection is commonly diagnosed by blood tests. All infected people should be under the regular care of a physician skilled in the treatment of HIV and AIDS. reddish. which can cause fever. a blood test known as a Western blot is used to confirm the diagnosis. o a cancer of the soft tissues called Kaposi's sarcoma. anemia. These may be the indication of a life-threatening condition for which an urgent evaluation in the hospital's emergency department is recommended. coughing up blood. you should have an HIV test. and (3) a combination test that detects both antibodies and a piece of the virus called the p24 protein. or a change in mental status.o yeast infection of the swallowing tube (esophagus) which causes pain with swallowing. and other problems. which causes brown. (2) RNA tests. Testing is available anonymously and confidentially. shortness of breath. You can even test yourself at home.
Results are returned by mail in one to two weeks. These tests have accuracy rates similar to traditional blood tests. Other test kits use saliva or urine. Early testing is crucial. This time period is commonly referred to as the "window period" and may last six weeks to three months following infection. The test is usually run in a local laboratory. high-risk behaviors can be avoided. Furthermore. are not commonly used for screening. Therefore. it can take some time for the immune system to produce enough antibodies for the antibody test to turn positive. such as those that look for virus RNA and the combination test. There are different types of antibody screening tests available: Most commonly.No test is perfect. HIV/AIDS Treatment Medications Over the past years. because early treatment for HIV helps people avoid or minimize complications. an RNA test for the virus might be done. In these cases. Tests may be falsely positive or falsely negative. Therapy is initiated and individualized under the supervision of a physician who is an expert in the care of HIV-infected patients. a repeat test should be performed three months later. if the initial antibody test is negative. Sometimes. Antibody tests are the most common initial screening test used. If that test is positive. a second test (Western blot) is done to confirm the result. blood is drawn for an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). First. Other tests can detect antibodies in body fluids other than blood such as saliva. urine. Blood is obtained by a finger prick and blotted on a filter strip. These drugs are called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and have substantially reduced HIV-related complications and deaths. If the antibody test and the Western blot are both positive. several drugs have become available to fight both the HIV infection and its associated infections and cancers. there is no cure for HIV/AIDS. an inexpensive screening test is done. All positive antibody screening tests must be confirmed with a follow-up blood test called the Western blot to make a positive diagnosis. Other tests. the tests are usually repeated at a later date. However. Testing for HIV is usually a two-step process." meaning that it is neither positive nor negative. The filter strip is mailed in a protective envelope to a laboratory to be tested. and vaginal secretions. the Western blot is "indeterminate. A combination of at least three drugs is recommended to suppress the . thus preventing the spread of the virus to others. In addition. For example. so results can take one to three days to come back. Some of these are designed to be rapid tests that produce results in approximately 20 minutes. HIV home-testing kits are available at many local drug stores. the likelihood of a person being HIV infected is >99%.
Examples of NNRTIs are efavirenz (Sustiva). The following are the different classes of medications used in treatment. rash. and painful nerve damage. Reverse transcriptase inhibitors: These drugs inhibit the ability of the virus to make copies of itself. Protease inhibitors (PIs): These medications interrupt virus replication at a later step in its life cycle. Using PIs with NRTIs reduces the chances that the virus will become resistant to medications. abnormal body-fat distribution. Integrase inhibitors stop HIV genes from becoming incorporated into the human cell's DNA. atazanavir (Reyataz). zalcitabine (ddC/Hivid). liver toxicity. It is given in injectable form like insulin. didanosine (ddI/Videx). FDA in 2008. l amivudine (3TC/Epivir). a newer member of this class of drugs. indinavir sulphate (Crixivan). a lopinavir and ritonavir combination (Kaletra). amprenavir (Agenerase). They include decreased levels of red or white blood cells.S. . o Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIS) are commonly used in combination with NRTIs to help keep the virus from multiplying. was approved by the U. and tenofovir (Viread).fosamprenavir (Lexiva). darunavir (Prezista). preventing cells from producing new viruses.Raltegravir (Isentress) was the first drug in this class approved by the FDA in 2007. This is a newer class of drugs recently approved to help treat those who have developed resistance to the other medications. Fusion and entry inhibitors are newer agents that keep HIV from entering human cells. Antiretroviral viral drugs stop viral replication and delay the development of AIDS. they also have side effects that can be severe. The following are examples: o Nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).virus from replicating and boost the immune system. These include ritonavir (Norvir). Etravirine (Intelence). gastrointestinal problems. Both drugs are used in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. and nelfinavir (Viracept). tipranavir(Aptivus).stavudine (d4T/Zerit). diabetes. However.saquinavir (Invirase). elevated cholesterol level. anddelavirdine (Rescriptor).emtricitabine (FTC/Emtriva). These include medications such aszidovudine (AZT/Retrovir). Another drug called maraviroc (Selzentry) binds to a protein on the surface of the human cell and can be given by mouth. inflammation of the pancreas. abacavir (ABC/Ziagen). nevirapine (Viramune). Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon/T20) was the first drug in this group.
Infected individuals are also educated about the disease process. follow recommended guidelines for protecting yourself against needle sticks and exposure to contaminated fluids. HIV Prevention Despite significant efforts. such as sharing needles or having unprotected sex. Use a condom in other situations. unprotected sex means sex without a barrier such as a condom. Therefore. In this context. Because condoms break. There is no way to know with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected. Only water-based lubricants should be used with latex condoms. There are certain drugs. The only way to prevent infection by the virus is to avoid behaviors that put you at risk. Have sex with a single partner who is uninfected. This obviously has limited appeal. even they are not perfect protection. Condoms offer some protection if used properly and consistently. Do not share needles or inject illicit drugs. and attempts are made to improve the quality of their life. Only condoms made of latex should be used. All people with HIV should be counseled about avoiding the spread of the disease. Mutual monogamy between uninfected partners eliminates the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. however. Here are some prevention strategies: Abstain from sex. If you work in a health-care field. Occasionally. Many people infected with HIV don't have any symptoms. seeing a physician to discuss anti-HIV medications is crucial. that are harmful to the baby. If you have engaged in risky behaviors. Follow-up People with HIV infection should be under the care of a physician who is experienced in treating the infection. they may break or leak. there is no effective vaccine against HIV. get tested to see if you have HIV. but it absolutely protects against HIV transmission by this route. . Pregnant women who are HIV-positive should seek care immediately because HAART therapy reduces the risk of transmitting the virus to the fetus.
Drugs used to treat HIV and AIDS do not eliminate the infection. and many people with HIV can expect to live for decades with proper treatment. the virus may become resistant to the available drugs. Although currently there is no promising vaccine. Even shorter courses of treatment are effective. In consultation with their physician. and the manifestations of AIDS may develop. Western blot. 3TC. zidovudine. lamivudine. symptoms of AIDS . people with AIDS lived only for a couple of years. AIDS symptoms. Prevention efforts have sharply reduced HIV infection in young children and have the potential to sharply limit new infections in other populations. The key is to get tested for HIV as early as possible in pregnancy. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The risk of HIV transmission from a pregnant woman to her baby is significantly reduced if the mother takes medications during pregnancy. HIV symptoms. Synonyms and Keywords HIV/AIDS. dideoxyinosine. work continues on this front. and delivery and her baby takes medications for the first six weeks of life. STDs. stavudine. highly active antiretroviral therapy. ddC. many women opt to avoid breastfeeding to minimize the risk of transmission after the baby is born. human immunodeficiency virus. HAART. symptoms of HIV. Medications help the immune system recover and fight infections and prevent cancers from occurring. Intensive research efforts are being focused on developing new and better treatments. AZT. HIV/AIDS Prognosis There is no cure for HIV infection. Medications have extended the average life expectancy. labor. Eventually. though not as optimal. An increasing number have a normal life expectancy if they adhere carefully to medication regimens. Before we had any treatment for the virus. It is important for the person to remember that he or she is still contagious even when receiving effective treatment. sexually transmitted diseases. zalcitabine. EIA. medications have substantially improved the outlook and survival rates. d4T. enzyme immunoassay. Fortunately.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.