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Drug Classificatio n Opioid Narcotic Analgesic Controlled substance

Drug Action

Uses

Common Side Effects

Nursing Interventions

Bind with the opiate receptors in the CNS to alter the perception of and response to pain

Relieve moderate to severe pain

Resp. depression; N&V; Constipation; Urinary retention; Dizziness, sedation and drowsiness.

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis so that pain arising from stimulation of peripheral nerve endings is lessened.

Control mild to moderate pain and inflammation

Anti-infectives Bactericidal--Kill (Antimicrobials or bacteria by blocking Antibiotic) cell wall synthesis; Bacteriostatic-Inhibits growth of susceptible pathogenic bacteria (halts bacterial reproduction)

Treat bacterial infections

Ck order date (selfterminating drug); Ck resp-withhold if < 10; S.R.; Monitor output; Assist with amb; Can lead to dependency Measures to prevent constipation; Evaluate effectiveness Hypersensitivities (rashes, Adm. with full glass of asthma); GI irritation; Inhibits H2O or food; Upright for platelet aggregation 15-30 min p taking drug; (prolonging bleeding) Watch for bleeding (tarry stools, bruising); dont crush or chew enteric-coated forms; Evaluate effectiveness Allergic reactions: [rashes, Ck. order date (selfurticaria (hives), anaphylaxis]; terminating drug); Take Superinfections; Nephroaround the clock; toxicity; GI distress Assess for allergic reactions; Ck. for signs of Superinfection (black furry tongue, vaginal (Note: can effects of itching, diarrhea); Adm. contraceptives) 1 hr ac or 2 hrs pc or with food

Drug Classification Antiemetics

Drug Action Act on the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) within the vomiting center. Neutralize hydrochloric acid secreted by the stomach

Uses Prevent nausea and vomiting Treat symptoms of acid reflux or heartburn (indigestion)

Common Side Effects Drowsiness; Dry mouth

Nursing Interventions Assist with amb; S.R.; oral hygiene; Ice chips; Give deep IM in large muscle mass Shake liquid well & follow with small sip H2O; Chew tablets thoroughly and follow with glass H2O; Adm. 1 and 3 hr pc and at hs; separate antacids & other oral meds by at least 1 hr. Take med q day; Dont skip doses; Dont stop abruptly; Take B/P before adm (withhold & notify Dr. if B/P 90/60); Wt. reduction; Na intake; change positions slowly; Avoid hot baths

Antacids

Non-systemic antacids: Constipation; diarrhea Systemic: electrolyte imbalances

Antihypertensives Lower B/P---different types of antihypertensives have different mechanisms of action

Treat high blood pressure

Hypotension; Changes in pulse; Impotence

Drug Classification

Drug Action Increase sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion causing H2O excretion leading to diuresis

Uses

Common Side Effects

Nursing Interventions Prior to adm. ck. B/P & electrolyte levels (anorexia, muscle weakness); Adm in AM (before 2PM); I&O; Daily wts.; Ck for signs of dehydration (turgor, dry mucous Membrane) Adm with full glass of H2O; Dont chew or crush enteric coated tablets; Adm at bedtime; fiber in diet; Fluids exercise Ck. B/P & P prior to adm; Monitor resp.

Diuretics

Treat hyperElectrolyte imbalances; tension or hypotension edema associated with CHF or other causes Treat constipation or cleanse bowel prior to surgery or dx. tests Diarrhea; abd cramps

Laxatives

Promote bowel evacuation. --Different types of laxatives have different M.O.A. Relax smooth muscle in the bronchioles

Bronchodilators

Sedative / Hypnotics

Antipyretics

Treatment of bronchoconstri ction (Asthma, Bronchospasm, COPD) Produce Provide generalized sedation CNS depression prior to procedures and manages insomnia Lowers temp. by Reduce fever affecting thermoregulation

CNS stimulation (nervousness, tremors); palpitations; tachycardia Sedation; dizziness; ataxia

Assist with amb; S.R.; Watch for abuse; Dont stop abruptly

GI irritation; bleeding; Toxicity esp. with salicylates (aspirin): Tinnitus (ringing in

Monitor temp; give with full glass of H2O; Dont chew or crush enteric

mechanism in the hypothalamus

the ears (similar to NSAIDS)

coated tablets (same as NSAIDS)