MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
1
COMPLEX NUMBERS
We started our study of number systems with the set of natural numbers, then the
number zero was included to form the system of whole numbers; negative numbers
were defined. Thus, we extended our number system to whole numbers and integers.
To solve the problems of the type p q ÷ we included rational numbers in the system
of integers. The system of rational numbers have been extended further to irrational
numbers as all lengths cannot be measured in terms of lengths expressed in rational
numbers. Rational and irrational numbers taken together are termed as real numbers.
But the system of real numbers is not sufficient to solve all algebraic equations. There
are no real numbers which satisfy the equation x
2
+1 = 0 or x
2
= − 1. In order to
solve such equations, i.e., to find square roots of negative numbers, we extend the
system of real numbers to a new system of numbers known as complex numbers. In
this lesson the learner will be acquinted with complex numbers, its representation and
algebraic operations on complex numbers.
OBJECTIVES
After studying this lesson, you will be able to:
•
describe the need for extending the set of real numbers to the set of complex
numbers;
•
define a complex number and cite examples;
•
identify the real and imaginary parts of a complex number;
•
state the condition for equality of two complex numbers;
•
recognise that there is a unique complex number x + iy associated with the
point P(x, y) in the Argand Plane and viceversa;
•
define and find the conjugate of a complex number;
•
define and find the modulus and argument of a complex number;
1
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
2
•
represent a complex number in the polar form;
•
perform algebraic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) on
complex numbers;
•
state and use the properties of algebraic operations ( closure, commutativity,
associativity, identity, inverse and distributivity) of complex numbers; and
•
state and use the following properties of complex numbers in solving problems:
(i)       z z z z z · ⇔ · · ⇒ · 0 0
2 1 2
and z
1
(ii) z z z · − · (iii)       z
1
+ ≤ + z z z
2 1 2
(iv) z
1
. . z z z
2 1 2
· (v)
1
1
2
2 2
( 0)
z
z
z
z z
· ≠
EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
•
Properties of real numbers.
•
Solution of linear and quadratic equations
•
Representation of a real number on the number line
•
Representation of point in a plane.
1.1 COMPLEX NUMBERS
Consider the equation x
2
+ 1 = 0. ...(A)
This can be written as x
2
= –1
or
1 x − + ·
But there is no real numbers which satisfy x
2
= –1.In other words, we can say that
there is no real numbers whose square is − 1.In order to solve such equations, let
us imagine that there exist a number 'i' which equal to
− 1
.
In 1748, a great mathematician, L. Euler named a number 'i' as Iota whose square
is − 1. This Iota or 'i' is defined as imaginary unit. With the introduction of the new
symbol 'i', we can interpret the square root of a negative number as a product of a
real number with i.
Therefore, we can denote the solution of (A) as x = ± i
Thus, –4 = 4(–1)
∴ − · − · · 4 1 4 2 2
2 2
( )( ) . i i
Conventionally written as 2i.
So, we have
− · 4 2i, 7 7i − ·
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
3
− − 4 7 ,
are all examples of complex numbers.
Consider another quadratic equation:
x
2
–6x + 13 = 0
This can be solved as under:
(x –3)
2
+ 4 = 0
or, (x –3)
2
= –4
or, x – 3 = ± 2i
or, x = 3 ± 2i
We get numbers of the form x + yi where x and y are real numbers and i =
−1
.
Any number which can be expressed in the form a + bi where a,b are real
numbers and i =
−1
, is called a complex number. .
A complex number is, generally, denoted by the leter z.
i.e. z = a + bi, 'a' is called the real part of z and is written as Re (a+bi) and 'b' is
called the imaginary part of z and is written as Imag (a + bi).
If a = 0 and b ≠ 0, then the complex number becomes bi which is a purely imaginary
complex number.
–7i,
1
2
i
,
3i and πi
are all examples of purely imaginary numbers.
If a ≠ 0 and b = 0 then the complex number becomes 'a' which is a real number. .
5, 2.5 and
7
are all examples of real numbers.
If a = 0 and b = 0, then the complex number becomes 0 (zero). Hence the real
numbers are particular cases of complex numbers.
Example 1.1 Simplify each of the following using 'i'.
(i)
−36
(ii)
25 4 . −
Solution: (i)
−36
= 36 1 ( ) − = 6i
(ii)
25 4 . −
= 5
×
2i = 10i
1.2 POSITIVE INTEGRAL POWERS OF i
We know that
i
2
= –1
i
3
= i
2
.i = –1.i = –i
i
4
= (i
2
)
2
= (–1)
2
= 1
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
4
i
5
= (i
2
)
2
.i = 1.i = i
i
6
= (i
2
)
3
= (–1)
3
= –1
i
7
= (i
2
)
3
(i) = –i
i
8
= (i
2
)
4
=1
Thus, we find that any higher powers of 'i' can be expressed in terms of one of four
values i, –1, –i, 1
If n is a positive integer such that n>4, then to find i
n
, we first divide n by 4.
Let m be the quotient and r be the remainder.
Then n = 4m + r. where 0
≤
r < 4.
Thus,
i
n
= i
(4m+r)
= i
4m
.i
r
= (i
4
)
m
.i
r
= i
r
(
i
4
=1)
Note : For any two real numbers a and b,
a b ab × ·
is true only when
atleast one of a and b is either 0 or positive.
If fact
− × − a b
=
i i a b ×
=
2
i ab
=
− ab
where a and b are positive real numbers.
Example 1.2 Find the value of 1 + i
10
+ i
20
+ i
30
Solution: 1 + i
10
+ i
20
+ i
30
= 1 + (i
2
)
5
+ (i
2
)
10
+ (i
2
)
15
= 1 + (–1)
5
+ (–1)
10
+ (–1)
15
= 1 + (–1) + 1 + (–1)
= 1 – 1 + 1 –1
= 0
Thus, 1 + i
10
+ i
20
+ i
30
= 0.
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Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
5
Example 1.3 Express 8i
3
+ 6i
16
– 12i
11
in the form of a + bi
Solution: 8i
3
+ 6i
16
– 12i
11
can be written as 8(i
2
).i + 6(i
2
)
8
– 12(i
2
)
5
.i
= 8(–1).i + 6(–1)
8
– 12(–1)
5
.i
= –8i + 6 – 12(–1).i
= –8i + 6 + 12i
= 6 + 4i
which is of the form of a + bi where 'a' is 6 and 'b' is 4.
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1
1. Simplify each of the following using 'i'.
(a)
− − − − 27 (c) 13 ( ) b 9
2. Express each of the following in the form of a + bi
(a) 5 (b) –3i (c) 0
3. Simplify 10i
3
+ 6i
13
–12i
10
4. Show that i
m
+ i
m+1
+ i
m+2
+ i
m+3
= 0 for all m N ∈
.
1.3 CONJUGATE OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
Consider the equation:
x
2
– 6x + 25 = 0 ... (i)
or, (x – 3)
2
+ 16 = 0
or, (x – 3)
2
= – 16
or, (x – 3) = ± − · t − 16 16 1 .( ) .
or, x = 3 ± 4i
The roots of the above equation (i) are 3 + 4i and 3 – 4i.
Consider another equation:
x
2
+ 2x + 2 = 0 ... (ii)
or, (x + 1)
2
+1 = 0
or, (x + 1)
2
= – 1
or, (x + 1) = ± − · t 1 i
or, x = – 1 ± i
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
6
The roots of the equation (ii) are –1+i and –1–i.
Do you find any similarity in the roots of (i) and (ii)?
The equations (i) and (ii) have roots of the type a + bi and a – bi. Such roots are
known as conjugate roots and read as a + bi is conjugate to a – bi and viceversa.
The complex conjugate (or simply conjugate) of a complex number z = a + bi is
defined as the complex number a – bi and is denoted by
z
.
Thus, if z = a + bi then
z
= a – bi.
Note : The conjugate of a complex number is obtained by changing the
sing of the imaginary part.
Following are some examples of complex conjugates:
(i) If z = 2 + 3i, then z
= 2 – 3i
(ii) If z = 1–i,
then
z
= 1 + i
(iii) If z = –2 + 10i,
then
z
= –2–10i
1.3.1 PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX CONJUGATES
(i) If z is a real number then z
=
z i.e., the conjugate of a real number is the
number itself.
For example, let z
= 5
This can be written as
z
= 5 + 0i
∴
z = 5 – 0i = 5
∴ z
= 5 = z
.
(ii) If z is a purely imaginary number then
z= z −
For example, if z = 3i
This can be written as
z
= 0 + 3i
∴
z
= 0 – 3i = –3i
= – z
∴
z =
– z.
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
7
(iii) Conjugate of the conjugate of a complex number is the number itself.
i.e.,
(z )
= z
For example, if z = a + bi then
z
= a – bi
Again
(z) (a bi) · −
= a + bi
= z
(z) = z ∴
Example 1.4 Find the conjugate of each of the following complex number:
(i) 3 – 4i (ii) 2i
(iii) (2 + i)
2
(iv)
i +1
2
Solution : (i) Let z = 3 – 4i
then z 3 4i · −
d i = 3 + 4i
Hence, 3 + 4i is the conjugate of 3 – 4i.
(ii) Let z = 2i or 0 + 2i
then z 0 2i · +
d i = 0 – 2i
Hence, –2i is the conjugate of 2i.
(iii) Let z = (2 + i)
2
i.e. z = (2)
2
+ (i)
2
+ 2(2)(i)
= 4 – 1 + 4i
= 3 + 4i
Then
z
, ì
= 3+ 4i = 3 – 4i
Hence, 3 – 4i is the conjugate of (2 + i)
2
(iv) Let z
i
·
+1
2
=
1
2
1
2
i +
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
8
then z i i · +
F
H
G
I
K
J
· −
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
Hence,
1 i
2 2
−
or
i +1
2
−
is the conjugate of
i +1
2
1.4 GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
Let z = a + bi be a complex number. Let two mutually
perpendicular lines xox' and yoy' be taken as xaxis and yaxis
respectively, O being the origin.
Let P be any point whose coordinates are (a,b). We say that the
complex z = a + bi is represented by the point P (a , b) as shown
in Fig. 1.1
If b = 0, then z is real and the point representing complex
number z = a + 0i is denoted by (a, 0). This point (a, 0) lies
on the xaxis.
So, xox' is called the real axis. In the Fig. 1.2 the point
Q (a, 0) represent the complex number z = a + 0i.
If a = 0, then z is purely imaginary and the point representing
complex number z = 0 + bi is denoted by (0, b). The point
(0, b) lies on the yaxis.
So, yoy' is called the imaginary axis. In Fig.1.3, the point
R (0, b) represents the complex number z = 0 + bi.
The plane of two axes representing complex numbers as points is
called the complex plane or Argand Plane.
The diagram which represents complex number in the
Argand Plane is called Argand Diagram.
Example 1.5
Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i and 3 + 2i in the
same Argand Plane.
Solution :
1. 2+3i is represented by the point A (2,3)
2. 3+2i is represented by the point B (3, 2) Clearly,
the points A and B are different
O Q(a,0)
x
y
x
y
a
Fig. 1.3
O
R(0,b)
x
y
x
y
b
Fig. 1.2
y
O 1 2 3 4
Fig. 1.4
x
A(2,3)
B(3,2)
4
3
2
1
x'
y'
Fig. 1.1
......................
O
P(a,b)
x
y
x
y
'
x
'
x
'
x
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
9
Example1.6
Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i and
–2 –3i in the same Argand Plane.
Solution:
1. 2 + 3i is represented by the point
P (2, 3)
2. –2 –3i is represented by the point
Q (–2,–3)
Points P and Q are different and lie in the I
quadrant and III quadrant respectively.
Example1.7
Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i and 2 –3i in
the same Argand Plan
Solution:
1. 2 + 3i is represented b the point R(2, 3)
2. 2 –3i is represtned by the point S(2, –3)
Example1.8
Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i, –2–3i,
2–3i in the same Argand Plane
Solution:
(a) 2+3i is represented by the poin
P (2, 3)
(b) –2–3i is represented by the point
Q (–2,–3)
(c) 2–3i is represented by the point
R (2, –3)
1.5 MODULUS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
We have learnt that any complex number z = a + bi can be represented by a point in the Argand
Plane. How can we find the distance of the point from the origin? Let P(a, b) be a point in the
plane representing a + bi. Draw perpendiculars PM and PL on xaxis and yaxis respectively.
Let OM = a and MP = b. We have to find the distance of P from the origin.
Fig. 1.5
O
Q( 2, 3)
x
y
x
y
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
P(2,3)
1 2 3 4
Fig. 1.7
y
P(2,3)
4
3
2
1
O
–1
x'
y'
x
R(2,–3)
Q(–2,–3)
y
R (2,3)
1 2 3 4
4
3
2
1
x'
y'
x
S (2,3)
Fig. 1.6
O
–1
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
10
2 2
OP = OM + MP
2 2
= a + b
∴
OP is called the modulus or absolute value of the
complex number a + bi.
∴ Modulus of any complex number z such
that z = a + bi, a∈R, b∈R is denoted by
 z  and is given by
a b
2 2
+
∴  z  =  a + ib  =
a b
2 2
+
1.5.1 Properties of Modulus
(a)  z  = 0 ⇔ z = 0.
Proof : Let z = a + bi, a∈R , b∈R
then  z  =
a b
2 2
+
  z a b · ⇔ + · 0 0
2 2
⇔ a = 0 and b = 0 (since a
2
and b
2
both are positive)
⇔ z = 0
(b)     z z ·
Proof : Let z = a + bi
then  z  =
a b
2 2
+
Now,
z a bi · −
∴ · + − · +   ( ) z a b a b
2 2 2 2
Thus,  z  = a b z
2 2
+ ·  ...(i)
(c)  z  =  –z 
Proof : Let z = a + bi then  z  =
a b
2 2
+
O a M
y
P(a,b)
x'
y'
x
b
Fig. 1.8
L
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
11
– z = – a – bi then  –z  =
( ) ( ) − + − a b
2 2
=
a b
2 2
+
Thus,  z  =
a b
2 2
+
=  –z  ...(ii)
By (i) and (ii) it can be proved that
 z  =  – z  =  z  ...(iii)
Now, we consider the following examples:
Example 1.9 Find the modulus of z and z if z = –4 + 3i
Solution : z = –4 + 3i, then  z  =
2 2
( 4) (3) − +
=
16 9 25 5 + · ·
and z = –4 – 3i
then,
2 2
z ( 4) + ( 3) = 16+ 9 = 25 = 5 · − −
Thus,  z  = 5 = 
z

Example 1.10 Find the modulus of z and – z if z = 5 + 2i
Solution: z = 5 + 2i, then – z = –5 – 2i
2 2 2 2
5 2 = 29 and ( 5) ( 2) = 29 z z · + − · − + −
Thus,  z  =
29 ·−   z
Example 1.11 Find the modulus of z, –z and
z
where z = 1 + 2i
Solution : z = 1 + 2i then –z = –1–2i and
z
= 1 –2i
  z · + · 1 2 5
2 2
  ( ) ( ) − · − + − · z 1 2 5
2 2
and
  ( ) ( ) z · + − · 1 2 5
2 2
Thus,       z z z · − · · 5
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
12
Example 1.12 Find the modulus of :
(i) 1 + i (ii) 2π (iii) 0 (iv)
1
2
i
Solution: (i) Let z = 1 + i
then  z  =
1 1 2
2 2
+ ·
Thus,   1 2 + · i
(ii) Let z = 2π or 2π + 0i
Then   ( ) ( ) z · + · 2 0 2
2 2
π π
Thus,  2π  = 2π.
If z is real then  z  = z
(iii) z = 0 or 0 + 0i
then   ( ) ( ) z · + · 0 0 0
2 2
Thus,  z  = 0
If z is 0 then  z  = 0
(iv)
Let z
=−
1
2
i or 0 i –
1
2
then
  z · + −
F
H
G
I
K
J
· 0
1
2
1
2
2
2
Thus,
− ·
1
2
1
2
i
.
If z is purely imaginary number, then z z ≠   .
Example1.13 Find the absolute value of the conjugate of the complex number
z = –2 + 3i
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
13
Solution : Let z = –2 + 3i then
z
= –2 – 3i
Absolute value of
z
= 
z
 =  –2 – 3i  =
( ) ( ) − + − · + · 2 3 4 9 13
2 2
Example 1.14 Find the modulus of the
complex numbers shown in an Argand Plane
(Fig. 1.9)
Solution: (i) P(4, 3) represents the complex
number z = 4 + 3i
∴ · + ·
·
 
 
z
or z
4 3 25
5
2 2
(ii) Q(–4, 2) represents the complex
number z = –4 + 2i
∴ · − + · ·
·
z 16 + 4 20
or z
( ) 4 2
2 5
2 2
(iii) R(–1, –3) represents the complex number z = –1 – 3i
∴ · − + − · +
·
  ( ) ( )
 
z
or z
1 3 1 9
10
2 2
(iv) S(3, –3) represents the complex number z = 3 –3i
∴ · + − · +
· ·
  ( ) ( )
 
z
or z
3 3 9 9
18 3 2
2 2
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2
1. Find the conjugate of each of the following:
(a) –2i (b) –5 –3i (c)
− 2
(d) (–2 + i)
2
2. Represent the following complex numbers on Argand Plane :
(a) (i) 2 + 0i (ii) –3 + 0i (iii) 0 – 0i (iv) 3 – 0i
y'
y
P(4,3)
O 1 2 3 4
x'
x
S(3,–3)
Fig. 1.9
R(–1,–3)
Q(–4,2)
4 3 2 1 − − − −
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14
(b) (i) 0 + 2i (ii) 0 – 3i (iii) 4i (iv) –5i
(c) (i) 2 + 5i and 5 + 2i (ii) 3 – 4i and –4 + 3i
(iii) –7 + 2i and 2 –7i (iv) –2 – 9i and –9 – 2i
(d) (i) 1 + i and –1 – i (ii) 6 + 5i and –6 – 5i
(iii) –3 + 4i and 3 –4i (iv) 4 – i and – 4 + i
(e) (i) 1 + i and 1 – i (ii) – 3 + 4i and – 3 – 4i
(iii) 6 – 7i and 6 + 7i (iv) –5 – i and – 5 + i
3. (a) Find the modulus of following complex numbers :
(i) 3 (ii) (i + 1)(2 – i) (iii) 2 – 3i (iv)
4 5 + i
(b) For the following complex numbers, verify that  z  = 
z

(i) – 6 + 8i (ii) –3 –7i
(c) For the following complex numbers, verify that  z  =  –
z

(i) 14 + i (ii) 11 – 2i
(d) For the following complex numbers, verify that  z  =  – z  = 
z

(i) 2 – 3i (ii) –6 – i (iii) 7 – 2i
.1.6 EQUALITY OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
Let us consider two complex numbers z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di such that z
1
= z
2
we have a + bi = c + di
or (a – c) + (b – d)i = 0 = 0 + 0i
Comparing real and imaginary parts on both sides, we have
a – c = 0, or a = c
⇒ real part of z
1
= real part of z
2
and b – d = 0 or b = d
⇒ imaginary part of z
1
= imaginary part of z
2
Therefore, we can conclude that two complex numbers are equal if and only if their real parts
and imaginary parts are respectivley equal.
In general a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d.
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Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
15
Properties: z
1
= z
2
⇒  z
1
 =  z
1

Let z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di
z
1
= z
2
gives a = c and b = d
Now z a b and z c d
2 1
2 2 2 2
· + · +
=
a b
2 2
+
[since a = c and b = d]
⇒  z
1
 =  z
2

Example 1.15 For what value of x and y, 5x + 6yi and 10 + 18i are equal?
Solution : It is given that
5 x + 6y i = 10 + 18i
Comparing real and imaginary parts, we have
5x = 10 or x = 2
and 6y = 18 or y = 3
For x = 2 and y = 3, the given complex numbers are equal.
.1.7 ADDITION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di are two complex numbers then their sum z
1
+ z
2
is defined by
z
1
+ z
2
= (a + c) + (b + d)i
For example, if z
1
= 2 + 3i and z
2
= –4 + 5i,
then z
1
+ z
2
= [2 + (–4)] + [3 + 5]i
= – 2 + 8i.
Example 1.16 Simplify
(i) (3 + 2i) + (4 –3i)
(ii) (2 + 5i) + (–3 –7i) + (1 – i)
Solution : (i) (3 + 2i) + (4 – 3i) = (3 + 4) + (2 – 3)i = 7
_
i
(ii) (2 + 5i) + (–3 – 7i) + (1 – i) = (2 – 3 + 1) + (5 – 7 – 1) i
= 0 – 3i
or (2 + 5i) + (–3 – 7i) + (1 – i) = –3i
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Notes
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Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
16
1.7.1 Geometrical Represention of Addition of Two Complex Numbers
Let two complex numbers z
1
and z
2
be represented by the points P(a, b) and Q(c, d).
Their sum, z
1
+ z
2
is represented by the point R (a + c, b + d) in the same Argand Plane.
Join OP, OQ, OR, PR and QR.
Draw perpendiculars PM, QN,
RL from P, Q, R respectvely on
Xaxis.
Draw perpendicular PK to RL
In ∆QON
ON = c
and QN = d.
In ∆ROL In ∆POM
RL = b + d PM = b
and OL = a + c OM = a
Also PK = ML
= OL – OM
= a + c – a
= c = ON
RK = RL – KL
= RL – PM
= b + d – b
= d = QN.
In ∆QON and ∆RPK,
ON = PK, QN = RK and ∠QNO = ∠RKP = 90
o
∴ ∆QON ≅ ∆RPK
∴ OQ = PR and OQ  PR
⇒ OPRQ is a parallelogram and OR its diagonal.
Therefore, we can say that the sum of two complex numbers is represented by the
diagonal of a parallelogram.
X X'
Y
Y'
O N M L
Q(c,d)
R(a+c, b+d)
P(a,b)
K
Fig. 1.10
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Example 1.17 Prove that  z
1
+ z
2
 <  z
1
 +  z
2

Solution: We have proved that the sum of two complex numbers z
1
and z
2
represented
by the diagonal of a parallelogram OPRQ (see fig. 1.11).
In ∆OPR
OR< OP + PR
or OR < OP + OQ (since OQ = PR )
or  z
1
+ z
2
 <  z
1
 +  z
2

Example 1.18 If z
1
= 2 + 3i and z
2
= 1 + i,
verify that  z
1
+ z
2
 <  z
1
 +  z
1

Solution: z
1
= 2 + 3i and z
2
= 1 + i represented by the points (2, 3) and (1, 1)
respectively. Their sum (z
1
+ z
2
) will be represented by the point (2+1, 3+1) i.e. (3, 4)
Verification
2 2
1
z = 2 +3 = 13 = 3.6 approx.
2 2
1
z = 2 +3 = 13 = 3.6 approx.
z z 3 4 25 5
1 2
2 2
+ · + · ·
 z
1
 +  z
2
 = 3.6 + 1.41 = 5.01
∴  z
1
+ z
2
 <  z
1
 +  z
2

1.7.2 Subtraction of the Complex Numbers
Let two complex numbers z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di be represented by the points (a, b)
and (c, d) respectively.
∴ ( z
1
) – ( z
2
) = (a + bi) – (c + di)
= (a – c) + (b – d)i
which represents a point (a – c, b – d)
∴ The difference i.e. z
1
– z
2
is represented by the point (a – c, b – d).
Thus, to subtract a complex number from another, we subtract corresponding
real and imaginary parts separately.
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Example 1.19 Find z
1
– z
2
in each of following if:
(a) z
1
= 3 – 4i, z
2
= –3 + 7i
(b) z
1
= – 4 + 7i z
2
= –4 – 5i
Solution: (a) z
1
– z
2
= (3 – 4i) – (–3 + 7i)
= (3 – 4i) + (3 – 7i)
= (3 + 3) + (–4 – 7)i
= 6 + (–11i) = 6 – 11i
(b) z
1
– z
2
= (–4 + 7i) – (–4 – 5i)
= (–4 + 7i) + (4 + 5i)i
= (–4 + 4) + (7 + 5)i
= 0 + 12i = 12i
Examle 1.20 What should be added to i to obtain 5?
Solution: Let z = a + bi be added to i to obtain 5 + 4i
∴ i + (a + bi) = 5 + 4i
or, a + (b + 1)i = 5 + 4i
Equating real and imaginary parts, we have
a =5 and b + 1 = 4 or b = 3
∴ z = 5 +3i is to be added to i to obtain 5 + 4i
1.8 PROPERTIES: WITH RESPECT TO ADDITION OF
COMPLEX NUMBERS.
1. Closure : The sum of two complex numbers will always be a complex number.
Let z
1
= a
1
+ b
1
i and z
2
= a
2
+ b
2
i, a
1
, b
1
, a
2
, b
2
∈R.
Now, z
1
+ z
2
= (a
1
+ a
2
) + (b
1
+ b
2
)i which is again a complex nu mber.
This proves the closure property of complex numbers.
Thus, (1 + i) + (2 + 3i) = (1 + 2) + (1 + 3)i = 3 + 4i, which is again a complex number.
Similarly, the difference of two complex numbers will always be a complex number. For
example, (2 + 4i) – (1 – 4i) = (2 – 1) + {4 – (–4)}i = 1 + 8i, which is again a complex
number.
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2. Commutative : If z
1
and z
2
are two complex n umbers then
z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
Let z
1
= a
1
+ b
1
i and z
2
= a
2
+ b
2
i
Now z
1
+ z
2
= (a
1
+ b
1
i) + (a
2
+ b
2
i)
= (a
1
+ a
2
) + (b
1
+ b
2
)i
= (a
2
+ a
1
) + (b
2
+ b
1
)i [commutative property of real numbers]
= (a
2
+ b
2
i) + (a
2
+ b
1
i)
= z
2
+ z
1
i.e. z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
2
Hence, addition of complex numbers is commutative.
For example, if z
1
= 8 + 7i and z
2
= 9 – 3i then
z
1
+ z
2
= (8 + 7i) + (9 – 3i) and z
2
+ z
1
= (9 – 3i) + (8 + 7i)
= (8 + 9) + (7 – 3)i and = (9 + 8) + (–3 + 7)i
or z
1
+ z
2
= 17 + 4i and z
2
+ z
1
= 17 + 4i
We get, z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
Now, z
1
– z
2
= (a
1
+ b
1
i) – (a
2
+ a
2
i)
= (a
1
– a
2
) + (b
1
– b
2
)i
and z
2
– z
1
= (a
2
+ b
2
i) – (a
1
+ b
1
i)
= (a
2
– a
1
) + (b
2
– b
1
)i
= – (a
1
– a
2
) – (b
1
– b
2
)i
=
_
(a
1
+ b
1
i) + (a
2
+ b
2
i)
∴ z
1
– z
2
≠ z
2
–z
1
Hence, s ubtraction of complex numbers is not commutative.
For example, if z
1
= 8+7i and z
2
= 9–3i then
z
1
– z
2
= (8 + 7i) – (9 – 3i) and z
2
– z
1
= (9 – 3i) – (8 + 7i)
= (8 – 9)+ (7 + 3)i and = (9 – 8) + (–3 – 7)i
or z
1
– z
2
= –1 + 10i and z
2
– z
1
= 1 – 10i
z
1
– z
2
≠ z
2
– z
1
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3. Associative
If z
1
= a
1
+ b
1
i, z
2
= a
2
+ b
2
i and z
3
= a
3
+ b
3
i are three complex numbers, then
z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
) = (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
Now z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
)
= (a
1
+ b
1
i) + {(a
2
+ b
2
i) + (a
3
+ b
3
i)}
= (a
1
+ b
1
i) + {(a
2
+ a
3
) + (b
2
+ b
3
)i}
= {a
1
+(a
2
+ a
3
)} + {b
1
+(b
2
+ b
3
)}i
= {(a
1
+ a
2
) + (b
1
+ b
2
)i} + (a
3
+ b
3
i)
= {(a
1
+ b
1
i) + (a
2
+ b
2
i)} + (a
3
+ b
3
i)
= (z
1
+ z
2
ì +z
3
Hence, the associativity property holds good in the case of addition of complex numbers.
For example, if z
1
= 2 + 3i, z
2
= 3i and z
3
= 1 – 2i, then
z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
) = (2 + 3i) + {(3i) + (1 – 2i)}
= (2 + 3i) + (1 + i)
= (3 + 4i)
and (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
= {(2 + 3i) + (3i)} + (1 – 2i)
= (2 + 6i) + (1 – 2i)
= (3 + 4i)
Thus, z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
) = (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
The equality of two sums is the consequence of the associative property of addition of complex
numbers.
Like commutativity, it can be shown that associativity also does not hold good in the case of
subtraction.
4. Existence of Additive Identitiy
If x + yi be a complex number, then there exists a complex number (0 + 0i)
such that (x + yi) + (0 + 0i) = x + yi.
Let z
2
= x + yi be the additive identity of z
1
= 2 + 3i then
z
1
+ z
2
= z
1
i.e. (2 + 3i) + (x + yi) = 2 + 3i
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or (2 + x) + (3 + y)i = 2 + 3i
or (2 + x) = 2 and 3 + y = 3
or x = 0 and y = 0
i.e. z
2
= x + yi = 0 + 0i is the additive identity.
i.e. if z = a + bi is any complex number, then
(a + bi) + (0 + 0i) = a + bi
i.e. (0 + 0i) is the additive identity.
z
1
– z
2
= (2 + 3i) – (0 + 0i)
= (2 – 0) + (3 – 0)i
= 2 + 3i = z
1
∴ z
2
= 0 + 0i is the identity w.r.t. subtraction also.
as (a + bi) – (0 + 0i) = a + bi
5. Existence of Additive Inverse
For every complex number a + bi there exists a unique complex number –a – bi such that
(a + bi) + (–a – bi) = 0 + 0i
e.g. Let z
1
= 4 + 5i and z
2
= x + yi be the additive inverse of z
1
Then, z
1
+ z
2
= 0
or (4 + 5i) + (x + yi) = 0 + 0i
or (4 + x) + (5 + y)i = 0 + 0i
or 4 + x = 0 and 5 + y = 0
or x = –4 and y = –5
Thus, z
2
= –4 –5i is the additive invese of z
1
= 4 + 5i
In general, additive inverse of a complex number is obtained by changing the signs of real and
imaginary parts.
Consider z
1
– z
2
= 0
or (4 + 5i) – (x + yi) = 0 + 0i
or (4 – x) + (5 – y)i = 0 + 0i
or 4 – x = 0 and 5 – y = 0
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or x = 4 and y = 5
i.e. z
1
– z
2
= 0 gives z
2
= 4 + 5i
Thus, in subtraction, the number itself is the inverse.
i.e. (a + bi) – (a + bi) = 0 + 0i or 0
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3
1. Simplify:
(a)
2 5 5 2 + + − i i
e j e j
(b)
2
3
2
6
+
+
− i i
(c) (1 + i) – (1 – 6i) (d)
, ì
, ì 2 3 2 7 i i − − − −
2. If z
1
= (5 + i) and z
2
= (6 + 2i), then:
(a) find z
1
+ z
2
(b) find z
2
+ z
1
(c) Is z
1
+ z
2
= z
2
+ z
1
?
(d) find z
1
– z
2
(e) find z
2
– z
1
(f) Is z
1
– z
2
= z
2
– z
1
?
3. If z
1
= (1 + i), z
2
= (1 – i) and z
3
= (2 + 3i), then:
(a) find z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
) (b) find (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
(c) Is z
1
+ (z
2
+ z
3
) = (z
1
+ z
2
) + z
3
? (d) find z
1
– (z
2
– z
3
)
(e) find (z
1
– z
2
) – z
3
(f) Is z
1
– (z
2
– z
3
) = (z
1
– z
2
) – z
3
?
4. Find the additive inverse of the following:
(a) 12 – 7i (b) 4 – 3i
5. What shoud be added to (–15 + 4i) to obtain (3 –2i)?
6. Show that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 7 5 2 3 7 5 2 + − + · + − + i i i i
o t
1.9 ARGUMENT OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
Let P(a, b) represent the complex number z = a + bi, a∈ R, b∈ R, and OP makes an angle
θ with the positive direction of xaxis.
Draw PM ⊥ OX
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Let OP = r
In right ∆ OMP
OM = a
MP = b
∴ r cos θ = a
r sin θ = b
Then z = a + bi can be written as z = r (cosθ + i sinθ) ...(i)
where r =
a b
2 2
+
and tanθ ·
b
a
or
θ ·
F
H
G
I
K
J
−
tan
1
b
a
This is known as the polar form of the complex number z, and r and θ are respectively
called the modulus and argument of the complex number.
1.10 MULTIPLICATION OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
Two complex numbers can be multiplied by the usual laws of addition and multiplication as is
done in the case of numbers.
Let z
1
= (a + bi) and z
2
= (c + di) then,
z
1
.z
2
= (a + bi).(c + di)
= a (c + di) + bi (c + di)
or = ac + adi + bci + bdi
2
or = (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i. [since i
2
=  1]
If (a + bi) and (c + di) are two complex numbers, their product is defined as the complex
number (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i
Example 1.21 Evaluate:
(i) (1 + 2i)(1 – 3i), (ii)
3 3 + − i i
e je j
(iii) (3 – 2i)
2
Solution:
(i) (1 + 2i) (1 – 3i) = {1 – (–6)} + (–3 + 2)i
= 7 – i
b
r
a
P(a,b)
Y
X X
Y
O
0
M
Fig. 1.11
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(ii)
3 3 + − i i
e je j
= {3 – (–1)} +
, ì
3 3 i − +
= 4 + 0i
(iii) (3 – 2i)
2
= (3 – 2i) (3 – 2i)
= (9 – 4) + (–6 –6)i
= 5 – 12i
1.10.1 Properties of Multiplication
 z
1
.z
2
 =  z
1
 .  z
2

Let z
1
= r
1
(cosθ
1
+ i sinθ
1
) and z
2
= r
2
(cosθ
2
+ isinθ
2
)
∴  z
1
 = r
1
cos sin
2
1
2
1 1
θ θ + · r
Similarly,  z
2
 = r
2
.
Now, z
1
z
2
= r
1
(cosθ
1
+ i sinθ
1
). r
2
(cosθ
2
+ i sinθ
2
)
= r
1
r
2
[(cosθ
1
cosθ
2
– sinθ
1
sinθ
2
) + (cosθ
1
sinθ
2
+ sinθ
1
cosθ
2
)i]
= r
1
r
2
[cos(θ
1
+ θ
2
) + i sin (θ
1
+ θ
2
)]
[Since cos(θ
1
+ θ
2
) = cosθ
1
cosθ
1
– sinθ
1
sinθ
2
and
sin(θ
1
+θ
2
) = sinθ
1
cosθ
2
+ cosθ
1
sinθ
2
]
 .  cos ( ) sin ( ) z z r r r r
1 2 1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2 1 2
· + + + · θ θ θ θ
∴  .   .  z z r r z z
1 2 1 2 1 2
· ·
and argument of z
1
z
2
= θ
1
+ θ
2
= arg (z
1
)+ arg (z
2
)
Example 1.22 Find the modulus of the complex number (1 + i) (4 – 3i)
Solution: Let z = (1 + i) (4 – 3i)
then  z  =  (1 + i) (4 – 3i)
=  (1 + i)  .  (4 – 3i)  (since z
1
z
2
 = z
1
.z
2
 )
But  1 + i  =
1 1 2
2 2
+ ·
 4 – 3i  =
4 3 5
2 2
+ − · ( )
∴ · ·   . z 2 5 5 2
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1.11 DIVISION OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
Division of complex numbers involves multiplying both numerator and denominator
with the conjugate of the denominator. We will explain it through an example.
Let
1
z a bi · + and z
2
= c+di then.
, ì
1
2
0
z a bi
c di
z c di
+
· + ≠
+
a bi
c di
=
(a + bi ) (c  di )
(c di )(c di )
+
+ + −
(multiplying numerator and denominator with the conjugate of the denominator)
, ì , ì
2 2
ac bd bc ad i
c d
+ + −
·
+
Thus,
2 2 2 2
a bi ac bd bc ad
i
c di c d c d
+ + −
· +
+ + +
Example 1.23 Divide 3+i by 4–2i
Solution:
3
4 2
+
−
i
i
=
, ì , ì
, ì , ì
3 4 2
4 2 4 2
i i
i i
+ +
− +
Multiplying numerator and denominator by the conjugate of (4−2i) we get
10 10
20
1 1
2 2
i
i
+
·
· +
Thus,
3
4 2
1
2
1
2
+
−
· +
i
i
i
1.11.1 Properties of Division
z
z
z
z
1
2
1
2
·
 
 
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Proof: z
1
= r
1
(cosθ
1
+ i sinθ
1
)
z
2
= r
2
(cosθ
2
+ i sinθ
2
)
  cos sin z r r
1 1
2
1
2
1 1
· + · θ θ
Similarly,  z
2
 = r
2
and arg(z
1
)= θ
1
and arg(z
2
)= θ
2
Then,
z
z
r i
r i
1
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
·
+
+
(cos sin )
(cos sin )
θ θ
θ θ
, ì , ì
, ì , ì
1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
cos sin cos sin
r i i
r i i
+ −
·
+ −
·
− + +
+
r
r
i i
1
2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2
2
2
2
(cos cos cos sin sin cos sin sin )
(cos sin )
θ θ θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ
, ì , ì
1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2
cos cos sin sin sin cos cos sin
r
i
r
· + + −
¸ ]
· − + −
r
r
cos i si n( )
1
2
1 2 1 2
( ) θ θ θ θ
Thus,
· − + −
z
z
r
r
cos ( ) si n
r
r
1
2
1
2
2
1 2
2 1
2
· θ θ θ θ ·
1 2
( )
∴
Argument of
1 1
1 2
2 2
z r
z r
· · −
Example 1.24 Find the modulus of the complex number
2
3
+
−
i
i
Solution : Let z =
2
3
+
−
i
i
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∴ ·
+
−
  z
i
i
2
3
=
2 i
3 i
+
−
1
1
2 2
sin
z
z
ce
z z
¸ _
·
¸ ,
, ì
2 2
2
2
2 1 5 1
10 2
3 1
+
· · ·
+ −
∴ · z
1
2
1.12 PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLICATION OF TWO
COMPLEX NUMBERS
1. Closure
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di be two complex numbers then their product z
1
z
2
is also
a complex number.
2. Cummutative
If z
1
= a + bi and z
2
= c + di be two complex numbers then z
1
z
2
= z
2
z
1
.
For example, let z
1
= 3 + 4i and z
2
= 1 – i
then z
1
z
2
= (3 + 4i) (1 – i)
= 3(1 – i) + 4i(1 – i)
= 3 – 3i + 4i – 4i
2
= 3 – 3i + 4i – 4(–1)
= 3 + i + 4 = 7 + i
Again, z
2
z
1
= (1 – i) (3 + 4i)
= (3 + 4i) – i(3 + 4i)
= 3 + 4i – 3i – 4i
2
= 3 + i + 4 = 7 + i
∴ z
1
z
2
= z
2
z
1
3. Associativity
If z
1
= (a + bi), z
2
= c + di and z
3
= (e + fi) then
z
1
(z
2
.z
3
) = (z
1
.z
3
).z
3
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
28
Let us verify it with an example :
If z
1
= (1 + i), z
2
= (2 + i) and z
3
= (3 + i) then
z
1
(z
2
.z
3
) = (1 + i){(2 + i) (3 + i)}
= (1 + i) {(6 – 1) + (3 + 2)i}
= (1 + i) (5 + 5i)
= (5 – 5) + (5 + 5)i
= 0 + 10i = 10i
and (z
1
.z
2
)z
3
= {(1 + i)(2 + i)} (3 + i)
= {(2 – 1) + (1 + 2)i} (3 + i)
= (1 + 3i) (3 + i)
= (3 – 3) + (1 + 9)i
= 0 + 10i = 10i
1 2 3 1 2 3
( . ) ( . ) z z z z z z ∴ ·
4. Existence of Multiplicative Identity: For every nonzero complex number z
1
= a + bi
there exists a unique complex number (1 + 0i) such that
(a + bi).(1 + 0i) = (1 + 0i) (a + bi) = a + bi
Let z
1
= x + yi be the multipicative identity of z = a + bi
Then z.z
1
= z.
i.e. (a + bi) (x + yi) = a + bi
or (ax – by) + (ay + bx)i = a + bi
or ax – by = a and ay + bx = b
pr x = 1 and y = 0
i.e. z
1
= x + yi = 1 + 0i is the multiplicative identity.
The complex number 1 + 0i is the identity for multiplication.
Let us verify it with an example:
If z = 2 + 3i then
z.(1 + 0i) = (2 + 3i) (1 + 0i)
= (2 – 0) + (3 + 0)i
= 2 + 3i
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
29
5. Existence of Multiplicative inverse: Multiplicative inverse is a complex number that
when multiplied to a given nonzero complex munber yields one. In other words, for every
nonzero complex number z = a + bi, there exists a unique complex number (x + yi) such that
their product is (1 + 0i).
i.e. (a + bi) (x + yi) = 1 + 0i
or (ax – by) + (bx + ay)i = 1 + 0i
Equating real and imaging parts, we have
ax – by = 1 and bx + ay = 0
By cross multiplication
x
a
y
b
1
a b
2 2
·
−
·
+
, ì
2 2 2
Re z
a
x
a b
z
⇒ · ·
+
and
, ì
2 2 2
Im z
b
y
a b
z
−
· · −
+
Thus, the multiplicative inverse of a nonzero compelx number z = (a + bi) is
2 2 2
Re( ) Im( ) z z z
x yi i
z z z
¸ _
+ · − ·
¸ ,
Example 1. 25 Find the multiplication inverse of 2−4i.
Solution: Let
2 4 z i · −
We have, z 2 4i and z 2 ( 4) 20
2
2 2
= + = +  =
∴ Required multiplicative inverse is
z
z
2 + 4i
20
=
1
10
1
5
i
2
· +
Verification:
If
1
10
1
5
i be the muliplicative inverse of 2  4i, there product must be equal to 1+0i +
We have,
, ì
1 1 2 4 2 4
2 4
10 5 10 5 5 10
i i i
¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _
− + · + + +
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
= 1 + 0i which is true.
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
30
6. Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition
Let z
1
= a
1
+ b
1
i, z
2
= a
2
+ b
2
i and z
3
= a
3
+ b
3
i
Then z
1
(z
2
+ z
3
) = z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
3
Let us verify it with an example:
If z
1
= 3 – 2i, z
2
= – 1 + 4i and z
3
= –3 – i then
z
1
(z
2
+ z
3
) = (3 – 2i){(–1 + 4i) + (–3 – i)}
= (3 – 2i) (–1 + 4i – 3 – i)
= (3 – 2i) (–4 + 3i)
= (–12 + 6) + (9 + 8)i
= –6 + 17i
and z
1
z
2
= (3 – 2i)(–1 +4i)
= (–3 + 8) + (12 + 2)i
= 5 + 14i
Again z
1
z
3
= (3 – 2i) (–3 – i)
= (–9 – 2) + (– 3 + 6)i
= – 11 + 3i
Now z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
3
= (5 + 14i) + (– 11 + 3i)
= – 6 + 17i
∴ z
1
(z
2
+ z
3
) = z
1
z
2
+ z
1
z
3
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4
1. Simplify each of the following:
(a)
(1 2i )( 2 i ) + −
(b)
( ) 2
2
+ i
(c) (3 + i)(1 – i)(–1 + i) (d) (2 + 3i) ÷ (1 –2i)
(e) (1 + 2i) ÷ (1 + i) (f) (1 + 0i) ÷ (3 + 7i)
2. Compute multiplicative inverse of each of the following complex numbers:
(a) 3 – 4i (b) 3 7
3 5
2 3
+
+
−
i c
i
i
( )
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
31
3. If z
1
= 4 + 3i, z
2
= 3 –2i and z
3
= i + 5, verify that z
1
(z
2
+ z
3
) = z
1
z
2
+ z
2
z
3
.
4. If z
1
= 2 + i, z
2
= –2 + i and z
3
= 2 – i then verify that (z
1
.z
2
)z
3
= z
1
(z
2
.z
3
)
LET US SUM UP
•
z = a + bi is a complex number in the standard form where a,b∈ R and i =
−1
.
•
Any higher powers of 'i' can be expressed in terms of one of the four value i, –1, –i, 1.
•
Conjugate of a complex number z = a + bi is a – bi and is denoted by
z
.
•
Modulus of a complex number z = a + bi is
a b b
2 2 2
+ + i.e.  z=a + bi= a
2
(a)  z  = 0 ⇔ z = 0 (b)  z  = 
z
 (c) z z < z z
1 2 1 2
+ +
•
z = r (cosθ + i sinθ) represents the polar form of a complex number z = a + bi where
r =
a b
2 2
+
is modulus and θ ·
F
H
G
I
K
J
−
tan
1
b
a
is its argument.
•
Multiplicative inverse of a complex number z = a + bi is
z
z  
2
SUPPORTIVE WEB SITES
http://www.wikipedia.org
http://mathworld.wolfram.com
1. Find real and imaginary parts of each of the following:
(a) 2 + 7i (b) 3 + 0i (c) −
1
2
(d) 5i (e)
1
2 3 + i
TERMINAL EXERCISE
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
32
2. Simplify each of the following:
(a)
− − − − 3 27 4 72 . ( ) b –3
(b)
− − − − 3 27 4 72 . ( ) b –3
(c) 3i
15
– 5i
8
+ 1
3. Form complex number whose real and imaginary parts are given in the form of ordered
pairs.
(a) z(3, –5) (b) z(0 , –4) (c) z(8, π)
4. Find the conjugate of each of the following:
(a) 1 – 2i (b) – 1 – 2i (c) 6 – 2i
(d) 4i (e) – 4i
5. Find the modulus of each of the following:
(a) 1– i (b) 3 + πi (c) − − +
3
2
2 3 i d i ( )
6. Express 7i
17
– 6i
6
+ 3i
3
– 2i
2
+ 1 in the form of a + bi.
7. Find the values of x and y if:
(a) (x – yi) + 7 – 2i = 9 – i
(b) 2x + 3yi = 4 – 9i
(c) x – 3yi = 7 + 9i
8. Simplify each of the following:
(a) (3 + i) – (1 – i) + (–1 + i) (b)
1 2 3
2
7 7 7
i i i
¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _
+ − − + −
¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,
9. Write additive inverse and multiplicative inverse of each of the following:
(a) 3 – 7i (b) 11 – 2i (c)
3 2 + i
(d)
1 2 − i
(e)
1 5
1
i
i
+
−
10. Find the modulus of each of the following complex numbers:
(a)
1
3
5 2
2 3
+
−
+
+
i
i
b
i
i
( )
(c) (3 + 2i) (1 – i) (d) (1 –3i) (– 2i
3
+ i
2
+ 3)
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
33
11. For the following pairs of complex numbers verify that  z
1
z
2
 =  z
2
  z
1

(a) z
1
= 3 – 2i, z
2
= 1 –5i
(b) z
1
= 3 –
7i
, z
2
=
3 − i
12. For the following pairs of complex numbers verify that
z
z
z
z
1
2
1
2
·
 
 
(a) z
1
= 1 + 3i, z
2
= 2 + 5i
(b) z
1
= – 2 + 5i, z
2
= 3 – 4i
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
34
ANSWERS
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1
1 (a)
3 3i
(b) –3i (c)
13i
2. (a) 5 + 0i (b) 0 –3i (c) 0 + 0i
3. 12 –4i
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.2
1 (a) 2i (b) – 5 + 3i (c)
− 2
(d) 3 + 4i
2. (a)
(b)
y
y'
O
x
(0, 0)
(–3, 0)
x'
(2, 0) (3, 0)
y
y'
(0, 4)
(0, 2)
(0, –3)
(0, –5)
O
x
x'
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
35
(c)
(d)
y
x x'
y'
(2,5)
(5,2)
(–4,3)
(–7,2)
(–9,–2)
(–2,–9)
(3,–4)
(2,–7)
y
x x'
y'
(6, 5)
(1, 1)
(–6,–5)
(–1, –1)
(3,–4)
(4, –1)
(
_
3, 4)
(–4, 1)
o
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
36
(e)
3. (a) (i) 3 (i i ) 10 (i i i ) 13 (i v) 21
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.3
1. (a) 2 5 5 2 6 + + − +
e j e j
i b i ( ) ( )
1
6
(b) 2 5 5 2 6 + + − +
e j e j
i b i ( ) ( )
1
6
(c) 7i (d)
, ì
2 2 1 (7 3) + + −
2. (a) 11 + 3i (b) 11 + 3i (c) Yes
(d) –1 – i (e) 1 + i (f) No
3. (a) 4 + 3i (b) 4 + 3i (c) Yes
(d) 2 + 5i (e) – 2 – i (f) No.
4. (a) –12 + 7i (b) –4 + 3i
5. 18 – 6i
y
x'
y'
(6,7)
(1,1)
(–3,4)
(–5,1)
(–5,–1)
(–3,–4)
(6,–7)
(1,–1)
0
x
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
37
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.4
1. (a)
2 2 2 2 1 + + −
e j e j
i
(b)
1 2 2 + i
(c) –2 + 6i
(d)
1
5
4 7 ( ) − + i
(e)
1
2
3 ( ) + i
(f)
1
58
3 7 ( ) − i
2. (a)
1
25
3 4 + i b g (b)
1
52
3 7 ( ) − i (c)
1
34
9 19 − − i b g
TERMINAL EXERCISE
1. (a) 2, 7
(b) 3, 0
(c)
−
1
2
, 0
(d) 0, 5
(e)
2
13
,
3
13
−
2. (a) –9
(b)
−12 6i
(c) –4 – 3i
3. (a) 3 – 5i
(b) 0 – 4i
(c) 8 + πi
4. (a) 1 + 2i
(b) –1 + 2i
(c)
6 2 + i
(d) –4i
(e) 4i
MATHEMATI CS
Notes
MODULE  I
Al gebra
Complex Numbers Complex Numbers
38
5. (a)
2
(b)
9
2
+ π
(c)
3
2
(d)
7
6. 9 + 4i
7. (a) x = 2, y = –1
(b) x = 2, y = –3
(c) x = 7, y = – 3
8. (a) 1 + 3i
(b)
2
7
+ 0i
9. (a) –3 + 7i,
1
58
3 7 ( ) + i
(b) − + − + 11 2 11 2 i i , ( )
1
125
(c) , ì
1
3 2 , 3 2
7
i i − − −
(d) − + + 1 2 1 2 i i ,
1
3
( )
(e) , ì
1
2 3 , 2 3
13
i i − +
10. (a)
1
5
1
5
145 26 4 5 ( ) ( ) ( ) b c d
Complex Numbers
MODULE  I Algebra
• represent a complex number in the polar form; • perform algebraic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) on complex numbers; • state and use the properties of algebraic operations ( closure, commutativity, associativity, identity, inverse and distributivity) of complex numbers; and
Notes
• state and use the following properties of complex numbers in solving problems:
(i) (ii)
 z = 0 ⇔ z = 0 and z1 = z 2 ⇒ z1  = z 2 
z = −z = z (iii)
 z1 + z 2 ≤ z1  +  z 2 
z1 z1 = ( z2 ≠ 0) z2 z2
(iv)
z1 . z2 = z1 . z2
(v)
EXPECTED BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
• Properties of real numbers. • Solution of linear and quadratic equations • Representation of a real number on the number line • Representation of point in a plane.
1.1 COMPLEX NUMBERS
Consider the equation x2 + 1 = 0. This can be written as or x 2 = –1
x = + −1
...(A)
But there is no real numbers which satisfy x2 = –1.In other words, we can say that there is no real numbers whose square is − 1.In order to solve such equations, let us imagine that there exist a number 'i' which equal to − 1 . In 1748, a great mathematician, L. Euler named a number 'i' as Iota whose square is − 1. This Iota or 'i' is defined as imaginary unit. With the introduction of the new symbol 'i', we can interpret the square root of a negative number as a product of a real number with i. Therefore, we can denote the solution of (A) as x = ± i Thus, –4 = 4(–1)
∴
−4 = ( −1)(4) = i 2 .2 2 = 2i
Conventionally written as 2i. So, we have −4 = 2i, −7 = 7i
2
MATHEMATICS
Complex Numbers
−4 ,
−7 are all examples of complex numbers.
Consider another quadratic equation: x 2 –6x + 13 = 0 This can be solved as under: (x –3)2 + 4 = 0 or, or, or, (x –3)2 = –4 x – 3 = ± 2i x = 3 ± 2i
MODULE  I Algebra
Notes
We get numbers of the form x + yi where x and y are real numbers and i =
−1 .
Any number which can be expressed in the form a + bi where a,b are real numbers and i = −1 , is called a complex number. . A complex number is, generally, denoted by the leter z. i.e. z = a + bi, 'a' is called the real part of z and is written as Re (a+bi) and 'b' is called the imaginary part of z and is written as Imag (a + bi). If a = 0 and b ≠ 0, then the complex number becomes bi which is a purely imaginary complex number. 1 –7i, i , 3i and πi are all examples of purely imaginary numbers. 2 If a ≠ 0 and b = 0 then the complex number becomes 'a' which is a real number. . 5, 2.5 and
7 are all examples of real numbers.
If a = 0 and b = 0, then the complex number becomes 0 (zero). Hence the real numbers are particular cases of complex numbers. Example 1.1 Simplify each of the following using 'i'. (i) Solution:
− 36
(i) (ii)
(ii)
25. −4
− = 36
36( −1) = 6i
25. −4 = 5 × 2i = 10i
1.2 POSITIVE INTEGRAL POWERS OF i
We know that i2 = –1 i3 = i2.i = –1.i = –i i4 = (i2)2 = (–1)2 = 1
MATHEMATICS
3
If fact
−a × −b
= i a × i b = i2 = − ab
ab
where a and b are positive real numbers. Thus. –i.i = i i6 = (i2)3 = (–1)3 = –1 i7 = (i2)3(i) = –i i8 = (i2)4 =1
Notes
Thus. a × b = ab is true only when atleast one of a and b is either 0 or positive. then to find in . Then n = 4m + r.2 Find the value of 1 + i10 + i20 + i30 Solution: 1 + i10 + i20 + i30 = 1 + (i2)5 + (i2)10 + (i2)15 = 1 + (–1)5 + (–1)10 + (–1)15 = 1 + (–1) + 1 + (–1) = 1 – 1 + 1 –1 = 0 Thus.
Example 1. we find that any higher powers of 'i' can be expressed in terms of one of four values i.
4
MATHEMATICS
.Complex Numbers
MODULE .i = 1. in = i(4m+r) = i4m. where 0 ≤ r < 4.ir = ir ( i4=1) Note : For any two real numbers a and b. Let m be the quotient and r be the remainder. we first divide n by 4.I Algebra
i5 = (i2)2. 1 If n is a positive integer such that n>4. –1. 1 + i10 + i20 + i30 = 0.ir = (i4)m.
1.i = 8(–1).i = –8i + 6 + 12i = 6 + 4i which is of the form of a + bi where 'a' is 6 and 'b' is 4. or. or.i + 6(i2)8 – 12(i2)5.
Simplify 10i3 + 6i13 –12i10 Show that im + im+1 + im+2 + im+3 = 0 for all m ∈ N .i + 6(–1)8 – 12(–1)5.i = –8i + 6 – 12(–1). x = 3 ± 4i . Consider another equation: x 2 + 2x + 2 = 0 or. (i)
The roots of the above equation (i) are 3 + 4i and 3 – 4i.. or.. (x + 1)2 +1 = 0 (x + 1)2 = – 1 (x + 1) = ± x=–1±i 5 . (ii)
−1 = ± i
MATHEMATICS
...Complex Numbers Example 1.( −1) .
Notes
MODULE .1
1.3 Express 8i3 + 6i16 – 12i11 in the form of a + bi Solution: 8i3 + 6i16 – 12i11 can be written as 8(i2).
−27 (b ) − − 9 (c) −13
Express each of the following in the form of a + bi (a) 5 (b) –3i (c) 0
3.3 CONJUGATE OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
Consider the equation: x 2 – 6x + 25 = 0 or. (x – 3)2 + 16 = 0 (x – 3)2 = – 16 (x – 3) = ± −16 = ± 16. Simplify each of the following using 'i'.I Algebra
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. or. or. 4. or. (a) 2.
3. Thus. Note : The conjugate of a complex number is obtained by changing the sing of the imaginary part. Following are some examples of complex conjugates: (i) (ii) (iii) If z = 2 + 3i.1 PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX CONJUGATES
(i) If z is a real number then z = z i. let z = 5 This can be written as z = 5 + 0i ∴ ∴ (ii) z = 5 – 0i = 5 z = 5 = z. If z = 1–i.I Algebra
The roots of the equation (ii) are –1+i and –1–i. the conjugate of a real number is the number itself.
Notes
The complex conjugate (or simply conjugate) of a complex number z = a + bi is defined as the complex number a – bi and is denoted by z . Such roots are known as conjugate roots and read as a + bi is conjugate to a – bi and viceversa.
For example. if z = a + bi then z = a – bi. Do you find any similarity in the roots of (i) and (ii)? The equations (i) and (ii) have roots of the type a + bi and a – bi.
6
MATHEMATICS
.e.. then z = 2 – 3i then z = 1 + i then z = –2–10i
1. if z = 3i This can be written as z = 0 + 3i
∴ ∴
z = 0 – 3i = –3i = – z z = – z.
If z is a purely imaginary number then z= − z For example. If z = –2 + 10i.Complex Numbers
MODULE .
Conjugate of the conjugate of a complex number is the number itself.
MODULE .Complex Numbers (iii) i. 3 + 4i is the conjugate of 3 – 4i.. (ii) Let z = 2i or 0 + 2i then
z = 0 + 2i
d
= 0 – 2i
Hence.I Algebra
(z ) = z
For example.e. z = (2 + i)2 z = (2)2 + (i)2 + 2(2)(i) = 4 – 1 + 4i = 3 + 4i Then z = 3 + 4i = 3 – 4i Hence. (iii) Let i.e.4 Find the conjugate of each of the following complex number: (i) (iii) 3 – 4i (2 + i)2 (ii) (iv) 2i
i +1 2
Solution : (i) Let z = 3 – 4i then
z = 3 − 4i
d
i i
= 3 + 4i
Hence. if z = a + bi then z = a – bi Again (z) = (a − bi) = a + bi =z ∴ (z) = z
Notes
Example 1. –2i is the conjugate of 2i. 3 – 4i is the conjugate of (2 + i)2 (iv) Let z =
(
)
i +1 1 1 = + i 2 2 2
7
MATHEMATICS
.
Complex Numbers
MODULE . 0) lies on the xaxis.. b) represents the complex number z = 0 + bi.3
y
y A(2.4 GEOMETRICAL REPRESENTATION OF A COMPLEX NUMBER Let z = a + bi be a complex number.. 0). 1. Let P be any point whose coordinates are (a. b) as shown in Fig.2
So.2) x 2 3 4
Fig..I Algebra
then
z=
FG 1 + 1 iIJ = H2 2 K
1 1 − i 2 2
Hence. 2) Clearly.3) B(3. 1. We say that the complex z = a + bi is represented by the point P (a . P(a. The point (0. In the Fig.. yoy' is called the imaginary axis.1
y y
y y
Fig.b)
b
O
x
Fig..2 the point Q (a.. 1.1 xx' If b = 0. 1. 1. If a = 0. 3+2i is represented by the point B (3.. the point R (0.3.5 Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i and 3 + 2i in the same Argand Plane. b).. O being the origin. The plane of two axes representing complex numbers as points is x' x called the complex plane or Argand Plane...b)
O
x
Fig.... then z is purely imaginary and the point representing complex number z = 0 + bi is denoted by (0. The diagram which represents complex number in the Argand Plane is called Argand Diagram. Let two mutually perpendicular lines xox' and yoy' be taken as xaxis and yaxis respectively.. 2+3i is represented by the point A (2.3) 2.. In Fig.b). So.4
y'
8
MATHEMATICS
. b) lies on the yaxis. Solution : 1.
xx'
a O Q(a.0) x
y
....1.. Example 1. the points A and B are different
x' O 1 4 3 2 1
R(0. 0) represent the complex number z = a + 0i.
Notes
1 i −i +1 i +1 − or is the conjugate of 2 2 2 2
1. xox' is called the real axis. 1.. This point (a.. then z is real and the point representing complex number z = a + 0i is denoted by (a.
3)
R(2. –2–3i.I Algebra
P(2. 3) –2–3i is represented by the point Q (–2. 2 + 3i is represented b the point R(2.3)
x'
O
x
1 2 3 4
–1
S (2. Let OM = a and MP = b. b) be a point in the plane representing a + bi. 1. 2. We have to find the distance of P from the origin.7 Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i and 2 –3i in the same Argand Plan Solution: 1. 2–3i in the same Argand Plane Solution: (a) (b) (c) 2+3i is represented by the poin P (2. –3)
Q(–2. 2 + 3i is represented by the point P (2.
MATHEMATICS
9
.7
1.3)
y'
Fig.6
y 4 3 2 1 x' O –1 x 1 2 3 4 P(2.–3)
x y
4 3 2 1
MODULE . 1.3)
O
1 2 3
x
Notes
Q( 2.5 MODULUS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
We have learnt that any complex number z = a + bi can be represented by a point in the Argand Plane. 3) 2. Solution: 1.–3)
4 3 2 1
y
R (2. Draw perpendiculars PM and PL on xaxis and yaxis respectively. 2 –3i is represtned by the point S(2. 1.Complex Numbers Example1. –3) Example1.6 Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i and –2 –3i in the same Argand Plane.–3) y' Fig. How can we find the distance of the point from the origin? Let P(a.5
Points P and Q are different and lie in the I quadrant and III quadrant respectively.8 Represent complex numbers 2 + 3i.–3) 2–3i is represented by the point R (2. 3 ) y
Fig. Example1. 3) –2 –3i is represented by the point Q (–2.
1. z = a − bi
∴
 z = a 2 + ( − b 2 ) = a 2 + b 2
.I Algebra
y
∴ OP = OM 2 + MP 2 = a 2 + b2
L
b
P(a. a∈R.8
a 2 + b2
Properties of Modulus  z  = 0 ⇔ z = 0.1 (a)  z  =  a + ib  =
x' O a M
x
y'
Fig. a∈R ..5.
Proof : Let z = a + bi. ∴ Modulus of any complex number z such that z = a + bi. b∈R then z =
a 2 + b2
 z = 0 ⇔ a 2 + b 2 = 0
⇔ ⇔ (b) a = 0 and b = 0 (since a2 and b2 both are positive) z=0
 z = z
Proof : Let z = a + bi then z=
a 2 + b2
Now.b)
Notes
OP is called the modulus or absolute value of the complex number a + bi.  z  = a 2 + b 2 = z (c)  z  =  –z 
Proof : Let z = a + bi then  z  =
a 2 + b2
10
MATHEMATICS
. b∈R is denoted by  z  and is given by a 2 + b 2 ∴ 1..Complex Numbers
MODULE .(i)
Thus.
 z  =
( − a ) 2 + ( − b) 2
MODULE .10 Find the modulus of z and – z if z = 5 + 2i Solution: z = 5 + 2i.
z = –4 – 3i
z = (−4)2 + ( −3)2 = 16 + 9 = 25 = 5
Thus.I Algebra
a 2 + b2
.. then – z = –5 – 2i
z = 52 + 22 = 29 and − z = (−5)2 + (−2)2 = 29
Thus.9 Find the modulus of z and z if z = –4 + 3i Solution : z = –4 + 3i. then  z  =
( −4) 2 + (3) 2
.  z  =
29 =− z
Example 1.Complex Numbers – z = – a – bi then  –z  = = Thus.. we consider the following examples: Example 1.(ii)
Notes
a 2 + b 2 =  –z 
By (i) and (ii) it can be proved that z=–z=  z  Now..
MATHEMATICS
 z = (1) 2 + ( −2) 2 = 5
 z  = − z  = 5 = z 
11
.(iii)
= 16 + 9 = 25 = 5 and then..  z  = 5 =  z  Example 1. –z and z where z = 1 + 2i Solution : z = 1 + 2i then –z = –1–2i and z = 1 –2i
 z = 12 + 2 2 = 5
− z = ( −1) 2 + ( −2) 2 = 5
and Thus.11 Find the modulus of z.
Complex Numbers
MODULE .12 Find the modulus of : (i) 1 + i (ii) 2π (iii) 0 (iv)
1 i 2
Solution: (i) Let z = 1 + i
Notes
then Thus.13 Find the absolute value of the conjugate of the complex number z = –2 + 3i
12
MATHEMATICS
.I Algebra
Example 1. Example1. 2 2
If z is purely imaginary number.  z  = 0 If z is 0 then  z  = 0 (iv) Let z = − i or 0 –
1 2
1 i 2
2
then
z = 0
2
F 1I + G− J H 2K
=
1 2
Thus. (ii)
z =
12 + 12 = 2
 1 + i = 2
Let z = 2π or 2π + 0i Then
 z  = (2 π) 2 + (0) 2 = 2 π
Thus. then z ≠  z  .  2π  = 2π.
1 1 − i = . If z is real then  z  = z (iii) z = 0 or 0 + 0i then
 z  = (0) 2 + (0) 2 = 0
Thus.
1. –3) represents the complex number z = –1 – 3i
∴ or
(iv)
 z  = ( −1) 2 + ( −3) 2 = 1 + 9  z  = 10
S(3. –3) represents the complex number z = 3 –3i
∴ or
 z  = ( 3) 2 + ( −3) 2 = 9 + 9  z  = 18 = 3 2
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 3) represents the complex number z = 4 + 3i
x'
− −3 − O 4 − 2 1
1 2 3 4 S(3.14 Find the modulus of the complex numbers shown in an Argand Plane (Fig.2)
Notes
Example 1.9
(ii) Q(–4.Complex Numbers Solution : Let z = –2 + 3i then z = –2 – 3i Absolute value of z =  z  =  –2 – 3i  =
MODULE .I Algebra
( −2) 2 + ( −3) 2 = 4 + 9 = 13
y P(4.3) Q(–4. (b) –5 –3i (c) − 2 (d) (–2 + i)2
Represent the following complex numbers on Argand Plane : (a) (i) 2 + 0i (ii) –3 + 0i (iii) 0 – 0i (iv) 3 – 0i
MATHEMATICS
13
.9) Solution: (i) P(4.–3) y'
Fig. 2) represents the complex number z = –4 + 2i
∴ or z = ( −4 ) 2 + 2 2 = z =2 5 16 + 4 = 20
(iii)
R(–1.2
1.–3)
x
∴ or
 z  = 4 2 + 32 = 25  z = 5
R(–1. 1. Find the conjugate of each of the following: (a) –2i 2.
(a) Find the modulus of following complex numbers : (i) (b) (i) (c) (i) (d) (i) 3 (ii) (i + 1)(2 – i) (iii) 2 – 3i (iv)
4 + 5i
For the following complex numbers.6 EQUALITY OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
Let us consider two complex numbers z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di such that z1 = z2 we have a + bi = c + di or (a – c) + (b – d)i = 0 = 0 + 0i
Comparing real and imaginary parts on both sides. we have a – c = 0. verify that  z  =  – z  14 + i (ii) 11 – 2i
For the following complex numbers.1. verify that  z  =  z  – 6 + 8i (ii) –3 –7i
For the following complex numbers.Complex Numbers
MODULE . we can conclude that two complex numbers are equal if and only if their real parts and imaginary parts are respectivley equal. or a = c ⇒ and ⇒ real part of z1= real part of z2 b–d=0 or b = d
imaginary part of z1 = imaginary part of z2
Therefore.
14
MATHEMATICS
. verify that  z  =  – z  =  z  2 – 3i (ii) –6 – i (iii) 7 – 2i
.I Algebra
(b) (c)
(i) 0 + 2i (i) (iii)
(ii) 0 – 3i
(iii) 4i
(iv) –5i
2 + 5i and 5 + 2i –7 + 2i and 2 –7i 1 + i and –1 – i –3 + 4i and 3 –4i 1 + i and 1 – i 6 – 7i and 6 + 7i
(ii) 3 – 4i and –4 + 3i (iv) –2 – 9i and –9 – 2i (ii) (iv) 6 + 5i and –6 – 5i 4 – i and – 4 + i
(d)
Notes
(i) (iii)
(e)
(i) (iii)
(ii) – 3 + 4i and – 3 – 4i (iv) –5 – i and – 5 + i
3. In general a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d.
if z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = –4 + 5i.Complex Numbers Properties: z1 = z2 ⇒  z1  =  z1  Let z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di z1 = z2 gives a = c and b = d Now
MODULE .7 ADDITION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS
If z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di are two complex numbers then their sum z1 + z2 is defined by z1 + z2 = (a + c) + (b + d)i For example.15 For what value of x and y.1.
. Example 1. we have 5x = 10 and 6y = 18 or x = 2 or y = 3
For x = 2 and y = 3. then z1 + z2 = [2 + (–4)] + [3 + 5]i = – 2 + 8i.16 Simplify (i) (ii) (3 + 2i) + (4 –3i) (2 + 5i) + (–3 –7i) + (1 – i)
Solution : (i) (3 + 2i) + (4 – 3i) = (3 + 4) + (2 – 3)i = 7 _ i (ii) (2 + 5i) + (–3 – 7i) + (1 – i) = (2 – 3 + 1) + (5 – 7 – 1) i = 0 – 3i or (2 + 5i) + (–3 – 7i) + (1 – i) = –3i
MATHEMATICS
15
. 5x + 6yi and 10 + 18i are equal? Solution : It is given that 5 x + 6y i = 10 + 18i Comparing real and imaginary parts.I Algebra
z1 = a 2 + b 2
and z 2 = c 2 + d 2
=
Notes
a 2 + b 2 [since a = c and b = d]
⇒
 z1  =  z2
Example 1. the given complex numbers are equal.
10
Y R(a+c. d). R respectvely on Xaxis. In ∆QON and ∆RPK. RL from P. 1. PR and QR.1
Geometrical Represention of Addition of Two Complex Numbers
Let two complex numbers z1 and z2 be represented by the points P(a.Complex Numbers
MODULE .I Algebra
1.d)
K
P(a.
Y'
Fig. OQ. OR.
Notes
Join OP. In ∆ROL RL = b + d and OL = a + c Also PK = ML = OL – OM =a+c–a = c = ON RK = RL – KL = RL – PM =b+d–b = d = QN.
16 MATHEMATICS
. b+d)
In ∆POM PM = b OM = a
Q(c. b + d) in the same Argand Plane. we can say that the sum of two complex numbers is represented by the diagonal of a parallelogram. QN = RK and ∠QNO = ∠RKP = 90o ∴ ∴ ⇒ ∆QON ≅ ∆RPK OQ = PR and OQ  PR OPRQ is a parallelogram and OR its diagonal. Draw perpendiculars PM. ON = PK.7. QN. z1 + z2 is represented by the point R (a + c.b)
X'
O
N
M
L
X
Therefore. Their sum. b) and Q(c. Q. Draw perpendicular PK to RL In ∆QON ON = c and QN = d.
In or or ∆OPR OR< OP + PR OR < OP + OQ (since OQ = PR )  z1 + z2  <  z1  +  z2 
Notes
MODULE . Their sum (z1 + z2) will be represented by the point (2+1. 3+1) i. b) and (c. 3) and (1.e.7. 1.2 Subtraction of the Complex Numbers
Let two complex numbers z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di be represented by the points (a.6 + 1.18 If z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 1 + i. verify that  z1 + z2  <  z1  +  z1  Solution: z1 = 2 + 3i and z2 = 1 + i represented by the points (2.e. to subtract a complex number from another. 1) respectively.
MATHEMATICS
17
. 4) Verification
z1 = 2 2 + 32 = 13 = 3.I Algebra
Example 1. z1– z2 is represented by the point (a – c. Thus. b – d). ∴ ( z1 ) – ( z2 ) = (a + bi) – (c + di) = (a – c) + (b – d)i which represents a point (a – c.Complex Numbers Example 1.41 = 5. (3.17 Prove that  z1 + z2  <  z1  +  z2  Solution: We have proved that the sum of two complex numbers z1 and z2 represented by the diagonal of a parallelogram OPRQ (see fig.01 ∴  z1 + z2  <  z1  +  z2 
1.6 approx.
z1 = 22 + 32 = 13 = 3.6 approx.11). b – d) ∴ The difference i. d) respectively. we subtract corresponding real and imaginary parts separately.
z1 + z 2 = 32 + 4 2 = 25 = 5
 z1  +  z2  = 3.
Now. (2 + 4i) – (1 – 4i) = (2 – 1) + {4 – (–4)}i = 1 + 8i. which is again a complex number. (1 + i) + (2 + 3i) = (1 + 2) + (1 + 3)i = 3 + 4i. b2 ∈R.
18
MATHEMATICS
.19 Find z1 – z2 in each of following if: (a) (b) z1 = 3 – 4i. i + (a + bi) = 5 + 4i a + (b + 1)i = 5 + 4i
Equating real and imaginary parts. which is again a complex number. This proves the closure property of complex numbers. b1.20 What should be added to i to obtain 5? Solution: Let z = a + bi be added to i to obtain 5 + 4i ∴ or.Complex Numbers
MODULE . Similarly. Closure : The sum of two complex numbers will always be a complex number. the difference of two complex numbers will always be a complex number. we have a =5 and b + 1 = 4 or b = 3 ∴ z = 5 +3i is to be added to i to obtain 5 + 4i
1. a1. z1 + z2 = (a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2)i which is again a complex nu mber.I Algebra
Example 1. Thus. For example. Let z1 = a1 + b1i and z2 = a2 + b2i.8 PROPERTIES: WITH RESPECT TO ADDITION OF COMPLEX NUMBERS.
1. a2. z1 = – 4 + 7i z2 = –3 + 7i z2 = –4 – 5i
Solution: (a) z1 – z2 = (3 – 4i) – (–3 + 7i)
Notes
= (3 – 4i) + (3 – 7i) = (3 + 3) + (–4 – 7)i = 6 + (–11i) = 6 – 11i (b) z1 – z2 = (–4 + 7i) – (–4 – 5i) = (–4 + 7i) + (4 + 5i)i = (–4 + 4) + (7 + 5)i = 0 + 12i = 12i Examle 1.
z1 + z2 = 17 + 4i z 1 + z2 = z2 + z1 and and z2 + z1 = (9 – 3i) + (8 + 7i) = (9 + 8) + (–3 + 7)i
and z2 + z1 = 17 + 4i
Now. addition of complex numbers is commutative.e. if z1 = 8+7i and z2 = 9–3i then and and and z2 – z1 = (9 – 3i) – (8 + 7i) = (9 – 8) + (–3 – 7)i z2 – z1 = 1 – 10i
z1 – z2 = (8 + 7i) – (9 – 3i) = (8 – 9)+ (7 + 3)i or z1 – z2 = –1 + 10i z1 – z2 ≠ z2 – z1
MATHEMATICS
19
. For example. z 1 + z2 = z2 + z2 [commutative property of real numbers]
Notes
MODULE . if z1 = 8 + 7i and z2 = 9 – 3i then z1 + z2 = (8 + 7i) + (9 – 3i) = (8 + 9) + (7 – 3)i or We get. s ubtraction of complex numbers is not commutative.I Algebra
Hence. z1 – z2 = (a1 + b1 i) – (a2 + a2 i) = (a1 – a2) + (b1 – b2)i and z2 – z1 = (a2 + b2i) – (a1 + b1i) = (a2 – a1) + (b2 – b1)i = – (a1 – a2) – (b1 – b2)i = _ (a + b i) + (a + b i)
1 1 2 2
∴
z1 – z2 ≠ z2–z1
Hence.Complex Numbers 2. For example. Commutative : If z1 and z2 are two complex n umbers then z 1 + z2 = z2 + z1 Let Now z1 = a1 + b1i and z2 = a2 + b2i z1 + z2 = (a1 + b1i) + (a2 + b2i) = (a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2)i = (a2 + a1) + (b2 + b1)i = (a2 + b2i) + (a2 + b1i) = z2 + z1 i.
4. Let z2 = x + yi be the additive identity of z1 = 2 + 3i then z 1 + z2 = z1 i.I Algebra
3. Associative If z1 = a1 + b1i. z1 + (z2 + z3) = (z1 + z2 ) + z3
The equality of two sums is the consequence of the associative property of addition of complex numbers.Complex Numbers
MODULE . then there exists a complex number (0 + 0i) such that (x + yi) + (0 + 0i) = x + yi. z2 = 3i and z3 = 1 – 2i. For example. z2 = a2 + b 2i and z3 = a3 + b3i are three complex numbers. then
Notes
z1 + (z2 + z3) = (2 + 3i) + {(3i) + (1 – 2i)} = (2 + 3i) + (1 + i) = (3 + 4i) and (z1 + z2) + z3 = {(2 + 3i) + (3i)} + (1 – 2i) = (2 + 6i) + (1 – 2i) = (3 + 4i) Thus.e. it can be shown that associativity also does not hold good in the case of subtraction. then z1 + (z2 + z3) = (z1 + z2) + z3 Now z1 + (z2 + z3) = (a1 + b1i) + {(a2 + b2i) + (a3 + b3i)} = (a1 + b1i) + {(a2 + a3) + (b2 + b3)i} = {a1+(a2 + a3)} + {b1+(b2 + b3)}i = {(a1 + a2) + (b1 + b2)i} + (a3 + b3i) = {(a1 + b1i) + (a2 + b2i)} + (a3 + b3i) = (z1 + z2)+z3 Hence. the associativity property holds good in the case of addition of complex numbers. if z1 = 2 + 3i. Like commutativity. Existence of Additive Identitiy If x + yi be a complex number.
20
(2 + 3i) + (x + yi) = 2 + 3i
MATHEMATICS
.
g. subtraction also.e. Let z1 = 4 + 5i and z2 = x + yi be the additive inverse of z1 Then.e. (2 + x) + (3 + y)i = 2 + 3i (2 + x) = 2 and 3 + y = 3 x = 0 and y = 0 z2 = x + yi = 0 + 0i is the additive identity. z1 – z2 = (2 + 3i) – (0 + 0i) = (2 – 0) + (3 – 0)i = 2 + 3i = z1 ∴ as z2 = 0 + 0i is the identity w.r. z1 + z2 = 0 or or or or (4 + 5i) + (x + yi) = 0 + 0i (4 + x) + (5 + y)i = 0 + 0i 4 + x = 0 and 5 + y = 0 x = –4 and y = –5
Thus. z2 = –4 –5i is the additive invese of z1 = 4 + 5i In general. Existence of Additive Inverse For every complex number a + bi there exists a unique complex number –a – bi such that (a + bi) + (–a – bi) = 0 + 0i e.Complex Numbers or or or i. if z = a + bi is any complex number.I Algebra
5. (a + bi) – (0 + 0i) = a + bi
Notes
MODULE . additive inverse of a complex number is obtained by changing the signs of real and imaginary parts. Consider z1 – z2 = 0 or or or (4 + 5i) – (x + yi) = 0 + 0i (4 – x) + (5 – y)i = 0 + 0i 4 – x = 0 and 5 – y = 0
MATHEMATICS
21
. then (a + bi) + (0 + 0i) = a + bi i.e. (0 + 0i) is the additive identity.t. i.
What shoud be added to (–15 + 4i) to obtain (3 –2i)? Show that (3 + 7i) − (5 + 2i) = (3 + 7i) − (5 + 2i)
o
t
1.
Find the additive inverse of the following: (a) 12 – 7i (b) 4 – 3i
5. in subtraction. Simplify: (a)
e
2 + 5i +
j e
5 − 2i
j
(b)
2+i 2−i + 3 6
(c) 2.I Algebra
or i. Draw PM ⊥ OX
22
MATHEMATICS
.e.
If z1 = (1 + i). and OP makes an angle θ with the positive direction of xaxis.9 ARGUMENT OF A COMPLEX NUMBER
Let P(a. a ∈ R.3
1. 6.e. then: (a) find z1 + z2 (d) find z1 – z2 (b) find z2 + z1 (e) find z2 – z1
(d)
(
2 − 3i − ( −2 − 7i )
)
(c) Is z1 + z2 = z2 + z1? (f) Is z1 – z2 = z2 – z1 ?
3. the number itself is the inverse.
x = 4 and y = 5 z1 – z2 = 0 gives z2 = 4 + 5i
Thus. z2 = (1 – i) and z3 = (2 + 3i). then: (a) find z1 + (z2 + z3) (c) Is z1 + (z2 + z3) = (z1 + z2) + z3? (e) find (z1 – z2) – z3 (b) find (z1 + z2) + z3 (d) find z1 – (z2 – z3) (f) Is z1 – (z2 – z3) = (z1 – z2) – z3?
4. b) represent the complex number z = a + bi.Complex Numbers
MODULE . i.
(1 + i) – (1 – 6i) If z1 = (5 + i) and z2 = (6 + 2i).
Notes
(a + bi) – (a + bi) = 0 + 0i or 0
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. b ∈ R.
.(c + di) = a (c + di) + bi (c + di) or or = ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i. (ii)
e
3+i
je
3−i
j
(iii) (3 – 2i)2
Solution: (i) (1 + 2i) (1 – 3i) = {1 – (–6)} + (–3 + 2)i =7– i
MATHEMATICS
23
.b) r O a
MODULE .z2 = (a + bi). [since i2 = .21 Evaluate: (i) (1 + 2i)(1 – 3i).
1.Complex Numbers Let OP = r In right ∆ OMP OM = a MP = b ∴ r cos θ = a r sin θ = b Then z = a + bi can be written as z = r (cosθ + i sinθ) where r =
Y X
0
Y P(a.11
. Let z1 = (a + bi) and z2 = (c + di) then.. z1.10 MULTIPLICATION OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
Two complex numbers can be multiplied by the usual laws of addition and multiplication as is done in the case of numbers.1]
If (a + bi) and (c + di) are two complex numbers. and r and θ are respectively called the modulus and argument of the complex number. 1.(i)
a 2 + b 2 and
tanθ =
or
θ = tan −1
FG b IJ H aK
b a
This is known as the polar form of the complex number z. their product is defined as the complex number (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i Example 1.I Algebra
b M X
Notes
Fig.
5 = 5 2
MATHEMATICS
.
 z2  = r2. z 2  = r1 r2 cos2 (θ1 + θ 2 ) + sin 2 (θ1 + θ 2 ) = r1 r2
∴
 z1 .22 Find the modulus of the complex number (1 + i) (4 – 3i) Solution: Let z = (1 + i) (4 – 3i) then  z  =  (1 + i) (4 – 3i) =  (1 + i)  .10. z1 z2 = r1(cosθ1 + i sinθ1). r2(cosθ2 + i sinθ2)
= r1r2 [(cosθ1cosθ2 – sinθ1 sinθ2) + (cosθ1sinθ2 + sinθ1cosθ2 )i] = r1r2[cos(θ1 + θ2) + i sin (θ1 + θ2)] [Since cos(θ1 + θ2) = cosθ1cosθ1 – sinθ1sinθ2 and sin(θ1 + θ2) = sinθ1cosθ2 + cosθ1 sinθ2]
 z1 .1 Properties of Multiplication  z1. z 2 
and argument of z1z2 = θ1 + θ2 = arg (z1)+ arg (z2) Example 1. z 2  = r1 r2 = z1 .Complex Numbers
MODULE .  (4 – 3i)  But 1+i=  4 – 3i  = (since z1z2 = z1.z2 )
12 + 12 = 2 4 2 + ( −3) 2 = 5
∴
24
 z  = 2 .I Algebra
(ii)
e
3+i
je
3 − i = {3 – (–1)} + − 3 + 3 i
= 4 + 0i
j
(
)
(iii)
Notes
(3 – 2i)2
= (3 – 2i) (3 – 2i) = (9 – 4) + (–6 –6)i = 5 – 12i
1.z2  =  z1  . Now.  z2  Let z1 = r1(cosθ1 + i sinθ1) and z2 = r2(cosθ2 + isinθ2) ∴  z1  = r1
cos2 θ1 + sin 2 θ1 = r1
Similarly.
MODULE .I Algebra
Notes
z1 a + bi = ( c + di ≠ 0 ) z2 c + di
a + bi = (a + bi) (c .di) c + di (c + di)(c − di) (multiplying numerator and denominator with the conjugate of the denominator) =
( ac + bd ) + ( bc − ad ) i
c2 + d 2
Thus.23 Divide 3+i by 4–2i
Solution:
( 3 + i )( 4 + 2i ) 3+ i = 4 − 2i 4 + 2i )( ) 4 − 2i (
Multiplying numerator and denominator by the conjugate of (4 − 2i) we get
10 + 10i 20 1 1 = + i 2 2 =
Thus. We will explain it through an example.
a + bi ac + bd bc − ad = + i c + di c 2 + d 2 c 2 + d 2
Example 1.Complex Numbers
1.11. Let z1 = a + bi and z2 = c+di then.1 Properties of Division
z1 z  = 1 z2 z2 
MATHEMATICS
25
.
3+ i 1 1 = + i 4 − 2i 2 2
1.11 DIVISION OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
Division of complex numbers involves multiplying both numerator and denominator with the conjugate of the denominator.
z1 r (cos θ 1 + i sin θ 1 ) = 1 z 2 r2 (cos θ 2 + i sin θ 2 )
= r1 ( cos 1 + i sin 1 )( cos 2 − i sin 2 ) r2 ( cos 2 + i sin 2 )( cos 2 − i sin 2 )
=
r1 (cos θ1 cos θ 2 − i cos θ1 sin θ 2 + i sin θ1 cos θ 2 + sin θ1 sin θ 2 ) r2 (cos2 θ 2 + sin 2 θ 2 )
r1 ( cos 1 cos 2 + sin 1 sin 2 ) + i ( sin 1 cos 2 − cos 1 sin 2 ) r2
=
=
r1 cos(θ1 − θ 2 ) + isin(θ1 − θ 2 ) r2
z1 r = 1 z2 r2 cos 2 (θ1 − θ 2 ) + sin 2 (θ1 − θ 2 ) = r1 r2
Thus.24 Find the modulus of the complex number
2+i 3−i
Solution : Let z =
2+i 3−i
26
MATHEMATICS
. and
 z2  = r2
arg(z1)= θ1 and arg(z2)= θ2
Then.I Algebra
Proof: z1 = r1(cosθ1 + i sinθ1) z2 = r2(cosθ2 + i sinθ2)
 z 1  = r1 cos 2 θ 1 + sin 2 θ 1 = r1
Notes
Similarly.
=
∴
Argument of
z1 r1 = = 1 − 2 z2 r2
Example 1.Complex Numbers
MODULE .
z3
MATHEMATICS
27
. 2. For example.z3).I Algebra
=
=
5 1 = 10 2
Notes
∴
z = 1 2
1.z3) = (z1.Complex Numbers
∴
2+i  z = 3− i
22 + 12 32 + ( −1)
2
=
2+i 3−i
z z1 = 1 sin ce z2 z2
MODULE . Associativity If z1 = (a + bi). let z1 = 3 + 4i and z2 = 1 – i then z1z2 = (3 + 4i) (1 – i) = 3(1 – i) + 4i(1 – i) = 3 – 3i + 4i – 4i2 = 3 – 3i + 4i – 4(–1) =3+i+4 =7+i Again. Closure If z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di be two complex numbers then their product z1z2 is also a complex number. Cummutative If z1 = a + bi and z2 = c + di be two complex numbers then z1z2 = z2z1. z2z1 = (1 – i) (3 + 4i) = (3 + 4i) – i(3 + 4i) = 3 + 4i – 3i – 4i2 =3+i+4=7+i ∴ z 1z 2 = z 2z 1
3.12 PROPERTIES OF MULTIPLICATION OF TWO COMPLEX NUMBERS
1. z2 = c + di and z3 = (e + fi) then z1(z2.
z2)z3 = {(1 + i)(2 + i)} (3 + i) = {(2 – 1) + (1 + 2)i} (3 + i) = (1 + 3i) (3 + i) = (3 – 3) + (1 + 9)i = 0 + 10i = 10i ∴ z1 ( z2 .
The complex number 1 + 0i is the identity for multiplication.I Algebra
Let us verify it with an example : If z1 = (1 + i).z3 ) = ( z1.e. z.z1 = z.e. z2 = (2 + i) and z3 = (3 + i) then z1(z2. or or pr i. Existence of Multiplicative Identity: For every nonzero complex number z1 = a + bi there exists a unique complex number (1 + 0i) such that (a + bi). Let us verify it with an example: If z = 2 + 3i then z. (a + bi) (x + yi) = a + bi (ax – by) + (ay + bx)i = a + bi ax – by = a and ay + bx = b x = 1 and y = 0 z1 = x + yi = 1 + 0i is the multiplicative identity.(1 + 0i) = (1 + 0i) (a + bi) = a + bi Let z1 = x + yi be the multipicative identity of z = a + bi Then i.z2 ) z3
4.z3) = (1 + i){(2 + i) (3 + i)} = (1 + i) {(6 – 1) + (3 + 2)i}
Notes
= (1 + i) (5 + 5i) = (5 – 5) + (5 + 5)i = 0 + 10i = 10i and (z1.(1 + 0i) = (2 + 3i) (1 + 0i) = (2 – 0) + (3 + 0)i = 2 + 3i
28 MATHEMATICS
.Complex Numbers
MODULE .
we have ax – by = 1 and bx + ay = 0 By cross multiplication
x= y = 1 a − b a 2 + b2
⇒
x=
Re ( z ) Im ( z ) a −b = 2 2 and y = a 2 + b 2 = − z 2 a +b z
2
Thus. i. there product must be equal to 1+ 0i 10 5
= 2 + 4i 20
=
1 +1i 10 5
1 1 2 4 2 4 We have. ( 2 − 4i ) + i = + + + i 10 5 10 5 5 10
= 1 + 0i which is true. Solution: Let z = 2 − 4i
We have. Existence of Multiplicative inverse: Multiplicative inverse is a complex number that when multiplied to a given nonzero complex munber yields one.4) 2 = 20 ∴ Required multiplicative inverse is z 2 z Verification:
If 1 1 + i be the muliplicative inverse of 2 . there exists a unique complex number (x + yi) such that their product is (1 + 0i). for every nonzero complex number z = a + bi.Complex Numbers 5.e. z = 2 + 4i and z 2 = 2 2 + (. In other words.4i. or (a + bi) (x + yi) = 1 + 0i (ax – by) + (bx + ay)i = 1 + 0i
Notes
MODULE .I Algebra
Equating real and imaging parts. 25 Find the multiplication inverse of 2 − 4i.
MATHEMATICS
29
. the multiplicative inverse of a nonzero compelx number z = (a + bi) is
Re ( z ) Im ( z ) z x + yi = − i = 2 2 z2 z z
Example 1.
Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition Let Then z1 = a1 + b1i.Complex Numbers
MODULE . (1 + 2i)( 2 − i) (3 + i)(1 – i)(–1 + i) (1 + 2i) ÷ (1 + i) (b) (d) (f)
( 2 + i) 2
(2 + 3i) ÷ (1 –2i) (1 + 0i) ÷ (3 + 7i)
Compute multiplicative inverse of each of the following complex numbers: (a) 3 – 4i (b)
3 + 7i
( c)
3 + 5i 2 − 3i
MATHEMATICS
30
.I Algebra
6.4
1. Simplify each of the following: (a) (c) (e) 2. z2 = a2 + b2i and z3 = a3 + b3i
z1(z2 + z3) = z1z2 + z1z3
Let us verify it with an example:
Notes
If z1 = 3 – 2i. z2 = – 1 + 4i
and z3 = –3 – i then
z1(z2 + z3) = (3 – 2i){(–1 + 4i) + (–3 – i)} = (3 – 2i) (–1 + 4i – 3 – i) = (3 – 2i) (–4 + 3i) = (–12 + 6) + (9 + 8)i = –6 + 17i and z1z2 = (3 – 2i)(–1 +4i) = (–3 + 8) + (12 + 2)i = 5 + 14i Again z1z3 = (3 – 2i) (–3 – i) = (–9 – 2) + (– 3 + 6)i = – 11 + 3i Now z1z2 + z1 z3 = (5 + 14i) + (– 11 + 3i) = – 6 + 17i ∴ z1(z2 + z3) = z1z2 + z1z3
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.
H aK
z
• Multiplicative inverse of a complex number z = a + bi is  z2
SUPPORTIVE WEB SITES
http://www. • Conjugate of a complex number z = a + bi is a – bi and is denoted by z .z2)z3 = z1(z2. 4. –i.wikipedia. 1.b ∈ R and i =
−1 .Complex Numbers 3.wolfram. –1. Find real and imaginary parts of each of the following: (a) 2 + 7i (b) 3 + 0i (c) −
1 2
(d) 5i
(e)
1 2 + 3i
MATHEMATICS
31
.
Notes
• Any higher powers of 'i' can be expressed in terms of one of the four value i.z3)
MODULE . If z1 = 4 + 3i.I Algebra
LET US SUM UP
• z = a + bi is a complex number in the standard form where a. • Modulus of a complex number z = a + bi is
a 2 + b 2 i.org http://mathworld. z2 = –2 + i and z3 = 2 – i then verify that (z1. z=a + bi= a 2 + b 2
(c) z1 + z 2 < z1 + z 2
(a)  z  = 0 ⇔ z = 0
(b)  z  =  z 
• z = r (cosθ + i sinθ) represents the polar form of a complex number z = a + bi where
−1 r = a 2 + b 2 is modulus and θ = tan
FG b IJ is its argument. z2 = 3 –2i and z3 = i + 5.e.com
TERMINAL EXERCISE
1. If z1 = 2 + i. verify that z1(z2 + z3) = z1z2 + z2z3.
Complex Numbers
MODULE . Express 7i17 – 6i6 + 3i3 – 2i2 + 1 in the form of a + bi. Simplify each of the following:
− 3 . Write additive inverse and multiplicative inverse of each of the following: (a) 3 – 7i (b) 11 – 2i (c)
3 + 2i
(d) 1 −
2i
(e)
1 + 5i 1− i
10. –4)
(c) z(8. Find the values of x and y if: (a) (x – yi) + 7 – 2i = 9 – i (b) 2x + 3yi = 4 – 9i (c) x – 3yi = 7 + 9i 8. Simplify each of the following:
1 2 3 (b) + i − − i + − 2 i 7 7 7
(a) (3 + i) – (1 – i) + (–1 + i)
9. –5)
(b) z(0 . 7.
Notes
(a) z(3. Find the modulus of each of the following: (a) 1– i (b) 3 + πi (c) − i
3 2
(d ) − 2 + 3i
6.I Algebra
2. Find the modulus of each of the following complex numbers:
(a)
1+ i 3− i
( b)
5 + 2i 2 + 3i
(c) (3 + 2i) (1 – i)
(d) (1 –3i) (– 2i3 + i2 + 3)
32
MATHEMATICS
. π)
4. Find the conjugate of each of the following: (a) 1 – 2i (d) 4i (b) – 1 – 2i (e) – 4i (c) 6 –
2i
5.(a) 27 3 . − 27 − −
(b) (b)
–3b ) − 4–3− 724 − 72 ( −
(c) 3i15 – 5i8 + 1
3. Form complex number whose real and imaginary parts are given in the form of ordered pairs.
Complex Numbers 11. z2 =
MODULE . For the following pairs of complex numbers verify that (a) z1 = 1 + 3i. For the following pairs of complex numbers verify that  z1z2  =  z2   z1  (a) z1 = 3 – 2i.I Algebra
3−i
12. z2 = 1 –5i (b) z1= 3 – 7i . z2 = 3 – 4i
MATHEMATICS
33
. z2 = 2 + 5i
z1 z  = 1 z2 z2 
Notes
(b) z1 = – 2 + 5i.
0) (3. (a)
(–3.1 1 (a) 3 3i (b) –3i (b) 0 –3i (c)
13i
Notes
2. 12 –4i
(c) 0 + 0i
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 2)
x' (b)
O
(0.Complex Numbers
MODULE . (a) 5 + 0i 3. 0)
x'
(0.I Algebra
ANSWERS
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 4) (0. –5)
x
y'
34
MATHEMATICS
. 0)
(2. 0)
O
x
y'
y
(0.2 1 (a) 2i (b) – 5 + 3i y (c) − 2 (d) 3 + 4i
2. –3) (0.
–1) (3. –1) (4.–4) (–4. 1) x' (–1.3) (5. 5)
o
y'
MATHEMATICS
35
.I Algebra
(2.2) x
Notes
MODULE .–4) (–6.Complex Numbers y (2. 1) x (6.–5) (1.–7) (–2.2) x' (–9.–2) (3. 4) (–4.5) (c) (–7.–9)
y'
y (d) (_3.
5.
(a) 4 + 3i (d) 2 + 5i
4.7)
(–3.3 1.
(a) –12 + 7i 18 – 6i
36
MATHEMATICS
.
e(a)2 e+ 25+j + 5j 5 − 52−ji 2 ji e +e
(c) 7i (a) 11 + 3i (d) –1 – i (b) 11 + 3i (e) 1 + i (b) 4 + 3i (e) – 2 – i (b) –4 + 3i
1 1 ((b) ( b6 + i) + i) b) ( ) ( 6 6 6
(d) 2
(
2 + 1 + (7 − 3)
)
2.
(c) Yes (f) No (c) Yes (f) No.–4) (6.Complex Numbers
MODULE .4)
Notes
(–5.–1)
0
(1.I Algebra
y (e) (6.–1)
(–3.–7)
y' 3.1) x' (–5. (a) (i) 3
(ii)
10
(iii) 13
(iv)
21
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1.1) x (1.
3.
Complex Numbers CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. 0 (c) − 1 .I Algebra
(c) –2 + 6i
(d)
1 ( 3 + i) 2 1 ( 3 − 7i) 52
(f)
1 ( 3 − 7i ) 58 1 −9 − 19i 34
Notes
2. 5 (e) 2. 7 (b) 3.
(a) 1 + 2i (b) –1 + 2i (c) 6 + (d) –4i (e) 4i
2i
MATHEMATICS
37
. 0 2 (d) 0. (a)
e
2 + 2 + 2 2 − 1 i (b) 1 + 2 2i 1 ( −4 + 7i) 5
(e)
j e g
j
MODULE .
2 .− 3 13 13
(a) –9 (b) −12 6i (c) –4 – 3i
3.
(a)
1 3 + 4i 25
b
(b)
(c)
b
g
TERMINAL EXERCISE
1. (a) 2.4 1.
(a) 3 – 5i (b) 0 – 4i (c) 8 + πi
4.
(
3 − 2i
)
(d) −1 + 2i.
(b) −11 + 2i.
(a)
1 5
( b)
1 145 5
(c) 26
(d ) 4 5
38
MATHEMATICS
.Complex Numbers
MODULE .
3 2
(d)
7
9 + 4i (a) x = 2. y = –1 (b) x = 2.
1 (1 + 2i) 3
(e) 2 − 3i . 7.
1 ( 2 + 3i ) 13
10.
(a) (b)
2
9 + π2
Notes
(c) 6. y = – 3
8.
(a) –3 + 7i.
(c) − 3 − 2i .I Algebra
5.
(a) 1 + 3i (b)
2 + 0i 7 1 ( 3 + 7i ) 58 1 ( −11 + 2i) 125
1 7
9. y = –3 (c) x = 7.