Drug Classification

1. Stimulant: excite, arousal, increase alertness, elevate mood. Speed up signals to the brain (some newer drugs like Prozac, work mainly as mood elevators and do not supposedly produce the other effects) a. Amphetamines i. High abuseà sensuous appeal ii. Side effect – euphoria iii. WWII and Korean War – extensively used to keep up soldiers fighting capacity iv. After wars: sold to Japan and marked OTC 1. Abuse grew to epidemic proportions v. Post-war: illegal use in USA increase; became one of the most popular drugs during the 1960’s vi. High level of illegal-instrumental use: 1. Truck drivers: sophisticated distribution networks 2. College students and “cramming” 3. 2.5-10 mg increases competence, alertness, energy, stimulates motor activity, euphoria, heart rate, decreases appetite, blood flow, and saliva 4. Also widely prescribed by medical profession: diet pills – extremely popular vii. Multiple drug users: 1. mix with a variety of other drugs to expand/heighten the effects 2. Used to modify the “down” period associated with other drugs, and/or used to avoid sleep in order to use other drugs viii. Still a popular drug – but there are lots of “look-alikes” ix. Prescription use is DOWN 90% x. Speed “scene” (late 1960’s) 1. Dramatic explosion in the drug using sub-culture of the 1960’s and very early 1970’a. SPEED FREAKS 2. Massive doses, and re-dosing: RUNS – lasting 2-5 days 3. Heroin used to “regulate the high and ‘comedown,’”many freaks went on to use heroin on a regular basis 4. Massive, frequent doses used to pursue the FLASH: “full body orgasm” 5. CRASH: 24 hours or more 6. Devastating impact on mind and body a. Sensation of bugs crawling b. Not addiction per se, but MAJOR dependence i. Strong reinforcement from use vs. serious depression from withdrawal c. Behavior fixation, compulsiveness 7. Use is sporadic now and typically lower doses 8. Recent indications of use rising among ethnic minorities and middle class whites, especially in the West and Southwest 9. Affordable – longer lasting

b. Caffeine i. Most widely used stimulants worldwide ii. Typical form, especially in US: coffee, tea, chocolate 1. Other sources: OTC preparations, soft drinks iii. Historically been used 1. Coffee – Arabian goatherd (legend) noticed the effects on his goats after they consumed the red berries of the shrub a. 900 AD – included in the medical practice of Arabian physicians i. “Good for what ails you” b. 1674 – women rallied against its use i. Made men “unfruitful” c. In time, coffee houses linked to political dissent d. Now, interesting revival of the coffee house in many metropolitan areas e. Peaked in 1946 – 20 lbs per person per year f. Current use – 10 lbs – lifestyle and health consequences g. #2 export worldwide, behind oil 2. Tea – legend – found of zen, daruma, fell asleep while meditating, cut off his eyelids, where they fell – tea plant grew; Brew of its leaves would keep you awake a. 350 AD – china – primarily a medicinal herb. i. Widely used by 780 AD (tax levied) b. First mention in Europe – 1559 c. 17th century – begins to replace coffee as a drink in England i. Profits help colonize india, led to opium wars with china 1. Opium wars a. 1644 chinese emperor outlawed tobacco use; partly responsible for spread of opium use b. 1729: nonmedicinal use was outlawed (smuggled in from india; highly profitable enterprise, esp for british) ii. Linked tea drinking to patriotism 1. Low tax on tea 2. High tax on alcohol à national drink 3. Chocolate 4. Until 1981, FDA would not allow soft drink to be called cola unless it had caffeine 5. Consumption: a. Impact: i. Stimulant ii. Nervousness iii. Increased heart rate/respiration

iv. Tends to relieve migraines and headaches in non-users v. Offsets fatigue vi. DOES NOT sober up a drunk 6. Concerns: a. Cancer b. Breast lumps c. Heart problems d. Caffeinism: little real concern for OD, but dependence is common e. Withdrawal: headaches, fatigue, depression c. Nicotine d. Cocaine i. Native tribes in the Andes have chewed the coca leaf for centuries 1. Coca plant was considered as divine 2. Mountain natives chewed ball of leaves almost continually, distances were measured by the number of stops required to maintain dose level ii. Major ingredient in popular drinks: coca tea, vin mariani coca wine (endorsed by the Pope) 1. Coca-cola in late 1800’s a. Used for a short time until southern blacks using cocaine led to its removal (1903-1906) i. Between 1887-1914, 46 states passed legislation regulating cocaine 1. Use associated with Blacks, lower class white, and criminals a. Literary Digest in 1914 – “… most attacks upon white women of the South are a direct result of a cocaine-crazy Negro brain.” b. NY Times 1914 – “Negro cocaine fiends are a new southern menace” iii. 1920’s – associated with the “hip, swinging” lifestyles of the wealthy iv. 1930-1950’s – described as the “great drought” 1. Cheaper and readily available amphetamines seems to have replaced cocaine v. 1960-1970’s – popularity resurfaced 1. Substantial decline in use during 80’s and 90’s a. Although frequent, chronic use ins stable and/or slightly increasing vi. Crack hits streets in the early 1980’s and becomes “widely” available by mid decade 1. Its use is in decline vii. Sherlock holmes/Freud used viii. In 2005, estimated 2 million Americans were current cocaine users

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ix. Effects: extremely pleasurable sensation, immediate sensuous appeal, confidence, and energy 1. Robert Lewis Stevenson wrote Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a 60,000 word novel in three days. At the end, he tore it up and did it again x. No “classic” addiction, but extreme behavioral and physiological dependency xi. Occasional use, especially intranasal, seems to have no significant detrimental effect 1. Used extensively as a local anesthetic in surgery in the nasal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions a. It is absorbed so well in the mucous membranes xii. Dependency seems highly correlated with mode of use 1. IV v. smoker v. snorter a. Smoker report many more negative reactions and cycles of dependency Depressant a. Analgesics: relieve pain b. Sedative hypnotics: relax, induce sleep Psychotherapeutic drugs a. General i. Physiological and psychological medicine ii. Used: to ease lives iii. Wide range: common – unusual; nonproblematic - severe b. Anti-psychotics i. Major tranquilizers ii. No “high” associated with use iii. Little to no recreational use c. Anti-depressants i. Those who use: 1. Uni/bipolar 2. Mood and affective disorder – depression 3. Extreme sadness and despair ii. Depression 1. Neurochemical 2. Inherited iii. For non-depressed, no euphoria; unpleasant effect iv. Examples: 1. Prozac, lithium v. Looked at in negative light unfortunately Hallucinogens Marijuana Inhalants

Legal Classification – Controlled Substances Act, 1990 Schedule 1: High Abuse, No Recognized Medical Use, Lack of Safety • Heroin • LSD • MDMA • Marijuana

• Methaqualone Schedule 2: High Abuse, Medical Utility, High Dependency Risk • Opium • Morphine • Coca • Cocaine • Methadone • Methamphetamine Schedule 3: Lower Abuse, Medical Utility, Moderate Dependency • Amphetamine • Barbituate • Valium • Xanax • Anabolic Steroids • Codeine Schedule 4: Limited Abuse, High Medical Utility, Limited Dependency Risk • Chloral Hydrate • Meprobamate • Paraldehyde • Phenobarbital Schedule 5: Minor Problems • Typically includes preparations of the above drugs in limited amounts

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