Aries 8: A large hat with streamers flying, facing east

T h e a d j e c t i v e l a r ge d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e L a t i n l a r gu s meaning “generous.”1 One of its d e f i n i t i o n s i s “ o f g r e a t e r t h a n a ve r a g e s c o p e , b r e a d t h, o r c a p a ci t y ; c o m p r e h e n si v e . ” 2 The noun hat descends from the IndoE u r o p e a n ( IE ) r o o t k a d h - , “ t o s h e lt e r , c o v e r . ” 3 I t s paronyms include heed and hood. T h e n o u n s t r ea m er d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e I E r o o t s r e u - w h i c h m e a n s “ t o flow.”4 Among its paronyms include maelstrom (a violent or turbulent situation) and several distressful health c o n d i t i on s , e.g. catarrh ( i n f l a m m a t i o n o f m u c o u s m e m b r a n e s , e sp e ci a l l y o f t h e n o s e a n d t h r o a t ), d i a r r he a , h e m o r r ho i d ( a n i t c hi n g o r p a i n f u l m a ss o f d i l a t e d v e i n s i n s w o l l e n a n a l t i ssu e ) , a n d r h e u ma t i s m ( a n y o f s e ve r a l p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i on s of t he m u s c l e s, tendons, j o i n t s, b on e s , or n e r v e s, c h a r a c t e r i ze d b y d i s c o m f o r t a n d d i sa b i l i t y ). T h e v e r b f l y d e s ce n d s f r o m t h e r o o t p l eu - w h i c h a ls o m e a n s “ t o f l o w . ” 5 A m o n g i t s p a r o n y m s a r e a t l e a s t t w o o t h e r p h ys i c a l m a l a d i e s — p y e l i t i s ( t he a c u t e i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t h e p e l v i s o f t he k i d n e y , c a us e d b y b a c t e r i a l i n fe c t i o n ) a n d p n e u mo n ia ( r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a se c h a r a c t e r i ze d b y i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t he l u n g p a r e n c h y m a … w i t h c o n g e st i on ca u s e d b y v i r u se s o r b a c t e r i a o r i r r i t a n t s ). T h e w o r d f a c i n g d e s c e n d s f r o m t he r o o t d h e- w h i c h m e a n s “ t o s e t , p u t . ” 6 T h e A H D E L l i s t s o v e r 1 5 0 d e r i v a t i v e s, s e v e ra l o f w h i c h a r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e a n a t o mi c a l a n d m e d i c a l t h e me e st a b l i s h e d b y t he p r e c e d i n g t w o w o r d s . A m o n g t he m a re :

1 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/large 2 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/large 3 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European 4 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European 5 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European 6 Watkins, C. (2000), The Am erican Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Starling Hunter © 2011 1

Roots, Roots, Roots, Roots,

p. 36 p. 83 p. 68 pp.17-8

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abdomen: the part of the body that lies between the t horax and the pelvis and encloses the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, and pancreas apothecary: one that prepares and sells drugs and other medicines ; a pharmacist diathesis: constitutional abnormality predisposition to a particular disease or

face: the surface of the front of the head from the top of the forehead to the base of the chin and from ear to ear; a person; a person's countenance; facial cosmetics; the most significant or prominent surface of an object. prosthesis: an artificial device used to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or heart valve putrefy: to cause to decay and have a foul odor; to make gangrenous. rubefacient: producing redness, as of the skin tumefaction: the act or process of puffing or swelling; a swollen condition vivify: to give or bring life to; animate:

    

T h e w o r d e a s t d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e ro o t a u s - w h i c h me a n s “ t o s hi n e ” a n d f r o m w h i c h d e s c e n d t h e w o r d s a u r o r a , E a s t e r , E o s (G r e e k m y t h o l o g y : t h e w i n g e d g o d d e s s o f t h e d a w n i n a n c i e n t m y t h o lo g y ; d a u g h t e r o f H y p e r i on ) a n d e o si n ( a r e d f l u o r e s ce n t d y e … u s e d i n c os m e t i c s a n d a s a b i o l o g i ca l s t a i n f o r s t u d y i n g c e l l st r u ct u r e s ) . 7 T H E M E S : C l e a r l y fr o m t h e fi r s t t h r e e k e y w o r d s — s t r ea m e r s , f l y i n g , a n d f a c i n g — w e g e t s e v e r a l o t h e r s t h a t a r e m e d i c a l a n d a n a t o mi c a l i n n a t u r e w i t h a c le a r e m p ha s i s o n PA T H O LO G I C A L C O N D I T I O N S . Re c a l l t h a t t h e p a r o n y m s o f s t r e a m e r s i n c lu d e c a t a r r h , d i a r r h e a , he m o r r ho i d , a n d r h e u ma t i s m . T h e p a r o n y m s o f f l y i n c l u d e p ye l it i s a n d p n e u m o n i a . T he paronyms t u m e fa c t io n . A s e c o n d t h e me c on c e r n s t he F A C E . Re c a l l t h a t o n e o f t he p a r o n y m s o f e a s t i s e o s in , a r e d d i e u se d i n c o s me t i c s w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d a s “ a p o w d e r, l o t i o n , li p st i c k, r ou g e , o r o t h e r p r e p a r a t i o n f o r b e a ut i f y i n g t h e fa c e , s k i n , h a i r , n a i l s, e t c . ” R e c a l l t h a t t h e w o r d s f a c e a n d r u b e fa c i e n t a r e of fa c i n g i n c l u de d i a t he s i s , p r o s t he s is , putrefy, and

7 Watkins, C. (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo European Roots, p. 6 Starling Hunter © 2011 2

b o t h p a r o n y m s o f t h e k e y w o r d f a c i n g . T h e l a t t e r p r o d u ce s r e d n e ss i n t he s k i n b y w a y o f i r r i t a t i on w h i le t h e e o s i n c o n t a i n e d i n c os m e t i c s d o e s s o t h r o u g h i n t e n t i on a l a n d d e s i r a b l e a p p li c a t i o n . A l s o, c o s m e t i cs a r e a s y n o n y m o f f a ce a s i n t he e xp r e s si o n t o p u t o n e ' s f a ce on . ” 8 A t h i r d t he m e co n ce r n s F LE W , F LU E , a n d F L U . F i r st r e ca l l t h a t t w o o f t h e p a r on y m s o f f l y a r e h o m o n y m s —f l u e ( f i s h i n g n e t ) a n d f l e w , t h e p a s t t e n se o f t h e v e r b f l y . B o t h a r e a l s o h o m o n y m s o f f l u w h i c h i s s h o r t f o r i n f l u e n za (an a cu t e contagious viral infection ch a r a c t e r i ze d by i n f l a m m a t i o n o f t he r e sp i r a t o r y t r a c t ) . 9 I n f l u e n za d e s c e n d s f r o m t h e r o ot b h l e u - w h i c h me a n s “ t o s w e l l, w e l l u p , o v e r f l o w .” 10 R e c a l l t h a t t h e r oot p l e u - , t h e r o o t of t h e k e y w o r d f l y i n g , m e a n t “ f l o w . ” T h u s w e h a v e i n d i r e c t l y t o a d d o n e m o r e p a t h o l o gi c a l c o n d i t i o n t o t h o s e i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i r s t t h e me .

8 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/face 9 http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/en try/influenza 10 W a t k i n s , C . ( 2 0 0 0 ) , T h e A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e D i c t i o n a r y o f I n d o E u r o p e a n R o o t s , p . 1 2 Starling Hunter © 2011 3