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LSM 3261 Life Form and Function

Stems and T St d Transport t


Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Topics
Reference Shoot system External stem structure in woody twigs Stem growth types Herbaceous eudicot and monocot stems Woody eudicots and gymnosperms Cork cambium Vascular cambium Annual rings A l i Heartwood and sapwood Hardwood and softwood Pathway of water movement Movement of water in the plant
T i Tension-cohesion model h i d l Root pressure

Pathway of sugar solution movement


Pressure-flow hypothesis

Stem modifications

Reference
Solomon, E.P., L.R. Berg and D.W. Martin. 2011. Biology. 9th ed. Chapter 35 p

Shoot System (Revision)


The shoot system components include:
1. Essential components (primary organs)
a. Stem b. Leaf

2. Other components (= combination of stem and modified/unmodified leaves)


a. A ill Axillary bud which can develop into a: b d hi h d l i
(1) Vegetative branch (2) Reproductive branch (flower, inflorescence) i fl )

b. Terminal bud which can develop into a:


(1) Vegetative shoot (2) Reproductive shoot (flower, inflorescence)

External Stem Structure in Woody Twigs


Buds (undeveloped embryonic shoots)
T Terminal bud at tip of stem i l b d t ti f t Axillary buds (lateral buds) in leaf axils Dormant bud covered and protected by bud b b d scales which leave bud scale l hi h l b d l scars

Node is area on a stem where leaf is attached Internode is region between two successive nodes d Leaf scar remains when leaf is detached from stem Bundle scars* Lenticels*

Bundle scars are areas within a leaf scar where vascular tissue is extended from stem to leaf

Figure 33-8 Lenticel = Porous swellings of cork Page 640 cells in the stems of woody plants;
Lenticel

facilitate the exchange of gases

Cork cells Cork cambium bi and cork parenchyma 200 m

Digression: Coping with Technical Jargon g p g g


Every field of human knowledge has jargon No shortcut to hard work (10,000-hour rule) Prepare cards or tick off words you have learnt in the main texts glossary (if absent in glossary, glossary write in the word and its meaning) Learn to pronounce the word properly
e.g., vascular f i l l fascicular

Revise regularly For those hard to remember terms, determine etymology to help you remember
e.g., axil derived from Latin axilla, armpit

Stem Growth Types


Primary Growth
Apical meristems (tip of main stem, tip of branches)

Secondary Growth
Lateral meristems (vascular cambium, cork cambium, other forms [anomalous secondary growth; not covered i this d h d in hi module]) Produces secondary tissues (secondary phloem, secondary xylem, cork, cork parenchyma) In most woody plants (e.g., eudicots (e g eudicots, conifers)

Produces primary tissues (epidermis, collenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma, phloem, xylem) In all plants (e.g., eudicots, monocots, (e g eudicots monocots conifers)

Herbaceous Eudicot and Monocot Stems 1


Similarities
Epidermis
Cuticle Stomata and guard cells Trichomes Collenchyma Parenchyma ( hl P h (chlorenchyma) h ) Sclerenchyma Xylem Phloem

Ground tissue

Vascular tissue

Where would you find the chlorenchyma?

Herbaceous Eudicot and Monocot Stems 2a


Differences 1 Diff
Eudicot
Vascular bundles in a ring (with distinct cortex and pith)

Monocot
Vascular bundles scattered (without distinct cortex or pith), or in two or more rings (with distinct cortex and pith)

Herbaceous Eudicot and Monocot Stems 2b


Differences 2 Diff
Eudicot
Vascular bundles open (with fascicular cambium)

Monocot
Vascular bundles closed (without fascicular cambium)

Fascicular Cambium*

*Error on p. 746 of textbook!

Digression: Fallability of Human Knowledge


Any data source may have errors so you should be discriminating when reading anything Errors may be random mistakes or deliberate lies Reliability of information varies with the source Internet websites should not be trusted explicitly

Woody Eudicots and Gymnosperms


Lateral meristems
Cork cambium Vascular cambium Anomalous secondary growth(not covered in this module)

Dracaena sp. stem TS

Cork Cambium/Phellogen
Periderm = cork + cork

cambium + cork parenchyma Cork cambium = phellogen p g


Meristem which produces cork parenchyma and cork

Cork parenchyma = phelloderm


Phelloderm /cork parenchyma cells ll Reserve cells for becoming cork cambium when growth shuts down For storage in a woody stem

Cork = phellem
Cork cells Replacement for epidermis in a woody stem y

oak (Quercus suber) Properties of cork

Cork Harvested from the cork


Watertight Good insulator for heat or sound Lightweight Soft an easy on feet so less tiring to stand on for long periods

Cork tiles

Cork flooring i C k fl i in a kitchen

Cork outer lining of space capsules

Vascular Cambium 1
Vascular cambium
Meristem which produces secondary xylem and secondary phloem

Secondary xylem y y
Transport of water and mineral nutrients S Support and h i ht t d height For storage

Secondary phloem
Transport of water and photosynthates For food storage Phloem parenchyma cells act as reserve vascular cambium precursors

Why do stems have to y become wider to become taller? t ll ?


The worlds tallest tree is called Hyperion ( yp (name from Greek mythology, one of the Titans, giant Greek gods). It measures 115.6 m (379 ft 4 inches). This coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) was discovered by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor (USA) in 25 Aug 2006 in the Redwood National Park, California, USA.

Rigidity is proportional to aspect ratio Aspect ratio = Width Height


W/L > W/2L > W/3L > W/4L

Stratospheric Giant, one of the tallest trees in the World (113.1 m in 2010); formerly the tallest

Vascular Cambium 2
Interfascicular cambia develop in parenchyma tissue between vascular bundles in line with the fascicular cambia of the bundles Fascicular cambia and interfascicular cambia connect to form the vascular cambium Vascular cambium divides to produce secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem inwards, and occasionally divides sideways to produce more meristematic cells to increase the circumference of the vascular cambium, necessary because of the growth of the secondary xylem below Pi Primary xylem and primary phloem become separated. l d i hl b d Primary xylem gets embedded beneath the secondary xylem, xylem primary phloem eventually gets crushed against the outer tissues of the stem.

Onset of Secondary Growth

Beginning of Division of Vascular Cambium

A Young Woody Stem

Develop Development of Secondary S d Xylem and y Secondary Phloem


Wood = Secondary xylem

Annual Rings
Rate f R t of growth (cell size) varies with th ( ll i ) i ith the season in seasonal climates Warmer and wetter conditions increase growth; cooler and drier conditions decrease growth Each year of growth shows both cell types so annual rings form each year consisting of both: g Early or spring wood (spring when wetter conditions prevail; larger cells) Late or summer wood (late in summer when drier conditions prevail; smaller cells)

Pith

Annual rings

Bark

Tilia (basswood) Outer bark Vascular cambium Long, slender core of wood extracted by a boring tool Annual rings Pith

Using Annual g Rings for Dating and i d Determing Past Climate

Sample from a living tree 1950 Outermost ring is the year when the tree was cut. 1940 1932 Sample from a dead tree in the same forest 1940 Matching and overlapping older and older wood sections extends dates back in time 1932 1931 1926 Sample from an old building in the same area as the forest

1931

1926

1920

1918

Heartwood and Sapwood


Heartwood = Older, dead, darker and heavier wood in the centre of the trunk
Vessels and tracheids plugged up with tannins, gums, resins, other i th materials, hence have a storage function

Why call it heartwood?

Heartwood

Sapwood = Younger, live lighter coloured and more lightweight wood at the periphery of the trunk
Vessels and tracheids still functioning, hence can still leak water and nutrient ions (sap)

Sapwood

Hardwood and Softwood


Hardwood = Wood of eudicots
Has vessel elements and fibres

Softwood = Wood of conifers


Lacks vessel elements and fibres; only tracheids and parenchyma

Mohr Hardness S l M h H d Scale Talc: 1 (softest) Gypsum: 2 Calcite: 3 Fluorite: 4 Apatite: 5 Feldspar: 6 Qu Quartz: 7 Topaz: 8 Corundum: 9 Diamond: 10 (hardest)

Has the degree of g hardness anything to do with these types of wood?

Balsa (Ochroma pyramidale) Wood


A hardwood which is softer and more li h i h than most lightweight h softwoods!

Pathway of Water Movement


W t and dissolved nutrient minerals move from soil Water d di l d t i t i l f il into
Epidermis Cortex, etc.

Once in root xylem, water and dissolved minerals y , move upward from
Root xylem to stem xylem Stem xylem to leaf xylem

Most water entering leaf exits leaf veins and passes into atmosphere

Movement of Water in the Plant


Tension-cohesion model R Root pressure

Tension-Cohesion Model 1
W Water potential is a measure of i li f the free energy of water
Pure water has a water potential of
0 megapascals

W Water with dissolved solutes has i h di l d l h


negative water potential

W t moves from an area of Water f f higher (less negative) water potential to an area of lower t ti l t fl (more negative) water potential through a semi-permeable th h i bl membrane

Tension-Cohesion Model 2
The tension-cohesion model h i h i d l explains the rise of water and dissolved nutrient minerals in xylem
Transpiration causes tension at top of plant Tension at top of plant results from water potential gradient ranging i
From slightly negative water potentials in soil and roots T very negative water potentials To ti t t ti l in atmosphere

Column of water pulled up through plant remains unbroken th h l t i b k due to properties of water
Cohesive Adh i Adhesive

Root Pressure
Root pressure = The pressure in xylem sap that occurs as a result of the active absorption of mineral ions followed by the osmotic uptake of water i k f into root from the f h soil Caused by movement of water into roots from soil as a result of active absorption of nutrient mineral ions b ti f ti t i li from soil H l explain rise of water in Helps l i i f t i smaller plants (especially when soil is wet) Pushes water up through xylem

Pathway of Sugar Translocation


Dissolved sugar is translocated up or down in phloem
From a source (area of excess sugar, usually a leaf) sugar To a sink (area of storage or of sugar use)

A of storage or of sugar use Area f t f


Roots A i l meristems (fruits and seeds) Apical i (f i d d)

Sucrose is predominant sugar translocated in phloem


Why transport sucrose (disaccharide) and not glucose (monosaccharide) which is manufactured by the leaf?

Aphids used to study translocation in plants

How Sugar Solution Is Transported


Pressure-flow hypothesis explains the movement of materials in phloem
Companion cells actively load sugar into sieve tubes at source ATP required for this process

ATP supplies energy to pump protons out of sieve tube elements Proton gradient drives uptake of sugar by cotransport of protons back into sieve tube elements Sugar therefore accumulates in sieve tube element This causes movement of water into the sieve tubes by osmosis thereby increasing the turgor pressure Companion cells unload sugar from sieve tubes at sink
Actively (requiring ATP) Passively (not requiring ATP)

As a result, water leaves sieve tubes by osmosis Unloading of sugar causes decrease in turgor pressure inside sieve tubes Flow of materials between source and sink is driven by turgor pressure y g p gradient produced by
Water entering phloem at source Water leaving phloem at sink

The Pressure-Flow Hypothesis (diagram divided in two) (di di id d i )

Modifications of the Stem


1. 2. 3. 3 4. 5. 5 6. 7. Bulb Cladode Corm Rhizome Tendril T d il Thorn Tuber

Unmodified stem

Modifications of the Stem


Bulb = Short, erect, underground stem d d t surrounded by fleshy y y leaf bases
Onion (Allium cepa) bulb in section

Modifications of the Stem


Cladode = A green stem which takes on the function of photosynthesis from the reduced leaves h t th i f th d d l

Casuarina (Casuarina equisetifolia)

Modifications of the Stem


Corm = An enlarged, solid, fleshy b fl h base of a stem f t with scale leaves

Cocoyam (Alocasia esculenta) and y ( ) water chestnut (Elaeocharis dulcis)

Modifications of the Stem


Rhizome = A horizontal stem growing on or i underground g

Ginger(Zingiber officinale)

Modifications of the Stem


Tendril = A long, slender, coiling branch for ili b hf climbing g

Corky passionflower (Passiflora suberosa)

Modifications of the Stem


Thorn = A leafless branch with pointed tip ith i t d ti and which develops from an axillary bud

Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea hybrid)

Modifications of the Stem


What is this?
Thorns develop from axillary buds Spines are associated with leaves Prickles are outgrowths of the stem epidermis f h id i but not axillary buds
Rose (Rosa cultivar)

Modifications of the Stem


Tuber = A thick storage stem which usually grows underground

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) ( )