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BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974
UDC 611.i68,3 : 13.081 CONFIRMED OCTOBER 1983
e
Conversion factors and tables
I
Part I. Basis of tables. Conversion factors
i .
1
British Standards Institution
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services
This British Standard, having been approved by Technical Coniinittec M/1?7 Quantitics units under the authority of the Executive Board on 25 March 1974.
litid
symbols, was pliblishctl
0British Standards Institution, 1974
First published June 1930 First revision July 1944 Second revision of Part 1 February 1959 Third revision of Part 1 March 1974
ISBN: O 580 08471 X
Copyright Users of British Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all BSI publications. bio part of this publication ;niay be reproduced in any form without the prior permission in writing of BSI. This does not prcclude the free use, in the course ol implementing the standard, of necessary details such as symbols and she. type or grade designations. Enquiries should hc addressed to the BSI Secretariat. Contract requirements Attention is drawn to the fact that this British Standard does not purport lo include all the necessary pro\ isions of
:I Colîtf3Ct.
Revision o f British S t a n d a r d s In order to keep abreast of progress in the industries concerned, British Standards arc subject to periodical review. Suggcstiolis for improvements will be recorded and in due course brought to the notice of the committees charged with the revision of thc standards to which they refer. British Standards are revised. when necessary, by the issue either ofamendment slips or of revised editions. It is important that users of British Standards should ascertain that they are in possession ofthe latest amendments or editions. Full information on all BSI publications, numbering over 9000 will be found in the BSI Calalogire. This information is supplemented by details published each month in BSI News of new publications, revisions and amendments.
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The following BSI reference relates to the work on this standard : Committee reference M/127
Cooperating organizations
This British Standard was prepared under the supervision of Technical Committee M/127, Quantities units and symbols. consisting of representatives from the following Government departments and professional and industrial oyganizations: British Steel Industry Chemical Society Department of Trade and Industry Department of Trade and Industry (National Physical Labora tory) Electricity Council, the Central Electricity Generating Board, and the Area Boards in England and Wales Faraday Society Institute of Heating and Ventilating Engineers Institute of Physics Institute of Printing Institute of Trading Standards Administration Institution of Chemical Engineers Institution of Electrical Engineers Institution of Gas Engineers Institution of Mechanical Engineers Institution of Structural Engineers Metrication Board Post office Royal Aeronautical Society Royal Society Society of Chemical industry
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services
BS 350 : Part I
UDC 511.168.3 :53.081
; March
1974
Conversion factors and tables
Part i. Basis of tables. Conversion factors
CONFIRMED OCTOBER 1983
Amendments issued since publication
Amd. No.
Date of issue
July 1983
Text affected
Incorporated in this standard
4153
British Standards Institution
Telephone O1 629 9000 Telex 266933
2 Park Street
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LondonW1A 28s
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services
Mass per unit area 17. 32c 33. Thermal conductivity 46 47. Energy (work. Conversion factors Associated Subject table(s) 1. l b 2.3 Some other British Standards containing conversion information 78 81 83 83 41 Figure 1. Commentary on imperial and metric systems of measurement and units B. Pamela Anderton of the National Physical Laboratory who gave expert advice and personally checked the tables of factors. Stress (see 32a.Heat flux density 4 4 4 45. Alphabetical list of symbols for units and prefixes 2. Plane angle 7 8. first moment of area (see 4a) 6.BSI BS*350: PART*L 74 S L b 2 4 b b î OLLbL2û O W BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Contents Cooperating organizations Acknowledgements Foreword Page Inside front cover 2 3 Basis of tables. Fuel consumption Indexes 1. 4c.. 4ûb. Angular velocity 11 12. Acceleration 13 14.Eng. C. or torque 30 31. Traffic factors 25. Hutchinson. or area per unit mass 17 18. Length 2 3. Volume rate of flow 24a) 246 24. Weight (see 14a. Specific volume 21 22 22. Thermal conductance 45 46. Power 37 38. 40c 41. S c surface. Linear velocity (speed) 10 11. Volume and capacity 4a. Force per unit length 32. Time 10. Mass per unit length 16 16. Solid angle 9. Moment of inertia 25 26. 14b. or geometrical moment of inertia 6 7. 4d 5. Area per unit capacity 18 19. 36b 37. 14c 15 15. B. 14b. Angular momentum 28. 326. General index 84 88 Acknowledgements The Committee responsible for this revision acknowledges with thanks the assistance provided by Mr. Area 3a. A. kinematic 35 36. Number la. in the formative stages of the planning and drafting. Momentum (hear) 27. Specific energy 39 40. Density 19 20.2 General information B. Force 28 29.) 36a. 2 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . Concentration 20 21. etc. Thermal resistivity 47 48. Thermal diffusivity (see 35) Page 46 48 48 54 54 56 58 62 64 65 67 70 72 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 Appendices A. Mass 14a. 32c) 34. Modulus of section. dynamic 34 35. 4b. Speciñc entropy 43. and later by Mrs. Speciñc heat capacity 41 (see 41) 42. Pressure 32a. Moment of force. heat. C. Temperature. References B l Detailed conversion tables . Viscosity. Frequency (see 11) 13. including temperature difference or interval 38 39. Heat content. Heat release rate 48 49. volume basis 43 4 . Viscosity. 14c and 28) 4 5 7 9 15 15 16 17 17 17 19 19 20 20 25 27 30 32 32 34 36 38 38 40 42 42 42 43 45 30. volume basis 4Oa. 32b. 3b 4. Second moment of area. Mass rate of f o lw 23 23. Heat capacity.
546 (19 dm3. This. T h e units i n about fifty quantities of measurement are given. BS 350 does not purport to define quantities or units. Section 24 of that Act makes it an offenoe to give short weight or measure (or to overcharge for the goods supplied if they are offered at the stated price per unit weight or measure). or to standardize the letter symbok or abbreviations used for units. which first appeared in 1962. together with such definitions. 3 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 I\ d t h v i dill1 I W . in November 1976. and the quantities dealt with liave remained substantially unehaiiged. after which conversion factors wili no longerbe required. forms the precise and natural basis for conversion information on units.546 O91 879 dm3 to ten significant figures and. the reversal of the changes as described that occurred between the present and the previous editions of the standard. metrology. on advice from the NationaI Physical Laboratory. and the standard has been fundamentally rearranged for the reason which follows. The subjects covered are. using eight or more signiñcant figures to minimize the possibilities of errors in rounding. In this edition. Jirli iW. been considerable additions made to the units. but have been retained for the sake of consistently in the layout of the tables. giving additionat detailed tables for SI conversions. and consequently to the conversion factors. The conversion factors should therefore always be chosen so that the rounding is in the customers' favour.i. under the custody of the General Conference of Weights and Measures. The computation of each factor has as far as possible been made from first principles.Iti~t~~nsr Jiili i W 3 fruirlciiiltw stated accuracy. but their mention is necessary here and has been made uptodate with the latest international and national decisions.tIfilf Jirii iWt3 The experience gained with the earlier editions has been a reliable guide to the choice of quantities to be treated in this revision. These matters are dealt with elsewhere. giving detailed conversion tubles for the more frequently used conversions. and information on the derivation of conversion factors. By comparison with previous editions (including BS 350 : Part 2) deviations by one digit in the last signifìcant figure of factors involving the UK gallon may sometimes be noticed. regard being paid to any statutory requirement (such as Marking of Goods Regulations) there may be in this respect. obsolete. The Department of Trade and Industry has asked users of these tables to be reminded that conversions for trade purposes should be based on the statutory deñnitions of units in the Weights and Measures Act.ilfrfificf/ Jirlt iYh3 i$iti)ic. Table 23 has however now been corrected in this respect. in the final figure of factors involving the UK gallon and in particular. and on'crs firm prospects o f a n internationat harmonization in unit practice. P D 6203 is. Imperial units are being progressively discarded and their retention as the standpoint in this standard would have acted as a brake t o the progress of metrication.+ . is a revision (confirmed on the incorporation of Amendment No. It was then that the standard was split into two parts. In I967 a Supplement (PD 6203) was issued to Part 2. the SI. Only information now considered obsolete has been discarded. still valid and has been retained. 1963. in some cases. in general. BS 350 was first published in 1930. This marks a n important departure iiOni the earlier editions which originally argued from the imperial system and later perforce adopted a mixed imperialmetric standpoint. These have arisen because the computation in the previous editions was based on I ü K g a l = 4 . industry and trade. as are considered necessary forthe purpose. Furthermore. and Part 2. Where factors are given in bold print it is to show that they are exact. From those tables in Part 2 conversions could be read off directly or assessed by interpolation. the standpoint from which the various units and conversion factors are discussed is the SI. Since November 1976 the definition o f t h e gallon in the Weights and Measures Act 1963 has been 4. however. the standard does not deal with purely electrical units. There have. T h e standardization function of this standard Iies in the provision of conversion factors reliable to a i~. which often required interpolation. BS 350: Part 2 was withdrawn in 1981 since many of the tables included in it had become inconsistent with the International System of Units (SI) and the increasing use of pocket calculators was considered to have made such tables. mechanics and heat. and was revised in 1944and again in 1959. thus permitting accuracies satisfactory for most practical purposes. The other important but extraneous information in it is there to help the general user when he is faced with the need to make conversions. a more accurate factor was used as a basis for the computation in the present edition.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Foreword This standard deals withinterconversion from one unit of measurementto another for a number of quantities which are in general use in engineering. itujmdlu Jirii ifi. by precise definition to what had earlier been used as a n approximation for the value of t h e galion (Le. then. Before that date the definition in theweights and Measures Act 1963 was such that the gallon could be caIculated to be 4.546 O9 dm3) clearly implies changes. 4. i in 1983) of BS 350 : Part 1 : 1959 and provides a comprehensive list of conversion factors and notes on their use. and the onus of multiplication by a six figure factor was removed. The return. 5 4 6 09 dm3. while interconversion factors between all the important units treated are given. T h e six significant figures given for conversion factors involving the 15 "C calorie ace not warranted by t h e accuracy of definition of that particular unit. factors have been rounded to include six signiíicant figures. Part 1 dealing with the basis of tables and conversionfuctors. however.AWI'~I~A~~/ Jirli iY33 Sixfigure factors are unnecessarily precise for many practical purposes. and will be rounded to fewer significant figures as appropriate. broadly.
These prefixes developed in conjunction with the metric system. biilion. and symbol as shown below.BS 350 : Part I : 1974 British Standard Conversion factors and tables Part 1. Meaning of million. Paris 1948. with significance. 4 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .and ' quadrillion ' signifies a million times a US billion ( 0 5 . Table la. the convention shown in Table lb. Number 1.' billion ' signifies a thousand times a million (log). Table i b . etc. Basis of tables. ' trillion ' signifies a million times a million ( 0 2 . where ' miliion signiíies a thousand times a thousand (109. trillion. Corresponding Tenn Significance decimal factor million biiiion taon quadrillion thousand x thousand million x million million x billion million x triilion 16 0 1012 11 08 1024 A different convention is in use in the United States of America. etc. Conversion factors i . billion.1 The following preíkes. accords with the decision of the 9th General Conference of Weights and Measures. ambiguities can easily arise with the words ' billion '. therefore their use should be avoided. and is in use in European countries including the United Kingdom.2 Regarding the meaning of million. iianie. ' trillion ' and ' quadrillion '. 11) 11) In view of the differences between European and USA practice. Prefixes denoting decimal multiples or submultiples To indicate multiples To indicate submultiples x x x x x x x x 101 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018 deci centi milli d C m ~ micro nano pico femto atto P n P f a 1. are used to denote decimal multiples or submultiples of (metric) units. and are now authorized as ' SI prefixes '.
Printing trade.168 m) 1 mile = 8 furlongs (1 mile = 1609. decimetre (dm). 10.BS 350 : Part I : 1974 2.9144 m) 1 chain == 22 yards (yd) (1 chain = 20.4 pm = 25. 4 An exception is the US survey foot.0254 pm = 25. NOTE. Height of horses.0292 m 15 1 engineer’s chain = looft = 3.344 m) 6 2.y. 6.in = 0.4 x 106 m 7 1 mil = 103 in = 25.116 671111i11 12 1 em 1 .8288 m 1 rod. 12. An alternative term for the micrometre. Watch trade. (Originally defincd by 83 picas.496 x 1011 m 1 1 parsec (pc) = 3.3 Some units of length having associations with the metric system but not forming part of the SI are: i angström (A) = 10lOm Refer to note 1 international nautical mile (n mile) = 1852 m 1 astronomical unit (AU) = 1.Ain 1 iron = 0. 1963. Colloquial. 13.5 The connection between multiples and submultiples of the yard is indicated in the foliowing traditional table of named UK and US units of length.4 x 106 m 8 1 point . Boot and shoe trade. is incorrect. 11. is ‘ micron The symbol p. In ifs most general concept it is equal to onetenth of an unspecified nautical mile. For ot!ier meanings of mil see 3. Approximate distance travelled by light in 1 year.6. 3. shown i 2.&in = 2. centimetre (cm). The legally defined chain. for onethousandth of an inch. 9.201 168 m 1 US survey foot _ O. .8 m 04 1 cablelength 16 1 UK nautical mile = 6080 ft = 1853. miliimetre (mm) and micrometre (pm) are common examples. Obsolete. Obsolescent as the interiiational nautical mile becomes adopted in the UK. It is one of the base units of the S1 and is now defined in terms of a specified number of wavelengths of a particular atomic radiation. defined (for the UK) in the Weights and Measures Act.0254 m) Refer to note 1 foot (ft) = 12 inches (in) (1 f t = 0.1 . for onethousandth of an inch.4 and (Note 2) of section 7. associated in the past with the micron.87 18 = 0.54.16 cm 14 1hand = 4in chain = 0. abrogated by the CGPM but still in common use.9144 m 2.3048m) 4 1 yard (yd)= 3 feet (ft) (1 yd = 0. as given in BS 3763. pm should be used. commonly called Gunter’s chain in the USA. Approximalely the mean distance between the Sun and the Earth.635 1111i11 11 1 line or ligne .!iDA9B ft e= 38.233 33 mm 13 = 10.4 x 109 m Refer to note 1 thou = 103 in = 25.2 Multiples and submultiples of the metre are formed by using any of the SI prefixes given at 1. The titles of BS 3763 and all other British Standards referred to in this text are listed on the inside back cover. y = O Notes on section 2 I. 16. There is no recognized abbreviation for mile and the complete word ‘ mile ’ is used as the iinit symbol. 5 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . including the value 120 fathoms (720 ft). 8. The distance at which 1 AU subtends an angle of 1 second (1‘7.529 167 itîm 10 1 line .1 The SI unit of length is the metre (symbol m).4 pm = 25. 17. Length 2. n 5.0857 x 1016m 2 1 light year (1 . pole. 2.4605 x 1015 m 3 2.kilometre e (km). Also known as a statute mile.66 ft 1 link = 0. A nautical term not precisely defined in the UK.304 801 m 1 fafhom 6ft = 1. 2.6 Some less usual.) = 9. UIC and US named units of length are: 1 microinch (pin) = 106 in = 0.in = 4. but other values have been used. or more specialized. Foreonversion factors for a number of widelyused units of length see Table 2.18m 17 = 1855. legally deíined (since 1959 in the USA and since 1963 in the UK) as follows: 1 yard = 0. Printing trade. Length 2.32 m 1 telegraph nautical mile = 6087 ft ’. 7.1168 m) 5 I furlong = 10 chains (1 furlong = 201.4 The definitive UK (or imperial) and US unit of length is the yard.in (approx) = 0.351 mm (approx) 9 . (1 in = 0. or perch = 5+ yd = 5.83 x 12 points = 35 cm). 14.1. Button trade. Colloquial. 15.
B S I BS*350: P A R T r L 74 m Lb24bbî OLLbL24 B m BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Length I 9. 7 4 o 9 a 2 t  2 a w II 1 6 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
For conversion factors for a number of widelyused units of area see Tables 3a and 36.1 The coherent SI unit of area is the square metre (symbol m2). the relationship between each of these and the square metre is as follows: ldm*  (z) 2 = 102 in* I km2 = ( i O 0 0 n 1 ) ~ = 106m* 3. and their relationship to the square metre. are used for land measurement of area. square centimetre (cmz). 3 2 Areas are also expressed in terms of the squares of any of the multiples and submultiples of the metre . square millimetre (mm2).836 127 m2) 1 1011. square kilometre (km2).092 903 O m2) = 6. i n accordance with the rule concerning prefixes attached to units raised to a power.4 and section 7.067 07 X 1010 m3 2 Notes on section 3 I . Area (length squared) 3. The rood is obsolescent in the UK and rarely used in the USA. 7 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 1 barn = 1028 m? 3. For other meanings of mil see f 2. The circular mil has an area equal to that o a circle onethousandth of an inch in diameter. used in atomic physics in the measurement of cross sections.86 m2) = 2.3 A metric unit with a special name is the are (symbol a). 2. 1 a = 100m2 This.6. are as foüows: Refer to note I square foot (ft2) 1 square yard (yd2) 1 rood 1 acre = 4 roods = 144 square inches (in21 = 9 square feet = 1210 square yards = 4840 square yards 1 square mile (mile2) = 640 acres (1 in2 (1 ft2 (1 yd2 (1 rood (1 acre (1 mile2 x 104 m2) = 0.589 99 x 106 m*) = 3 5 A specialized UK and US unit of area (used in connection with sections of wire) is the ' circular inil '.71 m2) = 4046. e. Refer to note 1 circular mil == 7.g. a derived unit.853 98 x 107 in2 = 5. . formed by the use of the Si prefixes.3.4 The connection between various traditional UK aiid US units of area.4516 = 0. 4. square decimetre (dm2). and more especially its multiple the hectare (symbol ha). 1 ha = 1ûOa = 1OO00m2 Another specially named metric unif is the barn. Note 2.
51 X o JaA X 2 m d 3 2 O m I 6 E 57% SI 8 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 A’rea P s X a f VI cl . 8 m W m o.
BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974
Area Volume and capacity
circular mil
square millimeíre mm*
square inch
in*
1 circular mil*
_ __
1 1973.53
5.067 07 x 104
7.853 98 x 10 7 1.550 0 0 ~ 1 0  3
1 square millimetre = mm2 1 square inch in2
1
645.16
_ _
1.273 24x 106
1
4. Volume and capacity (length cubed)
4.1 The coherent SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (symbol m3),
a derived unit.
4.2 Volumes are also expressed in terms of the cubes of any of the multiples and submultiples of the metre
formed by the use of the SI prefixes; of these the cubic decimetre (dm9, the cubic centimetre (cmj), and the cubic millimetre (mm3) are common examples. The relationship between each of these and the cubic metre is as follows:
1 mm3
=
(6)
3
= 109m3
4.3 Iii the
SI no distinction is drawn between units of volume and units of capacity. However, a metric unit with a special name, used in conjunction with the SI and commonly used for the measurement of liquids and fluids, is the litre (symbol i?). 1 litre = 1 dm3 = 103 m3 (This definition has applied in the SI since 1964, but see 4.3.1 below.) The SI prefixes are used with the litre, leading for example to the hectolitre (hl), centilitre (ci), millilitre (mi) and microlitre (pi). 1 hl = 100 litre = 101 ni3 1 ci
=
(&)litre
=
10srm3
i ml = (&)litre
= 106
=
m3 = i
cm3
I pl   (&)litre
109 ln3  1 mm3
4.3.1 Units of capacity for the measurement of liquids (and sometimes of dry goods also) have been treated as base units at various times in the past, and have been defined independently of length. Thus in the metric
system from 1901 to 1964 the litre was defined as the volume occupied by a mass of one kilogram of water
tAlfhough in this standard the symbol used for the litre is the lower case letter ‘I’, it has long been recognized that in some typefaces it was difficult to distinguish between the lower case letter ‘1’ and numeral 1. The 16th General Conference of Weights and Measures (1979) accordingly recognized the use of the upper case letter ‘L‘ as an alternative symbol for the litre. In British Standards ‘L‘ now the preferred symbol but ‘I’, which is still widely used, is recognized as acceptable. See also BS 5555. is
Asamende
Jtrb19*3
9
COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services
Volume and capacity
BS 350 : Part I : i974
under specified conditions (at its temperature of maximum density and uiider a pressure of one standard atmosphere). Since 1964. however, the litre has been redefined within the SI as a special name for the volume of one cubic decimetre (which is as it was before I901). Since 1 November 1976, the 1964 definition has been embodied within the law of {he United Kingdom. Because of these changes, where a very high degree of precision is called for, it is necessary to establish which definition of the litre is intended. In the tables which follow in this standard a litre as defined according to the 1901 definition is described as the 'litre (ISOI)', and the litre as it is now defined according to the SI is described simply as the 'litre'. 1 litre (1901) = 1.ooO 028 litre
4.4 In the French timber trade the volume of one cubic metre goes under the obsolescent name ' stère '
slJIit[W/lY/
1r/y / Y , t I
(symbol st). Similarly, in the timber trade in Germany the cubic metre has been described as the ' Festmeter (Fm) or ' Raummeter ' (Rm),and these two special names are also obsolescent. Another obsolescent metricbased volume unit is the ' mil ', used in the UK in pharmaceutical work, particularly for prescriptions, to denote a millilitre (see British Phormncopoeia, 1953). For other meanings of ' mil ' see 2.6, 3.5, and section 7, Note 2.
4.5 The connection between the traditional UK and US iiiiits of volurne and their relationship to the cubic metre are as follows:
Syml>ol
Unit
Metric equivalent
= :
yd3 ft3 in 3
I cubic yard 1 cubic foot 1 cubic inch
=
27 cubic feet = 0.764 555 m3 1728 cubic inches = 0.028 316 8 m j = 1.638 71 x 105
11 13
4.6 As with the litre in the metric system, it is customary to regard certain U K and US volumetric units as
units of capacity. These include the UK gallon and its multiples and submultiples, and the US gallon and US bushel, with their multiples and submultiples. The UK and US units of capacity differ markedly from each other* and it is therefore important to avoid confusion in their use. The prefixes UK and US are used for purpose of their identification in this standard but the qualifications UK or US are frequently omitted in practice. Care is particularly necessary with conversions of the gallon in order to identify which gallon is concerned.
4.6.1 UK units qf cnpacity. These are all based on the UK gallon (UKgal), defined in Schedule 1 of the Weights and Measures Act, 1963, as the space occupied by 10 pounds weight of distilled water under certain conditions specified in the schedule. Key conversion factors are : . ~ r d ~ + r ~ d 1 UKgal = 4.546 09 dm3 Jfrli /YX.J = 4.546 O9 litre = 4.545 96 litre (1901) The connection between the UK gallon and its various multiples and subniultiples is shown in the I'ollowing list:
Symbol (if any)
Unit

WKmin UK fl dr UK fl oz UKpt UKqt UKgal

minim t fluid drachmt fluid ounce gill pint quart gallon 1 peckf 1 busheit
Metric equivalent
= = 60 minim = 8 fluid drachms = 5 fluid ounces = 4 gills (= 20 fluid ounces) = 2 pints = 4 quarts (= 160 fluid ounces) = 2 gallons
L=
0.059 193 9 cm3
3.551 63 cm3 28.4131 cm3 0.142 065 dm3 0.568 261 dm3 1.13652dm3 4.546 O9 dm3 9.092 18 dm3 36.3687dm3
=
= = = =
=
=
= 4pecks
4.6.2 U S units ofcapacity. The US units of capacity are defined in terms of a specified number of cubic inches. The US gallon is equal in volume to 231 cubic inches and is used for the measurement of liquids only. The US bushel is equal in volume to 2150.42 cubic inches and is used for the measurement of dry commodities only.
8«jJit~rrd[~d
'fr'yxj and it is now illegal to use these units for trade purposes.
.I The minim, fluid drachm, peck and bushel are now deleted from Schedule 1 to the UK Weights and Measures Act, 1963;
* For a direct comparison of UK and US units of capacity see Table 4d
10
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BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974
Volume and capacity
The connection between the US gallon and its various multiples and submultiples is shown in the following
list:
4.6.3 ü S utiits qf capacity (liquid measure only)
Symbol (if any)
Unit
Metric equivalent

fl dr
us fl oz
1 US minim 1 US fluid dram*
1 US fluid ouncet
0.061 611 5 cm3
= 60 minims
2 liquid pints  0.946353dm3 1 US gallon = 4 liquid quarts(== 128 fluid ounces) = 3.785 41 dm3 = 158.987dm3 1 US barrel (for petroleum) = 42 gallons 4.6.4 US units o capacity (dry measure only). The connection between the US bushel and it5 various f multiples and submultiples is shown in the following list:
=
gi liq pt liq qt USgal bbl
1 US gill 1 US liquid pint 1 US liquid quart
= 3.69669 cm3 = 8 fluid drams = 29.573 5cm3 = 4 fluid ounces = 0 1 8294 dm3 .1 = 4 gills (= 16 ñuid ounces) = 0.473 176 dm3
Symbol (if any)
Unit
hfcfric equivalent
I
dry qt
Pk
bu bbl (dry)
1 US dry pint I US dry quart == 2 dry pints 1 US peck = 8 dry quarts 1 US bushel = 4 pecks 1 US dry barrel = 7056 cubic inches

0.550 610 dm3 1.101 2 2 = 8.809 76 dm3 = 35.2391 dm3 = 115.627 d m j 
~
Notes on 4.6 I . In the UK different values are used for the barrel for differenf purposes (e.g. the wine barrel is nominally 3 1$ UKgal and thc beer barrel nominally 3 WKgal). 6 2. The barrel (bbl) referred fo in the list of US capacity unifs for dry measure only is the standard barrel in the US for fruits. vegetables and dried commodities, with the exception of cranberries. Cranberriey are sold in the US hy reference to a standard cranberry barrel containing 5826 cubic inches. 3. There are otlier bushels having different capacities from those mentioned in 4.6. 4. Other specialized units of capacity used in the UK timber trade are 1 board foot = 144 in3 (= 2.359 74 dm3) = 128 ft3 (= 3 6 4 56 m3) .2 1 cord 1 standard = 165 ft3 (= 4.67228 m3) This last is sometimes known as the ' Petrograd standard 5. The cran, used in the U K fishing industry, is equal to 374 UK gallons.
For conversion factors for a number of widelyused units of volume or capacify see Tables 4a, 4b, 4c and 4d.
* So&tirnes also known as the liquid dram (liq dr) in the USA. f Sometimes also known as the liquid ounce (lis oz) in the USA.
11
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O t m N % % 9 F. F m m 2 4 E .2i! i o P 5 % 5 o .Y n e Ê 2 o 12 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .B S I ES*350: PART*% 74 U 1 6 2 4 b b î CILLbL30 3 m Volume and capacity BS 350 : Part I : 1974 W I g n 2 Y I I  m 8 8 B a 6 3 W 3 tN 8 .
_ a c) 3 ei o ä U O @ B m Q u .! 3 O 0 ' O c L e .a w m B A m 9 R & 2 O 3 h 3 d 3r n 2 5 i g 0 o m a 13 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Volume and capacity i e B B 3 O m m 8 H c.
i fi B B l  m N O Q ri o F QI 8 o r7 II + II II II B O 14 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .i  W i n s ô .B S I BS*358: P A R T * & 74 E L b 2 4 b b î OLLbL32 7 E Volume and capacity BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 c 3 : P a i n w i n a 9 .
See Table 6 for conversion factors for these units.6231 o 1 in4 = I 41.1 These quantities have the same dimensions as volume. Modulus of section.BSI_ BS835Qs PART*L 7 4 ILb24bb9 R L l b L 3 3 9 ~ _ ~ ~~ ~~~ ~ üS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Volume and capacity Modulus of section Second moment of area Table 46. Other commonly used units are the centimetre to the fourth (cm41 and millimetre to the fourth (mm4) and.040 84 UK fuid drachm = 1.960 760 US fluid* dram = 0. the centimetre cubed (cm3) and millimetre cubed (mm3) are commonly used.2 They may also be expressed in terms of thetcube of any suitable submultiple of the metre.863 097 x 102 1 x 108 115.03206 US dry pint 1. Table 6.200 95 US liquid pint = 1. in imperial units.968 939 UK peck = 0.822 53 x 105 15 I1 NOTE.6231 x 108 cm4 = 1012 I 4.968 939 UK quart = 0. Second moment of area.20095 US gaiion = = = = == 1. the foot to the fourth (ft4) and inch to the fourth (in4). 5. The relationship between the abovementioned uniís can be seen or inferred from Table 4a.968939 UK bushel =z * Sometimes also known as the liquid dram in the USA. or geometrical moment of inertia The coherent SI unit for this quantity is the metre to the fourth (m4).960 760 US minim = 0.3 In imperial units the foot cubed (ft3) or inch cubed (in3) are usually used. first moment of area 5. 1 mm4 = 104 m4.between UK (imperial) and US units of capacity 1 UK minim 1 UK fluid drachm 1 UK fluid ounce 1 UK gill 1 UK pint I UKquart 1 UK gaiion 1 UK pint 1 UK quart 1 UKpeck 1 UK bushel 1 US minim 1 US fluid' drain 1 US fluidt ounce 1 US gill 1 US liquid pint = 0.968 939 UK pint = 0. the coherent SI unit is therefore the metre cubed (m3).03206 US bushel 1 US liquid quart 1 US gaiion 1 US dry pint 1 US dry quart 1 US peck 1 US bushel 1.040 84 U K minim 1. COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 5.832674 UK pint = 0.832 674 UK quart 0. t Sometimes also known as the liquid ounce in the USA.200 95 US liquid quart = 1.832674 UK gill = 0.040 84 U K fluid ounce = 0.960 760 US fluidf ounce = 1.832674 UK gallon = 0.03206 US dry quart 1. Second moment of area I m 4 1 1m4 lcm4 1 ft4 = = 1 1 x 108 0.862 1.200 95 US gill = 1.15862 2 402 510 x 106 = 863 097 41.  6.03206 US peck 1. Relationship. 5.
015 708 O 3. It is the angle between two radii of a circle which cut off on the circumference an arc equal in length to the radius.9" 1 second (1") . second . 1 1. 1 0.636 620 1 57. This is a onehundredth of a right angle.570 80 0. I n German the terni ' Vollwinkel ' is used. radian rad 1 radian right angle minute L .6620 ____ 100 rad iright angle 1 degree 0 = 0.848 14x106 0.016 666 7 2.5. and a riglit angle (L) equals 2x x rad = .016 666 7 3600 60 1.011 111 1 1.017453 3 2. Plane angle Exact values are printed in bold type. There is. which is equivalent to 3'26.6. second (").e. anuther concept iii which an angular mil is equal to 360/6400 degrees ¡. 1 degree (1 O) = 60 minutes (60') = rad 180 1 minute (I') = 60 seconds (60") =  x x 60 i< IC 180 rad rad 3600 x 180 It is often convenient to express subdivisions of the degree in decimal form.08642~106 0. For interconversion factors for the units mentioned in 7.2958 3437..5". 2. a supplementary" unit. Plane angle 7. 7 3 A unit of plane angle used in some continental countries is the grade (3 or. 16 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . For sonie purposes the angular mil is taken to be one thousandth of a radian (103 rad).086 43 x 10 4 1 4. rather than to use minutes and seconds.111 11 1. For other meanings of ' mil ' see 2. . Thus a complete circle subtends an angle of 2n: rad at its centre.777 78x104 0. . and thus the right angle (L)= 90 degrees (90 (O).3 see Table 7. 3' 22. ~ . 4 2 7 2 Angular units of such practical importance that they are retained for general use in conjunction with .rad. 3.9 324 O00 60. lo (or 1 gon) = 0.75 5400 206 265 63. Table 7 .908 88 X 104 0.200 . the gon. Note the possibility of confusion between the hundredth part of a grade in angular measure and the terni Centigrade (correctly called Celsius) in connection with temperature. O). 3. The unit ' mil ' is sometimes used in connection with angular measure. grade (or gon) P gon I = ~  .01 1 1 grade (or gon) P = 54 3240 gon . In English there is no commonly used expression for the ' full angle ' siihiended by a circle.851 85 x 102 3.rad x Notes on section 7 1.25". ~ n m w d* In October 1980 the International Committee of Weights and Measures decided to interpret the class of supplementary units in d Ji'b198J the Intemational System as a class of dimensionless derived units for which the General Conference of Weights and Measures leaves open the possibility of using these or not in expressions ofderived units ofthe International System. as it is called in Germany. BSI BS*350: PART*iI 74 Ii1624669 OiI16134 O I Plane angle BS 350 : Part I : 1974 7.2 and 7.I I Il 0. and 4.7. however.1. the SI are the traditional units degree minute (').1 The coherent SI unit of plane angle is the radian (symbol rad)..851 85x104 1 minute 1 second = = 1 . The full circle subtends an angle of 360 degrees (360') at its centre.4.
1 kn = 1852 m/h = 0 5 4 444 m/s . COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . and in the second instance at the end of March or ofSeptember. the only unit in common use for solid angle.p.5 The knot.il J11[r IYX3 1.1 The SI unit of time is the second (symbol s). The international knot (kn) is metricbased.1 The coherent SI unit of linear velocity is the metre per second (symbol m/s). 10. UTC is defined in such a manner that it differs from TAI by a whole number of seconds. is a unit used for speed in nautical and aeronautical contexts. king equal to one UK nautical mile per hour. as in most countries.3 A metric unit often used for speed is the kilometre per hour (km/h). 1 km/h = 0.qrnJllt. the tiTe interval between two consecutive passages (in the same direction) of the Sun through the Earth's equatorial plane. being equat to one international nautical mile per hour. is based on a related scale. is retained for use as a special unit in astronomy. 2. to keep UTC in agreement with the time defined by the rotation of Earth with an approximation better than 0. 29. having its vertex a t the centre of a sphere.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 8.Jslmettdtv/ Jir!i. lweek = 7 d = 604800s 1 Month = 28. 9. This difference can be changed in steps of 1 s.005 O m/s 8 foot per minute 1 mile/h = 0.4 Various speed units used in the imperial system are: foot per second 1 ft/s = 0. It is the solid angle which. The scale of International Atomic Time (TAI). (This second. one nautical mile per hour.h. Time 9. a derived unit.IO s on 1 January 1972.447 04 m/s mile per houri 10. is maintained by .1 The UK knot is imperialbased and obsolescent.3048 m/s inch per second 1 in/s 0.1 Por interconversion factors for the above units see 'fable 10.I583 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). A complete sphere subtends a solid angle of 4n sc at its centre. in fact.0254 m/s 1 ft/min = 0. $ Traditionally indicated by the abbreviation m.) 9.2 Prior to 1967 the second was defined as a speciiìed fraction of the time taken by the Earth to complete a particular orbit of the Sun. broadcast by an international network of radio stations. a supplementary* unit.242 198 78 d and it is decreasing at the rate of 6. The only time unit commonly used in conjunction with the SI prefixes is the second.9 s. Notes on section 9 IO.IY*3 17 .277 778 m/s 10.4 Longer durations of time are conveniently expressed in terms of the week. based directly on the atomic radiation defining the second. 10. for details see BS 3763. the legal times ofmost countries are offset from UTC by a whole number of hours (because of time zones and 'daylight saving' arrangements). but the last two of these cannot in general be explicitly related to the second (of time). t The year referred to here i the ' d e n d a r . 9. and is as nearly equal to the SI unit as the highest precision of measurement could permit in 1967. . Solid angle Linear velocity Solid angle Time The coherent unit of solid angle. a base unit.14 x 106 days per century. month or year. It is now defined as the duration of a specified nuniber of periods of a particular atomic radiation. but the use of a positive or negative leap second at the end of a month of UTC. Legal time in the UK. cuts o f an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a square with sides of length equal to the radius f of the sphere. is the steradain (symbol sr). s ' & y Calendar adjustments are based on the ' tropical year '. 1 UK knot = 6080 ft/h = 0 5 4 773 m/s . The difference UTCTAI was set equal to .3 Other units of time of such practical importance that they are retained for general use in conjunction with the SI are: minute (min) 1 min = 60 s I h = 60 min = 3600 s hour (h) day (d) Id =24h =86400~ 9. 3. In 1900 the duration of the ' fropical year ' was 365. * In October 1980 the International Committee of Weights and Measures decided to interpret the crass of supplementary units in the International System as a class of dimensionless derived units for which the General Conference of Weights and Measures leaves open the possibility ofusing these ornot in expfessions ofderived units ofthe International System.g the submultiples millisecond ( u . On 1 January 198 1 the difference UTCTAI was . n) inicrosecond (cis) and nanosecond (ns) which are in wide technological use.19 s. Linear velocity (speed) (length/time) 10. the ' ephemeris second '. that of Jdi. preferably in the first instance at the end of December or of June. The symbol a ' is used for year. e. 30 or 31 days (according to calendar) 6 1 yearf = 12 months = 3 5 or 366 days (according to calendar)= 8760 h or 8784 h (according to calendar). U < / M + the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) in Paris.2 Multiples and submultiples of the metre per second are formed by using any of the SI prefixes in conjunction with the metre. the date ofapplication ofthe reformulation of UTC (which previously invoived a frequency offset).
B S I BS*350: P A R T * & 74 m Lb24bb9 OlLbi13b 4 m Linear velocity BS 350 : Part I : 1974 18 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
a frequency associated with the mechanical rotation 1 .2958 21 600 1 revolution per second = 6.777 78x103 12.2 The coliereiif SI unit of rotational frequency (e.(or s 1). or per second.ís as corresponding to 1 Hz. a derived unit with a special name. Angular velocity and velocity of rotation Exact values are prinfed iii bold type  == ~ radian per second md/s 1 second 60 1 376.(or s 1). 19 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .016 666 7 1 = I degree per secoiid "Is 0.166 667 360 60 0. ' rotational speed ' and ' speed of rotation ' are commonly used as alternative terms for aiigulat velocity.017 453 3 l 4.016666 7 0.1 The coherent SI unit of angular velocity is the radian per second (rad/s).or . but should be thought of as a number.rev/s 60 1 1 = (in SI terms) .047 20 I degree per minute "/ni in =I l 0. Formerly in this country the hertz was called the cycle per second (CIS). 1 . .e. S NOTE.1 The coherent SI unit of frequency (of a wave or periodic phenomenon) is the hertz (symbol Hz).104 720 rev/niin 0.016 66U 7 I I 3437. and a clearer f e r n for expressing this concept is ' rotational frequency (See also section 12.m.). the revolution should not be identified with ande as it is 9 0 identified in Table 11 (1 revolution = 2 'IC radians = 360 O). 1 1 'iev/min = ./s or r/s).629 63 XlO5 I 2.4 Corresponding angular velocities are obtainable from Table 11using 1 rev.002 652 58 _ minute rev/min 9.002 777 78 0.991 6. but are also often thought of as a frequency. Angular velocity" (angle/time) 11. Angular velocity.s1 60s 60 12.) '. See also the note under secfion 11. but traditionally indicated by the abbreviation r. particularly when being expressed in revolutions per minute. 12. a derived unit. Expressed in terms of base units of the SI both the hertz and the cycle per second are the inverse second 1 i.017 453 3 2. Frequency (numberJtime) 12.549 30 0.or s1. i. 12.3 Another very commoiiíy used unit of rotational frequency is the revolution per minute (revlmin or r/min.159 155 degree per minute '/min 1 radian pcr sccond radis _ l l 1 radian per miiiiice = radlniin 0.e.p. 11. S It is commonly known as the revolution per secoiid (re.283 i9 1 rcv/s 1 rcvolution per minute = 0. S of a shaft) is also the inverse second. Table 11.2 Other units used are: radian per minute revolution per minute revolution per second degree per minute degree per second (rad/min) (revlmin) or (r/min) (revis) or (rid ("Imin) "Is) For interconversion factors for the above units see Table 11.908 8 8 x 1 0 4 1.Frequency.~ BSILS*350{ PART83 74 ~ ~~ m 3624669 0336137 =Angular velocity Frequency BS 350 : Part I : 1974 11. When frequency is meant. * Thc terms ' rotational velocity'.g.75 57*2958 57.283 19 0.
3048 m/s2 13.031 081 O standard acceleration due to gravity gn = 9. A close approximation in imperial units is 32. . Examples are megagram (Mg). Acceleration Exact values are printed i bold type n metre per second squared m/s2 foot per second squared ft/s2 .  3.1 The coherent SI unit of acceleration is the metre per second squared (symbol m/s2). a base unit..2). 1 Gal = 1 m/s2 = 102 m/s2 1 mGal 105 m/s2 (see 13.B S I BS*350: PART*L 74 m L b 2 4 b b î OLbb&38 8 m Acceleration Mass BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 13. Mass 14. as follows: Refer to note 1 M g = 1000kg  1 =kg lo00 1 mg = 106kg lg i pg = 109kg I I I In practice the megagram is usually referred to by the special name ' tonne ' (symbol t).81 m/s2 and 32..806 65 m/s2 should be taken for this unit. particularly in aeronautical engineering and centrifuge technology. The acceleration due to gravity is sometimes used as a unit of acceleratioii. For the sake of precision the standard value 9.2 The centimetre per second squared (cm/s2).806 65 32. .806 65 m/s2 plays an important part in the definition of certain iinif in the older technical systems. .   .3 The mostused unit in the imperial system for acceleration is the foot per secoiid squared (ftls2). 1 mGal = 103 Gal = 105 m/s2 13. It is defined as equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram (which is in the custody of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Sèvres near Paris). i metre per second squared = m/s2 3.101 972 _______ . These are frequently rounded to 9. .4 The standard acceleration of 9. . multiples and submultiples are formed by adding SI prebes to the word ' gram '. Interconversionfactors for the above units can be seen or inferred from Table 13.  14.1740 1 I NOTE. the associated symbol for this quantity being g.1 The coherent SI unit of mass is the kilogram (symbol kg). 1 Gal = 1 cm/s2 = 102 m/s2 A unit that has been commonly used in geodesy is the milligal (mGal). a submultiple of the above.3048 1 0. is also called the galileo or gal (symbol Gal). 13. standard acceleration due to grallitY ¿n ? ~.1740 ft/s2.. 1 ft/s2 = 0. . a derived unit...280 84  0.. and called ' g '.2 ft/s2. Table 13.2 Because the name of the base unit of mass already contains the SI prefix ' kilo '. Acceleration (length/time squared) 13.. milligram (mg)and microgram (pg). COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . gram (g). 1 foot per second squared ft/s2 = 0. . 14. When the acceleration of free fall has this value the terin ' standard gravity ' is used. and is often called the ' metric ton ' in the UK and in the USA. _ .
Unless otherwise qualified. The pound troy has 110 legal basis in the UK but i s legalized in the USA. and apothecaries' systems.3 Some other units of mass having associations with the metric system are: Refer to note 2 1 metric carat = 200 milligrams = 2 x 104 kg 1 quintal (q) = 1ûOkg 1 atomic mass unit (u) = 1.453 592 37 kg 14. it is defined precisely and exactly as fdows: 1 lb = 0. The hundredweight of 112 lb is often called the ' long hundredweight '.667 g 1 assay ton (US) = 29.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Mass 14. 1 pound troy (USA only) = 12 ounces troy = 5760 grains (= 0.166 g 1 slug = 32.) Apothecaries' unifs (used in the UK* and the USA) 1 scruple" = 20 grains (= 1. troy. 21 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . the term ounce and ifs abbreviation oz signify the ayoirdupois ounce.064 798 91 g) = 7000 grains (gr) (b) UK units only 1 stone = 14pounds (= 6.295 98 gram) 1 drachm* (in UK) = 3 scruples (= 3.146 and 14c.7006 kg) 1 cental (cfl) = 100pounds (= 45.887 93 gram) 1 dram (in USA) = 3 scruples (= 3.2155 kg) 5 6 For interconversion factors for inany of the Units of mass mentioned above see Tables 14u.) 14. The use of the ' long units is decreasing in the USA.4 The primary unit of mass in the imperial system and in the USA is the pound (b. and is abbreviated to gr in the UK.185 kg) (In the USA the word ton refers to the ' short ton ' of 2000 lb unless otherwise specified. * The apothecaries' uiiits (scruple.1740 lb 1 international corn bushel = 60 lb 3 4 (= 14. and apothecaries' oance) have been illegal since 1 January 1971 for use in the United Kingdom.887 93 gram) 1 ounce* = 24 scruples = 480grains (= 31. where it is defined as a mass equal to 5760 grains.660 53 X 1027 kg 14.373 242 kg) The grain has the same value in the avoitáupois.3495 g) = 16x 16 drams (dr) (1 dr = 1. and in similar legislation in the USA.350 29 kg) 1 quarter (qr) = 28 pounds (= 12. Avoirdupois units (a) UK and US units 1 pound = 16 ounces (OZ) (1 OZ = 28.6 S o i e more specialized UK and/or USA iianied units of mass are: Refer to noíc I assay toi1 (UK) = 32.8023 kg) 1 ton (ton) = 2240pounds (= 1016. In the UK Weights I) and Measures Act.5 The connection between multiples and submultiples of the pound is indicated in t b following traditional lists of named UK and US units of mass.3592 kg) 1 short ton (sh ton) = 2000pounds (= 907.1035 gram) (oz tr in UK oz t in USA) (The apothecaries' ounce* and the ounce troy are identical in mass and differ from the avoirdupois ounce. referring to the ton of 2240 lb.05 kg) (c) US units only 1 short hundredweight (sh cwt) = 100 pounds (= 45.1035 gram) (oz apoth in UK oz ap in USA) Troy units (used in the UK and the USA) 1 ounce troy = 1 apothecaries' ounce = 480 grains (= 31. drachm.3592 kg) 1 hundredweight (cwt) = 112 pounds (= 50.771 85 g) (1 gr = 0.5939 kg) (= 27. The terms ' long ton ' or ' gross ton ' are sometimes used.
4. 6 Used for the salc of wheat iindcr internatioiial Whent Agrecment. 3. The slug is tlie British technical unit of mass. 1 kilogram kg 1 pound = 0.BSI BS*350: PARTUL 7 4 Lb24669 OLLbL40 b Mass BS 350 : Part I: 1974 Notcs on section 14 1.453 592 37 I = 2. fine pearls. Mass Exact values are printed in bold type. 5. Table i 4 a . The number of milligrams in a UK assay ton is equal to the number of ounces troy in a UK ton. . and precious stones. Iii tlie UK tlie Icgiil abbreviation for this unit is CM. One poundforce acting on this mass produces an accelcratioii of I foot per second squared.5939 22 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .204 62 Ib I slug I Il 32. The number of milligrams in a US assay ton is equal to the number of ounces troy in a US (short) ton.o68 521 I 08' O 14. 2. The metric carat has international sanction for use in trade in diamonds. The alternative name ' gamma ' (symbol y) is somctimes uscd to indicate a micrograin.1740 I o. 1949.
rl i s 00 G W m 8 O 3 Y e io o \ u .BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Mass U W \o oo Q\ W i n 2 U U 8 O 9 m G! 8 Q\ F VI O d ._ I Li Q\ m a 2 O c? x 2 i n U 23 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
Mass BS 350 : Part I : 1974 8 M  v! e4 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
8 1 pound per yard (lb/yd) (= 0. including denier.2 Two specialized units of linear density used in the textile industry and which have an association with the metric system are: 1 tex = 1 gram per kilometre = 106 kg/m 1 denier = 1 gram per 9 kilometres = 0 1 1 112 x 106 kg/m .1 15.3 are given i Table 15.3 A selection of imperial units used in industry. Mass per unit length (or linear density) (masdlength) 15. is: 1 pound per inch (lb/in) (= 17.2 n reference should be made to BS 947 which gives tables for calculating the tex values of numbers or counts in other systems._ B S I BS3350: _ ~ ~  __ PART*i 74 E~ _ O l L _ _ _ _ _ _ . For further information on 15.496 055 kg/m) 1 pound per mile (lb/rnile) (= 2.1 The coherent SI unit of mass per unit length is the kilogram per metre (symbol kg/m). a derived unit.1 and 15. 15. rods etc. e 25 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .11 1 1 kg/m) 6 1 UKton per loo0 yards (ton/lûûû yd) 1 UKton per mile Cton/mile) (= 0.E 1624669 _ _ _ b i 4 3 i ~ BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Mass per unit length 15. often for Wires.818 49 X 104 kg/@ (= 1.8580 kg/m) 1 pound per foot (lb/€t) (= 1 4 8 16 kg/m) .631342 kg/m) Interconversion factors for the units in 15.
N w m r( m m m m m 2 03 i o m m m cc m m F m i o i o s 8 8 W m 8 1 Li B E E O0 d i n nr" B E II 3 3 II k 2 R I4 a fia a fi F1 g$ nf gh ns d d 26 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BSI BS*350: PART*L 74 811 L b 2 4 b b ï OLlb144 3 Mass per unit length = BS 350 : Part I : 1974 t I E: x o \ i1 . o 8 06 r( z m æ 9 E.
001 kg/m2) gram per square metre (g/m2) (= 0. a derived unit. 27 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 The coherent SI unit is the kilogram per square metre (kg/m2).BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Mass per unit area 16.390 57 x 10 2 kg/m2) ounce per square yard (ozlyd2) (= 0.922 98 x 10 4 kg/m*) U K ton per square mile (ton/milez) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 16.01 kg/m2) milligram per square centimetre (inglcm2) milligram per square millimetre (nig/mm*) (= 1 kg/m2) (= O.ûûO1 kg/m2) kilogram per hectare (kg/ha) 16. Mass per unit area (mass/length squared) (applicable for example to sheet metal.3 A selection of imperial units is: pound per thousand square feet (lb/lûûO ft2) (= 4. plating etc.882 43 X 103 kg/mz) (= 3..305 152 kg/m2) ounce per square foot (oz/ft2) (= 1.120 85 x 104 kg/m2) pound per acre (lb/acre) (= 3. and in agriculture) 16. 16.2 Other commonly used metric units are: (= 0.
a T : CI M 2 9 2 i! 3 O0 d I 2 m I 4 O x n .Mass per unit area BS 350 : Part I: 1974 ? 4 u iA O0 o \ O0 4 r. 5 X O0 iA m O0 CI c! ' e 4 f E 5 5 CI II F i 2i 28 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
. or area per unit mass (applicable to sheet metal. a derived unit. plating. .2 Other commonly used metric units are: square metre per g a (m2/g) rm square centìmetre per milligram (cm2/mg) square d m e t r e per milligram (mm2/rng) hectare per kilogram (ha/kg) 173 A selection of imperial units is: thousand square feet per pound (1000 €t2/ib) square yard per ounce (yd2/oz) square foot per ounce (ftyoz) acre per pound (acrelib) square mile per UK ton (milezlton) (= loo0 m2/kg) (= (= 100 m2/kg) 1 mz/kg) (=IO o00 m21kg) (= 204.1 The coherent SI unit is the square metre per kilogram (m2/kg).816 rnz/kg) (= 29.79 mykg) (= 2549.~ BSI ~BSU350: PART*& 74 l b 2 4 b b ï OLLbl47 9 Area per unit mass BS 350 : Part I : 1974 17.4935 mykg) (= 3. .277 O6 mz/kg) (= 8921. Specific surface. Previous page is blank British Standards 30 COPYRIGHT Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . etc.08 m2/kg) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 17. 17. and in agriculture) 17.
Area per unit mass O * I rr) s X io @I  I * I o. X \o s ril O tt ?i d x d a 2 2 2 rl i O0 0 Y Q\ Cu Cu 2 i o O0 O F tti o N d O sì 09 Q\ @I O m rl i 8 m I d i ? O CO 2 2 X G CO N O 2 II i II O COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services 31 .
P A R T * 3 'i4 = 3 6 2 4 b b 9 . * It should be noted that ' relative density ' (i. Table 18.3. litre. The relative density of a substance is defined as the ratio of the mass of a given volume of that substance to the mass of an equal volume of a reference substance. square yards per UK gallon.e.BSI I . I 48*9337 9 1 1 square yard per gallon . etc.). See also section 20.7763 kg/m3) (= 119.2 ft2/gal I 0*111111 19.1 The coherent SI unit of density is the kilogram per cubic metre (kg/m3). When the reference substance is water the term ' specific gravity ' is commonly used for relative density. density/reference density) is a dimensionless quality. and square feet per UK gallon. See 4. 32 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . i1 gram per millilitre (1901) = 999.3 A selection of imperial units is: pound per cubic inch (lb/in3) pound per cubic foot (lb/ftJ) UK ton per cubic yard (UKton/yd3) pound per UK gallon (lb/UKgal) pound per US gallon (Ib/USgal) } (= loo0 kg/m3) (=27 679. under conditions which should be specified for both substances. Area per unit capacity I l I I I  1 square metre per litre m2/l 1 1 . 19.2 Other commonly used metric units are: gram per cubic centimetre (g/cm3) or gram per millilitre (g/ml)t 19. Density * (mass/volume) 19. Area per unit capacity Another combination with somewhat similar application is ' area per unit capacity (used for the ' covering power ' of paints.826kg/m3) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 19.0. For conversions of readings of hydrometers on different density and specific gravity bases see BS 718.972 kg/mJ.94kg/mJ) (= 99. Table 18 gives interconversion factors for square metres per litre.0185 kg/m3) (= 1328.183 992 Yd2/gal 1 square foot per gallon = 0 0 0 435 8 . Concentration. BS*350:  0336349 2 = Area per unit capacity Density BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 18. a derived unit.9 kg/m3) (= 16.
BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 N Density I IC: I I I g x Do O l i W c t Y m I E X 8 d rn N c? i n Do 8 2 I I I I 8 II 33 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
for example. 34 . See 43.489 15 kg/m3) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 20. T i unit is equaf to 1 gram per cubic decimetre. mass (of a substance) per unit mass (of a solution).BSI BS*350: P A R T * l 74 L b 2 Y b b î QLLbL54 0 m  Concentration BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 20. hs 1 kg/m3 = 1 g/dm3 = 1 g/1 20. or. See also section 19.1 The coherent SI unit for the expression of concentration* (in the sense of the mass of a substance per unit volume of a solution. in terms of moles per unit volume. t 1 gram per litre (1901) = 0.228 835 x 102 kg/in3) grain per UK gallon (gr/UKgal) (= 0. and is commonty expressed as 1 gram per litref'.017 118 1 kg/m3) ounce per WK gallon (oz/UKgal) (= 6. * Concentration is sometimes expressed in other ways. in physical chemistry.2 Some imperial and US units which are in practical use for the statement of coiicentratioii are: grain per cubic foot (gr/ft3) (= 0. a derived unit.236 02 kg/mJ) ounce per US gallon (oz/USgal) (= 7. Density. Concentration (mass/volume) 20.999 972 kg/m3. COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .014 253 8 kg/m3) grain per US gallon (gr/USgal) (= 0. litre. or the like) is the kilogram per cubic metre ( k g / d ) .
BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Concentration m I rn I E) m m O G \o a m ! O ct m 2 X c rn I X m 4 2 2 X N m H I E) o \ m r4 i n t X 8 8 Q\ v. o U o 8 d Co Co Y P= 03 W m m W s t: i n i n 2 R rl B 3 a 7 rci 3 a S u i t s? x A rl h * u a m ü Y 3 r( O i n r) r) u rl 3 rl i i n P II r 1 II ( I Il II e 35 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
01 m3/kg.3. a derived unit. * 1 litre (1901) per kilogram = 1.2 Anothcr commonly used metric unit is: litre* per kilogram (l/kg) = 0.010 022 4 rnJ/kg) UK gallon per pound (UKgal/lb) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 21.I B S I BS*350: PART*KL 74 lb24bbî Ollbl53 4 m Specific volume BS 350 : Part I : 1974 21. titre.ûûû 028 x 103 mi/kg. 21.612 73 x 105 m3/kg) cubic inch per pound (in3/lb) (= 2.1 The coherent SI unit of specific volume (which is the reciprocal of density) is. 36 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 21. See 4.786 96 x 105 mJ/kg) cubic foot per UK ton (ft3lUKton) (= 0. the cubic metre per kilogram (mj/kg). Specific volume (volume/mass) 21.3 A selection of imperial units is: (= 0.062 428 O m3/kg) cubic foot per pound (ft3/lb) (= 3.
I ! t c ß P Ki a l n i I 37 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BS 350 : Part1 : 1974 Specific volume I m CJ W Qo O0 Y 3 ci I E a o o al .
Mass rate of flow Exact values are printed in bold type.622 222 I %O0 I I 1'607 l4 4.3 A selection of imperial units is: (= 0.777 78x 104 2._ kg/s 1 kilogram per hour kdh 1 pound per second = 0.282 235 kg/s) UK ton per hour (UKton/h) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 22..777 78 x 104 kg/s 22. 38 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . $ The litre (1901) = 1. Volume rate of flow" (volume/time) 23.777 78 x 104 0.865 79 x 106 m3/s) cubic foot per hour (ft3/h) (= 4.028 316 8 1n3/s) cubic foot per secondg (ft3/s) (= 7.543 14 _.453 592 kg/s) pound per second (Ib/s) (= 1.777 78 x 104 m3/s) cubic metre per hour (m3/h) (= 0.282 235 1016 .001 m3/s) litre# per second (@I (= 1.576 82 x 105 m3/s) UK gallon per minute (UKgal/min) (= 1.2 Another commonly used metric unit is the kilogram per hour (kg/h).O5 1 23. a derived unit.4 0.259 98 x 104 kg/s) pound per hour (lb/h) (= 0. the conversion factors given here are based on the ussiiniption that the reference conditions of temperature.204 62 9.64 3._ . 1 kg/h = 2. The cubic metre per second is sometimes known as the ' cumec '. Table 22. 22. pound p r hour lb/h kilogram per second kilogram per hour kdh pound per second lb/s  UK ton per how UKton/h 1 kilogram per second = 1 3600 1 2.f..453 592 1 2240 Ib/h 1 UK ton per hour UKton/h = 0.123 95x 104 7936.262 80 x 106mJ/s) UK gallon per hour (UKgal/h) For interconversion factors for the above see Table 23.666 67 x 105 m3/s) litre# per minute (I/min) (= 2.I. pressure and humidity remain unchanged.1 The coherent SI unit of volume rate of flow is the cubic metre per second. 23.3 A selection of imperial units is: (= 0.3). L ~ J ~ ~ S Mass rate of flow Volume rate of flow BS 350 : Part I : 1974 22.2 Some other commonly used metric units are: (= 2. BsI BS*350: P A R T * L 74 Lb24bbq O J . Mass rate of flow (masc/time) 22.842 07 x IO 4 1632.OOO 028 litre (see 4.1 The coherent SI unit of mass rate of flow is the kilograin per second (kgls).( d / s ) .777 78 x 107 m3/s) litre# per hour (I/h) 23. a derived unit.464 29 x 10. 5 The cubic foot per second is sometimes known as the ' cusec '.546 O x 103 in3/s) 9 UK gallon per second (UKgal/s) (=: 7.93 lb/s 1 pound per hour = 1.453 592 = 2.259 98 x 10 4 Il 2.204 62 6. * For gases.
. u) O  c n z 3 X t I R f m m N h N f d h n ru) 8 E X o.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Volume rate of flow m f N u) 8 h R m ! O N w  8 F p i n u) N w t n' m R m E b X Y m O Q f O IC E X 9 E IC 6 o t m' z X : F i t u) 1 8 R 8 c 8 8 N c E a 3 u) O IC r _ . 2 n n R Lo 2  m 9 IIY 2  m" R m 8 6 c X le rO Y . 8 c m m u! r p i * Yi _ . 2 m E p i I  m m u! O . IC p i a li d 8 N u)  N c II p3 .. COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services I I r k5 . O ' 9 8 E E X b 8 m o R u) m m O X m m O u) 0 m O X u () 1 l"b r. E x E X u) N 2 u ) R R m u) f  O u) Q 6 m f I 8 . pi a c . Q! 8 8 N 7 E r X n'  u) d I I ã X n i d b 8 d E 8 r 0 B c! X a s X K R u) X m N 2 r g 8 X R r. : n m m p i E m IC X t n H o 4 u) m t r. oi ! r. R I  L R r.
e.611 558 UKton mile 1. i. 24. or litres per 100 kilometres. Fuel consumption (distance/volume) Exact values are printed in bold type.832 674 0. kilometre per litre miie per UK gallon mile/UKgal mile per US gallon mile/USgal hli 1 kilometre per litre km/l 1 mile per UK gallon = 1 2. volume of fuel per distance run (see Table 244.824 81 2.780 20 UKton mile per UK gallon 0. n I ütritrper 1 litre per kilometre* l/km 1 UK gallon per mile = kilometre* UK gallon per mile UKgal/mile US gallon per mile USgal/mile I1 2.E S 1 BS*350: P A R T * L 74 1 6 2 4 b b 9 Ollb157 1 Traffic factors BS 350 : Part I : 1974 (in connection with volume of fuel consumed.200 95 Mass carried x distance 1 tonne kilometre 1 UKton mile Mass carried x distance/volume 1 tonne kilometre per litre 1 UKton mile per UK gallon 0. Table 246. distance run and load carried) It should be noted that in European countries fuel consumptions are usually expressed in terms of litres per kilometre. Fuel consumption (voIume/distance) Exact values are printed i bold type. Traffic factors Table 24a.832 674 I 0.635 17 tonne kilometre 2. In the UK the reciprocal factor (distance/volume) in terms of miles per gallon is used (see Table 24b).354 006 1 0. over the range 10 miles to 100 miles per gallon.425 144 1. Figure 1 is a graph indicating the relationship between litres per 100 kilometres and miles per gallon.200 95  = UKgal/mile 1 US gallon per mile USgal/mile = 2.352 15 0.824 81 I 0.354 006 mile/UKgal 1 mile per US gallon mile/USgal = I = = = = 1.359 687 tonne kilometre per litre 40 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .352 15 1 * Several European countries use the factor ' litre per 100 kilometres '.
1 Fuel consumption O 41 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed byInformation Handling Services ~~~ ~ .~~ ~ BSI BSr35O: PART*:L 7 4 1 l b 2 Y b b 9 O L L.L C B 3 b ~ _ _ ~ = Traffic factors BS 350 : Part I: 1974 O * U p! U C c 3 8 P e Miles per gallon Fig.
Angular momentum (mass x velocity x length) The coherent SI unit of angular momentum is the kilogram metre squared per second.042 140 1 kg m2/s . Table 25.829 O0 x 10 5 23. Moment of inertia Exact values are printed in bold type. a derived unit.17 54 674.042 140 1 kg m2) (= 2.4 144 2304 = 1 0.233 O1 lb ft/s 1 Ib ft/s = 0.7304 Ib ftz/S 1 kg 1 Ib ftz/s = 0. 25.8 1 pound foot squared lb ft2 1 pound inch squared = 1 6.7304 3417.829 O0 x 105 kg m2ì For interconversion factors for the above see Table 25.042 140 1 2.340 28 x IO . Some key conversion factors are: 1 kg m/s = 7.926 40 x IO 4 kg m2) (= 1.944 44 x 10 3 4.1 The coherent SI unit of moment of inertia is the kilogram metre squared (kg m2).BSI BS*3CO: P A R T * l 74 131 1624bb9 Oll6359 5 Moment of inertia Momentum Angular momentum BS 350 : Part I : 1974 25. kilogram metre s q d kg m2 pound foot pound inch squared squared lb ft2 Ib in2 ounce inch squared oz in2 1 kilogram metre squared = kg m2 1 0. Some key conversion factors are : 23.3 A selection of imperial units is: pound foot squared (íb ft2) pound inch squared (Ib in2) ounce (avoir) inch squared (oz in2) (= 0.0625 16 íb in2 1 ounce inch squared  1 oz in2 NOTE. Moment of inertia (mass x length squared) 25. 1 kg m2 = 106 kg mm2 = 107 g cm2. 26.138 255 kg m/s (1 kg m/s = 105 g cm/s) 27. Momentum (linear) (mass x velocity) The coherent SI unit of momentum is the kilogram metre per second.2 Some other metric units which have been used are: (1 kg mm2 = 106 kg m2) kilogram miliimetre squared (kg mm2) (1 g cm2 = 107 kg m2) gram centimetre squared (g cm2) 25. = 42 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .926 40x 10 4 1.
In exact ternis.44N) 1 kip (USA only) = loo0 Ibf (= 4448. 1 kgf (or kp) ==9.806 65 N.3 In the footpoundsecond system the coherent force unit is the poundal (pdi). Other metric units of force of historical or practical importance are: 82 the dyne (dyn). when applied to a body having a mass of one kilogram.448 22 N t ) Furfher technical force units associated with the poundforce are the ounceforce (ozf).0. gives it the standard acceleration* due to gravity.806 65 N) 28. Thus.806 65 kg iii/s2 (= 9. are both exactly defined in terms of the standard acceleration due to gravity. the force unit in the metretonnesecond system. and the kilogramforce (kgf). and account has to be taken of this when very high precision is required. Expressed in terms of base uiiits of the SI the newton is the kilogram metre per second squared (kg m/s2) and is that force wliicli. Thus. which is often described as the metric technical unit of force.Weight. gives it an acceleration of one metre per second squared. 9.1740 pdl (approximately) (= 4. 0.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Force 28. when applied to a body having a mass of one kilogram. Force (mass x acceleration) 28. I n Germany and some other continental countries the kilogramforce is called the kilopoiid (with symbol kp).453 592 37 >: 9.4 The kilogramforce (kgf). 1 pdl = 1 lb ft/s2 .453 592 37 x 0.4.3048 kg ni/s2 (= 0. a derived unit with a special name. the force unit in the centimetregramsecond system. it foliows that the forces exerted by gravity on bodies having a mass of 1 kg or 1 Ib are rarely exactly equal to 1 kgf or 1 lbf respectively. It is that force which. 9.02 N) 1 US tonforce = 2000 lbf (= 8896. Interconyersion factors for the above units are given. I.806 65 1 Ibf = lb ft/s2 034 . from Table 28.1 The coherent SI unit of force is the newton (N).138 255 N) (approximately) The corresponding technical force unit in general use in the UK and USA is the poundforce (lbf). 1 ozf =~ I b f (= 0.08 = 32. or can be readily inferred. and the poundforce (Ibf) and its associated units. in the USA a unit of loo0 lbf named the ‘ kip ’ is often used. when applied to a body having a mass of one pound. 2 . Because local acceleration due to gravity usually differs slightly from standard acceleration.22 N) 28. 1 dyn = 1 g cm/s2 (= 105 N) 1 sn = 1 t m/s2 (= 1 3 N) 0 l h e kilogramforce (or kilopond) is that force which. gives it the standard acceleration* due to gravity (Le.806 65 m/s?). 43 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 1 * See 13.278 014 N) 1 tonf = 2240 lbf (= 9964. the U K tonforce (tonf) sind the US tonforce. See also section 29. the sthène (sn).
0 f Pz C I 8 l4 gk o c COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BSI BSa350: P A R T * l 74 m 1ib24bb9 O l L b l b L 3 m ~ Force BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 n I 2 N w m B v.
3 Accurate weight conversions. can be made with good accuracy by using the tables for sections 14 and 28 respectively. The force of gravity (for example. 45 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 29. For most practical purposes variations in local gravitational acceleration can be ignored and the standard value of 9. It is the standard value of 9. to obtain the accurate relationship of a mass to its associated gravitational force account has to be taken of the exact local value of the earth's gravitational field. Weight 2. As weight values may be found quoted in either mass or force units both usages are accommodatedin these conversion tables. it is used in the sense of force by CGPM and in scientific and some technical work. the ki1ogram:force and the poundforce. Meaning of ' weight The term ' weight ' is commonly used either to denote mass or force. 29. The downward force on the mass is also affected by the bupyancy of any displaced atmosphere. To convert weight units when using weight in the mass sense use Tables 14a. However.e. 146 or 14c: to convert weight units when using weight as a force use Table 28.806 65 m/s2 is assumed (usually rounded to 9. or on a force to force basis. 1963 and in common parlance. Conversions from one system of units to another on a mass to mass basis. '.29. It is used in the sense of mass in the UK Weights and Measures Act.81 m/s2). the 91 mass of a body or the force of gravity acting upon it. i. expressed in newtons) as is equal to the mass (in kilograms) multiplied by the local gravitational acceleration (in metres per second squared).806 65 m/s2 that is used in defining with precision the technical force units.2 Relatioitshipbetween force of gravity and m s .
30.3 A selection of imperial units is: poundal foot (pdl ft) (= 0. it can be seen for exainple that rnN (the reverse of N m) would easily be mistaken for mihewton. There is no similar convention used or advisable with metric (including SI) units.061 55 x 103 N ni) ounceforce inch (ozfin) (= NOTE. above. or energy. I . both are dimensionally force x length but in the former the directions of the force and length components are perpcndiciilar to each other while iii the latter they are in line with each other. or torque (force i length) : 30. a tinit having lhe special name joule (J). Metric moment or torque units should be expressed 89 indicated in 30. With imperial units a distinction between torque units and energy units is made (by convention) by reversing the order of the units. the foot poundforce (ft Ibf) is an energy unit and the poundforce fooi (Ibf ft) a torque unit.03 N m) UKtonforce foot (tonf ft) 7. or torque. Moment of force. e. which has a different physical significance. in continental countries is the kilogramforce metre (kgf m).112 985 N m) (= 3037. torque arid energy are diíïerent physical quantities. 1 kgfm = 9.1 and 3 . Energy).806 65 N m This unit is called the kilopond metre (kp m) in Germany.__ BSI BSs350: PARTxL 74 W L b Z 4 b b 9 O L L b L b 3 7 W ~ Moment of force (torque) BS 350 : Part I : 1974 30.1 The coherent SI unit of moment (of force) is the iiewtoii metre (N m). See the note below concerning the energy unit.355 82 N m) poundforce inch (Ibf in) (= 0. Asanieitded Jlrly1983 P 46 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .042 140 1 N m) poundforce foot (Ibf ft) (= 1. 02 It may be useful to point out that because both torque and energy are dimensionally the same (force x length) there is a numerical correspondence between energy conversion tables and torque conversion tables. 303 A metric unit often used for moment.g. u derived uiiit. However. (see section 36. The product newton x metre (N m) also expresses the SI unit for work done.
BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Moment of force (torque) rl 8 O rl i Q õ m 8 r( i /o 1% m I+) I EI X % 8 O 8 Y io I I Pl m I EI o. OI X tW. Y 47 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
488 16 Pa (or N/m2) .1 N/m2 = lo5 N/m2 = 105 Pa. are: poundal per square foot (pdl/ft2).3048 m)2 approx. t The internationally recognized unit symbol for the bar is the same as the unit name. One of its submultiples.806 65 Pa 1 kgf/m2 = 9. N/in2. i dyn/cm = 103 N/m No interconversion tables are provided for force per unit length. Pressure (force/area) 32. the kilogramforce per square metre. some pressure units have a decimal relationship with the pascal.4 Some imperial units in use.BSI BS*350: PART*L 74 m 3624bbî OLLbLb5 O m Force per unit length Pressure BS 350 : Part I : 1974 31.098 066 5 MPa In Germany and some other Continental countries the kilopond (kp) is used in place of the kilogramforce (kgf). the commonly used symbol for the millibar is simply mb. = 47.5). being equal to one sthène per square metre : 1 pz = 1 sn/m2 = 1 x 103 N/m2 = 1 kN/m2 = 1 kPa. = 1. 32. 32.1 N/m2 = 0. the kilogramforce per square centimetre: = 9. 106 dyn/cmZ. (m/1W2 The pièze is the coherent pressure unit in the rnetretonnesecond system. 1 bar = 106 dyn/cm2 = 106 x 0. in particular. The bar.980 665 x 105 N/m2 (exactly) = 0. In meteorology. These technical units have a simple relationship with conventional columns of water expressed in metric terms (see 32. is legally recognized in EEC countries and has a magnitude not far removed from that of usual atmospheric pressure at sea level. persists in common use. surface tension. Force per unit length * (forcdength) 31. One pascal represents a very small pressure.1 The coherent SI unit of pressure is the newton per square metre. The main reason for mentioning it here is to show the distinction from torque. and the bar (bar)?. Only the last of these. and that are expressed directly in terms of force per unit area. 32. and its multipies kilopascal (kPa) (or kN/m2) and megapascal (MPa) (or MN/m2) are therefore frequently used. 31.3048 m)2 approx.0. 1 kp/cm2 = 1 kgf/cmz. the millibar.1 The coherent SI unit is the newton per metre (N/m). These are the dyne per square centimetre (dynlcm2) (sometimes called the barye).3048) N 1 pdl/ft2 = (0. for which the special name pascal (symbol Pa) was approved by the CGPM in 1971. 48 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 322 Arising from the historical evolution of the SI from the CGS system.8803 Pa (or N/m2) I * For example.806 65 N 1 lbf/ft2 (0.806 65 N/m2 (exactly) 1 kgf/cm2 = 0. and. however.453 592 37 x (0.2 Another metric unit that may still be encountered is the dyne per centimetre (dyn/cm).g. with its multiples.1 Pa. The dyne per square centimetre is also a very small pressure: i x 105~ 1 dyn/cm2 = = 0. the pièze (pz). e.453 592 37 x 9. is widely used in the expression of barometric pressures. the coherent unit in the footpoundsecond system poundforce per square foot (lbf/ftz) poundforce per square inch (lbf/in2) technical units UKtonforce per square foot (tonf/ft2) UKtoiiforce per square inch (tonf/in2) 0.3 Also in common use on the Continent are the technical pressure units.
32. = 9.39 Pa (approx. being equal to 760 mmHg within one part in 7 million. the conventional millimetre of water is exactly equal to the kilogramforce per square metre: 1 mmH2O = 1 kgf/m2 (or kp/m2) Similarly. The metre of water (mH2O) and foot of water (ftH20) are also used. Attention is called to the significance of the following terms and symbols: Standard atmosphere (atm).5951 x 9.072 5 x 1 5 Pa (or N/m2) approx. precisely defined in terms of the pascal as follows : I torr = 101325.) I ftH2O == 304. '.6 may be used to state the magnitude of an absolute pressure or of a pressure difference.4 mmHg = 9. the conventional inch of water (symbol inH2O)..i.089 Pa (approx. which is used on the Continent.001 m x lo00 kglm3 x 9.4 Pa = 249.5951 mmH20 = 13.322 Pa (approx. The pressure associated with a given height is dependent upon the density of the liquid and the local acceleration due to gravity. It should not be regarded or used as a unit. this abbreviation is inconsistent with the internationally recognized symbology for units.7 ' Absolute ' and ' gauge All the pressure units mentioned in 32.0 Pa 760 . 1 UKtonf/ftz = 2240 lbf/ft2 == 1. Pressures are often measured in terms of the height of column of liquid. e.5 Liquid columns. the term ' micron ' meaning micrometre of mercury (pmHg). 10 mH20 = 1 kgf/cm2 (or kp/cm2).07 Pa (approx. when under the standard condition g.1 Ibf/inz = 144 lbf/ft2 = 6894. to the conventional rniliinietre of mercury (mmHg).e.76 Pa (or N/m2) approx. although widely used in the UK and USA. The technical atmosphere (at).54443 x lo7 Pa (orN/m2) approx.6 Atmospheres. the conventional inch of mercury (symbol inHg).806 65 N/m2 = 9. 2 0 1 UKtonf/in2 = 2240 lbf/in2 = 1. It has been internationally recommended that pressure units themselves should not be modified to indicate whether the pressure value is ' absolute ' (i.5 Pa 32. are internationally recognized: the conventional miliimetre of mercury (symbol mmHg) . but.133.) Another pressure unit in common use known as the torr is equal.806 65 m/s2 = 9.806 65 Pa = 133. is equal to the kilogramforce per square centimetre. This unit. 49 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .e. However. or kilopond per square centimetre: 1 at = 1 kgf/cm2 (or kp/cm2) = 98 066.806 65 x 25.806 65 Pa = 2989. and misunderstandings in interpretation and conversion may arise if the quantity concerned is not clearly expressed. 1 mmHaO = 0.8 x 9. the pascal is wellsuited to vacuum technology.4 Pa = 3386.806 65 Pa (This is the pressure due to an ideal column of water of length 1 mm and of uniform density 1 g/cmJ. is still common in this field. within one part in 7 million.' is often used to signify kips per square inch (Le. In the USA. of mercury or of water.1 to 32.g. based upon conventional density and gravity conditions.s.806 65 x 13. however. Following from its definition.)* ' i inH20 = 25.) 1 inHg = 25.) Because of its size. The symbol pmHg is sometimes (incorrectly) contracted to p.4mmH20 = 9. The following pressure units. loo0 lbf/in2). 32. the conventional millimetre of water (symbol mmH20).5951 x 25. with atmospheric pressure as the datum). It is.322 Pa (approx. This is an internationally esfablished reference for pressure of 101 325 Pa. with zero pressure as the datum) or ' gauge ' (i. * For detailed information on barometer conventions see BS 2520.806 65 m/s2) 1 mmHg =_ 13. in addition to the millibar and torr and their submultiples. The poundforce per square inch (lbf/in2) is often known and shown by the abbreviation p.8 mmH2O = 304. but it is of great importance and in widespread use as a reference. the expression ' ksi.
i. and ' one per cent of vacuum ' represents a gauge pressure of minus one per cent of the datum atmosphere in use.g. Absolute pressures are always positive. It is common practice in the power and process industries to refer to ' vacuum ' values. to indicate Ibf/in2.34 bar ' or ' at an absolute pressure of 234 kPa '. A similar situation existed in German practice. if the context leaves any doubt as to which quantity is meant. Interconversion factors for the above units are given. the datum is an absolute pressure of 1 at. See also section 33. Tables 320. only ' at ' was an internationally recognized unit symbol.s.i.25 MPa ' or ' at an absolute pressure of 2.5 bar ' or ' at a gauge pressure of 1. where the symbol for the technical atmosphere (at) was modified to atü or ata to indicate the expression of ' gauge ' (über) or ' absolute ' pressure respectively*.s.' respectively.g. ' at a gauge pressure of 12.' and ' p.~ BsI BS*350: PART*L 74 Lb24bbq OLLb1ib7 4 Pressure BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Both in the UK and USA it was commoii practice to use the abbreviation p. but were in fact an indication of the quantity being expressed. 32b and 32c. 50 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . e. and L o differentiate between gauge and absolute pressures by adding the further letters ' g ' and ' a ' to make ' p.s. * With the atü.a.g. Of these. Stress. ' I mmHg vacuum ' represents a gauge pressure of 1 mmHg. or can be deduced from.i. furthermore the modiñcations did not change the units of measurement. From the recommendation in the second paragraph it follows that. the word ' pressure' should be qualified appropriately: e. but gauge pressures are shown as negative when indicating a pressure less than the datum pressure.
BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Pressure W I 5: X 3 8 u t o0 c? 5: X s t W Q: 011 d O 8 O U U 8 3 ril $ U d I s X I * a X q W I 2 P d m I U a X E l 3 X 2 q U F! z w d 51 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
’ BSI BS8350: P A R T * l 7 q m l b 2 4 b b 9 O l l b l b ï B m ~ Pressure BS 350 : ’art 1 : 1974 88 I h m 8 m d 52 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
 ó  i5 w m '". 53 2 m 4Vl X g m m m m m Q 8 c.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Pressure I 3 w w x g. O 3 R 8 x I[ I II 53 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
stress is iiaturally treated with pressure. 1 CP = 102 P = 103 Pa s. the newton per square metre (N/rna). described in 3. Technical units that have been widely used for stresses in metals and some other materials are the kilogramforce per square millimetre (kgf/mm2). poundforce per square inch (Ibf/in2) and U Ktonforce per square inch (UKtonf/in2)*. 3 3 and 32c. s scctioii 33. but not ali.76 Pa s 1 Ib/ft h = 4. Ib/(ft s> (pdl s/ftz) poundal second per square foot = slug per foot second.2 The poise (P) is the8orrespondiiig CGS unit.80665 N/mm2 = 9. of the iiiiits mentioned in connection with pressure are used for stress. t Sonietinies called the ' reyn '.' is ofteii uscd to S¡gii¡fY kips pet square inch (¡. * Iii tlie USA. dynamic (stress/velocity gradient) 34. In the change to SI. Vipcosity. The coherent SI unit of stress is again the pascal (Pa). tlie expressioii ' k. 34.1 The coherent SI unit of dynamic viscosity is the pascal second (Pa s). or as the kilogram per metre second (kg/(rn s)).8 6 1 Ibf s/ft2 = 47. slug/(ft s) (lbf s/ft2) poundforce second per square foot = slug hour per foot second squared. a practical unit of similar size to the kgf/mm? was sought. However. Many.c. 1000 Ibf/iii:ì. 34. Le. For reference to frequently used but empirical uiiits of viscc>s¡ty. (It should be noted that this is iiot the same as the poise (P).2 TI lbf s/in2 = 6894.i.s. slug ii/(ft sz) (lbf h/ft2) pound force hour per square foot poundforce second per square inch? (lbf s/in2) pound per foot hour (lb/ft li) 1 kgf s/m2 = 9. Stress (fordarea) BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Though it is a different physical quantity. which came into some use. so the conversion factors in Tables 320. The commonIy used submultiple is the centipoise (cP). the first proposal being the hectobar (hbar).8803 Pa s i Ibf h/ft2 = 1 7 3 69 x iOS Pa s .13379 x 104kg/(m s) = 4. 54 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .) 42. 34.such Viscosity.BSI BS*350: P A R T * L 74 IPI L b 2 4 b b ï O L L b L 7 1 b R Stress Viscosity (dynamic) 33. This unit has also been called the poiseuille (Pi) iii France. which can be otherwise stated as MN/m2 or MPa: 1 N/mmz = 1 MN/m? = 1 MPa 1 kgf/mm2 = 9.133 79 x 104 Pa s NOTE.3 Other metric and imperial units that have been used for dynamic viscosity are: (kgf slni?) kilogramforce second per square metre = pound per foot second.Intercoii\ersion factors for these and other units used for strcsscs are givcn o r ciiii be dcditccd ïroiii Tables 31u. kinematic. the hbar is being abandoned in favour of the N/mm2. w Interconversion factors for most of these units are given in Table 34. 1 P = 1 dyn s/cm2 = 101 N s/m2 = 101 Pa s. since it is also force divided by area. Pressure.80665 MPa = 102 x 105 N/ni? = 10 NIPa 1 hbar = 100 bar NOTE. See also section 32. ils the Redwood sccoiid. 326 and 32c will be found useful.806 65 Pa s 1 pdl s/ft2 = 1 4 8 1 Pa s . which iilay also be expressed a s the newton second per square metre (N s/m2).
O I z CI x i n 7i COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Viscosity (dynamic) o \ o.
Interconversion factors for the units in 35. * ESDU Item No.3 Another metric unit sometimes used is the metre squared per hour (m2/h). 251259 Regent Street.5 The units referred to in 35.777 78 x 104 m2/s 35.2 The corresponding CGS unit is the stokes (St).4 are given in Table 35. as distinct from values on frequently used but empirical scales such as Redwood No.emorandum on the viscosity of liquids and the classification of lubricating oils ' obtainable from: Engineering Sciences Data Unit. 1 m2/h = 2. 1 cSt = 102 St = 106 m2/s (= 1 rnmys) 35.4516 x 104 m2/s 1 ft2/s = 9. kinematic (length squared/time) 35. Viscosity.BSI BS*350: PART*:L 74 E b 2 4 6 6 9 0lLbL73 T I Viscosity (kinematic) BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 35. sponsored by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Saybolt Universal. 68036 ' Introductory m. London W1R 7AD.792 11 x 107 m2/s 1 ftZ/h = 2.4 are absolute units with physical dimensions. For tables from which viscosity values in these empirical scales may be converted to centistokes see ESDU* Item No.1 The coherent SI unit of kinematic viscosity (which is dynamic viscosity divided by density) is the metre squared per second (m2/s).290 30 X 102 d / s 1 in2/h = 1. 1 St = 1 cm2/s = 104 m2/s The common submultiple is the centistokes (cSt).1 to 35.1 to 35. 68036.580 64 x 105 m2/s 35. 56 a COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . and Engler degrees.which also has the dimensions of length squared/time. 1. 35. Note that this table may be used for the conversion of values of thermal diffusivity.4 A selection of imperial units is: inch squared per second in2/s foot squared per second ft2/s inch squared per hour in2/h foot squared per hour ft2/h 1 in2/s = 6.
O 00 v.I. bae t $3 0 CI M n! El X EI 2 4 2 a at N P 3 X 4 4 II 1 9 4 L 8% 57 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
Just as energy arises in many ways. L 58 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .) 36.) .tte. 1 erg = 1 dyn cm = 1 x lOsN x 0. pascal cubic metre) (This unit was. Three of tlie calories are still in some practical use and in precise work need to be separately identified.1855 kJ (approx. tlic Si unit for all forms is the joule.) 36.8 = 2. watt second) = 1 Pa m3 (pressure x volume.3) = 1 9 x 106 ft lbf . but some of these are now precisely defined in terms of the joule: the various calories (originally relating to the gram of water aiid the degree Celsius).6 MJ 36. The joule equivalent shown above wíis adopted by the CIPM in 1950 as being the most accurate value which could then be deduced from experinient.6 X 106 W s = 3. also sometinies describcd as the ' tonnecalorie ' and the frigorie.: I J = 1 N m (force x distance.5"C to 15.Q.3) . Arising from the historical development of the SI from the CGS system. and Centigrade heat units came into use according to their memis of definiiioii. British thermal units.) phere (see 32.) Associated with the cal15 are the thermie (tli). the various British thermal units (originally relatiiig to the pound of water and degree Fahrenheit) . the connection between the joule and other SI unils may be iiidicated in different ways. the foot poundforce (ft Ibf) and the horsepower hour (lip li).453 592 37 x 0.1855 J (approx..) and tlie 15 "C calorie (cal1 5) described below : I calIT = 4.) 1 lip h = 550 ft lbf/s x 3600 s (see 37.) I ft Ibf 1 x 0.042 140 1 J (approx. which became obsolete in 1948.) 7  36.80665 N (see 31..325 J (The litre used here is equal to i decimefre cubed (see 43. and the various Centigrade heat units (based on the pound of water and the degree Celsius). = 1.806 65 J 1 litre atmosphere = 1 dm3 x 101 325 Pa 101.3 A unit in extensive use for the expression of electrical energy is the kilowatt hour (kW li).) * Known as the kilopond metre (kp m) in Germany..453 592 37 : 9.01 m = 107 N m = 107 J 36.6 Heat units.1 The coherent SI unit for the expression of all.3048 m x 0.5 Some corresponding imperial units used for the statement of energy are the foot poundal (ft pdl). London 1956). the thermochemical calorie (cal.for.684 52 x 106 J (approx.ded 'tr'~'g83 I cal. used in connection with tlie extraction of heat. Heat is one of the forms of energy and.was approximately equal to 1 O 1 J..) (This is defined as the amount of heat required to \varni I g of airfreewater îrom 14.4 Two other metric units used for the expression of energy are the kilogramforce iiietrc* (kfg ni) and the litre atmosphere.355 82 J (approx. I cal 15 = 4. These are the International Table calorie (cailT). The ' international ' joule.325 Pa in3 = 101. heat.g.) 1 frigorie = . 1 thermie = 106 cal15 = 4. 4s0. etc. The specific heat capacity of water changes with temperature and a number of different calories.3048m x 0.I O 3 call5 = 4.3) = 0.5 "C at a constant pressure of 1 atm.3048 N (see 31. and the atmosphere used is the standard atinos.1855 MJ (approx.1868 J (as defined at the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steain. known as the absolute joule. Energy (work. = 4. prior to the Si. the unit of energy in the 62 CGS system (the erg) is decimally related to the joule.1840 J (a ' defined ' calorie).BSI BS*350: PART*L 74 W 1624669 O L L b L 7 5 3 Energy BS 350 : Part I : 1974 36. The following heat units originally arose from the concept of the heat required to warm unit mass of water through unit temperature./risof energy is the joule (symbol J). I kW h = 1 x IO00 x W x 36009 = 3. as stated abovc. 1 kgf m = 9. newton metre) = I W s (electrical energy. 1 ft pdl = I x 0. but it is now simply the joule (J). O 9 O 3 .. e.806 65 N m = 9.
326 J/g thus 1 Btu = 2.U. used as an energy unit by the Gas Industry.8 3 (approx.) = X 453.06 I (approx. I C.BS 350 : Part i : 1974 Energy The ' calorie ' commonly referred to in nutritional science is in fact a kilocalorie..326 e 4.H.) The British thermal unit used for most purposes by the British Gas industry relates to the 15 "C caloric and is equal to: 2.1868 Associated with the Btu is the therm.is still sometinies used. is the one corresponding to the International Table calorie and is defined by the equation: I Btu/lb = 2. 1.326 x 453. aiid the one used throughout this standard." = 1055.5 MJ (approx. 1 BtU60/61 = 1054.U..) Among other British thermal units formerly in use but now obsolescent are: the ' 60 O F British thermal unit ' (heat required to warm 1 lb of water from 60 O F to 61 O F ) . 1 therm = 100 o00 Blu = 105. COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services 59 . if the symbol cal is used without qualification.592 37 J x 4.) The ' Centigrade heat unit (C.5 J (apprOX.H. I Btu..(The dietitians calorie is based on the call5.592 37 J = 1055..73 J (approx. it refers to the International Table calorie (callT). based on the Ib of water and tlie OC. which is sometimes called a ' kilogramcaloric ' or ' large caloric '..) The most important British thermal unit (Btu)..) the ' mean British thermal unit ' (i/i80 of tlie heat required to warm i Ib of liquid water from 32 "F to 212 O F ) .H.ciin 1900. In this standard..1855 .U.8 Btu. = 1.4 J (approx...8 Btu (but to each British thermal unit there corresponds a Centigrade heat m i t ) = 1 C.).1054.) For interconversion factors for most of the above units see Tables 36a and 36U.
o. X CI w 4 II II 2 c? o O II II II i II II 22 .l 9 3 0.t 23 X I Co  2 X I  2 X iA W 23 X X O % 2 O e II  2 v> 23 X fi iD 0. BSI BS*350: PART*L 7 4 Energy L b 2 4 b b ï OLLbL77 7 m ~ ~ BS 350 : Part I : 1974 .h 60 7 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . x 00 rl z . I O 2 Y X I n 3 x) F. 3 X n F I ri s X O r o 3 N v1 E? 23 X F Q\ 3 P I 9 n .
Energy m m 2 X I O 00 vl 0. X W t c ! 1 2 a W 2 X 61 CI t 2 1 61 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
which O is equal to the joule per second. including heat flow rate.6 British thermal unit per hour 1 Btu/h = 0.163 W }see 36.2 Two metric technical units of power are the kilogramforce metre per second (kgf m/s) and the metric horsepower*. is the watt (symbol W). 1 W = I J/s The kilowatt (kW) a commonlyused multiple of the watt.355 82 W 1 hp = 550 ft lbf/S = 745. In Germany it is called the ' Pïerdeatgrke * (symbol P ) S.Power BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 37. is 37.499 W 37.5) = 1. Power (energy/time) 37.806 65 w July 198.1868 W kilrocalorie per hour 1 kcal/h = 1.3 Similar technical units in the imperial system are the foot poundforce per second (ft Ibf/s) and the horsepower (hp). 1 ft lbf/s = 1.4 The following is a selection of heat flow units shown in terms of the watt: calorie per second 1 cal/s = 4. a O The metric horsepower goes under the name ' cheval vapeur * in Francs and sometimes the Symbols ch or CV arc used.293 071 W ' ton of refrigeration ' = 12 o00 Btu/h = 3.516 85 kW For interconversion factors for most of the above units see Table 37.700 W 37. APamndeà 1 kgf m/s = 9.355 82 J/s (see 36. 62 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 1 metric horsepower = 75 kgf m/s = 735.806 65 31s = 9.1 The coherent SI unit for all forms of power.
Power o I s X Fs w s y ! 2 d n a 8 k. 63 *g rl i 33 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
For the purpose of practical measurements the CIPM adopted i n 1968 the ‘ International Practical 86 Temperature Scale of 1968 ’.~\UIIIVIIM Iidy 1983 used for the expression of thermodynamic temperature. ice. ( O )  * The temperature at the triple point of water. In 196768.5 In the last edition of this standard. and other temperatures see Table 38. see Table 38. The units o f temperature difference. and some other temperatures mentioned below. and recognized for use in conjunction with the SI. It is one of the base units of the SI aiid is defined as a specified fraction (&J of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point* of water. 38. 3 .4 For thermodynamic temperatures.68 has been designed so that the International Practical Kelvin and Celsius temperatures closely approximate the Kelvin and Celsius temperatures described in 3 . and water vnpour are in equilibrium) is very slightly removed from the temperature of the melting point of ice at atmospheric pressure (the ice point). the 13th CGPM considered the arguments for and against this practice and decided to recommend that the use of ‘ deg ’ should be discontinued.Tem perat ure BS 350 : Part I : 1974 38. but it is generally recognized that: 32 is the ice point 212 O F is the boiling point of water at 1 atm and that the unit of temperature difference one degree Fahrenheit ( I O F ) is equal to five ninths of the unit of temperature difference the degree Celsius (1 OC). The kelvin is . a thermodynamic temperature of O O R being absolute zero. now being rapidly displaced by Celsius.3 Traditional in practical use in the UK and USA is Fahrenheit temperature. by definition. the degree Rankine (OR) is still occasionally used. 38. one degree Celsius and one kelvin. In this sense O F 1 ° F = (:OC) = () : I C For formulae giving the interrelationship between Fahrenheit. instead of the degree sign which was reserved for temperature. 38. including temperature difference or interval 38. The now incorrect terni ‘ Centigrade ’ is still in widespread use for Celsius. formerly it was defined by the melting point of ice at 1 atm. See Table 38.68 is defined only from a thermodynamic temperature of 13. is the degree Celsius ( O C ) . The 81 82 IPTS . In this sense i ° C = 1K and any temperature difference therefore has the same numerical value when expressed in O as it has C when expressed in K. Temperature.2 The temperature unit in most practical use in metric countries. The zero datum for Celsius temperature (O ‘C) is now exactly defined by the thermodynamic temperature 273. Celsius. 64 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . for which the datum is absolute zero: it can also be used for the expression of any temperature difference or temperature interval.1 The SI unit of temperature is the kelvin (K). . The IPTS . based on reproducible fixed points and interpolation instruments and procedures. IPTS 68. For formulae showing the interrelationships between Celsius temperatures and thermodynamic temperatures expressed in kelvins. are exactly equal. The unit interval of the degree Rankine is equal to 1 O F .15 K.81 K upwards. The Fahrenheit scale is not formally defined. (where water. 38. and 3 . for temperature interval the letters ‘ deg ’ were recommended.
15 = 5 9 5 (It/ + 459.6) kilogramforce metre per kilogram (kgf m/kg) 1 kcal.67 I. T O Celsius.59 = = . Fahrenheit and Rankine scales respectively.(temperature difference in 9 O F OR).. Equivalent values on four temperature scales For the bdme temperature. 39. if [ ] K.15 = = (it] .806 65 J/kg 39. 65 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services ./kg = 4186. specific enthalpy specific latent heat calorific value.5 J/kg (approx.67 .67) 459.491. then the formulae relating the pure numbers [t] and [r] are as shown below.) For interconversion factors see Table 39.67) = 5 9 Ir] í /r] I % UI>lL~llllli c Jeli I W /e/ /I/ = 273. (kelvins) (degreesCelsius) (degreesFahrenheit) (degreesRankine) /T/ = [TI. 9 5 /e/ + [e/ + or Ir] /t/   + NOTE. [O].g.989 07 J/kg (approx. 39.8 J/kg 1 kcalth/kg = 4184 J/kg 1 kcalis/kg = 4185. mass basis The SI unit for all such quantities is the joule per kilogram (J/kg). e.Temperafure difference.BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Temperature Specific energy Table 38.3 Corresponding imperial units are: British thermal unit per pound (Btu/lb) foot poundforce per pound (ft lbf/lb) 1 Btu/lb = 2326 J/kg 1 ft lbf/lb = 2. Specific energy [(energy or heat)/massl 39.) I kgf m/kg = 9.32) 32 491.1 There are several different terms for energy per unit mass which are used in different contexts. /e/ + /TI  273.2 Other units sometimes used in metric countries are: kilocalorie per kilogram (kcal/kg) (see 36. For the same temperature difference: (temperature difference in "C or K) = 5 .67 459.459. [0] OC. [t] O F and [r] R represent that temperature on the Kelvin.67 = 9 /T/ .
B S I BS*350: PART*L 74 Lb24bbï O L L b L 8 3 2 = Specific energy BS 350 : Part I : 1974 3 n 3\ 3 66 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
see Tables 406 and 4oc..[mJ = 4186.g.5 x 106 J/m3 (see 4.2 Units that have been in common use in metric countries are: kilocalorie per cubic metre (kcallmj) (see 3. calorific value. pressure and humidity.320 80 x 1010 J/m3 40. when the reference conditions are different.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 40. Heat content. which is mainly used in connection with the combustion of gaseous or liquid fuels.8 J/niJ 1 kcal. volume basis 67 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 for litre) 40. 40. where guses are concerned. Heat content. For some conversions of calorific value (volume basis)..4 In the above and in Table 4ûu it is assumed that.the volumes involved in the conversion have the same reference conditions of temperature. volume basis (heat/volume) e. volume basis 40./m3 = 4184 J/m3 1 kcal&3 = 4185.9 J/m3 I Btu/ft3 1 therm/UKgal = 2.5 J/m3 1 thermie/litre = 4185.1 The SI unit for this quantity.3 Corresponding imperial units are: British thermal unit per cubic foot (Btu/ft3) therm per UK galloii (therni/UKgal) = 37 258. for the various calories) 66 thermie per litre (th/Utre) 1 kcal. is the joule per cubic metre (J/m3). For most practical purposes either the kJ/m3 or MJ/m3 are suitable multiples.
volume basis BS 350 : Part I : 1974 I 3\ n 2 4 ? Fl m II COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .Heat content.
BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Heat content. e * i n O 2 It ( u 1 U ò n O  II a c E 8 B 1 69 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . volume basis (u O 9 c O .
037 32 0.27 I Sat Sat I . for practical purposes there is no sigiiíficant difference between them.34 Btu/ftJ 1 Btu/ftJ = 0.34 26./(kg K) = 4186. 70 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .25 mbar and dry) is: 1 MJ/mJ = 26.806 65 J/(kg K) 41.) Attention is called to the foilowing differences in the reference bases of Tables 4Oh and 4Oc.9832 1 Dry 26.036 69 0. (1) In Table 4ûb the only British thermal unit used is the one corresponding to the International Table calorie (sec 3 .036 67 0.037 97 26.018 0. 30 inches Hg (@ 60 O 53 O )and saturated with water) to megajoules per standard cubic metre (measured F N at 15 "C 1013.81 27.O1 7 0.26 Sat 26.78 Dry 26.017 0. ) 66. May 1972 edition.7405 mbar. Jt is now preferred to reserve for ' specific ' tlie meaning ' per unit mass l '. In the gas industry the British thermal unit is based on the 15 O calorie.79 0. 41.9826 1 1.ES1 BS*350: P A R T * 3 74 I3624669 0336387 T ~ Heat content. Specific heat capacity" [heat/(mass x temperature interval)] $1.037 96 Hg 115 O calorie basis) 0. ~~ ~~ ~~~~ O The conversion factor for converting from British thermal units per cubic foot (measured at 60 OF.5) is.80 27.9823 0. In Table 4oc this Btu is indicated by the parentheses (International calorie basis) or (IT calorie)..5 J/(kg K) 1 kgf m/(kg K) = 9.6 for the various calories.ûOû 0.037 96 MJ/m3 Other conversion factors for various conditions are given in the table below..33 26. 30 inches orie) Hg (i5O calorie) MJ/m' 15 O C 1013.3 Other metric units are: kilocalorie per kilogram kelvin (kcal/(kg K)) (See 38.  41.9166 mbar. Whereas two bases for the British thermal unit are included. 1015.9997 I 1. <' The older and simpler t e m ' specific heat ' referred to heat capacities.018 NOTE.9997 1.037 3 1 0.) kilogramforce metre per kilogram kelvin (kgf m/(kg K) ) 1 kcal.(This tiote is for users of BS 350 and is not part of the GC/SBGI booklet.2 The degree Celsius is often used in the expression of the above unit: a I J/(kg OC) = I J/(kg K) and a similar remark applies wherever kelvin or K is mentioned in the remainder of section 41.4 Corresponding imperial units are: British thermal unit per pound degree Fahrenheit (Btu/(lb O F ) ) foot poundforce per pound degree Fahrenheit (ft Ibf/(lb O) F) I Btii/(lb OF) = 4186. usually on a mass basis but sometimes on a volume basis.380 32 J/(kg K) For inteaconversionfactors for the above units see l'able 41. and factors relating to a Btu based on the 15 "Ccalorie are stated in the preamble above the table and included in the table.8 J/(kg K) 1 ft lbf/(lb OF) = 5. Thc pressure 30 inHg shown in Table 406 (and as defined at 32. volume basis Specific heat capacity BS 350 : Part 1 : i974 Table 40c. (2) The pressure ' 30 inches Hg ' as shown and under the conditions stated in Table 4Oc is given as being eqiial to 1013.037 34 1 1.8 J/(kg K) 1 kcal. 41.9829 0 Btu/ft 3 M) O Dy r F 30 inches Sat Hg (International calorie basis) Btu/ft3 Dy 0. MJ/mJ 15 O C I Btu/R3 60 OF.037 30 r 60 "F 30 inches Sat 0.25 mbar Dry Dry 1 Sat 0. Conversion factors used by the UK Gas Industry The following information and conversion factors are extracted from the booklet ' SI Units and conversion factors for use in the British Gas Industry ' issued by the Gas Council and Society of British Gas Industries./(kg K) = 4184 J/(kg K) I kcallS/(kg K) = 4185. approximately.1 The SI unit of specific heat capacity is the joule per kilogram kelvin (J/(kg K)).
t I  N a lo u 5 I H c> 2 X I O CU 'o N o m 0.BS 350 : Part i : 1974 Specific heat capacity F Q\ m 'o W 2 G! o 7 U m cn W W v> W 0 : 2 .m P! O 9 CU v> N E? X W O O W I  Q\ m O m N Q E: W X 2 m CU O  N rl rl COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . X fl o \ CU m O O 2 s X m .
.4 The corresponding imperial unit is: British thermal unit per cubic foot degree Fahrenheit (Btul(ft3 OF)) 1 Btu/(ft3 O F ) = 67 066.  1 thermochemical kilocalorie = per cubic metre kelvin kcal. volume basis BS 350 : Part I : 1974 42.1 J/(m3 K) For interconversion factors for the above units see Table 43.5 0. Heat capacity. expressed in jouies per kilogram. kelvin. . volume basis Exact values are printed in bold type.062 386 2  cubic metre kelvin kCaldm3 K)  4185.999 690 1.0234 1 t Wherever the kelvin occurs in this table it may be replaced by the degree Celsius ( "C). or in British thermal units per pound degree Rankine.0292 16. the volumes involved in the conversions are measured under the same conditions of temperature.238 846 x 10 3 1joule per cubic metre kelvin? 1 kilocalorie$ per cubic metre kelvin kcallT/(rn3K) . volume basis ' but see footnote fo section 41.3 Other metric units are: kilocalorie per cubic metre kelvin (kcall(m3 K)) (see 36. is the joule per cubic metre kelvin (J/(mJ K)). For a description of the three calories mentioned see 3 . Heat capacity. for gases. volume basis. Table 43.238 920 X lO'J 14.239 006 x 103 I 15 "Ckilocalorie British thermal per cubic metre unit per cubic kelvin foot degree Fahrenheit Bhi/(ftj "F) kwhd(m3 K) K) kC&~/(ni~ 0.910 7 x 106 I 1 1. Btu/(lb OR).0185 16.OO0 31 0.062 428 O .999 331 1 0./(m3 K) = 4184 J/(m3 K) 1 kcalls/(m3 K) = 4185.ooO 67 l. e. pressure and humidity. pressure and humidity. the volumes involved in the conversions are measured under the same conditions of temperature. in kilocalories per kilogram kelvin..1 The SI unit of heat capacity.. 43. J/(m3 K)is often show as J/(rn3 OC). 43.2 The degree Celsius is often used in the expression of the above unit: I J/(m3 O C ) = 1 J/(m3 K) and a similar remark applies wherever kelvin or K is mentioned in section 43.999 642 0.In this table it is assumed that.g. for gases. J/(kg K). 43. I joule per cubic metre kelvin? JKm3 K) I I kilocalorie$ per cubic metre kelvin thermochemical kilocalorie per cubic metre kelvin k d d ( m 3 K) 0.8 J/(m3 K) 1 kcal.1 4186. Specific entropy [heat/(mass x thermodynamic temperature)] Table 41 may also be used for the conversion of values of specific entropy. 66 NOTE. 72 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .O00 36 1 0.1 16. In Table 43 and in the above conversion factors it is assumed that.5 J/(m3 K) 43.062 408 6 1 British thermal unit per cubic foot degree Fahrenheit Btu/(fts O F )  67 066./(mJ K) 1 15 "C kilocalorie per 4184 0. $ This is the International Table kilocaforie.6 for the various calories). 4 kcalIT/(m3K) = 4186. * This is sometimes known as ' specific heat.Specific entropy Heat capacity. volume bask * [heat/(volume x temperature interval) I 43.8 0.. kcal/(kg K).
2 Other metric units are: ) calorie per square centimetre second (cal/(cm2 s (see 36. Heat flux density.00 W/m2 For conversion factors for the above see TabIe 44. Corresponding units in the imperial system are: 43 British thermal unit per square foot hour (Btul(ft2 h)) watt per square inch (Wlin2) 1 Btul(ft2 h) = 3. for example.154 59 *This refers to the International Table calorie.01 16 Il I %o00 1 2. in calculations of heat losses from surfaces. i = 113 .859 845 I 0.6. intensity of heat flow rate (ag.76 491. Table 44.348 = 41868 1 27. which is sometimes known as intensity of heat flow rate and commonly appears. is the watt per square metre (W/m2).238 846 x 104 3.316 998 1 watt per square inch W/in2 1 calorie* per square centimetre second W1iT/(cm2s ) 1 kilocalorie* per square metre hour kCa1.154 59 W/m2 1 WIin2 = 1550. heat loss from surfaces) Exact figures are printed in bold type. W/m2 1watt per square metre W/m* = 1 0. 73 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 44. ir other calories see 36.702 12x 102 0.1 The SI unit for this quantity.T/(m2 h) 1 British thermal unit = 1550.163 W/m2 4 .BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Heat flux density 4 4 Heat flux density (heat/(area x time)) 44.00 1332.71246 1 13 272.368 669  per square foot hour Btu/(ft2 h) = 3.6 0.6 for the various calories) kilocalorie per square metre hour (kcal/(m2 h)) 1 calIT/(cm2s = 41 868 W/m2 ) 1 kcaliT/(mzh) = 1.
For other calories sce 36.859 845 0.p.I_ Wherever the kclvin occurs in this table it may be replaced by tho degree Celsius: e.) 1 caI/(crn2 s I) = 41 868 W/(m2 K) S 1 kcal/(m2 h K) = 1.3 Other metric units are: calorie per square centimetre second kelvin [cal/(cm2 s K)] O [kcal/(rna li K ] ) kilocalorie per square metre hour kelvin (The conversion factors given below refer to the Iiiternational Table calorie.238 846 x IO 4 0. . Thermal conductance (heat transfer coefficient) [heat/(area x time x temperature difference)] or [power/(area x temperature difference)]* 45. e kcai$/(mz h Table 45.6.6 for other calories.Thermal conductance BS 350 : Part I : 1974 45.1 The SI unit is the watt per square metre kelvin [W/(m2 K)] 45.176 110 centimetre secoiid kelvin cal/(c& s K) i kilocalorie$ per square = 41 868 1 36 O00 7373.882 43 1 * Also corresponds to (heat flux density/temperature difference).2 The degree Celsius ( O C ) is often used in the expression of the above unit: 1 W/(m2 OC) = 1 W/(m2 K) and a similar remark applies wherever kelvin or K is mentioned in sectioii 4 5 45. 74 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .678 26 1. sce 38.777 78 x 105 1 0.4 The imperial unit in common use is: British thermal unit per square foot hour degree Fahrenheit [Btu/(ft2 h “F)] I dtu/(ft2 li O F ) = 5.163 W/(nG K) 45.38 metre hour kelvin kcal/(mz h K) 1 British thermal unit per square foot hour degree Fahrenheit Btul(ft2 h O F ) = 1. Thermal conductance Exact values are printed in bold type.163 2. W / ( d K) is ofteii sliowii as W/(niiOC) 3 This refers to the International Table calorie. \V/(mZ K)P cal$/(cmz s K) K) 1 watt per square metre kelvin? W/(m2 K) 1 calorie$ per square = 1 0.204 816 = 5.678 26 W/(m2 K) For interconversion factors for the above units see Table 45.356 23 x IO 4 4.
133 7 9 x 103 1. kcal/(m h K) I watt per metre kelvin* W/(m K) 1 caloriet per centimetre =I l I I I 0. 46.859 845 7 Bíu/(ft h 'F) Btu in/(ft2 h J) '! 0. W/(m I 1 I12 0.730 73 W/(in K) I Rtii in/(ftz li 'F) .1 The SI unit is the watt per metre kelvin [W/(m K)] 46.933 47 second kelvin cal/(cm s K) 1 kilocalorie* per metre =' 418. Thermal conductivity [heat x length/(area x time x temperature difference)] 46.0.6.3 Other metric units are: calorie per centimetre second kelvin [cai/(cni s K)] [kcaI/(m h K)] kilocalorie per metre hour kelvin (The conversion factors given below refer to the Internationai Table calorie.4 Two imperial units in common use are: British thermal unit per foot hour degree Fahrenheit 1 [Btu/(ft 1 "F)] British tliernial unit inch per square foot hour degree Fahrenheit [Btu in/(ftz h O F ) ] 1 Btu/(ft h O F ) = 1.488 16 square foot hour degree Fahrenheit Btu in/(ft2 h O F ) = 0. 75 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .777 78 x 103 1 foot hour degree Fahrenheit= 1.163 W/(m K) 46.144 228 3. Table 46.083 333 3 1 K)is often shown as W/(m O C ) .124 014 ~ * Wherever the kelvin occurs in this table it maybe replaced by the degree Celsius P This refers to the International Table caloric.91 = hour kelvin kcal/(m h K) 1 British thermal unit per 1. Thermal conductivity Exact figures are printed in bold type.2 The degree Celsius ( O C ) is often used in the expression of the above unit: 1 W/(m O C ) == 1 W/(m K) and a similar remark applies wherever kelvin or K is mentioned in section 46.68 W/(m K) 1 kcal/(m h K) = 1.238 846x 102 0.444 82x 104 0.68 1 360 241.730 73 Btu/(ft h°F) 1 British thermal unit inch per 4.163 2. (Oc) e.g.6 for other caiurics).909 2902. For other calories see 36. I cal/(cm s K) = 418.144 228 W/(m K) For interconversion factors for the above units see l'able 46. See 36.577 789 6.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Thermal conductivity 46.
BSI BS*350: P A R T * & 74 IL b 2 4 b b ï OlilbL93 5
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ThermaI resist¡vit y
BS 350 : Part i : 1974
47. Thermal resistivity [area x time x temperature difference/(heat x length)] The SI unit of thermal resistivity (the inverse of thermal conductivity) is the metre kelvin per watt (m K/W).
Interconversion factors between tue above and some other units are given in Table 47. Similar remarks concerning the use of the degree Celsius and the other calories apply as in section 46 and Table 46.
Table 47. Thermal resistivity
Exact figures are printed in bold type.
I mK/W
1 mK/W 1 cm s K/cal*
I
I
cmsK/caì*
m h K/kcal*
it h 'F/Bîu
= 1
= 0.238 846 X 102
418.68
1.163
~~~~~~ ~~
1.730 73
1
360
2.777 78 x 10 3
1
I
4.133 79 x 10 3 1.488 16 1 12
i 1
I
It2 h 'F/(Btu in)
0.144 228
3.444 82 x 104
0.124 014 0.083 333 3

1 ft2 h OF/(Btu in) = 6.933 47
1
241.909 2902.91
0.671 969
8,063 63
1
* This refers to the International Table calorie. For other calories see 36.6.
NOTE. For thermal conductivity, see Table 46, the notes to which also apply here.
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BSI BS*350: P A R T * l 7 4_________ œ 3624669 O l L b L S Y 7 œ __ ~ ~~~ ~~~~ ~~ ~ ~
BS 35Ö:Part I: 1974
Heat release rate Thermal diffusivit.y
48. Heat release rate (ems. used in connection with furnaces) as [heat/(volume x time)], or (power/volume) 4 . The SI unit for this quantity is the watt per cubic metre (W/m3). 81 4 . Other metric units are: 82
[caI/(cm3 s)] calorie per cubic centimetre second kilocalorie per cubic metre hour [kcaI/(m3 h)l 66 The conversion factors given below refer to the International Table calorie. (See 3 . for other calories). 1 cal/(cm3 s) = 4.1868 x 1 6 W/m3 0 1 kcal/(mj h) = 1 1 3 W/m3 .6 4 . A similar imperial unit is: 83 [Btu/(ft3 h)] British thermal unit per cubic foot hour 1 Btu/(ftJ h) = 10.3497W/m3 For interconversion factors for the above units see Table 4 . 8
Table 48. Heat release rate
Exact values are printed in bold type.
1 I
I
8
1 watt per cubic metre
watt per cubic metre W/m3
caiorie*[cubic centirnetre second cal/(cm3 s )
kuocalorie*/cubic metre hour kcai/(m3 h)
British thermal unit/cubic foot hour BhJ(ft3 h)
= 1
0.238 846x 106 0.859 845
9.662 Il x 1 2 0
W/m3
1 calorie* per cubic centimetre second cal/(cm3 s)
= 4.1868~106
1
36 x 106 .
4 0 5 3 3 1~ .4 0 5
1 kilocalorie* per cubic metre hour kcal/(m3 h) 1 British thermal unit per cubic foot hour Btul(ft3 h)
1 W/cmJ = 106 W/m3
.6 = 113
2.777 78x 1 7 0
1
0.112 370
=
10.3497
2.471 99x 1 6 0
8.899 15
i
*
I I * This refers to the International Table calorie. For other calories see 3 . , 66
=
I
1 MW/m3.
49. Thermal diff usivity (area/time)
The SI unit of thermal diffusivity (which is thermal conductivity divided by heat capacity per unit volume) is the metre squared per second (mys). Since kinematic viscosity has the same dimensions as thermal diffusivity, for units and conversion factors reference can be made to Section 35 and Table 35.
I
O
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77
BSI BS*350: PART*L 74
L b 2 4 b b î OLlbL95 9
=
Commentary
Appendix A
BS 350 : Part I : 1974
Commentary on imperial and metric systems of measurement and units
A.l Development of units. In the past, units have evolved in a haphazard manner to meet the basic iiieasurement requirements of early and often unconnected societies. With improvement in communications and extension of trade it became necessary to standardize the units in use and also to establish the relationship between existing units used to measure the same physical quantities. Often, as this latter process developed, the numerical factors relating one such unit to another were cumbersome and difficult to use in calculations (for example, the mile is 1760 yards and the U K ton is 2240 pounds). Moreover, while one physical quantity might be a simple derivative of another, there was often no correspondingly simple relationship between their respective units, (for example, area and volume are simple derivatives of length, but 1acre is484ûsquare yards and 1 U K gallon is 0.160 544 cubic feet). As science and technology developed, many new aiid coinplex units were required. Inevitably these were derived froin tlie available units in common usage and the result was a muddled conglomeration of technical units involving many awkwíird factors which were difficult to renieinber and inconvenient to use. The leariiing of these factors has long becii a necessary part of scieiitific aiid eiigiiieeriiig education.
A.2 Unit systenis and coherence. The various physical quantities used in science and technology are related to one another by certain mathematical or physical laws. For example, area equals length multiplied by length, velocity equals length divided by time, force equals mass niultiplied by acceleration, momentum equals mass multiplied by velocity. In a coherent system of units, the units used to measure the various physical quantities are consistent with these physical laws. A minimum number of independent physical quaniities are arbitrarily selected and base units are defined for these. Units for all other physical quantities can then be derived in accordance with the physical laws, preserving a unity relationship in terms of the base units. Thus, if unit area results when unit length is multiplied by unit length, the units are coherent with the particular physical law expressing tlie relationship between length and area, and no factors are involved in calculations concerned with this relationship. With further development of science and technology, certain ' systems ' of units came into use, (for example the footpoundsecond system and the centinietregramsecond system). While the base units concerned were clearly defined, the total extent of each of these systems and also units for some physical quantities were in certain respects vague. The units comprising these systems were coherent with respect to some of the physical laws, but not to others.
A.3 Imperial systems (in technology). In British technology the most widely used system has been one in which the base units for length, mass and time are the foot, pound and second respectively. But, in this widelyused system there is a noncoherent relationship between the units used for mass, force and acceleration i.e. there is not ' dynamic coherence '. The unit of force used is the poundforce (sometimes described as a ' technical unit of force '), aiid, because this force acting on a mass of one pound produces an acceleration of ' g ' (=32.2 feet/second2 approximately), the factor 32.2 is introduced in an awkward manner into many engineering calculations. There are two other systems based on imperial units used in some sections of industry which are dynamically Coherent. The first is a variant of the footpoundsecond system which has the poundal as its force unit. The poundal acting on a mass of one pound produces an acceleration of unity (1 foot/second2). The other is the footslugsecond system in which the mass unit is the slug (=32.2 lb approximately) and the force unit the poundforce. Again, the acceleration produced by the poundforce on the slug is unity. In the above, only dynamic coherence has been mentioned. While this is of vital importance in mechanics, there are many other important physical quantities aiid laws; further base units had to be introduced and the corresponding units that came about in conjunction with these imperial systems were frequently noncoherent. Furthermore, in dealing with the footpoundsecond, and footslugsecond systems, there are the practical complications in calculations caused by the awkward relationships between the foot, inch and yard, and the pound and ton. In the measurement sense these units all form part of the imperial system.
8
a
A.4 Comparison of Uniteù Kingdom (UK or imperial) and United States systems of measurement. The yard lias the same value in both the UK and US systems and is defined in terms of the SI base unit of length, the metre. Similarly, the pound lias the same value in the UK and US systems and is defined in terms of the SI base unit of mass, the kilogram.
78
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COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services
and because this force acting on a mass of 1 kilogram produces an acceleration of ' g ' (9. and that some of the subsidiary wits that had come into use in conjunction with the CGS were not coherent. the units to be distinguished are denoted by the use of prefixes. incorporating the independent quantity electric current and the base unit ampere. many of the associated units were inconveniently sized for this purpose.81 m/s2 approximately) the factor 9. syiiibolized by USgal This notation is similar to one adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). force and acceleration. In certain contexts the qualification ' imperial ' or ' imp ' is also used to make it clear that the unit qualified by UK does in fact belong to the imperial system of units. Some are: Description and abbreviation msss unit force unit centimetregramsecond (CGS) gram dyne metrekilogramsecond (MKS) kilogram newton metretonnesecottd (MTS) tonne sthène Scientists were quick to recognize the convenience of the metric approach in the CGS and this system was developed by them to meet their immediate needs. T i system embodied the joule as hs the derived and coherent unit of energy in ail its forms. Most of the subsidiary units of length are identical in both the UK and US systems. makes these deíìnitions valid for all purposes in the UK. I n order to avoid confusion where those differences occur. mentioned below. expanding on the MKS to include a total of seven base units 79 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . The system is being steadily superseded by the International System (SI). symbolized by UKgal US gallon. and among other things it served in the development of electrostatics and electromagnetism. as at present and taking all countries into account. but in which there is a noncoherent relationship between the units for mass.5 The metric system of measurement. for which the foot previously adopted there will continue temporarily to be used under the name ' US survey foot '. The unit of force used is the kilogramforce (sometimes described as a ' hetric technical unit of force '). Jn the USA the same definitions are valid for all purposes except for coast and geodetic surveys within the USA. the metre for length and the gram for mass. and from the first two of which the development of the SI can directly be traced. units of length. There are also marked differences between the subsidiary units of capacity used in the UK and US systems. A. These differences arise from different whole number relationships between units. There are other metric systems still in use in some sectors of industry and science which are dynamically coherent. thence to the MKSA. 1963. notably in the ' long ' and ' short ' tons and hundredweights. from which other units then required for general use and for trade were derived. avoiding theneed for very iarge or very small numerical values. In technology. and enabled the differentsized units to be memorized and converted with ease. sometimes described as the ' modern metric system '. kilogram and second respectively. This gave a flexible means of expression for a wide range of magnitudes. These differences arise both from some different whole number relationships between units and also from different definifions of capacity in the two systems. and the watt as the unit of power. These factors led in due course to the evolution of the MKS system. A. When the metric system was introduced it met two main requirements. In Britain.This. probably the most widely used metric system is one in which the base units for length. according to their knowledge at the time. but prior to the adoption of the metric system this was not the case in France and in other continental countries. is the S) most recent extension of the metric system. weight (mass) and so on have been standardized for a long time. mass and time are the metre. The second was the provision of a convenient and systematic relationship between differentsized units for the same quantity.81 is introduced in an awkward manner into many engineering calculations. The first was the standardization and definition of the important units of measurement.~ BSI BS*350: P A R T * & 7 4 ~~ ~~~ ~ _ _ = Lb24bbïOLLblSb O m _ _ ~ BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Commentary The U K Weights and Measures Act. These were related by powers of ten and a system of prefixes developed to indicate these powers. There are marked differences between some subsidiary units of mass used in the UK and US systems. for example: UK gallon.6 Metric systems (in science and technology). Although it gained con: siderable usage in industrial technology. It was also clear that inore than the three base units provided in the CGS were required in the framework of the metric system to deal adequately with the physical quantities required in science and technology. A.7 The Interuatiouai System of units (I.
This is an important feature. 9. The metric prefixes. in conjunction with derived units.1. for practical applications or for everyday life.B S I BSX350: P A R T * & 74 m Lb24bb9 O L l b L 9 7 2 m 1 Commentary BS 350 : Part I : 1974 and two suppleincntary units which. and their units (defined in BS 3763) are: Quantity Name of unit Symbol Length metre (Base) m Mass kilogram kg Time second S Electric current ampere $9 A Thermodynamic temperature kelvin Y> K Amount of substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela cd Plane angle radian (Supplementary) rad Solid angle steradian sr There are. 3. certain other units. 39 80 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . but in the SI the prefìxed units still retain a simple decimal relationship one with the other. will meet ali known needs for a coherent system of units both in science and technology. As is evident from the foregoing description of a coherent system. the use of multiples in the form of a prefix also introduces noncoherence. Y. are shown in detail in 1. some metric and some nonmetric. which at present are authorized for use in conjunction with the International System. Such units are listed in categories in BS 3763 : 1970 and their use introduces an element of noncoherence. The base and supplementary quantities. 1 . which now form part of the International System. which is not sacrificed by the fact that the base unit for mass is the kilogram.
to decimals of an inch and to inillimetes (Range: O to 1 inch) inches and fractions of an inch to millimetres (Range: O to 12 inches) inches to centimetres (Range: O to 109 inehes at intervals of one inch) feet to metres metres to feet feet and inches to metres yards to metres metres to yards miles to kilometres kilometres to miles Second moment of area inches4 to centimetresd centimetres4 to inches4 Angle degrees.BSI BSS350: PART*I(’L 7Y ~~ m 1624669 OLlb198 4 m ~~~~    BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 References Appendix B References B. Asament/e< July IYX.3 Length inches to minimetres millimetres to inches fractions of an inch. minutes and seconds to radians radiacs to degrees.l Detailed conversion tables. in sixtyfourths. Detailed conversion tables for the units marked with an asterisk can be found in PD 6203. minutes and seconds Velocity feet per second to miles per hour miles per hour to feet per second feet per second to kilometres per hour kilometres per hour to feet per second miles per hour to metres per second metres per second to miles per hour miles per hour to UK knots UK knots to miles per hour Area square inches to square centimetres square centimetres to square inches square feet to square metres square metres to square feet square yards to square metres square metres to square yards acres to hectares hectares to acres square miles to square kilometres square kilometres to square miles Mass grains to grams grams to grains ounces (avoir) to grams grams to ounces (avoir) pounds to kilograms kilograms to pounds UK tons to tonnes tonnes to UK tons pounds to UK tons UK tons to pounds Volume Cubic inches to cubic centimetres Cubic centimetres to cubic inches Cubic feet to cubic metres Cubic metres to cubic feet Cubic yards to cubic metres Cubic metres to cubic yards Cubic feet to UK gallons TJ K gallons to cubic feet Cubic feet to litres (1901) Litres (1901) to cubic feet UK gallons to litres (1901) Litres (1901) to UK gallons UK fluid ounces to millilitres (1901) Millilitres (1901) to UK fluid ounces *UK gallons to litres *Litres to UK gallons *UK fluid ounces to millilitres *Millilitres to UK fluid ounces Mass per unit length pounds per foot to kilograms per metre kilograms per metre to pounds per foot *pounds per inch to kilograms per metre *kilograms per metre to pounds per inch Mass per unit area *ounces (avoir) per square yard to kilograms per square metre *kilograms per square metre to ounces (avoir) per square yard Density pounds per cubic foot to kilograms per cubic metre kilograms per cubic metre to pounds per cubic foot pounds per UK gallon to grams per millilitre (1901) grams per millilitre (19011 to pounds per UK gallon 81 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
stress poundsforce per square inch to kilogramsforce per square centimetre kilo4ramsforce per square centimetre to poundsforce per square inch poundsforce per square foot to kilogramsforce per square metre kilogramsforce per square metre to poundsforce per square foot UK tonsforce per square inch to kilogramsfarce per square millimetre kilogramsforce per square milliinetre to UK tonsforce per square inch UK tonsforce per square foot to tonnesforce per square metre tonnesforce per square metre to U K tonsforce per square foot poundsforce per square inch to millimetres of mercury millimetres of mercury to poundsforce per square inch millimetres of mercury to millibars miliibars to inilliinetres of mercury feet of water to poundsforce per square inch poundsforce per square inch to feet of water *UK tonsforce per square inch to meganewtons per square metre *meganewtons per square metre to UK tonsforce per square inch *poundsforce per square inch to kilonewtons per square metre *kilonewtons per square metre to poundsforce per square inch *poundsforce per square foot to newtons per square metre "newtons per square metre to poundsforce per square foot "inches of mercury to kilonewtons per square metre *kilonewtonsper square metre to inches of mercury *feet of water to kilonewtons per square metre *kilonewtons per square metre to feet of water *inches of water to kilonewtons per square metre *kilonewtons per square metre to inches of water Temperature Conversion of temperatures from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius. energy foot poundsforce to joules joules to foot poundsforce foot poundsforce to kilogramforce metres kilogramforce metres to foot pouiidsforce *kilowatt hours to megajoules "megajoules to kilowatt hours Power horsepower to kilowatts kilowatts to horsepower Pressure.BSI B W 3 5 0 : PART*L 74 m L b 2 4 b b 9 O L L b L 9 9 b m References Force poundsforce to megadynes megadynes to poundsforce *kilogramsforce to newtons "newtons to kilogramsforce *poundsforce to newtons "newtons to poundsforce *UK tonsforce to kilonewtons *kilonewtons to UK tonsforce BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Work. See also the note on page 83 which applies to many of the following units. *kJ/m3 deg C to Btu/ft3 degF Intensity of heat flow rate Btu/ft2 h to W/m2 Wjm2 to Btu/ft2 h kcal/m* h to W/m2 W/m2 to kcal/m2 h Btu/ft2 h to kcal/m2 h kcalfmz h to Btu/ft2 h 82 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . and vice versa Quantity of heat British thermal units to kilojoules kilojoules to British thermal units calories to joules joules to calories British thermal units to kilocalories kilocalories to British thermal units Calorificvalue (mass basis) Btujlb to kcal/kg kcal/kg to Btu/lb *Btu!lb to kJ/kg *kJ!kg to Btu/lb Calorific value (volume basis) Btu/ft3 to kcal/m3 kcal/m3 to Btu/ft3 *Btu/ft3 to kJ/m3 *kJ/rn3 to Btu/ft3 now called heat capacity (volume basis) in this standard. Specific heat (volume basis) Btu/ftJ degF to kcal/m3 degC kcalIm3 degC to Btu/ft3 degF *Btu/ft3 deg F to kJ/m3 degC .
38. i particular. Acoustics Part 8. General principles Part 1. General information Useful general information is contained in the following publications. In this standard degC has been replaced by K and de@ by O .(See section 38 and. Mathematical signs and symbols for use id the physical sciences and technology Part 1 2. rounding ofnumbers) BS 1957 T h e International System ofunits (SI) BS 3763 Specification forSI units a n d recommendations for the use of their multipIesand of certain other units BS 5555 Specification for quantities. Dimensionless parameters Part 13. HMSO (5th edition 1979) A i urnciiûcd Je11 I W 63. units and symbols BS 5775 Part O.1 ~ ~~ ~ Lb2qbb9 OLL6200 9_ ~ _ ~  BS 350 : Part I : 1974 References General information Thermal conductance Btu/ft2 li degF to kcal/m2 h degC kcal/m2 h degC to Btu/ft2 h degF *Btu/ft2 h degF to W/m2 degC *W/m2 degC to Btu/ft2 h degF Thermal conductivity Btu/ft h degF to W/m degC W/m degC to Btu/ft h degF kcal/m h degC to W/m degC Wlm degC to kcal/m h degC Btu/ft h degF to kcal/m h degC kcal/m h degC to Btu/ft h degF Btu/in/ft2 h degF to kcal/m h degC kcal/m h degC to Btu in/ft2 h degF NOTE.Space a n d time Part 2. Some other British Standards containing conversion information British Standard Title BS 718 BS 860 BS 874 BS 947 BS 1797 BS 2520 BS 2856 Density hydrometers and spec& gravity hydrometers Tables for comparison of hardness scales Methods of determining thermal properties. F n B2. symbols and definitions.T h e International System of Units.5). Conversion factors. BSI BS*350: P A R T *_L ~ 7i. with definitions of thermal insulating terms Universal system for designating linear density of textiles (Tex system) Tables for use in the calibration of volumetric glassware Barometer conventions and tables Precise conversion of inch and metric sizes on engineering drawings 83 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . Light and related electromagnetic radiations Part 7. Atomicand nuclear physics Part IO. Electricity and magnetism Part 6. Heat Part 5. HMSO (4th edition 1982) Changing to the metric system. Physicat chemistry and molecular physics Part 9. Presentation of numerical values (fineness ofexpression. Mechanics Part 4. Solid state physics PD 5686 The useofSI units SI . Periodic and related phenomena Part 3. Nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations Part 1 I .
footnote 14. Many further examples of such combinations are to be found throughout the text and in the general index.6.2 35.6 32.7 32.1 9. footnote 37.2 14.2 34. German) standard atmosphere technical atmosphere (gauge.3 1. or conibinatioiis of prefixes and units.5 23.6 4. O Symbol or abbreviation Name of unit or prefix.1 12. Greek letters and some special signs are shown at the end.6 36.H. for petroleum) dry barrel (US) British thermal unit mean British thermal unit 60 "F British thermal unit bushel (US) centi (prefix) cycle degree Celsius calorie International Table calorie thermochemical calorie 15 "Ccalorie candela cheval vapeur (metric horsepower) (French) Centigrade heat unit centilitre centimetre centipoise centistokes cental cubic metre per second cubic foot per second cheval vapeur (metric horsepower. footnote 36.2 36.4 28. Most but not ail of these are internationally recognized. note 2 32.7 37.6.2 4.3 32.3 4. French) hundredweight day deci (prefìx) deca (prefix) (to indicate temperature interval) decimetre dram (avoirdupois) dry quart (US) dyne erg A.5 2.6 36. footnote 23.BSI BS*350: P A R T * L 74 ILb24bb9 OLL6201 O General information BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Alphabetical list of symbolsfor units and prefixes Symbols and abbreviations for units. except for a few examples.2 36. 4.1 38.4 1.6.3 3. pages 88 to 100.1 38. are listed below together with their textual references.2 84 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .2 14.6.3 2.6.6 36.6 4. to which any reference has beeii made i i i this standard. German) astronomical unit bar barrel (US.6 36.2.3 1.6 A. where appropriate Textual reference A A a a a at ata atm atü AU bar bbl bbl (dry) Btu Btumean BtU60/ 61 bu C C "C Cal CabT a l ih d l 5 cd ch C.4 36.5 4.7 2. and symbols for prefixes.5 9.6 36. This list is not extended to include combinations of units.7 2.U cl cm CP cv cSt ctl ' cumec ' cusec ' ) cwt d d da deg dm dr dry qt dyn erg ampere angström are atto (preiìx) year technical atmosphere technical atmosphere (absolute.6 32.1 e e 1.
2 461 ..1 32. 2.. inch conventional inch of mercury conventional inch of water jouie k kg kgf kip km kn kP ' k.3 1.1 9. 83 4 6 3 footnote . 25 3.. 23 .4 3. 21 . 85 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 33 43 .y. 21 25 .2. 1.i ' kW kW h 1 Ib Ibf liq dr liq oz liq Pt qt 1. 463 . 1. 3. w b m a m t e Textual reference "F f fi dr fl dr fl oz Fm ft ftH2O G g ?L 6" E Gal gal gi gon gr h h ha hbar hl hP hP h Hz in inHg inH20 J K degree Fahrenheit femto (prefix) fluid drachm fluid dram (US) fluid ounce Festmeter (German) foot conventional foot of water g i s (prefix) gram acceleration due to gravity standard acceleration due to gravity grade galileo (or gal) gallon gill (US) gon (or grade) grain hecto (prefix) hour hectare hectobar hectolitre horsepower horsepower hour hertz . 41 28. 61 38.5 1.. 45 1. 63 4.2 13.4 1...BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Spibol or abbreviation General information Name of unit or jweiìx. 463 . 4 6 3 footnote .1 14.3 1. 2 6 and note 8 . 11 ... 13.. . 25 3..5 32.. 34 73 . 463 .1 461 . 71 3.s.. German) kips per square inch (US) kilowatt kilowatt hour litre pound poundforce liquid dram (US) liquid ounce (US) liquid pint (US) liquid quart (US) light year mega (prefix) metre milli (prefix) müübar ( farea) o (of angle) (of length) 38.5 1. 461 . 44 .1 1. 37. 73 .2 32. 463 .3 36. 83 22 .2 2. 05 28. 44 2.footnote 3 5 and note 2 . M m m mb mil' 'mil' ' mil ' kelvin kilo (preñx) kilogram kilogramforce loo0 poundsforce (US) kilometre knot (international) kilopond (kilogramforce. 7 note 2 .1 1.3 3. 1..
3 34.1 35.5 4.5 32.4 32.3 4.1 32.5 see 28.3 2.4 11.1 2.5 9.2 14.3.3 28.3 14. note 1 28.a ' p.5 A.5 28.i ' ' p.2 4.3 4.2 34.7 4.i.General information Symbol or abbreviation BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Name of unit or prefix.2 32. German) poundsforce per square inch poundsforce per square inch (absolute) poundsforce per square inch (gauge) pint pièze (French) quintal quarter quart degree Rankine revolution radian revolution (viscosity unit) Raummeter (German) second (of time) short hundredweight (US) sthène (French) steradian stokes stère (French) tera (preñx) tonne thermie (French) mm Hg mmH20 mol ms N n n mile ns oz oz ap oz apoth OZf oz t oz tr P P P Pa PC Pdl Pk P1 PS ' p.s.2 36.5 14. note I 14.1 38. where appropriate Textual reference 'mil.1 1. German) poise pico (prefix) pascal parsec poundal peck (US) poiseuille (French) Pferdestärke (metric horsepower.2 14.2 8.g ' Pt P Z 4 qr qt "R r rad rev ' reyn Rm S sh cwt sn st St st T t th 4.1 2. footnote 32.2 34.3 14.2 7.2 1.6.3 9.s.5 14.i.2 13.1 37. Mg mg mGal d 2 0 min (of volume) megagram milligram milligal conventional metre of water minute (of time) min ml minim millilitre millimetre conventional millimetre of mercury conventional millimetre of water mole millisecond newton nano (prefix) international nautical mile nanosecond ounce apothecaries' ounce (US) apothecaries' ounce (UK) ounceforce ounce troy (US) ounce troy (UK) pond (gramforce.5 14.6 4.6 86 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .5 28.4 14.6.s.1 14.7 32.1 14.2 32.4 9.1 11.6. footnote 4. 7 9.4 1.1 32.
1 Cim 11s L tonforce atomic mass unit gallon (UK) pint (UK) quart (UK) gaiion (US) watt yard degree (of angle) minute (of angle) second (of angie) degree (temperature) ' gamma ' (microgram) micro (prefix) (micron of mercury) micron microgram microinch microlitre rnicrometre (or micron) microsecond (right angle) 28.5 2.3 14.3 37.2 to 38.6.4 7.1 2.2 7. where appropriate Textual reference tonf U w Y d > I UKgal UKpt UKqt USgal II Y P ' 11 ' 'P' Pig pin 11 .1 4.1 4.2 14.6.1 87 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .6.1 4.6 4.2 9.3 4.2 38.5 14.3 2.2 2.2 7.1 32.6. note i 1. note 1 7.BS 350 : Part I : 1974 General information Symbol or abbreviation Name of unit or prefix.
technical atmosphere.6. Term Symbol Textual reference and important notes Table reference absolute (pressure) acceleration g" acceleration.3 4.6 32.6 and note 3 14. 14c bbl bbl (dry) (dynlcm2) Btu in/(ft2 h OF) Btu/ft3 Btu/(ft3 OF) Btu/(ftJ h) 4Oa.3 326 32a. note 1 4.2 1. German) U atomic mass unit a atto avoirdupois units bar barn barrel (beer.2 3. International Table British thermal unit. UK) barrel (cranberry.6.4 3. solid A åHgström angular momentum angular velocity apothecaries' units a are area area. 326 46.4 17.6. UK) barrel (petroleum. US) barrel (wine.3 4. mean British thermal unit. first moment of area. Against units or prefixes the corresponding symbol is also indicated. standard acre acre/lb acre per pound A ampere angle.5 32.6 36.6 and note 4 2. technical (absolute.BSI BS*350: P A R T # l 74 B I l b 2 4 b b 9 O l l b 2 0 5 B General index General index BS 350 : Part I : 1974 The names of the quantities.7 7 7.6 32.6.3 3 5 13 13 3a 17 7 7  11 6 18 17 4a. technical (gauge. 40c 43 48 88 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .4 32.6 36.3 43.3 A. right angle. note 1 4.1 14.1 8 2. dry (US) barye billion British thermal unit British thermal unit.7 32. 60 O F British thermal unit (used by Gas Industry) British thermal unit inch per square foot hour degree Fahrenheit British thermal unit per cubic foot British thermal unit per cubic foot degree Fahrenheit British thermal unit per cubic foot hour bar 32.6 36. 4c 6 18 17 14.7 13 13. plane L angle.2 36. note 2 4.6 46.7 14. 40b. German) ata ati' atmosphere.4 48.3 32.3 27 11 14.6. units and preíìxes to which reference has been made in this standard are listed below with their references. US) barrel. second moment of area per unit capacity area per unit mass assay ton (UK) assay ton (US) AU astronomical unit atm atmosphere. standard at atmosphere.5 3. subjects.4 40.3 1.6 36.
thermochemical calorie.2 13. thermal Btu/(ft h OF) Btu/h Btu/ib Btu/(lb "F) Btul(ft2 h) Btul(ft2 h OF) bu 46.3 2.4c. 4d 14b 38 ctl C C.H.3 48.2.6.5 1. note 2) "C la 4q 4b.4 39.4 4.2 2.6.6. calth d l 5 cal/(cm s K) cal/(cm3 s) cal/s cal/(cm2 s) cal/(cm2 s K) 4 8 37 44. with differing reference conditions calorific value. International Table calorie. note 6 34.2 35. mass basis calorific value. heat transfer concentration . metric Celsius. French) coefficient. footnote 36.2 45. degree cental centi Centigrade Centigrade heat unit centilitre centimetre centinietre cubed centimetre per second squared centimetre second kelvin per calorie centimetre to the fourth centipoise centistokes chain chain. Gunter's cheval vapeur (metric horsepower.6 46.2 5. note 5 37.6 see 36.4 4 6 37 39 41 44 45 4d k.3 40. 15 ' calorie per centimetre second kelvin calorie per cubic centimetre second calorie per second .4 37. international corn cablelength calendar year calorie calorie. footnote 45 20 45 .1 and note 3 4.2 14. conductance.4d  36b use 366 36b use 366 36b use 366 366 46 a Cal o call.4. dietitians calorie.2 37. thermal conductivity.6 and note 16 9.1 see 38.4 14. tonnecalorie.3 41. 4ûb. calorie per square centimetre second calorie per square centimetre second kelvin calorific value.6 2.4 44.3 45.6 36. 4b. volume basis candela capaciíy carat.6 and note 6 2. engineers' chain.U cl cm cm3 cm/s2 cm s K/cal cm4 C P cst use 4a.4c use 2 use 4a.7 4 14. 40c 39 &.2 47.5 2. 44 45 4ûb.6 see 36.ES1 BS*358: ~~~~ P A R T * L 74 W 1624667 81Lb206 T ~ ~~ _ _ ~ ~ BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 General index Table referem Term Symbol and important notes Textual reference British thermal unit per foot hour degree Fahrenheit British thermal unit per hour British thermal unit per pound British thermal unit per pound degree FahrenhCit British thermal unit per square foot hour British thermal unit per square foot hour degree Fahrenheit bushel (UK) bushel (US) bushel. gases.4 39 40 A. kilogramcalorie.6 see 36.6 36.5.3 38. 4c 13 47 6 34 35 2 2 37 45 20 45 46 CV. ch 4 6 89 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .6 36. 4. 40c cd CM (see 14.6 4.2 36.
2 4.2 4. 4 1  d da d dm deg "C "F O "/min "R "Is UK fl dr dr fl dr liq dr dYn dynlcm dyn/cm2 14b 4d 4d 34 28  36a. 46.1.4 15.1 4.5 38. thermal drachm (apothecaries'. footnote 49 14. international cran cubic centimetre cubic decimetre cubic foot cubic foot per hour cubic foot per pound cubic foot per second cubic foot per UK ton cubic inch cubic inch per pound cubic metre cubic metre per hour cubic metre per kilogram cubic metre per seEond cubic millimetre cubic yard ' cumec ' cusec cycle cycle per second day deca deci decimetre dei3 degree Celsius degree Fahrenheit degree (of angle) degree per minute degree per second degree Rankine denier density density.6.5 39.6. specific cm3 dm3 ft3 ft3/h ft3/lb ft3/s fti/UK ton in3 in3/lb m3 m3/h m3/kg m3/s mm3 Yd3 C 4. fluid (US) dram.1 23.1 1.2 2.5 23.1 23. UK) drachm.6 and note 13 36 39 35.3 21.5 4. linear density. fluid (UK) dram (apothecaries'. relative diffusivity.2 11.2 38.46 23 21 23 4c 4a 23 23  la la use 2 38 38 7 11 11 38 19 15 see 35 14b 4c.3.3 4.3 4. 4c 21 4a. liquid (US) dynamic viscosity dyne dyne per centimetre dyne per square centimetre em energy energy.6. footnote 34 28.1 9. footnote see 12. specific Engler degree enthalpy.2 38. note 5 4.6 and note 6 4.3 1.3 23.1 12.2 31.5 23.6.BSI BS*350: P A R T * l 94 e l b 2 4 b b î íJlLb207 E W General index Term BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Symbol Textual reference and important notes Table reference cord corn bushel. 36b 39 39 90 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 2.1 use 4a.5 14. note 4 14. footnote 23.3 7.2 11.2 19 15 19. 46 23 21 23 21 4a.1 14.2 32. US) dram (avoirdupois) dram.2 21.3 4.5 CIS 21.2 4.46 4a.3 21. 4c 4a.6.2 38.5 4.
3 see 41 d 38 2 la use 4. 4.6.6.2 13. board foot.3 36.1 4.1 4. Fahrenheit.5 39.2 36. 36b 39 41 37 35 35 6 28 12 36. mass flow rate.5 10.7 4th 4d 23 24a 23 21 23 4b.5 4. degree fathom . note I 32.3 35.3 41.6.2.5 use 366 2 13 13 Gal Gal UKgal UKgal/h UKgal/mile UKgal/min UKgal/lb UKgal/s USgal USgal/mile Y 13.Term Symbol Textual reference and important notes Tabk d m e œ entropy.4 10. femto Festmeter (German) flow rate.4 6 28 31 47 32c 10 10 13 36a 3óa.3 21.3 7.4 22 23 44 2.3 2.5 20. note 4 2.4 13.2 la 4d 4d 7 14b 20 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 4 6 22 23 44 2 f Fm ft ft3 ft h "F/Btu ftH2O ft/min ft/s ft/s2 f t pdl ft lbf ft lbf/lb ft Ibf/(lb O F ) ft Ibfls ft2/h ft2/s ft4 4a 32.6.2 4.2.3 24 23.3 4.3 14. heat foot foot.6 5. 91 4.6 1.4 35.4 37.3 24 14.5 36. volume flux density. 4á 24a G gi gon 1. specific ephemeris second erg .6 2.3 23.2 38.1 23.6.6.1 I ' I gr grm3 l. US survey foot cubed foot hour degree Fahrenheit per British thermal unit foot of water foot per minute foot per second foot per second squared foot poundal foot poundforce foot poundforce per pound foot poundforce per pound degree Fahrenheit foot poundforce per second foot squared per hour foot squared per second foot to the fourth force force per unit length frequency frigorie furlong gal galileo gallon (UK) gallon (UK) per hour gallon (UK) per mile gallon (UK) per minute gallon (UK) per pound gallon (UK) per second gallon (US) gallon (US) per mile gamma gauge (pressure) giga gill (VK) gill (US) gon Igrade grain grain per cubic foot erg "F 42 9.
BSI BS8350: PARTaL 74 Lb24bb7 OlLb209 5 t I General index Tenn BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Symbol Textual reference and important notes Table reference grain per UK gallon grain per US gallon gram gram centimetre squared gram per cubic centimetre gram per cubic decimetre gram per litre gram per millilitre gram per square metre gravity. conventional inch of water.2 92 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . footnote hP h h cwt sh cwt in in3 inHg inHz0 in/s in2lh in*/s in4 2 4a.1 J/(mJ OC) 43 40. 12. 366 36a. 40c joule joule.6 and note 14 36. conventional inch per second inch squared per hour inch squared per second inch to the fourth inertia.4 ' 20 20 146 25 19 20 20 19 16 13 2.5 10.2 19. long (US) hundredweight.1 19.2 19.4c 326.1 36. metric horsepower hour hour hundredweight hundredweight. absolute joule. 32c 32c 10 35 35 6 6 25 44 S 1 44  12.2 20. 36.4 6 6 25 44 4 4 48 45 3a 17 la 32a see 4a.3 17.3 32.5 5. geometrical moment of inertia. 40b.3 12. standard hand heat heat capacity (volume basis) heat content (volume basis) heat flow rate.2 20.6 43 40 366 4 3 40n.1 20.5 14.1 33 4. note 10   36a.2 25. 366 OU.1.4 35. 4b 37 37 36a. footnote 13.4 35.6. short (US) imperial system.3 37.5 14.6 2.3 14.1 36. moment of intensity of heat flow rate inverse second IPTS 68 iron 20. specific gravity. interna tional joule per cubic metre joule per cubic metre degree Celsius J J J/m3 36.2. commentary on inch inch cubed inch of mercury.I 37.1 43.2 16.5 Appendix A 2. 40c 44 4 4 ha ha/kg h hbar hl Hz 48 45 3.2 38.2 1.5 9. 366 14c 14c hP see 37.2 14.2 36. intensity of heat flux density heat release rate heat transfer coefficient hectare hectare per kilogram hecto hectobar hectolitre hertz horsepower horsepower. 406.5 32.
3 46.3 37.2 1.2 3 .2 3. 40b.2 32.3 see 3 . 33 3.1 1. 02 39.36b 35 28 1 0 1 0 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .BS 350 : Part I : 1974 General index Table reference Term Symbol Textual reference and important notes joule per cubic metre kelvin joule per kilogram joule per kilogram degree Celsius joule per kilogram kelvin 4.2 38 la 40a. 01 1. 41 2. 91 41. 83 1.40c 4.1 40. 21 1.3 32.3 2. .2 41.3 33 34.footnote 34 25 25 €9 20 1 6 22 15 see 34 22 1 6 see2 a 10 24b see 32a. 05 48 4 3 37 39 4 1 46 44 4 5 14a 2 8 36u 30 39 4 1 37 3241. 91 2.326 32c 32a.2 41. footnote 64 3. 64 3. 11 43 39 use 4 1 4 1 e kelvin kilo kilocalorie per cubic metre kilocalorie per cubic metre hour kilocalorie per cubic metre kelvin kilocalorie per hour kilocalorie per kilogram kilocalorie per kilogram kelvin kilocalorie per metre hour kelvin kilocalorie per square metre hour kilocalorie per square metre hour kelvin kilogram kilogramforce kilogramforce metre (energy) kilogramforce metre (torque) kilogramforce metre per kilogram kilogramforce metre per kilogram kelvin kilogramforce metre per second kilogramforce per square centimetre kilogramforce per square metre kilogramforce per square milíimetre kilogramforce second per square metre kilogram metre squared kilogram millimetre squared kilogram per cubic metre (density) kilogram per cubic metre (concentration) kilogram per hectare kilogram per hour kilogram per metre kilogram per metre second kilogram per second kilogram per square metre kilometre kilometre per hour kilometre per litre kilopascal kilopond kilopond met re (energy) kilopond metre (torque) kilopond per square centimetrc kilopond per square metre kilowatt kilowatt hour kinematic viscosity kip (US) knot (international) knot (UK) 38. 23 3. 02 32. 71 3. 53 1. 41 28. 63 35 2. 32b. 05 1.1 3.3 44.2 48. 03 24 3. 31 3. 21 28. 62 22.2 15. 52 1. 61 2.2 4. 51 2. 74 39. 32c 28 36u 30 324 32b 3c 2 use 37 36a.2 4.
1 I&. specific length light year ligne line linear density linear velocity link litre litre (1901) litre atmosphere litre per hour litre per hundred kilometres litre per kilogram litre pei kilometre litre per minute litre per second 1. 4c 4.6 and note 8 4.3 4a. 14r 16 15 22 ln 14c 32a 2 4a 47 47 see 32a 1 0 13.2 I mass mass per unit area mass per unit length mass rate of f o lw mass unit atomic mega megagram megapascal metre metre cubed metre hour kelvin per kilocalorie metre kelvin per watt metre of water metre per second metre per second squared metre squared per hour metre squared per second metre to the fourth metric carat metric horsepower metric system. commentary on micro microgram microinch microlitre micrometre micron micron (pressure unit) microsecond ' mil '.1 M Mg MPa m m3 m h K/kcal m K/W mH 2 0 m/s m/s2 m2/h m2/s m4 14.4b. 146.2 Appendix A 1.1 35.3 1.4 23 23.3. 4b.5 9.3 35.2 23 23. 4c 4.1 47 32.6 4a. I 39.2.2 2.2 2. note 2 2.1 (see 14.6 mil mil mile 4.General index 'rem BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Symbol Textual reference and important notes Table referemie latent heat. note 2) (see 37. I 24 21 21.1 2.2 32.2 Fig. circular (of area) ' mi1 ' (of angle) ' mil ' (of length) ' mil ' (of volume) mile 14 16 15 U 22 14.2 32.3 36a 36.5 10.6andnotes 11.1 13 35 35 6 14b 37  14.5 and note 2 7.49 6.3 2. footnote) 14.4 2.6 and note 12 2.3 37.3 2. I 5.y.12 15 15 10 10 2.1 39 2 2 2. note I 3.2 24a 24 23 23.5 ia use 14h use 2 use 4c use 2 use 2 use 32c  36 2 4c 2 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .
4d 4d 7 I 4a 4a 6 30 25 6 30 25 27 26 9.2 9.6. angular momentum (linear) month nano nanosecond nautical mile (international) newton newton metre newton per metre newton per square metre newton per square millimetre newton second per square metre number ounce (apothecaries' UK) ounce (apothecaries' US) ounce (avoirdupois) ounce.1 30.5 32.5 14.4 n ns n mile N Nm N/m N/m2 N/mm2 N s/m2 oz apoth oz ap  1.3 2.2 9. 4d 4c.6 and note 16 24 24 10. telegraph nautical mile. 9.2 16.3 4.4 1.6.3 25.2 16.1 4.7 5 2 2 2 24b and Fig.2 14.3 28.6.2 32.1 1 3241. 324 32c 32a Use 34 la.5 6 1. international nautical mile.3 2. note 1 4.2 5.3 7. 4d 4c.1.1 .6. conventional millimetre of water.5 and note 6 2.2 4. 36.5 14. UK nautical mile per gallon (UK) mile per gallon (US) mire per hour milli millibar milligal milligram milligram per square centimetre milligram per square miliimetre millilitre millimetre millimetre cubed millimetre of mercury.6 2. note 1 2. statute mile. 4d 28 30 25 2 28 30 la um oz usfi oz liq oz OZ€ OZ ozf in oz in2 14.1 32. fluid (UK) ounce.2 and footnote 13.3. 1 246 and Fig. footnote 28. footnote 6 lb 4c. first.1 31. 32c 13 use 146 16 16 4c use 2 use 4a 32c 32c. fluid (US) ounce.Terni Symbol Textnal reference and important nofes Table reference mile. 1 10 la 32b.1 4.3 5 A. conventional millimetre to the fourth million mi11isecond minim (UK) minim (US) minute (of angle) minute (of time) modulus of section mole moment.1 33 34.3 95 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 30. of area moment. of inertia moment of force moment of inertia momentum.6. l b 14b 14b 14b 4c. geometrical.5 4.1 32. liquid (US) ounceforce ounceforce inch ounce inch squared n mile mile mile/UKgal mile/USgal milelh m mbar (mb) mGal mg mg/cm2 mg/mm2 ml mm mm3 mHg inmH2O mm4 ms UKmin min mol 2.
63 2. 93 15.3 3. 02 20.3 l k . 45 1. 37.2 1.i.3 3. 44 25.326 34 25 1 6 19 1 9 15 see 34 34 1 9 1 9 22 15 15 22 16 15 28 30 96 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . 43 25. 63 15. 464 .4 33 34. 464 .3 1.32b. 03 32. 45 23 . dry (US) pint.4d la PS P P= UKpt liq pt P P1 P Ib Ib ft2 Ibf Ibf ft lbf h/ft2 lbf in lbf/ft2 Ibf/in2 (p.BSI BS8350: PART>i(L 7 4 W 3 b 2 4 b b î OLLb2L37 e_ General index Term BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Symbol Textual reference and important notea Table reference ounce per square foot ounce per square yard ounce per UK gallon ounce per US gallon ounce troy (UK) ounce troy (US) I oz/ft2 oz/yd2 oz/UKgal oz/USgal oz tr oz t P C Pa Pa s Pk 1. 3 . 7 2 6 and note 9 .3 3.. German) pound pound foot squared poundforce poundforce foot poundforce hour per square foot poundforce inch poundforce per square foot poundforce per square inch poundforce second per square inch goundforce second per square foot pound inch squared pound per acre pound per cubic foot pound per cubic inch pound per foot pound per foot hour pound per foot second pound per (UK) galion pound per (US) ‘gallon pound per hour pound per inch pound per mile pound per second pound per thousand square feet pound per yard pound troy (US) poundal poundal foot 32a.2 461 . see 28. 63 1. 93 22. liquid (US) plane angle point poise poiseuille (French) pole pond (gramforce. 93 1.1 461 .4d 7 Ibf s/in2 lbf s/ft2 Ib in2 Ib/acre Ib/ftJ lblin3 Ib/ft lb/(ft h) lb/(ft s) lb/UKgal IbJUSgal lb/h lb/in Ib/mile Ibis lb/loOO ft2 WYd Pdl pdl ft 2 6 and note 15 . 2 6 and note 15 . 43 1. 463 .3 22.1 32. 1c 4 25 28 30 34 30 32c 324 32b 32a. 45 28.s. 32c 34 4d 4d 37 4b.33 21 34. .4 32.. 4 6 note 4 . 34.) % 4d 4b. 93 1.2 34..3 30..3 2..1 1 6 1 6 20 20 146 146 parsec pascal pascal second peck (UK) peck (US) perch Petrograd standard Pferdéstärke (metric horsepower.3 1.3 34.footnote 1. 83 30.3 15.3 34. German) pico pièze pint (UK) pint. 63 1..3 15.3 1.2 1.
s.6 14. 12.2 5 14.5 37.6. heat resistivity.4 34.2 11.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 General index Table reference Symbol Texlual referem and important notes poundal per square foot poùndal second per square foot poundsforce per square inch (absolute) poundsforce per square inch (gauge) power pressure quadrillion quart (UK) quart.63 14.4 35. footnote 35.4.1 4. note 15 3. 4b _48 47 11 rev/inin r/min rev/min rlmin rev/s 11 rls revls rls 11. thermal revolution per minute (angular velocity) revolution per minute (rotational frequency2 revolution per second (angular velocity) revolution per second (rotational frequency) ' reyn ' right angle rod rood rotation. ephemeris second.3 7. speed of rotational speed rotational velocity Saybolt scale Scale.1 11. dry (US) quart.6.5 IPTS . ton of relative density release rate.i.32c UKqt dry qt Iiq qt qr 9 rad radtmin rad/s lb 4d 4d 7 11 4d  11 38c "R Rm .7 32.4 4.6 and note 5 see 34. footnote 7.5 14.2 9.5 14. use 4a.1 2.4 19.2 12. International Practical Temperature.s.2 12.6.1 9. 326.3 _ 7 L 4a 14c 14c 14a Use 34 97 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . degree Raummeter (German) Redwood number refrigeration. of 1968 scruple (apothecaries') second (of angle) second (of time) second. liquid (US) quarter quintal radian radian per minute radian per second Rankine.2 12.68 II S S 1 sh cwt sh ton slug h/(ft 52) 38.3.i. footnote 48 47 11. note 1 1 .2 4.4 4. inverse section.5 7.1 38.5 14.3  32u 34 37 32a.1.g 32.3 32. footnote  7 3a L _ li.a p.7 37 32 1. footnote 1 il.2 34. modulus of short hundredweight short ton slug slug hour per foot second squared pdllft2 pdl s/ft2 p.
2 14.1 17 21 10 11. 3b use 3a 3a use 17 17 18 3a 17 36.2   326 13 use 4a. 32b.4 34 39 see 41  43 41 39 17 21 use 30 use 17 use 3a 3a 47 18 17 17 3a.2 35.4 17.4 18 17.3a '17 3a 18 17 10 ft2 h 'F/(Btu in) ft2/gal ft2/oz 1000 ft2/lb in2 km2 m2 m2/g m2/k m2/l mile2 mileZ/ton mm2 mm2/mg Yd2 yd2/ga1 yd2/oz atm gn 18 17.2 3.6.2 17.4 28.4 8 4. (Petrograd) standard atmosphere standard gravity steradian stère (French) sthène (French) stokes stone stress surface.2 3. footnote 43 and footnotes to 41 41 39.1 18 sr st sn St 3. specific technical atmosphere technical atmosphere. 32c 17  at ata  32a. thermodynamic temperature difference temperature interval tera tex slug/(ft s) CIllZ cm2/mg dm2 ft2 34. German temperature temperature.1 17.2 17. footnote 3.2 3. 46 use 28 use 35 32a.7 38 see 38 38 38 1. note 4 32.3 3.3 4.5 33 17 32.6 32. absolute. rotational square centimetre square centimetre per milligram square decimetre square foot square foot hour degree Fahrenheit per British thermal unit inch square foot per gallon square foot per ounce square foot (thousand) per pound square inch square kilometre square metre square metre per gram square metre per kilogram square metre per litre square mile square mile per ton square millimetre square millimetre per milligram square yard square yard per gallon square yard per ounce standard. volume basis specific heat capacity specific latent heat specific surface specific volume speed speed.B S I BS*350: P A R T * l 74 Il b 2 4 b b î OJiLb2L5 O ~ General index Term BS 350 : Part I : 1974 Symbol Texhial reference and important notes Table reference slug per foot second solid angle specific energy specific entropy specific gravity speciñc heat speciñc heat. 326 T 38 la  98 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .2 17.6 13.3 3.4 3.3 17. footnote 41.1 15.2 3.3 8 39 42 19.
assay (US) ton. assay (U#) ton. 1 Ib  'vacuum ' values velocity.3 16.6 24 24 30 32.6 and note 4 14.3 32.3 22.3 45 40a 46 th th/litre thou ton 49 47 36.5. long (US) ton.5 14. specific volume rate of f o lw Vollwinkel (German) 11 10 34 35 4a.4 33 24 24 37.3 15. kinematic volume.2 see 38 2.3 14. 4c.5 14.5 25.2 see 36. gross (US) ton.6 and note 3 14.6 40.5 14.4. linear velocity. 4b.3 28.3 15. note 7 9 14.~~~ ~ B S I BS*350: ~~~~~ PARTxL __ ~ 74 D L b 2 4 6 6 9 O L L b 2 L b 2 BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 General index Table reference Term ssmbol Textual reference and important notes therm therm per gallon . atomic mass therm/UKgal 36. thermal conductance thermal conductivity thermal diffusivity thermal resistivity thermie thermie per litre thermodynamic temperature ' thou ' time ton ton.7 11 10 11. footnote 34 35 4 21 23 7.6 40. 4d 21 23  99 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .3 32. footnote 14. and capacity volume. short (US) tonforce tonforce (US) tonforce foot tonforce per square fûoi tonforce per square inch ton mile ton mile per gallon ton of refrigeration ton per cubic yard ton per hour ton per mile ton per square mile ton per thousand yards toniie tonnecalorie tonne kilometre tonne kilometre per litre torque torr trafficfactors trillion tropical year troy units unit. note 3 45 46 see 35 47 use 36b  4oa use 2 14c  14c 28 use 28 30 32a 3% 32a under 246 under 246 ah ton tonf ustonf tonf ft tonf/ft2 tonf/in* UKton d e UKton milejUKga1 tonlyd3 ton/h tonlmile ton/mile* ton/lûûû yd L  t km t km/l 19 22 15 16 15 1412 use 36b under 24b under 246 30 32b 244 246 and Fig.5 24 1. rotational viscosity.5 14. dynamic viscosity.3 30.4 19. angular velocity.4 32.2 9.
366 a a 2. footnote 1O0 COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services .1 44. light year. a 2.2 46.1 45.1 9. calendar year.2 45.General index Tr em BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 Symbol Tertiralrefermce andimportantnotea Table reference watt watt per cubic metre watt per metre degree Celsius watt per metre kelvin watt per square inch watt per square metre watt per square metre degree Celsius watt per square metre kelvin week weight W W/m3 Wl(m " l C W/(m K) W/in2 W/m2 W/(m2 OC) W l W K) 37.3 9.4.4 9.3 37 48 46 46 44 44.4 29 4 4 45 45 14a.1 48.4. tropical Y d 36 28 36a. 146.1 46.4 9. 14c work yard year year. footnote ley.
rounding of numbers) Barometer conventions and tables Precise conversion of inch and metric sizes on engineering drawings The International System of iinits (SI) The use of SI iinits COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . with definitions of thermal insulating terms Universal system for designating linear density of textiles (Tex System) Tables for lise in the calibration of volumetric glassware Presentation of numerical values (fineness of expression.BSI publications referred to in this standard This standard makes reference to the following British standards: O BS 718 RS 860 RS 874 RS 947 BS 1797 ß S 1957 BS 7570 BS 2856 RS 3763 PI) 5686 Density hydrometers and specific gravity hydrometers Tables for comparison of hardness scales Methods of determining thermal properties.
. No.B COPYRIGHT British Standards Institute on ERC Specs and Standards Licensed by Information Handling Services . A British Standards Institution 2 Park Street London W I A 2BS Telephone 01629 9000 Telex 266933 a   a  86048 1 k.BS 350 : Part 1 : 1974 ~ CONFIRMED OCTOBER 1983 Amendments issued since publication Amd.. 41 53 l Date of issue July 1983 I Text affected Incorporated in this standard  cr3 O . cn .