3.MODEL LAYOUT: It is known as 3D model.

The models of the plant and equipment with their appropriate scale are used in preparing model layout. Its scale measures ¼ inch = 1 feet. It is costlier compared to others. COMPUTER BASED LAYOUT Two types of computer software are available ,construction programes and improvement programmes.

TYPES OF LAYOUTS
1. Process or functional layout 2. Product or line layout 3. Cellular Layout 4. Project or fixed position layout 5. Combined / Hybrid

A) PROCESS OR FUNCTIONAL LAYOUT Process layout also called “ layout by function” is generally associated with batch production. The factory is divided into process units (or departments), and within these process units all similar facilities are grouped together. Process, for example, is kept at one place; milling machines are placed at another place; drilling machines are kept at third place; gear-cutting machines are located at fourth place; and so on and so forth.

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under this layout remains fixed at one place. This layout lies between process layout & line layout. ships. pressure vessels and others. Machines are placed in groups. The heavy materials. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) was first introduced in England in 1968. It is easier to control than strictly process layout and has more flexibility than a line layout. The grouping of cells enables the performance of similar type of functions for a group of products. machines and tools are brought to the location to complete the job. Minor components and sub-assemblies are also brought to the site for assembly. advantages of line layout into a situation where pure line layout is not practicable.a supervisor in the gear shop is expected to have good knowledge of different types of gear shaping. components or sub-assemblies. it is a mixture of traditional automation and state–of–the art. C) CELLULAR OR GROUP LAYOUT Here. computer technology. Each machine groups make a group of parts which require similar treatment. 16 . gear hobbing and gear shaving machines. heavy machinery. D) PROJECT OR FIXED POSITION LAYOUT: Project type of industries such as manufacturers of aeroplanes. Men. large turbines. which involve heavy materials and sub-assemblies have this type of layout. locomotives.

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but. ancillary services. industrial engineering is concerned with minimizing cost and management is gambling that there is a sufficient difference in its favour. A combination of the Product Layout. the water treatment plant are arranged on the functional basis.E:COMBINED OR HYBRID LAYOUT The application of the principles of Product Layout and Process Layout in their strict meanings is difficult to come across. In the final Analysis the combination that products at the least total cost is preferred. while the assembly areas often employ the Product Layout. the manufacturing of glycerine. fabrication tends to be the Process Layout. In plants involving the fabrication of parts & assembly. Example: in manufacturing plants. It is possible to have both types of layout efficiently combined form if the products manufactured are somewhat similar. 18 . Process Layout is noticed in most of the established companies. such as heating. the machinery manufacturing soap is arranged on the product principle. the power house. Marketing is concerned with maximizing income.

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