You are on page 1of 21

CALCULUS RESUME

Physics Department of Education Faculty of Mathematic and Science Ganesha University of Education 2011

By: Gde Parie Perdana Class A, Semester I 1113021059

CALCULUS SUMMARY
I. FUNCTION a. Definition of Function A function f is a matching rule that links each element x in a set, called the region of origin (domain), with a unique value f(x) of the second set, the set obtained in this way is called the outcome function (the codomain).

Example of Function If f is a function from A to B we write: f: A B Which means that f maps A to B. A is the area of origin (domain) of f and B is called the results (codomain) of f. A is a collection of things, such as numbers.

Here are some examples: Set of even numbers: {..., -4, -2, 0, 2, 4 ...} Set of odd numbers: {..., -3, -1, 1, 3, ...} Set of prime numbers: {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ...} Positive multiples of 3 that are less than 10: {3, 6, 9}

b. Domain, Codomain and Range

In this illustration:

The set "A" is the Domain,

The set "B" is the Codomain, And the set of elements that get pointed to in B (the actual values produced by the function) are the Range, also called the Image.

c. Sort of Function Elementary Function o Constant function Is the simplest function with the general form is y = a. Identity function is the function that the general form y = x. o Linear functions The general form is y = a + bx. Where a is a constant and b is coefficients. o Quadratic equation The general form of the quadratic equation is y = ax2 + bx + c. With a0. The letters of a, b and c are called coefficients: the quadratic coefficient a is the coefficient of x2, the linear coefficient b is the coefficient of x, and c is a constant coefficient also called interest-free. o Trigonometry functions Trigonometric functions are functions in the form of sine and cosine (trigonometric parameters). A simple example such as y= sin ax. o Polynomial function Polynomial function is a function that contains a lot of interest in the independent variables, has the form ( ) integer called the power of the polynomial. Rational Function The definition of a rational function is a quotient polynomial function. ( ) Implicit Function Implicit Function is a function of independent and the nondependent variables are placed on the same segment. . Where, n is a positive

Explicit Function Explicit Function is a function where the independent and the nondependent variables are at a different segment.

Parametric Function Parametric function is functions of the independent variables are bounded to other variables.

d. Two Special Functions Absolute Function The absolute function is even function. This function is defined by:
| | { }

Function of the largest integer The greatest integer is neither even function nor odd function. = largest integer, smaller or equal to x.

The graph of absolute function and function of the largest integer:

e. Operation of Functions A function is not same as a number but same as two numbers a and b can be add to get a new number a + b likewise to function f and g can be add to find new function f +g. If you have two functions f and g by the formula ( ) , ( )

. We can

make a new function (f + g), (f g), (f . g), and ( ) by giving value x to each of function. Suppose that f and g have natural domain so that each operation we can be defined:

Operation
( ( ( )( ) )( ) )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Domain [0,) [0,) [0,) (0,)

( ) ( )

f. Translation By observing how the function is formed from the simple, can help us to drawing the graph.

If we have the basic function ( ) | |, | | , and |

| |, then we can draw the graph of | by apply the concept of translation.

g. Trigonometry Function Trigonometric functions are functions in the form of sine and cosine (trigonometric parameters). A simple example such as The graph of sine and cosine .

Base on the graph above, we can get some points. 1. Both function and have the value in interval -1 until 1.

2. Both of the graphs repeated in contiguous interval as long as 2. 3. The graph of is symmetry to origin point, (0.0), meanwhile

is symmetry to the y axis (so, sine function is odd function and cosine function is even function). 4. The graph of the right. is same as , but has translation units to

h. Period and amplitude of trigonometric function A function is called to be periodic if there is number p so that: ( ) ( )
(

For all the members of real number x in domain of f. the smallest p the number like that called the period of f. the function of sine called be periodic because
)

for all of x. Its true if: ( )


( )

If the periodic functions of f get the maximum and minimum value we defined that the amplitude A is half of the distance between highest and lowest point.

i. Relation to Angle Trigonometry Angles are commonly measured either in degrees or in radius. One radian is by definition the angle corresponding to an arc of length 1 on the unit circle.

This leads to the results

j. Trigonometric Identity

II.

LIMIT a. Definition When we say that Then f(x) closes to L.


( )

it mean that x near c but not same as c.

b. Right and Left Limit Saying that


( )

its means that x near from right to c then f(x) near to


( )

L. Similarly, saying that not same as c then f(x) near to L.

its means that x near from left to c but

c. Rigorous Study of Limits To say that | |


( )

means that for each given such that


| ( ) |

(no matter how small) provided that

there is a corresponding .

d. Theorem of Limit Let n be a positive integer, k be a constant, and f and g be functions that have limits at c. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ( )
[ ( ) [ ( ) [ ( )
( ) ( )

( ) ( )] ( )] ( )]
( ) provided ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

[ ( )]
( )

( )] ( ), provided ( )

when n is even.

Example, if
*

( ) ( ) ( )+ ( )

and

( )

, find

( ) ( )+

= =[

( )

( )] .

( )

= [4]2. = 32

e. Trigonometry Limit

1. lim it

sin ax ax a lim it x 0 bx x 0 sin bx b tan ax ax a 2. lim it lim it x 0 bx x 0 tan bx b sin ax tan ax a 3. lim it lim it x 0 sin bx x 0 tan bx b sin ax tan ax a 4. lim it lim it tan bx x 0 sin bx b x0

f. Limit at Infinity Limit For example f defined at [c,) for some numbers of c. We say that for each there is number related to M so that | ( ) | ( ) if

Limit For example f defined at [c,) for some numbers of c. We say that if for each there is number related to M so that: ( ) ( )

g. Infinite Limit We say that corresponding ( ) such that ( ) if for every positive number M, there exists a

Example:

and

the graph is,

h. Asymptote We say that the line of x = c is the vertical asymptote of from the four formula is true. 1. 2. 3. 4.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) if one or more

Likewise the line of


( )

is the horizontal asymptote of the graph of


( )

( ) if

atau

i. Continuity at one point If f has a definition in an open interval which is contain c. We say that f continue at c if
( )

( ). By this definition we want to give three conditions:


( )

1. There is

2. There is ( )(where c consisted in the domain of f). 3.


( ) ( )

j. Continuity on an interval We say that f continue at an open interval (a,b) if f continue at every points in the interval. f continue at an close interval [a,b] if f : 1. Continue at (a,b) 2. 3.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

III. DERIVATIVE a. Gradients Tangent line is a line that touches a curve at only one point. The slope of the tangent line is a derivative of the curve that is in contact with the tangent line.
( )

( )

Tangent line the curve y = f (x) at point P (c, f (c)) is the line through P with slope.
( )

( )

b. Derivative The derivative of a function f (x) is another function f '(x) whose value on any number c is
( )
( )

( )

or

( )

( )

( )

c. Law of Derivative The constant function rule, if ( ) ( ) . ( ) .


( )

with k a constant, then for any x,

The identity function rule, if f(x), then The powers rule, if ( )

, where n is a positive integer, then

Constant Multiple Rule, if k is a constant and f is a function which in differentiation, then (


)( )

( )

Sum rule, if f and g is functions which in differentiation, then


( )( ) ( )

( )

Difference rule, if f and g is functions which in differentiation, then


( )( ) ( )

( )
)( )

Product rule, if f and g is functions which in differentiation, then (


( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ,

Quotient rule, if f and g is functions which in differentiation with ( ) then


( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

d. Derivative of trigonometry function There are several formulas derived in the sine and cosine functions. ( ( ( ( ( ( e. Leibniz Notation for the Derivative Suppose now that the independent variable change from x to x + x. the corresponding change in the dependent variable, y, will be ( ) ( ) And the ratio
( ) ( )

) ) ) ) ) )

In addition, there is also a more specializes.

Represents the slope of a secant line though (x,f(x)), as show in graph below. y f(x+ ) (x, ( ))

F(x)

(x,f(x))

x+

as

0, the slope of this second line approached that of the tangent line, and

for this letter slope of this secant line approaches that of the tangent line, and for this letter slope we use the symbol . Thus, ( f. The Chain Rule Facilitate the functioning of the chain rule decrease the degree of the polynomial function. Suppose if differentiable in ( ) dan ( ). If g differentiable in x and f , defined by (
)( )

( )

( )

( ), then composite function


)( )

( ( )) differentiable in x and ( g. Higher Derivatives Notation for derivatives Derivative First Second Third Fourth n-th Notation f ( ) ( ) ( )
( )

( ( )) ( )

( ) Notation y Notation D Leibniz Notation

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

h. Implicit differentiation To derivative the implicit function we have to use implicit differentiation, as an example of a function
( )

. By using the chain rule, we obtain:


( )

Thus, the implicit function derivative is ( )

IV. APPLICATION OF DERIVATIVE a. Maxima and Minima

Suppose that S is the domain of f, which have within c point. We can say that: 1. 2. 3. ( ) is maximum value f on S, if ( ) is minimum value f on S, if ( ) is extreme value f on S, if ( ) ( ) ( ) for all x in S; ( ) for all x in S;

( ) is maximum or minimum value

4. The function we want maximize or minimize is objective function. If f continue at close interval [ ], then f achieve maximum or minimum value in

there. Suppose that f is an interval I which contain c point. If ( ) is extreme value, then c must be critical point; that is c must be one of: 1. Tip point of I; 2. Stationery point of f, that is a point where 3. Singular point of f, that is a point where
( )

; or

( ) does not exist.

b. The Monotony and Concavity Suppose f is defined on interval I (open, close or neither). We say that: 1. f is increasing I if, for ever pair of number x1 and x2 in I. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. f is decreasing I if, for ever pair of number x1 and x2 in I. 3. f is strictly monotonic on I if f is either increasing on I or decreasing on I.

c. Monotonicity Theorem Suppose f continuous on an interval I and differentiable at every interior point of I. 1. If 2. If
( ) ( )

for all x interior to I, then f is increasing on I. for all x interior to I, then f decreasing on I.

d. The Second Law and Concavity Suppose f differentiable on an open interval I. We say that f (as well as its graph) is concave up on I if f is increasing on I, and we say that f is concave down on I if f is decreasing on I.

e. Concavity Theorem Suppose that f be twice differentiable on the open interval I. 1. If 2. If


( ) ( )

for all x in I, then f is concave up on I. for all x in I, then f is concave down on I.

f. Inflection Points Let f be continuous at c. we call (c,f(c)) an inflection point of the graph of f if f is concave up on one side and concave down on the other side. Below is the graph.

g. Local Extreme Global maximum value is the simply the largest of the local maximum values. Similarly, the global minimum value is the smallest of the local minimum values. Let S, the domain of f, contains the point c. We say that: 1. ( ) is a local maximum value of f if there is an interval (a,b) containing c such that ( ) is the maximum value of f on ( 2. such that ( ) is the minimum value of f on ( 3. ) ) ; ( ) is a local minimum value of f if there is an interval (a,b) containing c ; ( ) is a local extreme value of f if it is either a local maximum or a local minimum value.

h. First and Second Derivative Test To proof the graph we can use the first derivative of function. Let f be continuous on an open interval (a,b) that contains a critical point c. 1. If
( )

for all x in (a,c) and

( )

for all x in (c,b), then ( ) is a local

maximum value of f. 2. If
( )

for all x in (a,c) and

( )

for all x in (c,b), then ( ) is a local

minimum value of f. 3. If
( ) has the same sign on both sides of c, then

( ) is not a local extreme

value of f. Besides the first derivative of function, there is another test for local maxima and minima that is sometimes easier to apply. It is the second derivative at the

stationary points. Let

and

exist at every point in an open interval (a,b)


( )

containing c, and suppose that 1. If 2. If


( ) ( )

, then ( ) is a local maximum value of I. , then ( ) is a local minimum value of I.

i. Example sophisticated graph