EFFECT OF ECONOMIC INDICATORS ON PROFITABILITY OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR OFPAKISTAN
ABSTRACT A study has been undertaken of the Pakistan pharmaceuticals sector to identify effects of economic condition of Pakistan which represent by economic indicators on the profitability of pharmaceuticals sector and to make recommendations on how the industry could make a better profitability by considering economic indicators. The primary purpose of the study is to make an inventory of the sector, looking at its relevance to Pakistan. To elaborate analytically we followed the regression analysis between indicators and profitability that are based on statistical information in a study on five (5) companies listed at the Karachi Stock Exchange. Keywords: pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan, profitability, economic indicators. INTRODUCTION Pakistan counts close to 430 pharmaceutical companies, over 90% of which are national companies. Almost all of these companies manufacture finished products: there is very little manufacturing of raw materials in Pakistan. The Pakistani market represents only one-third of 1% of the total world pharmaceutical market but its annual growth rate is twice as fast. The market is evenly split between national and multinational companies. It is pertinent to mention here that Pakistan imports around three times more pharmaceuticals than it exports. While imports come from all over the world, exports mainly go to a small number of African countries. The Pakistani pharmaceutical industry has not yet attained a satisfactory share of the national market when compared to other Asian markets. In several Asian countries, national companies take prominent places among the top 10 companies, whereas in Pakistan only two national companies could enter into the top 10 positions recently. Also, Pakistan has not yet taken a position in the international market that would be commensurate with the size of the country and the undeniable professionalism of its pharmaceutical industrial personnel. LITERATURE REVIEW Pharmaceutical sector in Pakistan Global scenario The pharmaceutical industry in any country is considered as the mainstay of public health. Looking at the global scenario, the importance given by developing nations to the pharmaceutical sector can be
As a result. it is that the more a country is "export oriented". with annual growth of 6%.clearly identified by including healthcare and pharmaceutical industry in their health and welfare strategy. In Pakistan. Hong Kong. four each in Indonesia and Thailand. Eight of the top 10 companies in India are national.) Ltd. are ranked No. Nearly all of Pakistan’s leading pharmaceutical companies has maintained high standards to ensure compliance of all operations of production and quality control under the cGMP guidelines. they are now successfully exporting their products to various international territories. and one in the Philippines. two in Taiwan. the production of high quality products at current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) . During the last decade. 8 and 10 in terms of value and their growth rate in the IMS Q3 2006 report. they made substantial investments in production facilities and introduced the latest technology along with many new high quality products that were previously either unavailable or available on a limited scale at very expensive prices. Local (Pakistani) pharmaceutical companies started in the 1960s but their growth increased in the 1980s. the better its national companies perform on the home market (or vice versa). Malaysia. Viet Nam and Pakistan have no national companies in their top 10. the developed countries of North America. The key to the success of Pakistani pharmaceutical companies is based on a simple formula.e.) Ltd and Hilton Pharma (Pvt. As the following graph indicates. The trend is changing though: two national companies. national companies hold 47%1 of the home market: for India the figure stands at 75%. Getz Pharma Pakistan (Pvt. While there is a good explanation for Hong Kong and Singapore (the Asian operational centre of multinational companies) and Viet Nam (only recent liberation of the market).compliant facilities and offering them at the most economical rates. Latin America 4 Asia/Africa/Australia 8% Japan 11% Europe 30% North America 47%
Pakistan overview The pharmaceutical industry is considered the backbone of public health services in Pakistan. National companies in the domestic market The prominence of national companies in their home markets varies considerably. If there is a trend. seven out of the top 10 companies are national. In Korea.
. This is strategically important both for the well being of the population in general and for the provision of good yet affordable healthcare in particular. i. Pakistani pharmaceutical companies have contributed substantially towards public health. Europe and Japan have the largest share of the global pharmaceutical market. there is no excuse for Malaysia and Pakistan not capturing and increasing existing market share in this sector. Singapore. By providing quality medicines at economical rates in this fashion. The global pharmaceutical market is valued at no less than US$440 billon. The low cost of production and the huge potential of this sector has attracted major multinationals to establish their operations and production facilities in Pakistan.
the willingness to do things together with colleagues in Pakistan and abroad.5.
• The mobilization of the young intellectuals of the country for adapted and appropriate pharmaceutical R&D. 17.6) Growth in the sector Based on IMS growth in the pharmaceutical sector of Pakistan in percentage was: Market growth in volume 14% per year Market growth in value 10% per year DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
CONCLUSION The Pakistani pharmaceutical industry has come to a crossroads. 2) in Bangladesh. It is fast outgrowing its capacity to live and thrive on the scale of Pakistan alone. A more intensive participation of Pakistani companies in the future may be helpful in increasing the exports of the industry (See further details on Asia HealthCare in 4.Sri Lanka is possibly the strongest alternative medicine market in Asia. Companies namely Beximco (No. which are mostly exporting allopathic products to Sri Lanka. will no longer accept generic medicines that cannot present BA and BE certificates. 10) in India. Aristo (No. Such a
. It has to re-orientate its focus from inside-looking to outsidelooking. The first Pakistani participant was Nabiqasim at No. participated in the Asia HealthCare Buyers-Sellers’ meetings held in Singapore.1 and 5. and by defending the interests of the industry in international organizations. The allopathic market is of special interest to the Pakistani pharmaceutical companies. by easing or eliminating policies that may hamper the internationalization of the industry. by supporting the search for high quality. RECOMMENDATION Material infrastructure There is a need for a bio-availability and bio-equivalence laboratory. • And above all.2. A number of Critical Success Factors will ensure the success of that endeavor: • • An unlimited commitment to quality. to which Pakistan could export. The organization of a learning and information system for the industry.
The Government has shown its eagerness to support the industry. The future looks promising but also full of challenges that will require diligence. A few countries. hard work and initiative. 8) and Alkem (No.
negotiating the purchase of machinery and equipment. to save costs in overheads that have no bearing on individual company strategy and to achieve economies of scale. Therefore. this process can probably best start in other developing countries. and in particular the very stringent regulatory policies in highly industrialized markets. This can be done in almost every discipline of business: purchasing raw materials and intermediates. A bigger picture There are probably few industries that need such a large playing field as the pharmaceutical industry.
. companies should form partnerships with each other to rationalize product portfolios. International alliances It will soon become desirable to extend these strategic alliances to other countries. the industry must seek alliances with universities to explore common projects for R&D. Intellectual infrastructure In spite of what is often said. The pharmaceutical market is a global market by definition and. the common exploration and exploitation of international markets.laboratory could be attached to the pharmacy faculty of a university. the industry and the Government should work hand in hand to influence and shape the WTO policies in favour of the industry. In the industrial world. alliances should be sought with "second tier" companies. it is imperative to shift the industry’s focus from import substitution to export orientation. and in particular the very stringent regulatory policies in highly industrialized markets. It is suggested that the Government in collaboration with the industry establish such an R&D centre and perhaps announce an R&D prize to motivate young scientists to apply their acquired skills and creativity to R&D. procedures and policies. i. In addition. The search for conventional allopathic medicines is out of reach for Pakistani companies because of the lack of capital and sufficient scientific personnel.e. a developing country such as Pakistan could engage in pharmaceutical research and development (R&D). this process can probably best start in other developing countries. Because of the idiosyncratic nature of the pharmaceutical industry. It is likely that private capital for such a project can be found if needed. there is no chance for the Pakistani pharmaceutical industry to achieve its full potential for development without actively participating on a global scale. such as plant medicines. consequently. Alliances in the country Within Pakistan. But R&D is possible in at least two interesting fields: the galenic improvement of generic medicines and the scientific underpinning of traditional medicines. Because of the idiosyncratic nature of the pharmaceutical industry. In any case. participation in international events. Changing paradigms from re-active to pro-active policies The pharmaceutical industry needs to develop an understanding of WTO rules. Rather than waiting for WTO decisions to start affecting the industry (often negatively). It will soon become desirable to extend these strategic alliances to other countries as well. the industry should take advantage of the WTO policies whenever an opportunity arises (such as the “mailbox agreement”) and optimally utilize it in the field of operation within the parameters of WTO membership. etc.
.the giants of the future. who will still allow their Pakistani partner a large degree of independence.