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G000H41 | Ivonne Cartagena

Injection molding is the most commonly used manufacturing process for the manufacturing of plastic parts. A wide variety of products are manufactured using injection molding, which vary greatly in their size, function, complexity, and application. The plastic injection molding process requires the use of an injection molding machine, raw plastic material and a mold. All those requirements have certain specifications and functions that should be carefully analyzed during the design procedures of the part, mold design and machine selection. Resuming the basic process of how plastic injection works, the plastic is melted in the injection molding machine. It utilizes a ram or screw-type plunger to force molten plastic material into a mold cavity and then injected into the mold, where it cools down and solidifies into the final part where it is ejected.

Part Design
Physical Characteristics of the Design Part Mass = 10.07 grams Volume = 9875.27 milimeters3 Surface Area = 7482.28 milimeters2 Mass Center: (millimeters) X = 0.00 Y = 11.68 Z = 0.00 Main inertia axis and momentum of inertia (grams x milimeters2) Measured from mass center. Ix = (0.00, 0.00, 1.00) Px = 2023.91 Iy = (1.00, 0.00, 0.00) Py = 2023.91 Iz = (0.00, 1.00, 0.00) Pz = 2723.31 Momentum of Inertia: (grams x milimeters2) (Measured from the mass center and aligned with the resultant coordinate) Lxx = 2023.91 Lxy = 0.00 Lyx = 0.00 Lzx = 0.00 Lxz = 0.00

Lyy = 2723.31 Lyz = 0.00 Lzy = 0.00 Lzz = 2023.91

Momentum of Inertia: (grams x milimeters2) Measured from the output coordinate system Ixx = 3396.95 Iyx = 0.00 Izx = 0.00 Ixy = 0.00 Iyy = 2723.31 Izy = 0.00 Ixz = 0.00 Iyz = 0.00 Izz = 3396.95



Polypropylene Polypropylene is an economical material that offers a combination of outstanding physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties not found in any other thermoplastic. Compared to low or high density polyethylene, it has a lower impact strength, but superior working temperature and tensile strength. Polypropylene provides excellent resistance to organic solvents, degreasing agents and electrolytic attack. It has a lower impact strength, but its working temperatures and tensile strength are superior to low or high density polyethylene. It is light in weight, resistant to staining, and has a low moisture absorption rate. This is a tough, heat-resistant, semi-rigid material, ideal for the transfer of hot liquids or gases. It is recommended for vacuum systems and where higher heats and pressures are encountered. It has excellent resistance to acids and alkalines, but poor resistance to aromatic, aliphatic and chlorinated solvents. Polypropylene has the lightest specific gravity among all plastics that are generally used. It has excellent liquidity therefore the injection pressure speed must be fast. It does not require drying due to its little water absorption property. It is often used for molding extremely thin parts. Due to its large shrinkage rate, it may experience deformation if the cooling of the mold is not sufficient. When using the mold that might cause sink marks or holes, injection should be set relatively higher. Since polypropylene is resistant to fatigue, resistant to dilute and concentrated acids, alcohols, bases and mineral oils. It can be mechanically joined with screws and is very popular for tools and devices in chemical laboratories. Polypropylene is liable to chain degradation from exposure to heat and UV radiation such as that present in sunlight. For external applications, UV-absorbing additives must be used. Carbon black also provides some protection from UV attack. The polymer can also be oxidized at high temperatures, a common problem during molding operations. Antioxidants are normally added to prevent polymer degradation. Many plastic items for medical or laboratory use can be made from polypropylene because it can withstand the heat in an autoclave (is an instrument to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 C for around 1520 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents). Its heat resistance also enables it to be used as the manufacturing material of consumer-grade kettles. Food containers made from it will not melt in the dishwasher, and do not melt during industrial hot filling processes. Polypropylene is also used as an alternative to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as insulation for electrical cables for LSZH cable in low-ventilation environments, primarily tunnels. This is because it emits less smoke and no toxic halogens, which may lead to production of acid in high-temperature conditions. Polypropylene is most commonly used for plastic moldings, wherein it is injected into a mold while molten, forming complex shapes at relatively low cost and high volume; examples include bottle tops, bottles, and fittings.

The piece described in this report is part of a toy that kids from ages 7 and more are able to play with, therefore hygiene and toxicity is an important fact and property that should me taking into consideration. According to the OTA (Oregon Toxics Alliance) alternative plastics for toys include polypropylene, polyethylene, EPM, EPDM, EVA, and bio-based plastics. None of these plastics require vinyl's extensive use of toxic additives, and none contain reactive chlorine as an essential component. In addition, traditional materials such as wood and textiles have been used successfully for years.


ASTM or UL test Property PHYSICAL D792 D570 MECHANICAL D638 D638 D638 D790 D790 D695 D695 D785 D256 Tensile Strength (psi) Tensile Modulus (psi) Tensile Elongation at Yield (%) Flexural Strength (psi) Flexural Modulus (psi) Compressive Strength (psi) Compressive Modulus (psi) Hardness, Rockwell R IZOD Notched Impact (ft-lb/in) THERMAL D696 Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (x 10-5 in./in./F) Heat Deflection Temp (F / C) at 66 psi at 264 psi Melting Temperature (F / C) 6.2 6.6 4,800 195,000 12 7,000 180,000 7,000 92 1.9 4,800 23 5,400 160,000 6,000 80 7.5 4,300 28 145,000 0.65 Density (lb./in) (g/cm) Water Absorption, 24 hrs. (%) 0.033 0.905 <0.01 0.033 0.897 0.01 0.035 0.988 0.02 Homopolymer Co-Polymer Flame Retardant

D648 D3418

210 / 99 125 / 52 327 / 164

173 / 78 110 / 43 327 / 164

106 / 41 57 / 14 327 / 164

C177 UL94 D149 D150 D150 D257 D495

Max Operating Temp (F / C) Thermal Conductivity (BTU-in/ft-hr-F) (x 10-4 cal/cm-sec-C) Flammability Rating ELECTRICAL Dielectric Strength (V/mil) short time, 1/8" thick Dielectric Constant at 1 kHz Dissipation Factor at 1 kHz Volume Resistivity (ohm-cm) at 50% RH Arc Resistance (sec)

180 / 82 0.76-0.81 2.6-2.8 HB 500-660 2.25 0.0005-0.0018 8.5 x 1014 160

170 / 77 n.r. 475 2.2-2.36 0.0017 2 x 1016 100

180 / 82 V-O 500-650 2.3 1015 -


Machine Selection
How to choose a plastic injection molding machine Typically, the important factors when choosing plastic injection molding machine include mold, product, molding requirements and so on. Therefore, you must collect or have the following information before making a choice: mold dimension (width, height, and thickness), weight and special design; types and amount of the plastic (single or multiple plastic materials); dimensions and weight of injection molding product (length, width, height, thickness); molding requirements, such as quality condition, production speed and so on. Choose the right type of injection molding machine. The plastic injection molding machine has a lot of types, so at the beginning, you should determine that what kind or which series of plastic injection molding machine is fit for the product. For example, for thermoplastic plastic or Bakelite resin or PET, the product is single color, two-color, and multi-color, laminated or blending. In addition, some product requires high stability (closed loop), high precision, high injection speed, high injection pressure and rapid production (multi-loop) and so on. The size of mold determine whether the internal spur of large column, the mold thickness, the minimum mold dimension and the mold plate size of plastic injection molding machine are suitable or not, to make sure that it is able to put mold on. The mold width and height must be less than or at least less than the internal spur of large column; The mold width and height must in the mold plate size range; the mold thickness should be between the thickness of plastic injection molding machine; The mold width and height must be fit with the minimum mold size recommended by the plastic injection molding machine. The mold and product judge whether the Opening Stroke and Ejector Stroke are enough to remove the finished product. The opening stroke should at least larger than the product height along the opening direction more than twice, including the length of vertical sprue; ejector stroke should long enough to eject the finished product. The product and plastic determine the tonnage of clamping force. When the raw materials inject into the mold cavity in a high pressure, it will create a bulging force, so the clamping unit of the plastic injection molding machine should provide sufficient clamping force so that the mold was not subject to distraction. The need of clamping force is calculated as follows: Clamping force = projected area of product in the direction of opening and closing mold (cm2) the number of mold cavity in-mold pressure (kg/cm2); Projected area of product in the direction of opening and closing mold is generated by the product appearance size. In-mold pressure is different with different materials; generally take 350-400 kg/cm2. The machine clamping force is usually greater than 1.17 times of the bulging force. Enough injection quantity: the weight of product and the number of mold cavity determine the injection quantity and select the appropriate screw diameter. For stability purpose, the injection volume required for more than 1.35 times of the product, which means the product weight should less than 75% of the injection amount.

Good injection: plastic determine screw compression ratio and injection pressure and other conditions. Some plastic requires a higher injection pressure and appropriate screw compression ratio for a good molding. So when choosing screw, it should considered about the demand of injection pressure and the problems of compression ratio. In general, smaller diameter screw provides higher injection pressure. High injection speed: confirm the injection speed. Some product requires a high injection speed to stabilize the injection molding, such as ultra-thin wall product. In this case, it is necessary to make sure that whether the injection speed and injection rate are enough or not, and whether accumulator and closed-loop control are necessary or not. Generally speaking, in the same condition, a screw in the plastic injection molding machine with high injection pressure has a lower injection speed; on the contrary, a screw with low injection pressure has a higher injection speed. So when choosing the screw diameter, injection volume, injection pressure, and injection rate (injection speed) should be cross considered.

Selection and Specifications Each part requires 0.3135 oz. of material which multiplied by a factor of 1.35 for safety then each part needs 0.4232 oz. The injection unit should be taken into consideration therefor a 3 oz. injection unit with a 28mm screw diameter could be ideal machine for this part. Also when taking into consideration the mold the parts dimensions are the most important due to the mold restrictions of the machine like the opening stroke, distance between tie bars and mold space. The SUMITOMO SE220HS C56M is the most convenient plastic injection machine to make this part since its ranges and specifications lie conveniently to the part design. The distance between the tie bars is more than enough for the mold design; the opening stroke aperture is convenient.

Machine Specifications