ARTICLES WITH PLURAL AND COUNTABLE NOUNS (THE
In this context, the usage of the definite article (the) with plural and countable nouns are explained. THE 1. 2. 3. 4. Specific / Definite Used before singular or plural nouns Also used with countable and uncountable nouns. Known as the definite article
RULE 1 ‘The’ can be used to refer to a particular person or thing • • The man wearing the blue jacket is Malik. The questions that you asked are difficult.
RULE 2 ‘The’ is also used to refer to someone or something mentioned previously. • Kenny saw a snake in the garden. The snake was a cobra.
RULE 3 Refers to something that is only one of its kind. • • • • • The The The The The sun East Coast world moon universe
RULE 4 Used for plural nouns and to make the plural nouns specific. • • She bought the books by Professor Baker. The results of his actions were awful.
RULE 5 Used before comparatives and superlatives • • Mansur is the stronger of the two This is the largest box I have.
RULE 6 With the word ‘same’ • We are in the same class.
Use the articles (a. The old lady is suffering from mouth cancer. and “headache” • He has the flu • I have a cold However. “republic” or “united” etc.RULE 7 Before the names of buildings. • • • • People now are getting worried about getting cancer She went to see a doctor because she has diabetes.
RULE 8 Refers to position. most aches and illnesses DON’T require articles. rivers. “cold”.
REMINDERS!!! 1. deserts. straits. • • He won the first prize in the competition. events or time. ( Not the only idea I have) 2. use the indefinite article a/an. seas. the) if they refer CERTAIN aches and illnesses such as “flu”. an. • • • • • • • • • • • • • The The The The The The The The The The The The The Petronas Twin Towers British Embassy Indian Ocean Main Range Commonwealth Philippines Klang River Strait Of Malacca South China Sea Gobi Desert United States of America Republic of China Great Wall of China. countries beginning with “union”. Are you suffering from high blood pressure?
. mountain ranges. an order of things. If the things mentioned are not made to be only one. I don’t want to leave the last bus. “fever”. oceans. • She is a teacher of English ( Not the only English teacher) • I have a feeling that he is lying ( Not the only feeling I have) • I have an idea that will save us.
pneumoniae samples in the U. and worldwide.a condition known as septicemia -. As of last May. with another 15 percent moderately so. which monitors
bacterial resistance at 70 medical centers in U. His doctor treats him with
antibiotics. (Pneumonia and influenza combined are country's sixth leading cause of death. are highly resistant. killing 82.S. but they have neglected that turns into
þÿ þÿ þÿ
þÿ þÿ þÿ
glass. your brother dies.) Or instead of
cold. such as
ear or prostate infection.and few days later. he has
infected cut that won't heal. and South America.S. less than 1 percent of S. Canada.
Far-fetched? It's not. By personally refusing -.SUMMATIVE EXERCISES (A. Not so long ago. pneumoniae samples showed any resistance to penicillin.
hassle. while thinking globally. We act locally. we can each take prolonging overall antibiotic effectiveness. an or the where necessary. It's time to bring
same consciousness to
health care as we face growing medical crisis: loss of antibiotic effectiveness against common bacterial illnesses.
Media reports have likely made you aware of this problem. resistance is at
all-time high (55 percent). Consider Streptococcus pneumoniae: This common bacterium often causes post-flu pneumonia. THE)
Fill in the blanks with a. researchers at Naval Medical Center in San Diego discovered that 22 percent of S.antibiotics for viral illnesses they won't cure. but bacteria are resistant to all of them. The infection enters his bloodstream -. pneumoniae samples were highly resistant to it. Today. or any other
common bacterial disease.
. antibiotics crisis is real. many of us resisted separating and paper out of our garbage.500 Americans in 1996. Your brother catches
sinus infection. And
most recent statistics from
Sentry Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. (Septicemia is what killed Muppets creator Jim Henson a few years ago.) Before 1980. AN. Europe. of course. cans.or not demanding -. show that 44 percent of S.
every second-grader knows that world's resources are limited and that recycling helps preserve them..
If doctors simply stopped prescribing antibiotics for conditions they know don't respond to them. pneumoniae are also now resistant to tetracycline. erythromycin consumption per capita dropped 43 percent. The solution is obvious: Doctors should prescribe antibiotics only as
þÿ þÿ þÿ
more likely it is for some lucky
bacterium blessed with minor genetic variation to survive antibiotic assault-and pass its resistance along to its offspring. when adults consult physicians for URIs and
bronchitis that often follows them.Strains of S. chloramphenicol. In early 1990s. Yet. In classic Darwinian fashion. Data from
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey show that
bronchitis and URIs account for third of nation's antibiotic prescriptions. Every doctor knows this. we'd instantly be well on our way to minimizing antibiotic resistance. From 1991 to 1992. assistant professor of medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver. according to infectious disease expert Joshua Lederberg of Rockefeller University in New York. And there's a "plausible risk" that we'll run out of options for treating other types of pneumonia as well. Antibiotics treat only bacterial infections and are completely powerless against viral illnesses. Finnish public health authorities responded to rising bacterial resistance to erythromycin by discouraging its use as a first-line treatment for certain infections.
not-too-distant future promises
failure of medicine's ability to treat broad range of bacterial infections -. according to recent study by Dr. Ralph Gonzalez.from urinary tract infections to meningitis to tuberculosis. and several other antibiotics. most notably by prescribing antibiotics for common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections (URIs).
This strategy works. By 1996. doctors prescribe antibiotics. bacterial resistance to antibiotic had been cut almost in half. clindamycin. But American doctors are doing
spectacularly lousy job of keeping their pens off their
prescription pads. more than half walk out
with prescription for antibiotic. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a direct outgrowth of the overuse of these drugs.
they say. demand antibiotics. There's another side to
þÿ þÿ þÿ
story: Doctors are trained that there's
pill for every ill (or there should be). All of their medical antibiotic prescription their kneeþÿ
education conspires to make
jerk reaction to any infection. Patients.
. reprinted with permission. March/April 1998.Why are doctors so ready to prescribe antibiotics? Physicians are quick to blame public. which may or may not have bacterial cause.
"Cold Comfort" by Michael Castleman from Mother Jones Magazine. and doctors are so terrified of malpractice suits they prescribe them to keep their customers happy and their lawyers at bay.
25. 19. a 8. 24. the 9. 13. 46. the 7. 14. 42. 41. 44. the 4. 30. a 3. 38. 37. 43. 22. 17. 34. 39. 40. 36. 29. 32. 11. the 2. a 6. 33. 18. 12. a 10. 27. 21. the 5. 26. 16. 35.
a the a a an an the the the the the the an the the a the the a a the the a the the a the a an the a an the the a an a
. 28.ANSWERS FOR THE EXERCISES 1. 20. 31. 15. 23. 45.