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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, VOL. 7, NO. 2, APRIL 2010

**Optimization of Group Elevator Scheduling With Advance Information
**

Jin Sun, Student Member, IEEE, Qian-Chuan Zhao, Senior Member, IEEE, and Peter B. Luh, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract—Group elevator scheduling has received considerable attention due to its importance to transportation efﬁciency for mid-rise and high-rise buildings. One important trend to improve elevator systems is to collect advance trafﬁc information. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to develop new scheduling methods which can effectively utilize such information. This paper is to solve the group elevator scheduling problem with advance trafﬁc information. This problem is difﬁcult due to various trafﬁc patterns, complicated car dynamics, and combinatorial explosion of the search space. A two-level formulation is developed with passenger-to-car assignment at the high-level and single car dispatching that is innovatively formulated as passenger-to-trip assignment at the low-level. Detailed car dynamics are embedded in simulation models for performance evaluation. Taking advantage of advance information, a new door action control method is suggested to increase the ﬂexibility of elevators. In view of the hierarchical problem structure, a two-level optimization framework is established. Key problem characteristics are exploited to develop an effective trip-based heuristic for single car dispatching, and a hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method for passenger-to-car assignment which can be extended to solve a generic class of sequential decision problems. Numerical results demonstrate solution quality, computational efﬁciency, beneﬁt of advance information and the new door action control method, and values of new features in our hybrid method. Note to Practitioners—This paper is motivated by the needs to develop new elevator scheduling methods that can make effective use of advance trafﬁc information. A novel two-level formulation is developed, with detailed car dynamics embedded in simulation models for performance evaluation. Taking advantage of advance information, a new door action control method is suggested for car dynamics to increase the ﬂexibility of elevators. Key problem characteristics are exploited to develop an effective two-level optimization framework, where the high-level solution method can be extended to solve a generic class of sequential decision problems. NuManuscript received January 04, 2008. First published August 18, 2009; current version published April 07, 2010. This paper was recommended for publication by Associate Editor D. Ghose and Editor Y. Narahari upon evaluation of the reviewers’ comments. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 60274011, Grant 60574067, Grant 60721003, and Grant 60736027, in part by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China under Grant NCET-04-0094, and in part by the National 111 International Collaboration Project of China, and by the China Scholarship Council. J. Sun was with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs Mansﬁeld, CT 06269-2157 USA. He is now with the Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, TNList, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (e-mail: sunjin00@mails. tsinghua.edu.cn). Q.-C. Zhao is with the Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, TNList, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China (e-mail: zhaoqc@tsinghua.edu.cn). P. B. Luh is with the Center for Intelligent and Networked Systems, Department of Automation, TNList, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China and also with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs Mansﬁeld, CT 06269-2157 USA (e-mail: peter.luh@uconn. edu) . Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TASE.2009.2024242

merical results demonstrate values of advance information and the new door action control method, and effectiveness of our solution method. Further improvement is needed to reduce CPU time for online implementation. Index Terms—Advance trafﬁc information, destination entry, genetic algorithm, group elevator scheduling, nested partitions.

I. INTRODUCTION ROUP elevator scheduling is important to transportation efﬁciency for mid-rise and high-rise buildings, and how to improve the service quality of elevators has received considerable attention. In conventional elevator systems, only up and down buttons are available for hall calls, and passengers cannot specify their destinations until they enter the elevators. The systems need to make decisions in the presence of uncertainties on passenger arrival times and destinations [1]. Such decisions are sometimes unsatisfactory. For instance, passengers often have a long wait for the next elevator because they missed an elevator that left a few seconds previously; passengers often have to wait for the door to close even if no one is going to board. The reason why these two phenomena arise is that due to lack of trafﬁc information, the elevator systems have to rely on door dwell time, the minimum time interval to keep the door open, to decide when to close the door. To cope with trafﬁc uncertainties, advanced technologies have been introduced to collect and predict trafﬁc information. In a Destination Entry system, passengers can enter their destinations through keyboards before they get into the cars [2]. For these systems, passenger arrival times, origins, and destinations are known before the systems make decisions. The latest advancements in sensor technology and information technology further open up the possibility to collect future trafﬁc information within a certain time window [3]–[6]. Beyond such information, statistical data and/or statistical forecasts have been exploited to create virtual future passenger trafﬁc [7]–[9]. More information enables the development of elevator systems with better performance. Nevertheless, traditional elevator scheduling methods do not have mechanisms to utilize advance information collected, and it remains an open and challenging issue to develop new ones which can effectively utilize such information. This problem is difﬁcult because of various trafﬁc patterns, complicated car dynamics, and combinatorial explosion of the search space. After a review of related literature in Section II, the problem formulation is presented in Section III. Advance information has been modeled by assuming that trafﬁc information (i.e., passenger arrival times, their origins and destinations) within a look-ahead time window is fully available. A rolling horizon

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Inamoto et al. The “Estimated Time to Destination” (ETD) method performs immediate call assignment to optimize the total passenger service time by considering both the time for each elevator to serve the new call and the impact of the new allocation on all other passengers in the system [24]. . zoning approaches were developed. In [6]. a two-level formulation can be established. The new features of the hybrid method are also shown to be valuable in improving the solution quality and reducing the computational time. The Branch and Bound method is used to generate the optimal performance. where subproblems are solved by ordinal optimization-based local search. A two-level optimization framework is developed for each snapshot problem in Section IV based on the hierarchical problem structure and the car-wise additive property of the objective function. To deal with various trafﬁc patterns. whereas non-greedy ones enjoy more ﬂexibility of elevator control. Although this method is computationally efﬁcient. a single car dispatching strategy is innovatively represented as a passenger-totrip assignment. the low-level is to optimize single car dispatching for individual cars and return the optimized results for the evaluation of the given high-level assignment.e. [10] and Luh et al.SUN et al. with assigning passengers to cars at the high-level and determining the processing orders of jobs for each car at the low-level. making them more intelligent and efﬁcient. Many simple heuristic approaches have been developed. and reduces modeling complexity. Special Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. The detailed car dynamics are embedded in individual car simulation models only for performance evaluation. This method. Downloaded on April 14. with passenger-to-car assignment at the high-level and single car dispatching at the low-level. an effective trip-based heuristic is developed on the basis of an observation on the optimal dispatching strategy to sequentially decide passengers to be served in each trip for individual cars. is very time-consuming for larger problems due to its inherent complexity. separates them from car dynamics. By exploiting the two-level concept in [10] and [6] for each snapshot. Then. a new door action control method without relying on door dwell time is suggested for car dynamics to provide more ﬂexibility for elevators. Only a few papers have studied destination entry elevator systems. and reinforcement learning [15] have been used to develop intelligent elevator scheduling methods. up-peak. Key problem characteristics are innovatively exploited to develop efﬁcient algorithms for both levels. a job-based two-level formation is established. and the highest unanswered ﬂoor ﬁrst [11]–[13]. down-peak. Restrictions apply. and several special assumptions are imposed on car dynamics and trafﬁc proﬁles. the objective function is ﬂexible within a large range of car wise or passenger-wise (which can be turned into car-wise) additive measures. LITERATURE REVIEW For conventional elevator systems without destination entry systems. and interﬂoor) and different trafﬁc densities. and top ranked nodes are selectively optimized by using dynamic programming. the detailed car dynamics are embedded in individual car simulation models. These methods generally require rich experiences from professionals or huge ofﬂine training efforts to achieve good results. The structure of the optimal control policy to minimize the discounted or average passenger waiting time for up-peak trafﬁc has been studied in [1]. and the scheduling problem is modeled as a Markov decision problem. II. extensive research has been conducted. a two-level integer formulation is established with passenger-to-car assignment at the high-level and single car dispatching at the low-level. Since the car trajectory can be recovered through simulation models. Individual cars are coupled through serving a common pool of passengers. Taking advantage of advance information. where each car is assigned a number of ﬂoors grouped together as a zone [12].2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Once the passenger-to-car assignment is ﬁxed. and non-greedy search strategies which postpone passengers’ assignments for batch optimization or consider reassignment of passengers by using updated trafﬁc information [18]–[20]. At the high-level. [17]. the performance is not that good due to its greedy nature. they lose a signiﬁcant amount of ﬂexibility [15]. At the low-level. however. This representation abstracts key ingredients of detailed passenger service process. While the zoning approaches are robust in heavy trafﬁc. Greedy strategies require less computation time. Exploiting this “separable” structure. such as collective control in which a car stops to serve the nearest call in its current movement direction. Search-based approaches are developed to dynamically explore possible car assignments to optimize certain criteria such as the average passenger waiting time. These approaches includes greedy search strategies which perform immediate call assignment [16]. The high-level is then to optimize passenger-to-car assignment based on the evaluation from the low-level. Although these methods are generally computationally efﬁcient. artiﬁcial neural network [23]. Extensive testing has been conducted in Section V. the longest queue ﬁrst.: OPTIMIZATION OF GROUP ELEVATOR SCHEDULING 353 scheme is then used to move the time window forward to construct snapshot problems periodically or as needed [6]. [6] study the case with future trafﬁc information available in a certain time window. fuzz logic [22]. [14]. the formulation is complicated due to numerous time-related continuous and integer variables. an innovative method is developed by exploiting the sequential decision nature of elevator scheduling and innovatively embedding genetic algorithm into the “local optimization” and “global veriﬁcation and correction” framework of nested partitions. A decomposition and coordination approach is developed to exploit the separable nature of this problem. Given a high-level passenger-to-car assignment. Near-optimal solutions are obtained in a timely fashion for various trafﬁc patterns (i.. This hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method (HNPGA) is also suitable to solve a class of sequential decision problems with certain characteristics. they can only generate good performance for speciﬁc trafﬁc patterns. the operation of carrying a passenger from origin to destination is divided into two jobs: on-job and off-job. Based on a key concept “trip” which denotes the car movement in a single direction. Advanced intelligent technologies such as expert system [21]. Advance information and the new door action control method can signiﬁcantly improve solution quality. Dynamic programming is used to derive the optimal policy. Nevertheless. different cars are no longer coupled. In [10]. The elevator system is modeled as a queuing system by using stochastic processes to describe the passenger arrival process and service process.

(1) Fig. and unload them at their corresponding destination ﬂoors. Low-Level: Single Car Dispatching Given the high-level passenger-to-car assignment . as shown in Fig. 2. separates them from car dynamics. At the current scheduling point . and reduces modeling complexity.. nonempty trips are required to serve . their are ﬁxed. Then. otherwise. Then. This representation captures key ingredients of detailed passenger service process. For passengers who are already inside the cars before . the loading and unloading of one passenger will be in the same trip. At each stop ﬂoor.. signment. Fig. deﬁned as an element equals 1 if passenger is assigned where the Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. To guarantee these variables feasible. It is assumed that an elevator will not change its directions until all the passengers inside are transported to their destinations. APRIL 2010 to car . III. i. the service sequence of all the passengers can be uniquely determined simply by sequentially connecting the service sequences of individual trips. a single empty trip or multiple empty trips. the decision variable of the low-level can be represented as the passenger-to-trip assignment. Re1 if passenger gardless of the number of empty trips between two nonempty trips. A. The car dynamics are presented in Section III-C. Passenger-to-Car Assignment Constraints: Each passenger must be assigned to one and only one car. the following constraints should be satisﬁed. assumptions including no-wait and ﬁrst-come-ﬁrst-served are made to reduce the search space of dynamic programming in the expense of the solution quality. . PROBLEM FORMULATION cars. Once the passengers served in one trip are determined. which is in essence to determine the service sequence (i. The most efﬁcient one should be the single empty trip connecting the last stop ﬂoor of the former nonempty trip and the ﬁrst stop ﬂoor of the latter nonempty trip. VOL. loading/unloading) of all the passengers assigned to the same car [10]. and those who arrive between and . Two-level problem formulation. i. the service sequence of those passengers can be uniquely determined. Further. with a given passenger-to-trip assignment. Then. Those passengers are sorted in the ascending . and 0. and the low-level passenger-to-trip assignment for single car dispatching in Section III-B. Since each nonempty trip will serve at least one passenger. the low-level is to solve for each car the single car dispatching problem.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. the following constraints should be satisﬁed. A rolling horizon scheme is used to shift the time window to construct snapshot problems periodically or as needed. a concept “trip” is introduced to describe the car movement in a single direction (i. and the destination ﬂoor are assumed given. those who are still waiting. followed by objective function and overall formulation in Section III-D.. 1 [6]. B. with the high-level passenger-to-car assignment in Section III-A. where trafﬁc information within the window is assumed available. For passenger arrival time . NO. the origin ﬂoor . otherwise. Therefore. 2. Following the two-level concept in [10] and [6]. It should be noted that the car movement between two adjacent nonempty trips could be arbitrary. 2. To facilitate the deﬁnition of the low-level decision variables. Let denote the set of passengers assigned to car : .e. denoted by . similar to most of the current elevator systems. the order of their arrival times. the car will travel up (down) to sequentially load passengers that assigned to this trip in the increasing (decreasing) order of their origin ﬂoors and the increasing order of their arrival times at each origin ﬂoor.354 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. High-Level: Passenger-to-Car Assignment The high-level decision variable is the passenger-to-car asmatrix of binary variables. and 0. Restrictions apply.e. a two-level integer programming formulation is established for each snapshot problem. where the element equals is assigned to trip . includes those who are already inside the cars..e. all the unloading services come before the loading services. passengers to be considered. Consider a building with F ﬂoors and a group of The future trafﬁc information is modeled by using a look-ahead time window of length . as shown in Fig. Assignment decisions are only made on those who have not been picked up. To guarantee the decision variable feasible. and ignored otherwise.e. Downloaded on April 14. the car will immediately move to the ﬁrst stop ﬂoor of the latter nonempty trip for improving service efﬁciency. the at most passenger-to-trip assignment for is deﬁned as an matrix of binary variables. up or down). Rolling horizon scheme. In an up (down) trip. the entire car trajectory can be divided into multiple trips in which passengers are sequentially served. after serving the former nonempty trip. 7. 1.

the performance will be average passenger service time. or board the car above ﬂoor and leave the car under ﬂoor . and capacity constraints (4). The scale of our formulation (i. Restrictions apply.e. (5) Since car dynamics (5) are too complicated to be expressed explicitly. Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. . passenger-to-trip assignment constraints (2). unload/load passengers. When the coefﬁcients and both equal 1. Then (4) Fig. the number of decision variable and constraints) is much smaller than the two existing formulations. a large number of passengerwise and car-wise performance measures (e. the dwell time represents the minimum amount of time that the door should stay open after fully opened. denotes the capacity of car . as depicted in Fig. Nevertheless. and keep the door open until the dwell time expires. In this way. Equation (3) means that one of the two numbers must be zero. a stop ﬂoor are determined by car dynamics In the traditional car dynamics. Objective Function and Overall Formulation The usual objective to measure passenger satisfaction is weighted sum of average passenger waiting time and average passenger transit time. and then pickup times ’s and departure times ’s can be obtained. the determines the service selow-level decision variable .. and the transit time is the time interval between the pickup time and the departure time . (6) (7) Equations (6) and (7) imply that all the passenger-wise additive objective functions can be rewritten in car-wise additive forms by reorganizing the original form based on the passenger-to-car assignment. same direction constraints (3).. Let . and functions as a control variable to accommodate uncertain future arrivals. (3) The two terms in the left-hand side denote the number of passengers who travel down and the number of passengers who travel up in trip . 3. once the passenger-to-trip assignment is given. The objective function is as follows: The left-hand side denotes the number of passengers in car when the car travels between ﬂoor and ﬂoor in trip . respectively. (2) Same Direction Constraints: By deﬁnition of “trip.) can be derived.. they are embedded in individual car simulation models. Car Dynamics The high-level decision variable determines passengers to be served in individual cars . The right-hand side C. 3. A new door action control method is then suggested by removing the dwell time to provide more ﬂexibility to the behavior of elevators: the car could leave the stop ﬂoor immediately even if the dwell time is not expired. Then up. It can be seen that our formulation is an integer programming formulation.: OPTIMIZATION OF GROUP ELEVATOR SCHEDULING 355 Passenger-to-Trip Assignment Constraints: Each passenger must be assigned to one and only one trip. the waiting time is the time interval between the arrival time and the pickup time . Capacity Constraints: At any time. Here. D. the number of passengers in the car must be less than or equal to the capacity of the car. etc. Moreover. as long as the car ﬁnishes all the loading/unloading tasks at this ﬂoor. and there is no need to rely on door dwell time to control the door action. For passengers in . . and the car could stay and wait for passengers to be served even if the dwell time is expired. the passengers to be loaded and/or unloaded at one stop ﬂoor are ﬁxed. elevators would be more intelligent and efﬁcient. The overall problem is to minimize J (6) subject to passenger-to-car assignment constraints (1).” the passengers assigned to the same trip must travel in the same diand denote the set of passengers who travel rection. the car trajectory can be recovered. a sequence quence of these passengers. For passenger i. since no speciﬁc assumptions are made about them. Traditional car dynamics. Then..2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. it will ﬁrst open the door.e. . i. Downloaded on April 14.SUN et al. average passenger service time. implying that all the passengers are in the same direction. once the car reaches a stop ﬂoor. the formulation above applies to various trafﬁc patterns like the formulation in [6]. denote the set of passengers in car when the car travels Let . average passenger waiting time.g. Given and of stop ﬂoors and the passengers to be picked up or dropped off at each stop ﬂoor can be obtained. By adopting either kind of car dynamics mentioned above. i. The decision variables are the passenger-to-car assignment and the passenger-to-trip assignment for each car. The car movement between two stop ﬂoors and the car action at . the objective function is rather ﬂexible with respect to such choices.e. including those passengers who between ﬂoor and ﬂoor board the car under ﬂoor and leave the car above ﬂoor . Based on those simulation models. and the set of passengers who travel down. as mentioned in Section III-B. thus achieving better performance.

To facilitate NP’s application. a two-level optimization framework can be .. where element as a vector of length equals if passenger is assigned to car . 1) Traditional Nested Partitions Method: To illustrate the application of the traditional NP method at the high-level. [26]. The key idea is that the optimal dispatching strategy should be a tradeoff between two 1This formulation is actually a bi-level programming formulation [25]. Nested partitions performs search in the entire feasible region . This representation automatically satisﬁes passenger-to-car assignment constraints (1). the feasible region is equivalent to the set of all the vectors of From (9) and (10).. The key idea of this method is to systematically partition the feasible decision space or region into subregions. the number of passengers who sengers who travel down. tween any two ﬂoors. . Based on car dynamics (5). Most of the existing methods make use of the linearity of the problems. At the high-level.356 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. i. Given a high-level passenger-to-car assignment. lected from unassigned passengers. a trip-based heuristic is developed in [27] to sequentially decide passengers to be served in each trip. turns the original constrained search problem into an unconstrained one without enlarging the search space. Then.e.e. naturally derived. APRIL 2010 IV. Two-Level Optimization Framework Taking advantage of the hierarchical problem structure and the car-wise additive objective function. a two-level optimization framework is developed in Section IV-A. . Key problem structures are utilized to develop efﬁcient algorithms for both levels. i. problems (10) for individual cars and provide the optimized performance to the high-level for the calculation of the objective function value in (9). the low-level optimizes the single car dispatching i. The current research in bi-level programming mainly concentrates on solving linear problems. the passenger-to-trip assignment generated will be feasible. Low-Level: Optimizing Single Car Dispatching via a Trip-Based Heuristic To effectively solve the single car dispatching problem (10). To determine which passengers to be served in the next trip (trip ). a hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method is developed in Section IV-C to optimize passenger-to-car assignment. robust. The assignment candidate with the minimum performance is selected as the next trip.. Since constraints (2)–(4) are only imposed on low-level deci. and then to concentrate the computational efforts on this subregion. the corresponding performance of the passenger-to-trip assignment can be obtained. the low-level individual single car dispatching problems and will solve return the sum of the optimized performance values (divided ) as the performance of the given high-level decision by variable. VOL. A. Based on the evaluation from the low-level. implying constraint (2) is satisﬁed. For each candidate constraints (3) and (4) can be easily veriﬁed. C. The candidates that satisfy both constraints will be evaluated by using a carefully designed objective which takes the two above factors into account. a list of passenger assignment candidates will ﬁrst be se. and the number of passengers inside the car betravel up. an effective trip-based heuristic is introduced in Section IV-B to optimize the single car dispatching problems for individual cars. the original problem formulation could be rewritten as follows: (8) subject to (1)–(4). At the low-level. all the (12 4) binary matrices subject to passenger-to-car assignment constraints (1).e. each feasible passenger-to-car assignment matrix will be represented . Restrictions apply. B. Given a high-level decision variable . and consequently helps improve search efﬁciency. optimizing single car dispatching at the low-level. converted into1 (9) where (10) factors: 1) serving more passengers in one trip to take advantage of batch effect and 2) serving fewer passengers in one trip to avoid extra long waiting of passengers who arrive later. the most promising region is gradually reduced by further partitioning.” and “converges to the global optimum in ﬁnite time with probability one” [28]. The process repeats until the trip assignment of all the passengers is determined. 2. Therefore. NO. to identify the most promising subregion that is most likely to contain the optimal solution through sampling. “This method is simple.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. . the formulation above can be further sion variables. can be easily calculated. along with adjustment by backtracking if needed. High-Level: Optimizing Passenger-to-Car Assignment via a Hybrid Nested Partitions (NPs) and Genetic Algorithm Method On the basis of the evaluation from the low-level. the high-level is then to optimize passenger-to-car assignment (9). and optimizing passenger-to-car assignment at the high-level. the highlevel is to optimize the passenger-to-car assignment by using nested partitions (NPs) which has been proved to be powerful for many difﬁcult optimization problems including the assignment problem [28]. an exelevators and passengers (Example with ample 2 in Section V) is used in the following. 7. SOLUTION METHODOLOGY In view of the hierarchical problem structure and the car-wise additive property of the objective function. as the terms in the left-hand side of these two inequalities. the number of pas. and hence cannot be extended to our case Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. Downloaded on April 14. As the iterations proceed.

this partitioning scheme may lead to difﬁculties in differentiating those subregions.SUN et al. and thus low efﬁciency. 4. the next is to estimate the promising index for each subregion and to select the next most promising region based on those indices. e. To make this method efﬁcient. as will be demonstrated in Fig. so there will be subregions. and the performance values at those randomly selected points are used to estimate the promising index for each region. Local search such as genetic algorithm can improve the estimation of the promising indices by using the samples as initial points and trying to ﬁnd new samples with better performance [29]. In each iteration. The region surrounding region.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. the method with a ﬁxed backtracks to a new promising region becomes the next backtracking rule. where each element can only take a value in the set . and the remaining regions and the surrounding region are aggregated as the new surrounding region. Nonetheless. the entire feasible region at iteration 0 (since there is no information about the location of good solutions) and at iteration the region is the “surrounding region. key problem characteristics of elevator scheduling will be incorporated in the design of these two components to develop a novel hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method (HNPGA) next. .g. Step 2: Selecting the Next Most Promising Region: Each regions is sampled by using a random samof these pling scheme such as uniform sampling. since generally of the entire performance is not sensitive to the change of the assignment of only one passenger. a natural partitioning step is to ﬁx the assignment of the next N unassigned passenger. there is a region called the “most promising region” where the optimal solution is most likely to locate.” 1. The process repeats until the most promising region becomes a singleton or the computational time reaches its limit. Therefore.: OPTIMIZATION OF GROUP ELEVATOR SCHEDULING 357 Fig. The subregions of this region are unﬁxed passengers to the determined by assigning the next cars. should be large enough to impact the entire passengers performance. Search tree of the traditional nested partitions method for a problem with four elevators and 12 passengers. Downloaded on April 14. If the surrounding region has the best promising index. Therefore.. but not too large to avoid heavy computational burden for next step. length 12. Refer to Fig. 5 in Section V. Then. Restrictions apply. partitioning the feasible region into four subregions by ﬁxing the car assignment of the ﬁrst passenger at iteration 1. To avoid such difﬁculty. The following two steps are performed at iteration . 2) Nested Partitions and Genetic Algorithm Method: a) Deﬁning the Partitioning Scheme: The partitioning scheme determines how the most promising region will be partitioned. it will be difﬁcult to ﬁnd the subregion most likely to contain good solutions. leading to frequent backtracking. as shown in Fig. If one of the then it becomes the most promising region in the next iteration. Consider again the example in Section C1 for illustration.g. . which can be substeps: 1) selecting the best subregion Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. Together with the surdisjoint subsets that cover the rounding region. e. e. 4. the partitioning scheme should be able to generate subregions with large performance variations so that NP can easily separate good subregions from bad subregions. a promising of depth is deﬁned by ﬁxing the assignment of region the ﬁrst passengers. the depths of the two aforementioned most promising regions are 0 and 1. 4 for the searching tree of the traditional NP method. The remaining region Each most promising region is associated with a parameter “depth” deﬁned as the number of partitioning steps to obtain the region starting from the entire feasible region without backtracking. b) Identifying the Next Most Promising Region: With the given partitioning scheme. A straightforward choice is one. subregions has the best promising index.. there are entire region.g. The comparison of all the subregions and the surrounding region could be divided into two . How to partition the most promising region and how to select the next most promising region are two important components of the nested partitions method. In view of the sequential decision nature of elevator scheduling [15]. compared to the number of all the . Step 1: Partitioning: The most promising region (k) is ﬁrst subregions by using a partitioning scheme partitioned into which decides how the region will be divided.. deﬁned as the minimum performance value of all the samples within the region.

Thus a further improvement is made in this substep. This feature keeps the search within the feasible solution space and then improves search efﬁciency. there samis no need to take samples in each subregion. The ﬁrst mutation can balance the number of passengers assigned to each car.2. i. It should be noted that decision made by using partial trafﬁc information might not be consistent with the one from full information. genetic algorithm will generations to ﬁnd good solutions which can reprerun for sent the performance (promising index) of the subregion. as demonstrated in Example 2 in Section V. the new assignments generated by these operators are always feasible. NO. It is clear that the dispatching of passengers who arrive early will affect passengers who arrive later and the impact decreases as the time interval between their arrivals increases. The ﬁnal popusubregion containing the best sample in the lations will be selected as the best subregion . Depth during the search in TNP. It is used twice in each iteration of NP.1 generations to ﬁnd good solutions in the current will run for most promising region. Only the assignment of passengers is optimized by genetic algorithm to dethe next is an integer cide the assignment of the passengers. Instead.3. The best partial solution in the ﬁnal population is used to determine the best subregion. Selecting the Best Subregion As mentioned in Section IV-C1.2.1. VOL.. At iteration . the new best subregion selection substep in our method would result in a great reduction of CPU time with little expense of solution quality.e. samples will be taken in each of the subrea group of gions. Step 3) Select the next population based on ﬁtness. the ergodicity of the whole feasible solution space is guaranteed. Downloaded on April 14. The second mutation can ﬁne tune the group of passengers served by one car. Consequently. Restrictions apply. viewed as “local optimization” and 2) comparing the best subwith the surrounding region .e. this substep could be timenumber of subregions consuming. . The consistence between the deﬁnition of the chromosome and the new representation in NP as deﬁned in C. The main steps of genetic algorithm are as follows. to optimize the assignment of the unassigned passengers. one for selecting the best subregion in C. i.2. For both cases. APRIL 2010 Fig. 2. Two assignments with good assignment segments for different subgroups of passengers can be combined by crossover to generate a better assignment. in the traditional NP method. ples will be taken uniformly from the composite region of all . The standard single point crossover operator is used. and starting with those samples. This substep can Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library.2. Based on the convergence proof of NP. and will be solved by genetic algorithm to take advantage of the “building block” property [30] of elevator scheduling.2.358 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. By applying these operators.2. Evaluate individual assignment’s ﬁtness. the current most promising region that each point could be selected with a certain positive probability. Moreover. while keeping the number of passengers unchanged. this substep is to decide the assignment of the next passengers based on the optimization of the remaining unassigned passengers. The subregion remaining containing the best sample in the ﬁnal population of genetic al.2. Genetic Algorithm Based Search Genetic algorithm is an important module in our hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method. This observation leads to the idea that it might be sufﬁcient to use part of future trafﬁc information to effectively assign current passengers.e. as it is performed in a smaller space.2.2.1 makes genetic algorithm capable of being integrated into the nested partitions framework perfectly. the search of genetic algorithm will be more efﬁcient.. 7. Therefore. so the subregions. C. it is used passengers. The ﬁtness of each chromosome is deﬁned as the performance of the corresponding assignment (6). i. which can be region viewed as “global veriﬁcation and correction. 5. For ease of presentation. Therefore..” Both steps are innovatively transformed to the optimization of the assignment of a certain number of passengers. the only requirement for sampling is that each point in the entire solution space has a positive probability to be selected. genetic algorithm in C. and the other for the comparison of the best subregion and the surrounding region in C. any feasible passenger-to-car assignment could be achieved with a positive probability from another feasible one. C. Step 1) Initialize population with randomly generated feasible passenger-to-car assignments and predetermined ones such as good solutions from previous iterations. the genetic algorithm based search is presented ﬁrst. to optimize the assignment of a group of . Step 4) Repeat Steps 1 to 3 for a certain number of times.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. where The chromosome is deﬁned as a vector of length element equals to if passenger is assigned to car . Step 2) Expand population through mutation and crossover.2. The solutions generated by genetic algorithm are out partial solutions in the sense that only the assignment of of the remaining unassigned passengers are ﬁxed in those solutions. Since the is large. Compared with gorithm is selected as the best subregion traditional NP. Starting with those samples. where between and .2.2. followed by the two steps to identify the most promising region. Two kinds of mutation operators are designed: 1) random change of the car assignment of one passenger and 2) random swap of the car assignments of two passengers. two assignments with good blocks/segments for different subgroups of passengers can be combined to generate a better assignment.

: OPTIMIZATION OF GROUP ELEVATOR SCHEDULING 359 be viewed as “local optimization” in the sense that the decision passengers is made based on on the assignment of the next local information (the optimization of the assignment of the next passengers). How to determine the window length. The best solution in the ﬁnal population of genetic algorithm is used to identify the as follows. backtracking rule will be used in all the NP methods in Section V. trafﬁc load. The samples from the three regions form the initial population of genetic algorithm in C. and destination ﬂoors are independent and uniformly distributed between the fourth and the ninth ﬂoors. and the impact decreases as their time interval increases.2 and randomly generating the assignment of passengers. i. samples from the two regions will be compared. This substep can be viewed as “global veriﬁcation and correction” in the sense that local decision in C. and destination ﬂoors are independent and uniformly distributed between the fourth and the ninth ﬂoors. and the value of the new door action control method. the destination ﬂoors are set to the lobby.3. and genetic algorithm performs search in the composite region of the three regions. 2This d) Discussion: The hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method (HNPGA) applies not only to the elevator scheduling problem.1. It should also be noted that while genetic algorithm is an important module in the nested partitions framework. the value of future trafﬁc information. The so called “fresh starting” problem would lead to loss of information between iterations and hence impair search efﬁciency [31]. in order that the true best subregion still has a certain positive probability to be selected. and demonstrates values of the new NP features in our method. arrival ﬂoors are set to the lobby. including up-peak. Downloaded on April 14. For up-peak. gion are constructed by ﬁxing the assignThe samples from passengers to be the best partial solution ment of the next obtained in C. Several NP variants with inheritance have been developed to address this problem [31].3 To show the incremental contribution of our paper over [6].SUN et al.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. this framework is not restricted to genetic algorithm. Two data sets are tested: one is for a 120-s time 3The length of the look-ahead time window in the rolling horizon scheme [6] depends on information collection and/or prediction capability.e. Example 3 compares our method with a pure standard genetic algorithm and demonstrates the value of the nested partitions framework. and computational capability. goes beyond the scope of this paper. 2) The earlier decisions have impact on the later. The samples the remaining from the surrounding region are taken by uniform sampling. For down-peak.e. whereas the decisions in a reasonably long period will have a large impact on the global performance. It is also demanded to should be noted that the region be sampled to avoid the negative impact from biased selection. A building with ten ﬂoors is considered in the following three examples. Due to the possible inconsistency between decisions made by using partial information and full information. downpeak. The related parameters for elevators are taken from Elevate [34] in Table I. The generation of trafﬁc data used in the following examples is based on the testing data in [6]. ). c) Convergence Property: The convergence proof of the traditional NP method requires that “the stochastic process is a Markov chain” [28]. Different lengths of time windows might be used under different problem settings and computational constraints. the selection of the best subregion might be biased. All the samples from previous iterations should be discarded. Restrictions apply. Extensive numerical testing has been conducted. service capacity.2.. the planning horizon of all the examples are set to a single time window. Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. arrival ﬂoors are independent and uniformly distributed between the ﬁrst and the sixth ﬂoors. our method is still convergent by taking advantage of the global convergence property of genetic algorithm [33] which is used in each iteration of nested partitions to search in the entire feasible region. [32]. and new samples should be regenerated for the current iteration independently of previous iterations. Example 2 compares our method with the traditional NP method and its several variants. the entire feasible solution. The number of elevators in the building is two. For interﬂoor trafﬁc. Example 1 is to demonstrate the near-optimality of solutions.e. NUMERICAL RESULTS AND INSIGHTS The above method has been implemented in Matlab and GHz Windows PC with tested on an AMD Atholon 1 GB RAM. implying no information in the current iteration can be passed down to the next.. The objective function is the service time (i.2. however.2. e. Our method also adopts the inheritance idea. the value of future trafﬁc information. 1) The decisions in a short period only have a minor impact on the global performance.. V.2. but also to those sequential decision problems which satisfy the two following characteristics. Although the independent sampling requirement in the original convergence proof is violated. .2. Comparing the Best Subregion with the Surrounding Region To compare the best subregion and the surrounding re. as will be addressed in next. and the value of the new door action control method. Three trafﬁc patterns are examined.2.g.2. this method needs to backtrack to choose a region with depth less than and . Example 1: This example is to demonstrate solution near-optimality under various trafﬁc patterns and different trafﬁc densities.. i. Other algorithms which ﬁt the characteristics of the problem to be solved can be integrated into this framework.2 will be veriﬁed and corrected by using global information (the optimization of the assignment of all the passengers). a region where all containing the best solution as pasthe solutions have the same assignment of the ﬁrst sengers as that in the best solution2. arrival times are independent and uniformly distributed over the entire time window. The downside of these methods is that the convergence cannot be guaranteed. The number of elevators varies from two to four and the length of the look-ahead time window varies from 30 s to 120 s. For all trafﬁc patterns.2. then lution lies within the current most promising region . and arrival ﬂoors are independent and uniformly distributed between the fourth and the ninth ﬂoors. If the best sonext most promising region . and interﬂoor. good samples of the previous iteration are inherited to the current iteration. C. the subregion containing this solution is selected as If the best solution lies within the region .

1 PERSON/5 S) window with a constant arrival rate of one passenger per 10 s4. For both methods. the average 4This passenger travel distance for interﬂoor is the lowest among the three trafﬁc patterns. our method (HNPGA) will be ﬁrst compared with a trip-based branch and bound (BB) method which can generate optimal solutions [35].5.86%. As the trafﬁc pattern changes from up-peak to down-peak to interﬂoor. APRIL 2010 TABLE I ELEVATOR CONFIGURATIONS TABLE II RESULTS FOR VARIOUS TRAFFIC PATTERNS (DATA SET 1: 120 S. Results from ten Monte Carlo simulation runs for the two data sets are summarized in Tables II and III. and 9.7. including the following. the gap between the two methods for date set 2 is larger because the case under high arrival rate is harder to solve than the case with low arrival rate. only the ﬁrst data set is tested. down-peak and interﬂoor are set to 0. with an average CPU time less than 4 s. Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library.9.5 4) HNPGAT (HNPGA with three-passage heuristic): the same as HNPGA except that the single car dispatching strategy is replaced by a three-passage heuristic commonly adopted in certain real elevator systems [36]. Both data sets have the same number of passengers. the average service time for interﬂoor is the smallest among the three trafﬁc patterns. 1. the gaps between the two methods increase because the scheduling problem becomes harder and harder.90% better than HNPGAD on average. showing the beneﬁt of not restricting the elevators must leave the stop ﬂoors once the door dwell time expires in the new door action control method. the average service time for interﬂoor is the largest. The BB method does not terminate until it has found the optimal solution. 2. the average service time for data set 2 (heavy trafﬁc) is larger than data set 1 (light trafﬁc) because elevators will be busier in heavy trafﬁc. as shown by the CPU times for Branch and Bound to obtain the optimal solutions. and LR) outperform the one without using such information (i. To demonstrate the near-optimality of solutions. The inﬂuence of varying N will be examined in Example 2. On the one hand. 7. The HNPGA is 5In data set is taken from [6] for later comparison with existing results. respectively. respectively. For data set 1. Results from ten Monte Carlo simulation runs for the two data sets are summarized in Tables IV and V. as demonstrated by the average CPU times for Branch and Bound to ﬁnd the optimal solutions for the three cases. for HNPGA are set to 3 and 6 based on The parameters N and our testing experience. The population size and and the generation number in the genetic algorithm module in HNPGA are set to 5 and 10. NO. the average gaps are 7. 1) HNPGA: the method presented in Section IV. For the light trafﬁc. with an average CPU time less than 4 s. 3) Lagrangian Relaxation (LR): the method in [6] with the traditional door action control method. For data set 1 (light trafﬁc)..79% better than HNPGAT on average. Our method also outperformed the traditional action control based methods.78%. and 0. as the trafﬁc demand for interﬂoor will have both multiple origin ﬂoors and multiple destination ﬂoors. VOL. similar results can be obtained. To demonstrate the value of future trafﬁc information and the value of the new door action control method. and 22. 9. the other is for a 60-s time window with a constant arrival rate of one passenger per 5 s. HNPGAD. The crossover probability and the mutation probability of the genetic algorithm module for up-peak.53%. respectively. The new door action control method is used in both methods. Our method HNPGA is 7.6 and 0.6 and 0. .73% better than LR on average.e. [6]. in which advance information is not utilized and the traditional door action method is adopted. causing delay in serving passengers yet to be delivered. Restrictions apply. showing that near optimal solutions are obtained within rather short CPU times for various trafﬁc patterns under light trafﬁc. 0. four algorithms will be compared. 2) HNPGAD (HNPGA with dwell time): the same as HNPGA except enforcing that elevators cannot leave stop ﬂoors until the door dwell time expires.7 and 0. so that the beneﬁt brought by shorter average distance dominates the downside caused by more stop ﬂoors. HNPGAT). Downloaded on April 14..99%.97%. the gaps between the two methods increase as the trafﬁc pattern changes from up-peak to down-peak to interﬂoor. because the downside caused by more stops ﬂoors dominates the beneﬁt brought by shorter average distance. and the stopping criteria as those in the ﬁrst one.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. and 3. 1 PERSON/10 S) TABLE III RESULTS FOR VARIOUS TRAFFIC PATTERNS (DATA SET 2: 60 S. the average gaps between the two methods for the three trafﬁc patterns are 0. as neither the origin ﬂoors nor the destination ﬂoors are restricted to the lobby. cars will have more stop ﬂoors under interﬂoor trafﬁc. Similar to the light trafﬁc case. demonstrating near-optimality of solutions and computational efﬁciency for various trafﬁc patterns under heavy trafﬁc. The HNPGA method does not terminate until the most promising region becomes a singleton.74%. it can be seen that the methods using future trafﬁc information (i. For the same trafﬁc pattern.e.360 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. 8. . For data set 2 (heavy trafﬁc). On the other hand. For data set 2. The second and fourth methods have the same settings for . As opposed to the light trafﬁc. The reason might be as follows. the genetic algorithm module. HNPGA. the delay caused by stop ﬂoors is minor because the interval of arrivals of passengers is larger.

The detailed conﬁguration of NP features for TNP and HNPGA are as follows. respectively. . To further illustrate how individual features contribute to our method. 1 PERSON/10 S) TABLE VII RESULTS FOR TNP AND HNPGA UNDER UP-PEAK TRAFFIC TABLE V RESULTS FROM DIFFERENT METHODS (DATA SET 2: 60 S.60% better than HNPGAT on average. lection method. After passenger 2 enters elevator 1 at time 13. the traditional most promising region se1) TNP1: . within much shorter CPU times for various lengths of time windows and different trafﬁc densities. the scheduling details from one of the Monte Carlo runs for up-peak is listed in Table VI. Restrictions apply. next 3 passengers is decided through the optimization of the next six passengers). and decision-making with local information. The arrival rate for the light trafﬁc is one passenger per 5 s and the arrival rate for the heavy trafﬁc is two passengers per 5 s. .2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. This example shows that one can gain signiﬁcant beneﬁt by using future trafﬁc information and the new door action method. .: OPTIMIZATION OF GROUP ELEVATOR SCHEDULING 361 TABLE IV RESULTS FROM DIFFERENT METHODS (DATA SET 1: 120 S.17 to serve passenger 12 in trip 4. Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. the most promising region selection method. It can be seen that compared with TNP.6 The look-ahead time window varies from 30 to 120 s. elevator 1 will stay at ﬂoor 0 to wait passenger 3 to board even if door dwell time has already expired. senger is decided through the optimization of all the unassigned passengers). the traditional most promising region selec1) TNP: tion method (in which all the subregions are evaluated). The improvement of solution performance and the signiﬁcant reduction of CPU times show the value of those new NP features. with inheritance. Both methods do not terminate until the most promising region becomes a singleton. The number of elevators is four. Results from ten Monte Carlo simulation runs are summarized in Table VII. The up-peak trafﬁc is examined under two trafﬁc densities with various look-ahead time windows.26 (arrival time 11. no inheritance.27% better than HNPGAD on average and 15. . Example 2: This example is to demonstrate the values of the new NP features of our method. Elevator 2 arrives at ﬂoor 0 at time 113. To further illustrate the new door action method. no (the assignment of next pasinheritance. the new most promising region selection 2) HNPGA: (the assignment of the method.7. Elevator 1 stays at ﬂoor 0 at time 0 to serve passengers 2 and 3 in trip 1. inheritance.6 and 0. Elevator 2 will immediately close the door after passenger 12 comes in rather than waiting until door dwell time expires.SUN et al. It should be noted that it is not meaningful to compare the results under different time windows for either method because the results are only for a snapshot problem instead of the overall problem. and the impact of the look-ahead time window length is out of the scope of this paper. our method can generate better solutions. except slightly worse in the 30-s light and heavy trafﬁc cases. with a constant step of 30 s. Downloaded on April 14. three intermediate methods are constructed by adding new features one at a time. The crossover probability and the mutation probability of the genetic algorithm module are set to 0. 1 PERSON/5 S) TABLE VI SCHEDULING DETAILS OF A SAMPLE RUN FOR UP-PEAK 4.26 plus loading time 2 s). Our method (HNPGA) will be ﬁrst compared with the traditional nested partitions method (TNP). The population and the generation number in the genetic algorithm size module in the two methods are set to 5 and 10. including the partitioning scheme. including the following. respectively. 6The settings of the arrival rates here are different from those in Example 1 due to the enlarged service capability (the increased number of elevators).

Results from ten Monte Carlo simulation runs are summarized in Table VIII.3 s. with inheritance. respectively. respectively. pp.. Nov.6 s with slightly increase of the average service time. The reason is that as the number N increases. the new door action control method. All the ﬁve methods do not terminate until the most promising region becomes a singleton. Example 3: This example is to compare our hybrid method HNPGA and the pure standard genetic algorithm in C. . optimizing single car dispatching at the low-level with an effective trip-based heuristic.96%.05%. no inheritance. the new most promising region selection 3) TNP3: method. Under heavy trafﬁc. The parameter settings and stopping criteria for our method are the same as those in Example 2. . 90. Downloaded on April 14.2010 at 00:39:29 UTC from IEEE Xplore. 4. Authorized licensed use limited to: Tsinghua University Library. 7.2 to 19.25%. 60. Under light trafﬁc. the relative performance differences of the two methods for the four time windows of lengths 30. In view of the hierarchy structure of this problem. By introducing the inheritance feature in TNP3. .7 which indicates the frequent occurrence of backtracking. 2. a two-level optimization framework is developed. computational efﬁciency.42%. The TNP method has the largest iterations depth ratio. demonstrating the value of the new partitioning scheme. and optimizing passenger-to-car assignment at the high-level with a novel hybrid nested partitions and genetic algorithm method which can be extended to solve certain class of sequential decision problems. Nevertheless. By adopting the new most promising region selection method in TNP2. demonstrating the values of the new NP features. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and Mr. By using local/partial information instead of whole information in HNPGA. 5. and 5. NO. B. Contr. 2. and values of advance information. Taking advantage of advance information. no. The three methods have the same parameter setting for the genetic algorithm module as TNP and HNPGA. For each problem setting. the relative differences for the four windows of lengths 30. 1997. demonstrating the value of the new most promising region selection method. VOL. Numerical results demonstrate the near-optimality of solutions. the number of subregions increases to 64 and the traditional most promising region selection method requires that all the subregions must be evaluated. “Optimal dispatching control for elevator systems during up-peak trafﬁc. Of all the ﬁve methods. 2. Pepyne and C. Cassandras. L. A two-level formulation is presented in this paper. 5.362 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. the new most promising region selection .06%.2.” IEEE Trans. and 8. vol. L. iterations depth ratio is deﬁned as the ratio of the average number of iterations to the maximum depth of the searching tree. Shi of University of Wisconsin-Madison for their insightful comments and helpful advice. with detailed car dynamics embedded in simulation models for performance evaluation. The three methods together with TNP and HNPGA are tested on the up-peak trafﬁc in a 60-s horizon.2. and 120 s are. and the improvement increases as more information becomes available or the trafﬁc becomes heavier. 60. CONCLUSION One important trend to improve elevator systems is to use advance trafﬁc information.1 using the trafﬁc data in Example 2.8 s. 629–643.2 s. the CPU time decreases signiﬁcantly to 5. a new door action control method is developed to increase the ﬂexibility of elevators. the iterations depth ratio decreases to be close to 1. Xiong of University of Connecticut and Prof. It can be seen that our hybrid method can improve the pure genetic algorithm by embedding it in the nested partitions framework. Restrictions apply. 0. 7The and 120 s are. G. Syst. the average service time slightly decreases from 20. leading to low efﬁciency of NP and large amount of CPU time. By increasing N to be three in TNP1. method. showing the value of introducing this feature. and new features of the hybrid method. 4. the CPU time increases largely to 76. and close-to-1 iterations depth ratio.e. the CPU time further decreases from 5. PGA will spend the same amount time as HNPGA. 90. VI. Results from ten Monte Carlo simulation runs are summarized in Table IX. The results show the value of the nested partitions framework which concentrates the computational resources on promising regions that can be quickly identiﬁed by using local/partial future trafﬁc information. It remains as an open and challenging issue to develop new scheduling methods that can effectively utilize advance trafﬁc information. with a constant arrival rate of one passenger per 5 s. our method HNPGA has the smallest average service time and CPU time.51%.5 to 3. REFERENCES [1] D.. Further improvement is needed to reduce CPU time for online implementation. i. 6.15%. Technol. as depicted in Fig. APRIL 2010 TABLE VIII RESULTS FROM DIFFERENT METHODS FOR UP-PEAK TABLE IX RESULTS FOR GA AND HNPGA UNDER UP-PEAK TRAFFIC 2) TNP2: . 6. The pure genetic algorithm (PGA) has the same population size as the genetic algorithm module used in our method.

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