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LSM 3261 Life Form and Function

Reproduction in Plants R d i i Pl
Lecture 5

Reference Generalized life cycle of plants Flower Homology of flower parts Structure and function of flower parts Largest flower in the world Reproductive parts Homology of the stamen Homology of the carpel Advertising by flowers Mega- and micro-sporogenesis and gametogenesis Pollen grains Inflorescence Largest inflorescence in the world

Lecture 5 Topics

Pollination Double fertilization Fruit Fr it wall Fruit all Fruit classification systems By numbers of carpels and flowers By various criteria Kinds of fruits Seed S d Seed and embryo development S d parts Seed Seedling Fruit and seed dispersal Asexual reproduction Pando, largest plant in the world Why sexual and asexual reproduction?

Solomon, E.P., L.R. Berg and D.W. Martin. 2011. Biology. 9th ed. Chapter 37 p

Generalized Life Cycle of Plants

Flowering plants display alternation Fl i l di l l i of generations Alternation of generations = p g p y alternation of a haploid gametophyte generation with a diploid sporophyte generation

Revision of LSM 1103 material

Flower = The typical flower is a shoot of limited growth, with much shortened internodes, which bears typically , yp y these parts. These are, from the apex downwards, the: a. Essential organs
1) Carpels (collectively called the gynoecium) 2) Stamens (collectively called the androecium)


b. Accessory organs ( perianth segments, b A (= i th t collectively called the perianth)

1) If homogeneous = tepals (collectively called the perianth) 2) If of two types, then
Magnolia grandiflora has tepals l

P l ( ll i l called the corolla) Petals (collectively ll d h ll ) Sepals (collectively called the calyx) Petals and sepals are collectively called the perianth; individual petals and sepals may be called perianth segments too l d l b ll d i th t

Homology of Flower Parts

corresponds to carpels corresponds to receptacle correspond to stamens

corresponds to petals

corresponds to pedicel corresponds to sepals p p

Compare a typical flower with a branch of leaves

Apical meristem growth Leaves modified or not Axillary buds in the axils Internodal lengths Subtended by a leaf or not Arrangement of parts on the axis Trichomes or glands Will it root if a cutting is made?

Determinate: growth stops g p after full development of the flower

Leafy Branch
Determinate or indeterminate: growth proceeds for a long period Modified or not One or more axillary buds are found per leaf axil Usually elongated between nodes Yes Alternate, spiral, opposite or whorled or combinations Present or absent Possible

Structure and Function of Flower Parts

The i f h Th tip of the stem (numerous ( nodes and compressed internodes) can end in a receptacle Gives rise to most of the flower parts Only the stamens (male) and carpels (female) directly participate in sexual reproduction The calyx is made up of all of the y p sepals Outermost and lowest whorl on a floral shoot o a s oo Cover, protect developing bud The corolla is made up of all of the petals Attract and provide platform for pollinators Can also select pollinators, l protect inner structure of the flower

Hawk moth

Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus)

Largest Flower in the World

Flower of Rafflesia arnoldii, with blooms up to 1 m across l f ffl ld i h bl and 11 kg in weight! A charismatic species.

Reproductive Parts of the Flower

The stamens are inside the petals Are the male reproductive organs Have thin stalk called a filament End in the anther, which bears pollen grains Carpels b th ovules, which can C l bear the l hi h develop into seeds Female part called a pistil or gynoecium i Can be made up of a single carpel, two or more separate carpels, or fused carpels Has three parts: Stigma, where p g , pollen lands Style, the necklike structure Ovary, contains one or more ovules that can develop into a fruit

Homology of the Stamen

anther or microsporangium

Stamens microsporophylls


Fern sporophyll

Homology of the Carpel

Carpel Fused margin Ovules y Ovary


Stigma Stigma

leaf l f




Ancestral condition


Advertising by Flowers
May have attractive colors / M h tt ti l patterns (especially in UV light) May be food sources Pollen Nectar in nectaries May have attractive odors May aid pollination by shape of flower May force pollinator to rub g against stamen May have shapes like animals mates form of mimicry May release pollen to the wind or water


Ophrys sp., the bee orchid

Megasporogenesis and Megagametogenesis 1

Megasporogenesis: Each ovule contains a megasporocyte that undergoes meiosis
1 megasporocyte 4 megaspores 1 megaspore + 3 dead cells Why?

M Megagametogenesis: Th megaspore t i The undergoes mitotic divisions:

1 megaspore 2 nuclei 4 nuclei 8 nuclei walls form g p
around the nuclei 6 uninucleate cells + 1 binucleate cell (central cell) = embryo sac or gametophyte or megagametophyte


The egg and the polar nuclei participate in double fertilization Pollen derived tube cell will enter through Pollen-derived micropyle Synergid cells die after a short time y g

Megasporogenesis and Megagametogenesis 2

Polygonum hydropiper is the laksa leaf!

The pattern (in the previous slide) is the Polygonum 8nucleate bipolar type, but there are at least 12 other types named after the genera in which they were first discovered (the other types not covered in this module)

Microsporogenesis and Microgametogenesis 3

Microsporogenesis: Pollen sacs within the anther contain many diploid microsporocytes which undergo meiosis
1 diploid microsporocyte 4 haploid microspores Why not reduce to only 1 like in the megaspore?

Microgametogenesis: Each microspore divides by mitosis i di id b i i

1 haploid microspore

1 haploid generative cell h l id i ll

1 haploid sperm cell 1 haploid sperm cell

1 haploid vegetative cell h l id i ll


1 haploid pollen tube

Inflorescence 1
Inflorescence =
A shoot which bears two or more flowers and typically has the leaves on this shoot reduced to yp y bracts. The pedicel of each flower lies in the axil of a bract and commonly bears bracteoles, both of y , which may be absent. A solitary flower may also be considered an inflorescence.

Inflorescence 2

There are many kinds of inflorescences

Maidens jealousy (Tristellateia australasiae)

Inflorescence 3

Singapore daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata)

Inflorescence 4
disc floret o et bud ray florets

Singapore daisy (Sphagneticola trilobata) inflorescence in halfsection

disc florets

Largest Inflorescence in the World


Talipot palm, Corypha umbraculifera, with inflorescences up to 8 m tall with class of 2005!

Largest Flower in g the World

Inflorescence of the titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) Inflorescence Member of cocoyam family (Araceae) Largest inflorescence of its family members

Is first t to f tili ti I fi t step t fertilization Cross pollination: pollen from a different individual plant Self-pollination: pollen from the same flower or flowers of the same plant Can cause problems Wh t problems? What bl ? Many plants have mechanisms to prevent self-pollination Some plants are dioecious: separate sexes on different plants (opposite = monoecious = unisexual flowers on same plant) Many plants are self-incompatible owing to genetic makeup prevents i i k self-pollination Thus, reproduction only involves , p y mixing of genes from different individuals


Double Fertilization 1
Pollen lands on stigma One of the pollen cells forms a pollen tube
grows down the style and enters the embryo sac through the micropyle

S Sperm cells d l from the second pollen ll develop f h d ll cell

Ovule develops into a seed and ovary around seed, it develops into fruit
Suggest advantages of double fertilization

Move down the pollen tube cell One sperm cell reaches the egg, unites and fuses Second finds the 2 polar nuclei and they fuse to form triploid endosperm. f i l id d These two fusions are called double fertilization

Double Fertilization 2

Fruit F i =
Ripened ovary or ovaries, sometimes associated with accessory parts such as the receptacle or perianth, generally containing one to many seeds inside

Fruit Wall
1. Easy or not to distinguish layers 2. 2 Layers of the fruit wall (pericarp) a. Epicarp (exocarp) b. b Mesocarp c. Endocarp

2 Classification Systems of Fruits

1. Based on the no. of carpels and flowers the fruit is derived from 2. Based on the following criteria:
a. b. c. d. e. Fruit wall dryness of succulence (fleshiness) when ripe Dehiscence or indehiscence of the ripe fruit No. of seeds per fruit No. of carpels per fruit Position of the ovary that forms the fruit

Fruit Types 1
1. 1 Based on the no of carpels and no of flowers the fruit is no. no. derived from 2. Types: yp
a. Simple fruit: single carpel or syncarpous ovary of a single flower b. Aggregate fruit: several ripened carpels from a single flower with an apocarpous gy p p gynoecium c. Multiple (composite) fruit: ripened ovaries of the flowers of one inflorescence (more than one flower) Pineapple (Ananas comosus)

Malayan cherry (Muntingia calabura) Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

Fruit Types 2
1. Based on the following criteria:
a. a Fruit wall dryness or succulence (fleshiness) when ripe b. b Dehiscence or indehiscence of the ripe fruit c. Number of seeds per fruit d. d Number of carpels per fruit e. Position of the ovary that forms the fruits

2. 2 Fruit types

Fruit Types 3


Dry when ripe i. Indehiscent (does not split) 1) Thin fruit wall a) Separate from seed coat i) Without pappus: achene ii) With pappus: cypsela b) Fused to seed coat: caryopsis 2) Thick and tough fruit wall: nut a) With cupule: acorn ) p ii. Dehiscent (splits) 1) Made of 1 carpel (1 locule + 1 point of seed attachment) a) Splits on 2 sides: legume ) p g b) Splits on 1 side only: follicle 2) Made of 2 carpels combined: capsule b. Fleshy when ripe i. With hard, bony endocarp: drupe ii. Without hard, bony endocarp 1) Combined with accessory tissues (receptacle): pome 2) Not combined with accessory tissues: berry a) With juice vesicles and segments: hesperidium b) Without juice vesicles and segments: pepo

Achene =
Fruit which is dry when ripe, one seeded, indehiscent ripe one-seeded and where the seed and the pericarp are fused only at the stalk of the ovule


Strawberry flower y
receptacle pedicel

Diagrammatic representation i i i of a flower with its sepals, petals, and stamens removed

Achene =
Fruit which is dry when ripe, one seeded, indehiscent ripe one-seeded and where the seed and the pericarp are fused only at the stalk of the ovule
Clematis sp.

stigma style fruit wall (developed from ovary wall)

1 achene
Strawberry St b (Fragaria ananassa)


Caryopsis (plural, caryopses) =

Fruit which is dry when ripe, one-seeded, indehiscent and y p , , where the seed and the pericarp are fused, i.e., like the achene except for the fusion between the seedcoat and the pericarp

Maize (Zea mays)

Cypsela =
Like the achene but is fused to the calyx (the fruit of members of the sunflower family [Asteraceae or Compositae]) with plumed tips which are the split calyx lobes y

Tridax procumbens

Nut N t=
Fruit with a dry, indehiscent wall, i d hi t ll developing from a syncarpous gynoecium but becoming oneseeded by abortion of all but one carpel. The exocarp is usually hard and th fruit may be d the f it b subtended by a cupule (called an acorn in such a case)
Lithocarpus sp. Li h

Capsule = p
Fruit with a dry, dehiscent wall, usually y two or more seeded, derived from a syncarpous gynoecium, i and dehiscing along the septa (septicidal capsule) or between them (loculicidal ( capsule)
pericarp septum

Ladies Ladies finger (Abelmoschus esculentus) ripe fruits


Follicle =
Like a legume except that it splits down one side rather than two

Star anise (Illicium verum)

Saga tree (Adenanthera pavonina)

Legume =
Fruit with a dry, dehiscent dry wall, usually two or more seeded, derived from a single carpel, and dehiscing down two sides

Berry =
Fruit which is fleshy when ripe, with a fleshy pericarp right through
Tomato (Lycopersicon ( y p esculentum)

Berry types B t
Typical berry Hesperidium Pepo

Hesperidium =
Fruit which is a special case of the berry; the pericarp is rather thick, the fruit is partitioned and filled with juice p j vesicles
Orange (Citrus sinensis)

Pepo =
Fruit which is a special case of the p berry; the pericarp becomes leathery when ripe, and this fruit type i found only in the cucumber is f d l i h b family (Cucurbitaceae)

Luo Han Guo

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

Largest Pumpkin in the World g p

What kind of fruit is this? The size has been increasing every year, but is there a limit?
The largest pumpkin for 2010 weighed 821.2 kg (1,810.5 pounds). It was grown by Chris Stevens of New Richmond, Wisconsin, USA. (Its still a little too early in the year for the 2011 pumpkin, since they are harvested in autumn, in October.)

Drupe =
Fruit which is fleshy when ripe, with a distinct epicarp, mesocarp and bony endocarp, and th seed or seeds db d d the d d surrounded by the bony endocarp called a pyrene which may be more than one per drupe
Peach (Prunus persica)

Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Coffee (Coffea arabica)

Pome =
Fruit which is fleshy when ripe; derived from a combination of the thin, papery pericarp with the fleshy development of the hypanthium

2. 2 Fruit types

Fruit Types 3


Dry when ripe i. Indehiscent (does not split) 1) Thin fruit wall a) Separate from seed coat i) Without pappus: achene ii) With pappus: cypsela b) Fused to seed coat: caryopsis 2) Thick and tough fruit wall: nut a) With cupule: acorn ) p ii. Dehiscent (splits) 1) Made of 1 carpel (1 locule + 1 point of seed attachment) a) Splits on 2 sides: legume ) p g b) Splits on 1 side only: follicle 2) Made of 2 carpels combined: capsule b. Fleshy when ripe i. With hard, bony endocarp: drupe ii. Without hard, bony endocarp 1) Combined with accessory tissues (receptacle): pome 2) Not combined with accessory tissues: berry a) With juice vesicles and segments: hesperidium b) Without juice vesicles and segments: pepo

The Seed
Seed = A matured, fertilised ovule

Seed and Embryo Development 1

The seed develops from the de elops ovule Seed nutrient endosperm used to aid in germination The basal and apical cells from the first division of the fertilized egg form an axis of development in the embryo The basal cell forms a suspensor Apical cell develops into the embryo proper b
apical cell

Also animal food source

apical cell

Anchors the embryo Provides nutrient flow


basal cell

Seed and Embryo Development 2

The top cell divides to form a cluster of cells called a proembryo Small spherical globular embryo forms
Differentiation into p specialized tissues Two leaflets form called cotyledons
Called heart stage looks like heart

In torpedo stage, elongates starts to curve back on itself as it grows

Seed and Embryo Development 3

Parts of the Seed

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5 Seedcoat Aril Endosperm Embryo Perisperm P i

1. Derived from the integument(s) of the ovule 2. Layers
a. Testa: outer seedcoat b. b Tegmen: inner seedcoat

1. Structure which grows from some part of the ovule or ovule stalk after fertilization and invests part of the whole of the seed 2. Often mucilaginous, gelatinous, or brightly coloured
Durian (Durio D i (D i zibethinus) Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) pp ) Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)

1. Food 1 F d storage tissue which i hi h develops from the primary endosperm nucleus (second d l ( d fertilization event) 2. Types of seeds
a. Endospermous or albuminous: with endosperm
i. Ruminate: with remains of the megasporangium in the endosperm Exendospermous seed Nutmeg seed

b. Exendospermous or p exalbuminous: without endosperm

Endospermous seed with ruminate endosperm

1. Rudimentary plant which develops from the zygote (first fertilization event) 2. Parts of the embryo
Cotyledon(s) Axis Shoot apex ape Root

1. Persistent megasporangium which serves as 1 P i i hi h nutritive tissue instead of the endosperm 2. Primitive characteristic

Pepper (Piper nigrum g

The Largest Seed in the World

Double coconut, Lodoicea maldivica, with each drupe (containing 1 3 seeds) up to 27 k ! E h seed can be up to 50 cm long. Y will see d) kg! Each d b l You ill this tree at the Botanic Gardens.

1. Seedling = Young plant Y l t which germinates from i t f the seed 2. Parts
a. b. c. d. e. Cotyledons Epicotyl Plumule Hypocotyl Radicle

Fruit and Seed Dispersal

Seeds are carried by wind, water and animal vectors Fluffy components aid transport e.g. milkweeds tumbleweed Entire plant breaks at base and rolls e.g. t bl tumbleweed d Burrs catch in animal coats/feathers (e.g. hedgehog plant) Some plants split open their ovaries some are explosive in doing so (explosive dehiscence) Dispersal by ingestion some fig have laxative characteristic to pass quickly through tract Some animals bury seeds Squirrels Ants (seeds have oil body called elaiosome) oak


Asexual Reproduction

Other Asexual Reproduction Forms

Pl tl t are ti plants that Plantlets tiny l t th t grow off the mother leaves
Meristematic tissue on edges Kalanchoe pinnata is one of most common forms

Suckers are above ground shoots that develop as h t th t d l adventitious buds on roots
Rhododendrons Some trees do this quaking aspen

Pando, largest plant in the world

USA postage stamp to commemorate Pando

Latin Pando I spread Pando, Populus tremuloides, quaking aspen 43 hectares in area 47,000 stems 6,000 metric tons 6 000 t i t Root suckers from one original individual growing into one massive forest of trees connected by their roots

1. Sexual a. V i ti in progeny Variation i b. Progeny can respond well to changes in environment c. Disadvantage is that costly, time-consuming method of reproduction d. Does not always automatically produce betteradapted individuals; can be wasteful in a sense 2. Asexual 2 A l a. If parent well-adapted, may work well b. b Allows simple rapid growth simple, c. If environment does not rapidly change, can be most effective form of reproduction p

Why Sexual AND Asexual Reproduction? R d ti ?