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DECLARATION I Masauso Msoni, declare that this dissertation is my own work and to my knowledge it has not previously been

submitted for any other degree at this or any other University.

CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL This dissertation by Masauso Msoni is approved as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Master of Education in Environmental Education degree of the University of Zambia

Examiner. Sign Date

Examiner. Sign Date..

Examiner. Sign. Date.


DEDICATION This work is especially dedicated to my dearest wife Ruth Msoni and my children; Lindiwe. Chubo, Khondwani, Dalitso and Ethel, for their love, shared with me the challenges and hardships during my studies at the University of Zambia. I thank them all immeasurably for their moral support and understanding when I could not avail myself as much as I should have done during the period of my study. To you all, this is the reward of your endurance. I love you all.


ABSTRACT In this study the aim was to investigate the extent of environmental education teaching and learning as well as integration of environmental issues in the Zambian Mathematics curriculum. The aim of the present study was to find out the integration and frequency of environmental issues and topics in the pedagogic text which constitutes the structure of the curriculum. The study involved some selected Lusaka urban based schools since the study was motivated by the needed to improve curriculum relevance in Lusaka urban district schools through contextualized teaching and learning based on environmental issues affecting our society today and schools in this context play an important role in the formation of pupils positive attitudes towards the environment. The studys aim was to provide insight into and better understanding of the curriculum implementation process regarding environmental education in Lusaka urban education context. This was done by analyzing the extent of environmental education integration ion in curriculum documents which constitutes the structure of the pedagogic system in this education sector. The items which were analysed included National Mathematics curriculum documents grades 1 to 12, selected Mathematics textbooks grades 112 and various school documents, activities and practices. The analysis also involved qualitative data done through SPSS (Questionnaires), interviews with educators, curriculum specialists and classroom/CPC observations of Mathematics lessons. The study revealed that there are a number of environmental topics integration both in theory and practical activities, but the way they appear does not help pupils to develop positive activities towards the environment for example; the results revealed a very high overall level of environmental issues integration in Mathematics curriculum documents produced by CDC at National level. The overall level of environmental issues integration was also found to be very high in the primary school section grades 1 to 7 Mathematics textbooks that were analysed, but very low in the secondary school section grades 8 to 12 Mathematics textbooks. The conclusion derived from the above information illustrates the existent preference for bio-diversity; since there were several reports concerning flora and fauna without, however, referring to the subject of animal and plant extinction. Moreover, the study further revealed that there were also many findings concerning particular types of trees in the textbooks that did not give sufficient attention to the dangers that forests face as ecosystems, such as deforestation and conflagration. iv

Some references in the finding made to issues such as animal extinction, oil consumption and its effects, deforestation highlight only the Mathematical dimension of the exercise without drawing the learners attention to environmental issues. The study makes a number of recommendations towards effective integration of environmental education issues into the curriculum of Lusaka urban based schools which include more specific and explicit reference to environmental education in the official Mathematics curriculum documents, the provision of environmental education short courses to teachers of Mathematics, teachers should receive more substantive preparation in the classroom use of textbooks and other education materials should be peer reviewed in the preparation stage so that input from scientists, economists and other experts in environmental studies may be developed and included at least in the high school also regular monitoring of teachers work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Declaration . Certificate of approval Dedication. . Acknowledgement Abstract.. Table of Contents. List of Tables. List of figures. Acronyms CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction1 1.1 Background.1 1.2 Statement of the problem..4 1.3 Purpose of the study5 1.4 Objectives of the study 5 1.5 Research questions..6 1.6 Significance of the study.6 1.7 Theoretical framework.7 1.8 Operational definitions 7 1.9 Conclusion..9 CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Introduction10 2.1 Defining Environmental Education.10 2.2 Goals of Environmental education..12 2.3.0 Approaches to environmental education 14 2.3.1 Environmental education as Conservation message..14

2.3.2 Environmental education as science education..14 2.3.3 Environmental education as nature experience..15 2.3.4 Environmental education as socially critical education 15 2.3.5 Environmental education for sustainable development 15 2.4 National policy of Education in Zambia.16 2.5 The Zambian education system and environmental education..17 2.6 Defining curriculum..18 2.7 Curriculum integration.19 2.7.1 Separate discipline approach.21 2.7.2 Discipline-based approach..21 2.7.3 Inter-disciplinary approach.21 2.7.4 Total integration approach..21 2.8 Curriculum integration in Zambia22 2.9 Curriculum relevance in Zambia..23 2.10 Specific subjects of the curriculum. 25 2.11 Nature of the curriculum in Zambia26 2.11.1 Subjects at Grade 1 to 4 levels 26 2.11.2 Subjects at Grade 5 to 7 levels 27 2.11.3 Subjects at Grade 8 to 9 levels 27 2.11.4 Subjects at Grade 10 to 12 levels 27 2.13 The Role of Mathematics in Environmental Education.27 2.14 Integration of Environmental Education into Mathematics Topics28 2.15 Conclusion32 CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Introduction..33 3.1 Research design..33

3.2 Study site..33 3.4 Sample size 34 3.6 Value and richness to the research..35 3.7 Data collection instruments 35 3.7.1 Self Administered Questionnaires for teachers of Mathematics.36 3.7.2 Interviews..36 3.7.3 Observation..37 3.7.4 Content analysis.39 3.7.5 Focus Group Discussions40 3.8 Data Analysis..41 3.9 Ethical issues..43 3.10 Limitations of the study 44 3.11 Conclusion44 CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Introduction..46 4.1 Description of the sample 46 4.2 Background characteristics of teachers of Mathematics..48 4.3 Environmental literacy among teachers.51 4.4 Environmental topics in the Mathematics textbooks.53 4.5 Integration of environmental concepts in schools...55 4.5.1 Teaching.56 4.5.2 Lesson observation.57 4.5.3 School vision/Mission Statement.57 4.5.4 Environmental Education Clubs...59 4.5.5 Environmental days..60 4.5.6 Green school60 4.6 The analysis of the Mathematics syllabuses 61 4.6.1 Mathematics syllabus grades 1-761

4.6.3 Mathematics syllabus grades 8-963 4.6.4 Mathematics High School syllabus grades 10-12..65 4.7 The Analysis of the grade 1-12 Mathematics textbooks..68 4.7.1 Illustrations.68 4.7.2 Examples.74 4.7.3 Exercises.77 CHAPTER FIVE 4.0 Introduction.82 4.1 Teachers of Mathematics and Environmental education.82
4.2 83

Environmental topics and concepts in the Mathematics textbook

4.3 Integration of Environmental concepts.84 4.4 The analysis of the syllabuses.85 4.5 The Analysis of textbooks.86 CHAPTER SIX 6.0



Mathematics Mathematics

Conclusions and Recommendations..88

REFERENCES Ahuvia, A. (2001). Traditional, interpretive and reception based content analysis: Improving the ability of content analysis to address issues of pragmatic and theoretical concerns. Retrieved June 20, 2010, from 32062 x 4 h 78 q 52/full text. pelf Beane, J.N (1995). Curriculum integration and the disciplines of Knowledge. Phi, Delta Kappan. 76(8), 616-626. Berg, B.L (Ed.). (2004). Qualitative research method for the Social Sciences (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Brenner, M.E (2001). Arithmetic Achievement: Results from Standardized Testing. Centre for Development of Early Education: Honolulu. Bos, W. & Tarnai, C. (1999) Content analysis in empirical social research. International Journal of Educational Research 31(8), 659-671. Cherrett, J.M. (1989) Key concepts: The results of a survey of members opinion. In J.M. Cherret (Ed._) Ecological concepts. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific. Churchill (1987) Cohen et al (2007). Research Methods in Education (5th ed.). London: Routledge Falmer. Creswell, J.W. (Ed.). (2003). Research design, qualitative, quantitative and mixed method approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. D Ambrosio (2001)

Dexter (1970). Ekpenyoung, L.E (1970). Towards a systems approach to the integration of the Nigerian Junior Secondary School business studies curriculum. Journal of vocational Education and Training. 49 (2), 267-281 James, K.R., edt all (2000) Integrating Sc iwence, Mathematics and technology in middle school technology-rich environments: A study of implementation and changed. School Science and Mathematics, 100, 27-35. Jones, L. & Somekh B. (2006). Observations. In B. Somekh & C. Lewin (Eds.), Research methods in the Social Science (pp. 138-145). London: Sage. Kyburz-Graberf. R. (1999)). Environmental education as critical education: How teachers and studies handle the challenge. Cambridge Journal of Education, 29(3), 415-432. Kysilka, M.L. (1998). Understanding integrated curriculum. The curriculum journal, 9 (2), 192-209. Le Grange & Reddy (1999) Lloyd & Blane (1996) Lotz (1998) Lotz-Sistka (2002) Lotz-Sistka, H (2004). Positioning Southern African environmental education in a changing content. Howick, share-Net/SADC REEP. Merrian, S.B. (Ed.) (w2005). Qualitative research h and case study aspplication in education San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers Mc Namara (1999) Ministry of Education, (1996). Educating our Future. National P:olicy on Education Lusaka. Government Printers Ministry od Education, (2006) Statistical Bulletin, Lusaka: Golden Touch Graphical Printers Ltd.

Ministry of Education, (2003) Zambia Basic Education Syllabi 1-7, Lusaka: CDC Ministry of Education (2001 Teachers curriculum Mannual, Lusaka: Printpak Ministry of Education (2005) Basic Education Syllabus Grades 8-9, Lusaka: CDC Ministry of Education (1997) Mathematics High School Syllabus Grades 10-12, Lusaka: CDC Munson, B.H (1994). Ecological misconceptions. The Journal of Environmental Educ ation, 25 (40), 30-34. ODonoghue, R (2007). Environment and Sustainable development in a changing South Africa: A critical historical analysis of the outline of Schemes for defining and guiding learning outcomes. South African Journal of Environmental Education, 24, 141-157. OLeary, Z (2004). The Essential guide to doing research. London: Pion. Orr, D.W (1992). Ecological literacy: Education and the Transition to a post modern world: Albany, NY: SUNNY Press. Patton 1990) Porter 1996) Robson (1993) Sauve L. (1999) Sauve L. (2005). Current in environmental education mapping a complex and evolving pedagogical field: Canada Journal of Environmental Education, 10, 11-37. Schulze, S. (2005). Philosophical position in environmental education, Pretoria, van Schaik Publishers. Schumacher (1997) Silverman, D. (2004). Qualitative research: Theory, method and practice. London: Sage

Spiropoulou D., Kostopoulos D., and Jakobides C.P. (1997) Weather phenomena in the Greek national curriculum: an experiement in teaching meteorology. Weather, 52 (9), 282-286. Sterling, S. (1995). Towards a Sustainable Europe. Environmental Education, 48, 6-7. Stevenson, R.B (2007). Schooling and environmental Education: Contradictions in purpose and practice. IKn I. Robottom (Ed). Practice and possibility (pp. 69-82) Victoria, Deakin University Printery. Stipex et al (1997) Strydorm et al (1988) UNESCO (2002) UNESCO-UNEP (1978) Usher, R & Scott, D (Eds.). (1999). Researching education: Data, methods and theory in education inquiry, London: Continuum. Venville et al (2001). Curriculum integration: Eroding the high ground of Science as a school subject? A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Fremantle, Western Australia, December 2-6, 2001. Watt, D.M and Gilbert, J.K (1985). Appraising the understanding of Science concepts: Heat Guidford: Dedpartment of Education Studies University of Survey. Yin R.K (Ed) (2003). Case study research: Design and methods: Applied Social research methods (3rd ed). Thousand Oaks: Sage.


DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH AND GRADUATE STUDIES MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION A Questionnaire on the role of environmental education in Zambian Mathematics curriculum. Dear Respondent, I am a postgraduate student at the University of Zambia. I am conducting a research on the role of environmental education in Zambian Mathematics curriculum. You have been purposefully chosen to participate in filling in the questionnaire. Please kindly answer the questions as honestly as possible and keep in mind that there are no right or wrong answers in this study. There are only your through responses that will make this study successful. Be assured that your response will be confidentially kept. Thank you (a) (b) (c) Please answer the following questions by ticking [ appropriate one from your point of view. Where not applicable indicate N/A For open-ended questions, please write your response in the space provided. ] the most

SECTION A: General and personal information 1. 2. Name of school.. Your age

3. 4. 5. 6.

Your sex [ ] male [ ] female What is your highest professional qualification? [ ] master degree holder [ ] First degree [ ] Advanced diploma [ ] Diploma [ } certificate Name of institution professional qualification obtained . Do you belong to any environmental organization? [ ] Yes [ ] No 1

SECTION B: Education of Mathematics/Environmental Education Curriculum 7. Have you ever participated in any organized environmental activities (e.g environmental education workshops, environmental conservation conferences, outdoor learning etc) either in or ouside of school? [ ] Yes [ ] No From the year you last obtained your higher qualification, have you ever attended any training course related to Mathematic/ Environmental issues? [ ] Yes [ ] No If Yes briefly state the nature of the course attended, where the course was held and when? (i) Nature of the course attended. (ii) Place where the course was held (iii) Year the course was held. 10. Have you ever been invited by the curriculum developers to review or integrate environmental education in the Mathematics syllabus? [ ] Yes [ ] No Are there any environmental topics found in the mathematics textbook you are using? [ ] Yes [ ] No If topics are found, how many are there?..






Are there any practical exercises in the Mathematics textbook you are using, which bring out environmental issues? e.g. such exercise:(i) If the average amount of daily garbage collected in Lusaka city is 300 tons, and the standard deviation is 20 tons, find the probability that the amount of garbage collected on a specified day will be more than 320 tons. (ii) Or any topics in the exercise which help pupils learn how to calculate or count amount of food.


2 Or any diagrams in the exercise which have environmental interest, such as population density, food, trees, birds and water pollution. [ ] Yes [ ] No As a teacher how innovative are you? Do you incorporate environmental ecological principles in your teaching? [ ] Yes [ ] No What is the Mission Statement of your school?



16. 17.

As a school, do you celebrate environmental days? [ ] Yes [ ] No Are there environmental clubs at the school? [ ] Yes [ ] No

SECTION C: Concepts on environmental issues Please read the following question and circle the one appropriate number that best reflects your perception on each item. How much concepts do you feel you know about the following environmental issues? 18. Resource recycling None 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 A great Deal 5 5 6 6

19. Water disposal 20. Energy shortage 21. Water pollution. 22. Traffic jam 23. Air pollution 24. Climate change 25. Loss of natural resources (e.g. Deforestation, loss of biodiversity And habitats)..

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6 6 6

Thank you for sparing you precious time and for your willing cooperation to participate in this research.

3 APPENDIC 2: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR HEADTEACHERS UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA DIRECTORATE OF RESEARCH AND GRADUATE STUDIES MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AN INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR HEADTEACHERS I am a student at the University of Zambia currently studying for a Masters Degree in Environmental Education. I am researching on the role of environmental education in the Zambian Mathematics curriculum. Whatever information that I shall collect will be treated with the highest level of confidentiality. 1. PROFILE OF THE SCHOOL History Enrolment Pass rates Funding Major challenges PROFILE OF THE INTERVIEWEE Educational background Training in environmental education



Experience in teaching environmental education

ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING AT THE SCHOOL Vision and Mission Statements Schools environmental policy Purchase and of environment education resources Use of school time a space for environmental activities -school garden -participation in the Eco-school programme -celebration of environmental days -environmental clubs at the school


2. Lesson objective

3. Questions asked by the teacher

4. Environmental concepts mentioned By teacher

5. Types of resources used during lesson

6. Drawings written on board

7. Notes written on board

8. Assessment questions set.




A dissertation submitted to the University of Zambia in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Master of Education in Environmental Education


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2215 IH 45

Definitions of common fence terms use to classify fence chargers. - Fence Mileage Guide - Grounding Recommendations - How do joule ratings reflect your chargers performance


Important safety hints I. How to install your fence charger II. Operating instructions for solar installation III. How electric fencing works IV. Trouble shooting guide V. Radio & television interference VI. Lightning & surge protection VII. Helpful fence building hints

IMPORTANT SAFETY HINTS! 1. To reduce risk of electrical shock do not remove CAUTION cover. Refer to service personnel. 2. Never electrify barbed wire! The barbs may injure animals if they become tangled in the fence. 3. Use "1 amp/250V" fuses only. If fuses higher than 1 amp or lower than 250V are used, they can damage a fence controller and void your warranty. Fence controllers that are protected with replaceable fuses use external fuse holders. If there is no external fuse holder, there is no fuse to replace. 4. Always disconnect battery-powered fence controllers from the battery before recharging the battery. Failure to do so may damage your fence controller and battery charger, and void your warranty. 5. Never run more than one fence controller on the same fence line at one time. The pulses of short shock solid state fence controllers will be too close together and may be hazardous to animals and people. It will also damage your fence controllers. 6. Never alter the design of a fence controller or substitute components. This could be hazardous to you and will void the warranty. 7. Instruct all persons how to disconnect a fence controller in case of emergency. Post signs on electric fences along public roads or near residences. 8. Never disconnect wires or approach a fence during lightning storms. 9. "WARNING" Risk of electric shock! Do not connect an electric fence to any other device such as a cattle trainer or a poultry trainer. Otherwise lightning striking your fence will be conducted to all other devices. 10. To reduce the risk of electric shock, an AC line operated fence controller has a polarized plug (one blade is wider than the other). This plug will fit in a polarized outlet only one way. If the plug does not fit fully in the outlet, reverse the plug, if it still does not fit, contact a qualified electrician to install the proper outlet. Do not change the plug in any way. 11. Never connect a DC fencer to an AC power supply. 12. Always check your fencer and fence line for voltage once installation is complete. The fence OK light will flash when power is on the fence. The fencer OK light operates continuously with the continuous current fencers that are equipped with



THE SEVEN SINS OF FENCE CONTROLLER INSTALLATIONS 1. An insufficient ground system for the fence controller. (Refer to Step 2 of the installation instructions.) 2. Stray voltage may occur when the fence controller ground system is located within 50 ft. of a utility ground, buried water pipe, or buried telephone wire. (Refer to Step 2 of the installation instructions and Radio Interference Section.) 3. Inadequately insulated lead-out wire and jumper wires (wire must be insulated to 20,000V minimum). (Refer to Step 1 of the installation instructions.) 4. The ground wire is not adequately insulated and is located 20 ft. or more from fence controller. (Refer to Step 2 of the installation instructions.) 5. Inferior connections and splices of the fence wire, ground wire, lead-out wire, and jumper wires. (Refer to Step 3 of the installation instructions.) 6. Substandard fence wire insulation: cracked insulators, poor quality insulators, water hose, plastic tubing, or the use of wood posts without insulators. (Refer to Step 3 of the installation instructions.) 7. The fence controller is underpowered for the condition of the fence being energized (i.e., rain, snow, ice, vegetation, rusty wire, and length of fence). (Refer to "How Electric Fencing Works" in this manual.)


Grounding Instructions: This controller must be grounded. If it should malfunction or break down, grounding reduces the risk of electrical shock by providing a path of low resistance for the electric current. AC line operated controllers are provided with a polarized 2-blade attachment plug for use on a 120-volt circuit. The plug must be inserted into an appropriate outlet that is properly installed in accordance with all local codes and


Grounding of this product is provided by a properly installed ground rod electrically connected to the fence controller output ground terminal. An internal fault on an improperly grounded fence controller could result in a risk of high electric shock currents on the electrified fence.

DANGER - For an AC line operated fence controller, do not modify the plug provided with the controller if it will not fit the outlet; have a proper outlet installed by a qualified electrician. If it is necessary to use an extension cord, use only a polarized extension cord that will accept the plug for the unit. Repair or replace a damaged cord. STEP 1 Install your fence controller under cover and protect all electrical connections from moisture. The fence controller lead-out wire carries voltage from the (hot) fence terminal to the fence. A jumper wire carries voltage from one electrified fence line to another (i.e., gates, buried wire, corners, and multiple wire fence systems). Use insulted cable that is manufactured for electric fencing (10 to 14 gauge wire insulated to 20,000 volts). Do not use common electrical wiring; it is only rated for 600 volt use.

STEP 2 Install at least one 6 ft. galvanized or copper ground rod within 20 ft. of the fence controller. Use a ground rod clamp to attach the insulated ground wire to the ground rod

(clamp must bite into rod and ground wire). The ground wire should be 10 to 14 gauge wire and insulated from 600V to 20,000 volts. For best results, install three ground rods into the earth 6 ft. deep, spaced 10ft. apart. If possible, install ground rods in areas of constant moisture.

STEP 3 Do not install ground rods within 50 ft. of a utility ground rod, buried telephone line, or buried water-line (they may pick up stray voltage). This is evident if you receive pulsing shocks from water spigots or water tanks or if you hear the pulse of the fence controller in your phone, television, or radio.

Step 4 Make good connections, using wire clamps, wire connectors, and proper splices (refer to drawings). Simply wrapping the wire loosely causes corrosion at the splice and reduces the power on the fence. Use high quality insulators, gate handles, and insulator wrap, with UV (ultra violet) inhibitors for your fence. If using metal fence posts, make sure fence wires cannot touch the post. There are specific types of wood posts designed for electric fence use without insulators. Illustrations of different types of knots and connectors for electric fence

The solar powered fence controller eliminates repetitious battery recharging and replacement and reduces costs by utilizing free energy from the sun. Its unique design collects and stores the sun's energy during both sunny and cloudy weather conditions. It will retain its full charge through 15 days of total darkness thereby keeping maximum shock on your fence line at all times. This completely portable SOLAR POWERED fence controller is designed for easy installation. The SOLAR PANEL is mounted at the proper angle to ensure maximum year-round energy collection. It is IMPORTANT to mount your unit in a location that receives full sunlight throughout the entire day and to fasten it securely to prevent turning and shifting. Its solid state circuit has excellent high/low temperature characteristics which are unaffected by changes in the weather for maximum output voltage on the fence wire. Installing Your Solar Powered Fence Controller STEP 1 Face the SOLAR PANEL towards the noontime sun. Due south in the northern hemisphere. STEP 2 Connect the lead-out wire to the fence terminal and connect the ground wire to the ground terminal. STEP 3 SOLAR REGION SETTING: (For solar fencers that have a solar setting switch). Solar fencer installations north of the line on the solar setting map, have less useable sunlight each day when compared to installations south of the line. For optimum performance throughout the year, installations north of the line on the map should slide the solar setting switch to the northern region setting (far left position). Installations south of the line on the map should use the southern region setting (far right position). If you can't determine if your installation is north or south of the line on the solar setting map, use the northern region setting (far left position). Failure to use the proper solar region setting will limit the solar fencers battery life and void your warranty. For solar fencers not equipped with a solar setting switch, slide the 2 position switch to the on position. The operating light should flash with each pulse of electricity that is sent to the fence

FOR BEST PERFORMANCE: After installing your new solar fence controller, slide the switch to the "OFF" position. This allows the sun to charge the solar fence controller battery. Let the solar battery charge for three full days. BATTERY MAINTENANCE: Repeat the above three day charging process each time the fence controller is placed in storage or taken out of storage. DO NOT store out of direct sunlight for periods of more than 3 months without first repeating the battery charging procedure or the battery may fail. IMPORTANT: DO NOT CHARGE THE SOLAR POWERED ELECTRIC FENCE CONTROLLER BATTERY WITH AN AUTOMOBILE BATTERY CHARGER. THIS WILL DAMAGE THE BATTERY. A TRICKLE CHARGER SHOULD BE USED TO MAINTAIN THE BATTERY WHEN THE FENCE CONTROLLER IS NOT IN USE FOR PERIODS EXCEEDING 3 MONTHS. CAUTION! DO NOT ALLOW THE BATTERY TO CHARGE OVER 18 HOURS WITH A TRICKLE CHARGER!

SOLAR PANEL MAINTENANCE: In the instance that battery replacement becomes necessary be sure to CLEAN the solar panel. However, under EXTREMELY DUSTY conditions the solar panel should be cleaned periodically with a soft cloth and water without detergent or abrasive cleaners. A clean solar panel will operate at maximum efficiency.


Electric fencing is a "fear" barrier that uses safe electric shock to deter animals. In order for an animal to feel a shock, the voltage produced by the fence controller must be high enough to penetrate the animal's hair, hide, and hoof. Once the voltage is high enough to deliver a shock, electricity must travel through the fence wire. It then flows through the animal that is touching the fence and into the soil the animal is standing on. The electricity then travels through the moist soil back to the ground rods. From the ground rods the electricity flows through the ground wire that is attached to the fence controller's ground terminal. The circuit is completed and the animal feels the shock instantly.

A good ground system will pick up most of the electricity conducted by the animal and send it to the fence controller. Poor grounding can cause interference on telephone lines, in radios, and on televisions. You may also receive a shock from metal cased fence controller or ground rod when it is not grounded properly.

In very dry climates (dry sandy soil) and cold climates (snow covered or frozen soil) an alternative fence installation must be used. This fence system implements the use of a ground wire running parallel to your hot wire. This ground wire should be grounded every 1,300 ft. with 6 ft. galvanized steel or copper ground rods. This fence installation is no longer dependent on good soil conditions and will carry the electricity back to the fence controller's ground system when livestock contact the hot and ground wires simultaneously.


Even the best-built electric fences have problems from time to time. The best time to discover and fix the problem is before your livestock get loose. Use a volt meter designed to test an electric fence or a five light fence tester to check the fence every day. When the voltage drops drastically (Remember: Although wet insulators from rain or snow will cause fence voltage to drop, the proper fence controller with correct installation techniques will perform satisfactorily) take the following steps. . . STEP 1 FENCE CONTROLLER DOES NOT OPERATE, CHECK THE FUSES a. Some fence controllers do not have fuses. Replaceable fuses can be replaced if there are fuse holders located on the exterior of the fence controller cabinet. b. If fuses are blown, replace them with "1 amp/250V" fuses. Plug the fence controller in. If the fuses blow instantly the fence controller must be serviced. Should the fence controller operate for several hours before blowing a fuse there is a problem with your fence installation, go on to Step 2. c. If fuses are O.K. and the fence controller does not operate, go on to Step 2

STEP 2 CHECK THE POWER SOURCE: Unplug the fence controller or disconnect the battery clamps from the battery, before checking power source. a. A fence controller that operates on 115VAC must have a power source ranging from 105VAC to 125VAC. b. A 12 volt battery fence controller should have a power source of 12 volts minimum when testing. c. The 6 volt or 6/12 volt battery fence controllers should have a power source of 6 volts minimum when testing.
Note: for best results use a deep cycle battery rated at 85 amp hrs or more.

STEP 3 CHECK THE FENCE CONTROLLER FOR OUTPUT: Use a volt meter designed to test electric fence controller output. Ask your local farm store for this product.

If a volt meter is unavailable you can use a screwdriver as a "gross check" for voltage output. Disconnect the hot lead-out wire from your fence controller. Do not remove your ground wire. Using a screwdriver with an insulated handle, draw an arc between the hot terminal and the ground terminal. The length of the spark gaps are listed below for your use. This is not an accurate method to test your fence controller, but it will indicate whether or not your fence controller's output is reasonable.

The 115VAC solid state fence controllers have a typical spark gap of 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch The battery & solar fence controllers have a typical spark gap of 1/16 inch to 3/16 inch The weed chopper fence controllers have a typical spark gap of 1/32 inch to 1/16 inch The continuous current fence controllers have a typical spark gap of 1/32 inch to 1/16 inch

If the fence controller output is low your fence controller should be serviced. If the output is O.K. go on to Step 4.

STEP 4 IF THE FENCE CONTROLLER OUTPUT AND POWER SOURCE ARE NORMAL, CHECK THE FENCE INSTALLATION a. Reconnect the hot lead-out wire (which was disconnected in Step 3) to the fence terminal. Then disconnect the lead-out wire at the fence and check for voltage. If the voltage is good the lead-out wire is O.K. If the voltage is low, you must replace the lead-out wire. Use AFW hookup wire rated at 20,000V. Go on to Step 4b. b. Reconnect the lead-out wire and disconnect all fences that run off the main fence and check the voltage. If the voltage is low, the problem lies in the main fence. If the voltage is O.K., reconnect fences, checking voltage as each fence is added. Voltage should remain steady or show a slight drop until you connect the fence causing the problem. Then the voltage will drop drastically or the fence will short out completely. c. Once you determine which fence or section of fence is causing the problem, walk the fence line looking for shorts. Look carefully at corners and gates, and where the fence comes close to other fences. Pay close attention to insulators and connections, listen for telltale snapping sounds that indicate electrical shorting. d. Vegetation or rust on the fence is the most common cause of voltage loss. Even highpower, low impedance fence chargers lose voltage when enough weeds and grass touch the fence (especially when wet). Spraying herbicide under any type of fence is good management, particularly under electric fence. Rust on the fence wires acts like an insulator and will not transfer the electric shock to the animal. If your fence wire is rusty replace it.


The fence controller ground system must be sufficient-see grounding illustration.

The fence controller ground system must be at least 50 ft. away from the utility ground and buried water pipes. The fence controller MUST NOT be connected to the AC utility ground rod or water pipe. The fence controller ground wire should not touch buildings which can act as a broadcast antenna. Use insulated cable (10 to 14 gauge wire insulated from 600V to 20,000V) or high quality electric fence insulators to isolate the ground wire. Place the fence controller and its ground system at least 50 ft. away from radios and buried telephone wires. Avoid running electric fence parallel to power lines or telephone lines. Use top quality insulators. Poor quality insulators arc when they crack or become weather checked; this arcing causes radio interference. To locate shorts, poor splices, broken wires, and faulty insulators, walk the fence line with a transistor radio tuned off the station on the AM band and on high volume. The radio will click louder as you approach an arcing insulator.


Lightning is one of the main causes of fence controller failure. There are some precautions you can take against lightning and AC power surges. Disconnect the controller from the fence line and power source when storms are near. (Caution: never disconnect or approach a fence during a lightning storm.) Install a lightning diverter (commonly referred to as a lightning arrestor) between the fence and the fence controller. This will divert the electricity from lightning strikes induced on to the fence to the earth before it does any damage to the controller. Lightning diverters do not arrest or stop the flow of current from a lightning strike, they direct the flow of current into the ground when properly installed. lightning diverter, is recommended for all types of fence controllers. You can also protect 105-125VAC fence controllers from electrical surges on the utility side by installing a surge suppressor. The suppressor is plugged into the outlet and the controller is plugged into the suppressor. Surge suppressor will protect from surges up to 6,000 volts and has a response time of less than 5 nano seconds. A quick way of disconnecting the fence from the controller before storms occur would be installing an Cut Off Switch. It also makes it convenient for working on a fence line. You don't have to unplug the fencer at the power source. Using these types of protection will minimize the possibility of your controller being damaged from lightning or power surges, but if you live in an area of frequent electrical storms be sure to have a spare fence controller as a back up.

LIGHTNING DIVERTER INSTALLATION This lightning diverter helps protect your fence controller from damage due to lightning on the fence line. INSTALLATION 1. For a single wire fence, connect the lightning diverter to the fence wire before mounting on to the fence post. Unscrew the top nut from the lightning diverter, removing the washer and nut. Position the lightning diverter against mounting post

with the fence wire passing through the split nut at the top of the lightning diverter shield. Tighten the top nut ensuring that the fence wire is not strained. Then secure the lightning diverter to the fence post. 2. Where more than one fence wire is hot, first mount the lightning diverter on to the fence post before connecting hook up cables (rated to 20,000 volts) to each of the hot wires using line clamps. Unscrew the top nut and pass the hook up wires through the split nut and tighten to secure. 3. Connect ground wire by attaching hook up wire to bottom nut by winding in a clockwise direction and securing nut. Attach other end of hook up wire to ground system with ground clamps. Diverter ground system should consist of a minimum of two 6-ft. ground rods spaced 10 feet apart and 50 feet from fence controller ground system. 4. For greater protection, install lightning diverters on all corners of fence. First lightning diverter should be installed no closer than 50 ft. from fence controller.


1) PERMANENT ELECTRIC FENCE SPECIFICATIONS a. The number of wires and the height of a permanent electric fence, aren't as important as wire spacing. Wires should be spaced closer together at the bottom of the fence, farther apart at the top, so animals are shocked on the nose or front of the head first.

The following wire spaces were developed over many years of trial and error. As in portable electric fences, the height of a permanent electric fence is less important than the wire spacing. Most animals go under or through permanent fences, rather than jump over them.

b. No matter how many strands your fence has, one hot wire should be positioned at shoulder height of the animal to be controlled. This will cause the animal to hit the fence with its nose first, the area most susceptible to electric fence shock. If an animal is shocked in front of its eyes, it will back up. An animal shocked behind its eyes will go forward into the fence. Proper wire spacing is more important than fence height. Since an electric fence isn't a physical barrier, the wire doesn't have to be stretched (Piano String) tight. But, pull it taut enough to stay at the same height between posts. Posts should be spaced every 25 ft. to 75 ft., depending on the terrain. If you space your post 75 ft. apart you should use fiberglass battens to keep your wire spacing the same height between the post. Don't try to evenly space posts; in level terrain posts can be spaced farther apart. In uneven terrain, posts need to be spaced wherever there is a high or low place. On hillsides, posts should be installed perpendicular to the slope. This keeps the wire at the proper height and prevents it from binding on insulators or clips.

Definitions of common fence terms use to classify fence chargers. - Fence Mileage Guide - Grounding Recommendations - How do joule ratings reflect your chargers performance