Aries 2: A comedian entertaining a group

The keyword comedian descends from the I n d o - E u r op e a n root w ed - 2 which means “to speak.”1 Among its paronyms

a r e s e v e r a l l y r i c a l, l i t e r a r y , a n d m u s i c a l f o r m s , m o s t l y se c u l a r b u t a ls o s a c r e d . T h e s e i n c l u d e o d e ( a l y r i c p o e m, a ch o r i c song of classic Greece, or a classi cal G r e e k p oe m ) , c o me d y ( p o p u la r e n t e r t a i n m e n t co m p o se d o f j o k e s, s a t i r e , o r h u m o r o u s p e r fo r m a n c e ), e p o d e (a s p e c i e s o f l y r i c p o e m ), h y mn o d y ( t h e a c t o f s i n gi n g p s a l m s o r h y m n s ) , m e l o d y (a p le a si n g s u c c e s si o n o r a r r a n g e m e n t o f s ou n d s o r a p o e m s ui t a b le f o r s e t t i n g t o m u s i c o r s o n g ), m o n o d y ( m u s i c c on s i s t i n g o f a si n g le v o c a l p a r t ) , p a r o d y ( a l i t e r a r y o r a r t i s t i c w o r k t h a t i m i t a t e s t he c h a r a ct e r i s t i c s t y le o f a n a u t h o r o r a w o r k for comic effect or ridicule; the practice of reworking an already e s t a b l i s he d m u s i ca l c o m p o s i t i o n ), r h a p so d y ( a n e p i c p o e m ), t r a g e d y ( a d r a m a o r l i t e r a r y w o r k i n w h i c h t h e m a i n c ha r a c t e r i s b r o u g h t t o r u i n o r s u f f e r s e x t r e m e s or r o w ) a n d T h e r a v a d a ( B u d d h i s t d o c t ri n e , s c r i p t u r e ). T h e f i r s t h a l f o f e n t e r t a i n i n g d e s ce n d s f r o m t h e r oo t e n - w h i c h m e a n s “ i n . ” 2 I t s p a ro n y m s i n c l u d e e p i so d e ( a b ri e f s e ct i on o f a l i t e r a r y o r d r a m a t i c w o r k t ha t f o r m s p a r t o f a c on n e c t e d s e ri e s ) a n d e s o t e r i c ( c o n f i n e d t o a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e b y on l y a n e n l i g h t e n e d i n n e r ci r c l e ). T h e s e c on d h a l f o f e n t e rt a i n i n g d e sc e n d s f r o m t he r oo t t e n- w h i ch m e a n s “ t o s t r e t c h . ” 3 P a r o n y m s o f t h i s r o o t i n c l u d e s e v e ra l w o r d s r e l a t e d t o t h e h u m a n v o i ce — b o t h s i n g i n g a n d s p o k e n , t o m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s, t o r e s o n a n c e a n d v i b r a t o r y r a t e , a n d f i n a l l y t o r e l i g i o u s /s p i r i t u a l t e a c h i n g a n d p r a ct i ce . T he s e i n c l u d e s yn t o n i c ( a hi g h d e g r e e o f e m o t i on a l r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ; r e l a t i n g t o t w o o sc i l l a t i n g c i r c u i t s
1 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 95 2 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo Europea n Roots, p. 23 3 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 90 Starling Hunter © 2011 1

h a v i n g t h e s a m e r e s o n a n t f r e q u e n c y ) , t a n t r a (E a s t e r n r e l i g i o u s t e a c hi n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h p ow e r f u l r i t u a l a c t s o f s p e e c h , b o d y , a n d m i n d ) , s it a r (a s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t o f I n d i a w i t h 6 - 7 m e t a l s t ri n g s fo r p l a y i n g a n d 1 3 r e s o n a t i n g s t ri n g s) , t e n o r ( a n a d u l t m a l e s i n g i n g v o i c e a b o v e b a r i t o n e ; t h e p e r v a d i n g n o t e o f a n u t t e r a n ce ) , t o n e ( a p i t c h o r c h a n g e o f p i t c h of t h e v o i ce ) , a n d b a r i t o n e (t h e se c o n d lo w e s t a d u l t ma l e si n g i n g v o i ce ) . The word group descends from the root g(e)r-2 which means “ c u r v i n g , c r o o k e d . ” 4 P a r o n y m s o f t hi s k e y w o r d i n c l u d e g r a p e , g r a p n e l , g r a p p l e , c r u m m ie , c r u mp e t , cr u m b l e , c r i m p , c r a m p , c r ip p l e , c r e e p , c r in g l e , c r i n k l e , c r e e k , cr o o k , c r o c h e t , c r o q u e t , cr o c h e t , cr o c k e t , c r o t c h , cr o u c h , e n c r o a c h , c r u t c h , c a r p , cr u l l e r , cu r l , l a c r o s se , c r o u p , cr o u p ie r , c r o p p e r , c r o p , c r u s e , cr è c h e , c r a d l e , c a r t , c r o f t , a n d e n c r o a c h . THEMES: Several paronyms of the keywords comedian and entertain c o n c e r n L IT E R A RY A N D M U S I C A L F O R M S , t h e i r m e a n s o f e x p re s s i on , a n d t h e i r c on s e q ue n t e f fe c t s on t h e h u m a n p s y c h e . S p e c i f i c a l l y, a t le a s t four of the paronyms of comedian concern music and/or song —ode, h y m n o d y , me l o d y , a n d m o n o d y —a s d o a n e q ua l n u m b e r o f p a r o n y m s o f e n t e r t a i n — s i t a r , t e n o r , t o n e , a n d b a r i t o n e . A n o t h e r t wo w o r d s c o n n o t e Eastern spiritual t r a d i t i o n s — T h e r a v a da , which is a paronym of c o m e d ia n , a n d t a n t r a , w h i c h i s a p a r o n y m o f e n t e rt a i n . F i n a l l y , on e k e y w o r d a n d o n e d e r i v a t i ve c on n ot e o r a l l u d e t o a s m a l l, c o h e s i ve n u m b e r o f p e op l e . T h e r e i s t h e k e yw o r d g r o u p w h i c h m e a n s “ a s e t o f p e op l e w h o m e e t or d o s o m e t hi n g t o ge t h e r b e ca u s e t h e y s h a r e t h e s a me p u r p o s e o r i d e a s . ” 5 A n d t h e n t h e r e i s e s o t e r i c , a p a r on y m o f e n t e r t a i n w h i c h m e a n s “ c on f i n e d t o a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b le b y on ly a n e n l i g h t e n e d i n n e r c i r c le . ” A n “ i n n e r c i r c l e ” i s “ a s m a l l , i n t i m a t e , a n d o f t e n i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p o f p e o p le . ” 6

4 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 27 5 http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/group#group_9 6 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/inner+circle Starling Hunter © 2011 2

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